Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 609

A propos de ce livre

Ceci est une copie numrique dun ouvrage conserv depuis des gnrations dans les rayonnages dune bibliothque avant dtre numris avec
prcaution par Google dans le cadre dun projet visant permettre aux internautes de dcouvrir lensemble du patrimoine littraire mondial en
Ce livre tant relativement ancien, il nest plus protg par la loi sur les droits dauteur et appartient prsent au domaine public. Lexpression
appartenir au domaine public signifie que le livre en question na jamais t soumis aux droits dauteur ou que ses droits lgaux sont arrivs
expiration. Les conditions requises pour quun livre tombe dans le domaine public peuvent varier dun pays lautre. Les livres libres de droit sont
autant de liens avec le pass. Ils sont les tmoins de la richesse de notre histoire, de notre patrimoine culturel et de la connaissance humaine et sont
trop souvent difficilement accessibles au public.
Les notes de bas de page et autres annotations en marge du texte prsentes dans le volume original sont reprises dans ce fichier, comme un souvenir
du long chemin parcouru par louvrage depuis la maison ddition en passant par la bibliothque pour finalement se retrouver entre vos mains.

Consignes dutilisation

Google est fier de travailler en partenariat avec des bibliothques la numrisation des ouvrages appartenant au domaine public et de les rendre
ainsi accessibles tous. Ces livres sont en effet la proprit de tous et de toutes et nous sommes tout simplement les gardiens de ce patrimoine.
Il sagit toutefois dun projet coteux. Par consquent et en vue de poursuivre la diffusion de ces ressources inpuisables, nous avons pris les
dispositions ncessaires afin de prvenir les ventuels abus auxquels pourraient se livrer des sites marchands tiers, notamment en instaurant des
contraintes techniques relatives aux requtes automatises.
Nous vous demandons galement de:

+ Ne pas utiliser les fichiers des fins commerciales Nous avons conu le programme Google Recherche de Livres lusage des particuliers.
Nous vous demandons donc dutiliser uniquement ces fichiers des fins personnelles. Ils ne sauraient en effet tre employs dans un
quelconque but commercial.
+ Ne pas procder des requtes automatises Nenvoyez aucune requte automatise quelle quelle soit au systme Google. Si vous effectuez
des recherches concernant les logiciels de traduction, la reconnaissance optique de caractres ou tout autre domaine ncessitant de disposer
dimportantes quantits de texte, nhsitez pas nous contacter. Nous encourageons pour la ralisation de ce type de travaux lutilisation des
ouvrages et documents appartenant au domaine public et serions heureux de vous tre utile.
+ Ne pas supprimer lattribution Le filigrane Google contenu dans chaque fichier est indispensable pour informer les internautes de notre projet
et leur permettre daccder davantage de documents par lintermdiaire du Programme Google Recherche de Livres. Ne le supprimez en
aucun cas.
+ Rester dans la lgalit Quelle que soit lutilisation que vous comptez faire des fichiers, noubliez pas quil est de votre responsabilit de
veiller respecter la loi. Si un ouvrage appartient au domaine public amricain, nen dduisez pas pour autant quil en va de mme dans
les autres pays. La dure lgale des droits dauteur dun livre varie dun pays lautre. Nous ne sommes donc pas en mesure de rpertorier
les ouvrages dont lutilisation est autorise et ceux dont elle ne lest pas. Ne croyez pas que le simple fait dafficher un livre sur Google
Recherche de Livres signifie que celui-ci peut tre utilis de quelque faon que ce soit dans le monde entier. La condamnation laquelle vous
vous exposeriez en cas de violation des droits dauteur peut tre svre.

propos du service Google Recherche de Livres

En favorisant la recherche et laccs un nombre croissant de livres disponibles dans de nombreuses langues, dont le franoais, Google souhaite
contribuer promouvoir la diversit culturelle grce Google Recherche de Livres. En effet, le Programme Google Recherche de Livres permet
aux internautes de dcouvrir le patrimoine littraire mondial, tout en aidant les auteurs et les diteurs largir leur public. Vous pouvez effectuer
des recherches en ligne dans le texte intgral de cet ouvrage ladresse http://books.google.com
This is a reproduction of a library book that was digitized
by Google as part of an ongoing effort to preserve the
information in books and make it universally accessible.










aililtont is tj)t Si. Srpartmtnt, Critiil) Suram.






assistant fnrate of It. Cbomas', CJarttrlionst, 1'onban,




Jt (gentleman, a Scholar, and a Jricnd.


IN editing this grammar, I feel conscious of having filled

up a gap in the philological literature of England. The older
works of Richardson (1st ed. Lond. 1786, 2nd ed. Lond. 1801)
and Price (Lond. 1823) are almost worthless; that of Stewart
(Lond. 1841) not much better; for, though the author had
the advantage of the previous labours of De Sacy and Ewald,
he does not appear to have been thoroughly qualified for the
task that he undertook. Lumsden's unfinished work (Calcutta,
1813) is a magnificent one, but based entirely on the system
of the Arab grammarians, a circumstance which renders it
ill-adapted, apart from its bulk and rarity, for the use of the
beginner. As for the smaller grammars of Faris el-Shidiac
(Lond. 1856), the Rev. Herman Philip (Edinb. 1855), and the
Rev. W. J. Beamont (Lond. 1861), as well as the "Reading
Lessons" published by the Messrs. Bagster, they are intended
to facilitate the study of the modern spoken dialects, rather
than that of the older literary language ; and are better suited
for the use of the traveller and the tourist, than of the

student who desires to become conversant with the Arabic

Such, however, is the general neglect of almost every
branch of Oriental study in England at the present day, that
this state of matters is not surprising. The nations of the
Continent even those whose connection with the East is
small or absolutely none are better off. France can point
to De Sacy (whose immortal work has been the basis of all
subsequent grammars) and to Bresnier; Germany to Ewald,
Schier, and Caspari; Holland to Koorda. It is inconvenient,
however, for a teacher to use a book written in a foreign
language, particularly if that language be German, which is,
I regret to say, as yet but little cultivated in our Univer
sities; and it is this circumstance which has mainly induced
me to undertake the present work.
As the basis of this Grammar, I have selected that of
Professor Caspari of Christiania, the first edition of which
(in Latin) appeared at Leipzig in 1848, and the second (in
German) in 1H59 This is, in my opinion, the best of the
smaller Arabic grammars that have been published during the
last twenty years, and forms a good introduction to the study
of the larger works of De Sacy and Ewald , or of the native
grammarians. The second (German) edition is, however,
strange to say, not so accurate in many points as the first
(Latin) one; whilst both admit of many improvements. The
present work is not, therefore, a mere translation of Caspari's,
but an enlarged and, as I trust, improved edition of it. Those
who take the trouble of examining the two, will find, I think
that a great many sections have been altered for the better,
either by giving them greater precision of expression, or by
adding more and preferable examples. As instances, 1 may
refer, in the first volume, to those sections that treat of the
verba med. rad. ? et & (. 149163), of the relative adjec


tives (. 251267), the diminutives (. 269284), and the

broken plurals (. 3045); and, in the second volume, to
those that treat of the interjections (. 38) , and of J^ and
similar words (. 8285). Besides the entire fourth part
(. 191 252), I have also added, here and there, sections
of some importance, e. g. vol. I. . 285 to . 288, vol. II.
. 184 180; and omitted others that I thought superfluous,
such as vol. I. . 93 102 of the original. The grammars
of De Sacy and Ewald, and the 'Alfiyya of 'Ibn Malik (ed.
Dieterici, Leipzig, 1851), have, I need scarcely say, been
always at my side.
A feature peculiar to this edition are the notes that
touch upon the comparative grammar of the Shemitic Ian-,
guages, a subject little understood in this country, yet highly
interesting to the student of Hebrew as well as of Arabic. Our
deficiency in Hebrew scholarship is, in fact, to be traced in
a great measure to our almost total neglect of the study of
the cognate languages, Arabic, Aramaic, and Aethiopic. Many
of us take the Hebrew Bible in one hand, and our Authori
zed Version in the other; read the former by the light of the
latter; and call ourselves Hebraists. There is, however, no
such royal road to a thorough knowledge of the Old Testa
ment Scriptures. Hebrew is in itself a difficult language,
especially to those who commence it fresh from the study of
Greek and Latin; whilst the Biblical texts are few in number,
and in many passages very obscure, not to say corrupt. In
short, we have need of ever)' ray of light that we can con
centrate upon them. Manuscripts must be collated, ancient
versions compared, and, above all, the cognate languages
studied, so that we may become familiarised with the modes
of thought and forms of expression of the Shemitic nations.
The so-called Shemitic languages Arabic, Aethiopic,

Hebrew, Phoenician , and Aramaic (Chaldee and Syriac) are

as closely connected with one another as the Romance lan
guages Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Provencal, and French ;
they are all daughters of a deceased mother, standing to them
in the relation of Latin to the other European languages
just specified. The Hebrew, perhaps, resembles this parent
tongue most in some points; but, on the whole, the Arabic
(and next to it, the Aethiopic) has preserved the greatest
degree of likeness to the primitive Shemitic speech. The
Hebrew, even of the Pentateuch, has already attained pretty
nearly the same degree of grammatical development (or decay)
as the spoken Arabic of the present day. Of that the com
parative notes interspersed throughout this grammar give ample
In conclusion, I have to express my gratitude to the
Provost and Senior Fellows of Trinity College, Dublin, for
their very liberal contribution towards paying the expenses
of printing this work; and to thank my friend and former
pupil, the Rev. R. Gwynne, to whom I have the pleasure of
dedicating it, for the assistance he has so kindly afforded
me, not only by reading it over in manuscript and suggesting
many useful alterations, but also by correcting a proof of
every sheet, and thereby contributing greatly to its typo
graphical accuracy,
March 1862.
Wm. Wright.

Part I. (Crtjjogtaplja tmt ttljotpg.
" Pa^c.
I. The Lettkrs as Consonants 1
II. The Vowels and Diphthongs 6
III. Other Orthographic Signs II
1. Gezma or Siikiin 11
2. Tts'dfd or Sidda 12
3. Hemza or Nebra 14
4. Wasla 16
5. Mcdda or Matla . . 22
IV. The Syllable 24
V. The Accent 25
VI. The Numbers 25

Part II. (Ktrjmolojjg or tljc parts of Spd).

I. The Verb 27
A. General View.
1. The Forms of Ihc Triliteral Verb 27
The First Form 28
The Second Form 29
The Third Form 31
The Fourth Form 32
The Fiflh Form 34
The Sixth Form 36
The Seventh Form . . 37
The Eighth Form 38
The Ninth and Eleventh Forms 39
The Tenth Form 40
The Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Forms . 42
2. The Quadrilileral Verb and its Forms 43
3. The Voices 45
4. The States (Tenses) of the Verb 46
5. The Moods 46
6. The Numbers, Persons and Genders 47

B. The Strong Verb.
1. The Active Voice of the First Form 48
a. The Inflexion by Persons 48
The Separate Pronouns 49
The Suffixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative . . 50
The Prefixed Pronouns 50
b. Forms of the Tenses and Moods 56
The Imperfect Indicative 56
The Subjunctive and Jussive 58
The Energetic 59
The Imperative 60
2. The Passive Voice of the First Form 60
3. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb 61
4. The Quadrilileral Verb 65
5. Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical . 65

C. The Weak Verb.

1. Verba Hemzala 69
2. Verbs which are more especially called Weak Verbs ... 74
Verba Primae Radicalis el ^ 74
Verba Mediae Radicalis et ^ 78
Verba Tertiae Radicalis et ^5 85
3. Verbs that are doubly and trebly weak 91
Doubly Weak Verb 91
Trebly Weak Verbs 95

Appendix A.
1. The Verb J**i 96
2. The Verbs of Praise and Blame 9"
3. The Forms expressive of Wonder 98

Appendix B.
The Verbal Suffixes, which express the Accusative 99

II. The Noun 16

A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective.
1. The Derivation of Nouns Subst. & Adj., & Iheii different Forms 106
a. The Deverbal Nouns.
The NoniiHa Vorbi 1(m
The Nomina Vicis 117
The Nomina Speciei *"
The Nomina Loci et Temporis **"
The Nomina Instrumenti 122
The Nomina Agenlis et rationlis and other Verbal Adject. 123
b. The Denominative Nouns.
The Nomina Unitatis " 13:*
The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multitudinis 133
The Nomina Vasis 134
The Nomina Rclativa or Relative Adjectives . . . . 134
Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants 135
Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^5 .... 139
Changes in the Vocalisation 141
The Abstract Nouns of Quality 145
The Diminutive 146
Some other Nominal Forms 152
2. The Gender of Nouns 153
Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives 15"
Forms that are of both Genders 158
3. The Numbers of Nouns 160
The Dual 160
The Pluralis Sanus 161
The Pluralis Fractus 166
4. The Declension of Nouns 190
The Declension of Undefined Nouns 190
The Declension of Defined Nouns 201

5. Appendix.
The Pronominal Suffixes lhat denote Ihe Genitive .... 205

B. The Numerals.
1. The Cardinal Numbers 206
2. The Ordinal Numbers 211
3. The remaining Classes of Numerals . 212

C. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva.

1. The Demonstrative Pronouns and the Article : 215
2. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns . . 210
The Conjunctive Pronouns 219
The Interrogative Pronouns 222

III. The Particles 221

A. The Prepositions.
1. The Inseparable Prepositions 22 J
2. The Separable Prepositions 225

B The Adverbs.
1. The Inseparable Adverbial Particles 227
2. The Separable Adverbial Particles 227
3. Adverbial Accusatives 230

C. The Conjunctions.
1. The Inseparable Conjunctions 231
2. The Separable Conjunctions 232

D. The Interjections 234

IV. Appendix:
Paradigms of the Verbs 238


Part HI. Sgntoi.

I. The Several Component Parts of a Sentence.

A. The Verb.
1. The Slates or Tenses 1
The Perfect 1
The Imperfect Indicative 11
The Imperfect Subjunctive 16
The Imperfect Jussive If.
The Imperfect Energetic 17
2. The Moods 18
The Subjunctive 18
The Jussive 24
The Energetic of the Imperfect 2"
The Imperative and its Energetic 28
3. The Government of the Verb 29
a. The Accusative 30
The Objective Complement 30
The Adverbial Complement 71
b. The Prepositions 81
The Simple Prepositions 81
The Compound Prepositions 125

B. The Noun.
1. The Nomina Vcrbi, Agenlis and Palicntis 12$
2. The Government of the Noun. The Status Conslructus& the Genit. 133
3. The Numerals : Hi]

II. The Sentence and its Parts.

A. The Sentence in General.
1. The Parts of the Sentence: the Subject, the Predicate, and
their Complements 17fi
2. Concord in Gender & Number between the Parts of a Sentence 2(15

B. The Different Kinds of Sentences.

1. Negative and Prohibitive Sentences 214
2. Interrogative Sentences 220
3. Relative Sentences 228
4. Copulative Sentences 235
5. Adversative, Restrictive and Exceptive Sentences 242
6. Conditional and Hypothetical Sentences 247

Part IV. pcoscrt>.

I. The Form of Arabic Poetry.
1. The Rhyme 250
2. The Metres 258
II. The Forms of Words in Pause and in Rhyme .... 270
III. Poetic Licenses 274

Orthography and Orthoepy.

I. The Letters as Consonants.

1. Arabic, like Hebrew and Syriac, is written and read
from right to left The letters are twenty-eight in number,
and are all consonants, though three of them are also used
as vowels (see . 3). They vary in form, according as they
are connected with a preceding or following letter, and, for
the most part, terminate in a bold stroke, when they stand
alone or at the end of a word. The following Table gives
the letters in their usual order, along with their names and
numerical values.
Figure. SB
value. imerical
Name. <Connected
With it pre With a fol
nec led. ceding lowing With both.
letter. letter.

J$ Elif. I 1 .... .... 1

*Tj Ba. I;) s_* J A 2

its Ta. i> O*. 3 X 400
iU Ta. <L> ti*. J 500
Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

Fig: are. 2!
< 53
Name. Uncon
With a pre With a fol
re *-
nected. ceding lowing With both. w
letter. letter.

. A 3
^^. Gim. c
> A. 8
*li. Ha. c t 3A. 600
xTi. Ha.
t e ... 4
3l5 Dal. (> tX
j|6 Dal. 6 tX ... 700

if,' Ra. . ... 200

; 7 r
Jl) Zay. ... 7
; > f
u^ Sin. AM AW. 60
LT cr-
0 i<c-
Mil AM 300
LT dr*
jLo Sad. ua. -O jA 90
Sli Dad. yd ,o ^a 800

*Ub Ta. is k io k 9

*Ud Za. Jb k k k 900

8 - <i-
cjjlc Am. X 70

A 1000
1c Gain. - t

*tf Fa. o oi i A 80

Jli Kaf. A 100

\J (J- j

Jtf Kaf. d vd <** jC^=, 20

^ Lam. J J^ J JL 30
I. The Letters as Consonants.

Figure. ss
Connected p 3
1 Q
Name. Uncon C *1
(6 *-
With a pre Wjth a fol O
nected. ceding lowing With both.

X < 40
*** MTm. r r
^ Nun. J A 50
u c>
jUd Ha. 8 & 0 5
* 1
*fo Waw. ... 6
) J
*Tj Ya. (5 C_ J A 10
Rem. a. f in connection with a preceding J forms the figures
tf, y, ^L. This combination is called lam-elif, and is generally
reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet, and inserted before ^.
Rem. b. The Arabs of Northern Africa arrange the letters in a
different order ; viz.

They distinguish o from ^j by giving the former a single point

below, and the latter one above, thus: a. f, but J a k. At the
end of a word these points are usually omitted : i_a, ^ .
Rem. c. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of
the letters are interwoven with one another, and form ligatures, of which
the following are examples.
aJ bh. a? sh.
a th. P dh.
3fe gh. af g- stf* lmh.
9 hgg. A* fh.
2. The correct pronunciation of some of these letters,
for example and e, it is scarcely possible for a European
4 Part First. Orthography and OrthoSpy.

(o acquire, except by long intercourse with natives. The

following hints will however enable the learner to approxi
mate to their sounds.
I with hemza (|, J, see . 15) is the spiritus
lenis of the Greeks, the H mobile of the Hebrews (as
in "ion, aw). It may be compared with the h in the
French word hommc or English hour.
o and i^> are our b and t.
\> is pronounced like the Greek &, or th in thing.
The Turks and Persians usually convert it into hard s,
as in sing.
corresponds to our soft g in gem. In Egypt and
some parts of Arabia, however, it is hard, like the Heb.
i, or our g in get.
, the Heb. h , is a very sharp but smooth guttural
aspirate; stronger than s, but not rough like +.. Euro
peans, as well as Turks and Persians, rarely attain the
correct pronunciation of it.
+. has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch, or
the German Rache.
& is our d.
o bears the same relation to i> that & does to o.
It is sounded like the 6 of the modern Greeks, or th in this,
withe. The Turks and Persians usually convert it into z.
k is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r, as
in run.
v is the common English z.
j, is the hard s in sit, mist; ji sh in shut.
I. The Letters as Consonants. 5

ye, (he Heb. y, is a strongly articulated palatal *,

somewhat like ss in kiss.
^ is a strongly articulated palatal d. The Turks
and Persians usually pronounce it like z.
ie, the Heb. ts, is a strongly articulated palatal /.
Je bears, strictly speaking, the same relation to h,
that v/ and a do to y and i>. It is usually pronounced
like a strongly articulated palatal z, though many of the
Arabs give it the same sound as ^jt. The Turks and
Persians change it into a common z.
c, the Heb. y, is a strong (but to Europeans, as
well as Turks and Persians, unpronounceable) guttural,
related in its nature to , with which it is sometimes
confounded. It is described as produced by a smart com
pression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible
emission of the breath. It is wrong to treat it, in any
of the Shemitic languages, as a mere vowel -letter, or
(worse still) as a nasal n or ng.
c is a guttural g, accompanied by a grating or rat
tling sound as in gargling, of which we have no example
in English. The y of the modern Greeks, the Northum
brian r, and the French r grasseye, are approximations to it.
o is our f.
j, the Heb. p, is a strongly articulated guttural k;
but throughout Northern Africa it is pronounced as a
hard g.
\i), J, *, and jj, are exactly equivalent to the Eng
lish k, I, m, n. When immediately followed by the letter
(, without any vowel coming between them, ^ takes
6 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

the sound of m; as ^tSs>- gamb, yj>z. hmbar, not ganb,

s is our h. It is distinctly aspirated at the end, as
well as at the beginning, of a syllable; e. g. li hum, Jjd|
aAL In the grammatical termination gl, the dotted s is
pronounced like y, /. *)
. and ^ are precisely our w and y. The Turks and
Persians usually give . the sound of v.

II. The Vowels and Diphthongs.

3. The Arabs had originally no signs for the short
vowels. To indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they
made use of the three consonants that come nearest to them
in sound: viz. I (without hemza, see . 15) for a, ^ for i
and ai, . for u andw. E. g. il la, & ft, ^' kai, ^ d'u,
J lau.
4. At a later period the following signs were invented
(o express the short vowels.
1) feth (^JS)
lJ or fetha (iiiui), a, e (as in pet),
G o _
e (nearly the French e muet); e. g. JjJli*. halaka, u^^i
semsun, ^S kerimun.
2) _ kSsr {y^jT) or kesra (slujT), i (as in pin),
i (a dull, obscure i, resembling the Welsh y, or the i in
s * >
bird); e. g. iu bihi, JaS\ akitun.

) In point of fact, this figure g is merely a compromise between

the ancient ic>-1 (Heb. P , P ) and the modern _ (Heb. p ),

in which the s is silent.
II. The Vowels and Diphthongs. 7
i ,8 - 6 '
3) _ damm (^) or damma (&*.o), m (as in //),
o, o (nearly as the German o in Mortel, or the French
< in jeune) ; e. g. J fe^w , &ju> hoggetun , -+&
Rem. The distinction between the names /%A, Arr, damm,
and fetha, kesra, damma, is that the former denote the sounds a, i, u,
the latter the marks _,_,_.
5. Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks
retain their original sounds a, i, u, and for those in which
they are modified through the influence of the stronger or
weaker consonants into e, e, i, o, or o, can scarcely be laid
down with certainty ; for the various dialects of the spoken
Arabic differ from one another in these points; and besides,
owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are uttered,
the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated.
However the following rules may be given for the guidance
of the learner.
1) When preceded or followed by the harsh gutturals
_. ^ c c, or the emphatic consonants ^ ,j6 is ia ,jj,
fetha is pronounced as a, though with the emphatic con
sonants its sound becomes rather obscure, approaching to
that of the Swedish a; e. g. , ,^ hamrun, v_*iJ Id bun,
^JL> bakiya, .Jco sadrun. Under the same circum
stances kesra is pronounced as t, e. g. IJU 'tbnun, JJs?

sihrun, y&s Jasrun; whilst damma assumes the sound

of an obscure o, inclining with the gutturals (especially
_ and c) to o ; e. g. Ut latpfa , IlaJ lotfun,
(J.M**. hosnun or hosnun, ^kl rbbun, JJt 'omrun.
8 Part Firsl. Orthography and Orthoepy.

2) In shut syllables, in which there are neither guttu

ral nor emphatic consonants, and in open syllables,
which neither commence with, nor immediately precede, one
of those letters, fetha either has a weaker, less elear
sound, approaching to that of a in the English words hat,
cap, e. g. cuii' katabta , JJS] *akbaru ; or it becomes
a simple e or e (the latter especially in a short open syl-
lable followed by a long one), e. g. Jo bel, Jjj mer-
kebun , ^1 1 1V scmekun , yj^w seminun , -ot\>o me-
d'lnetun. It retains, however, its pure sound of a be
fore and after r (which partakes of the nature of the
emphatics), when that letter is doubled or follows a long
a or u , e. g. 2- ' > , 2*-
w&. garratun , , -i.Lcr
syo marralun
garaiun , 'i\yo suratun ; and also in general at the
end of a word.

6. The long vowels a, '/, it, are indicated by placing

the marks of the short vowels before the letters I, ^, and .,
respectively, e. g. JL kala , aj bYa, iV**m sikun; in
which case these letters are called tXjl vil^ , Uterae pro
ductions , letters of prolongation. The combinations ^_
and ._ must always be pronounced 1 and ft, not e and o;
though after the emphatic consonants . L. inclines to the
sound of b, and / to that of the French u or German ii,
e. g. . Js, ,jjki5, nearly torun, tiinun.

R e m. a. a was at first more rarely marked lhan the olher long

vowels, and hence il happens lhal al a lalerperiod, after the invention
of the vowel -points, it was indicated in some very common words
II. The Vowels and Diphthongs. 9

merely by a fetha; e. g. jjjf, ^ikJf, f*?v?> (J^j> ^r^i

JjX! or j^XJ, JJj, |jjc, Ll4* I4X&&, X**^'- More exactly,

however, the fetha should be written perpendicularly in this case, so as
to resemble a small elif; e. g. xiJt, * t-^ "Mj Li-iff, iUi3,

0+jJij I (<A<? resurrection, to be carefully distinguished from &4jJj |

el-kimetu, price, value). The words oiHj and Xj'ikj are

also frequently written defectively c>JLi, &aJLj; and occasion-
' i -r > ' -~
ally some other vocables, such as t 1 1ff, ^jax, and other
,, , I S ' i , f) l Si
proper names ending in . | _, JtuuiJl, Osyiuo, tX-Li., JJuo ,
> ' 1- s '
**~Jd\, r*Ji>, elc-

7. I corresponds to fetha, ^ to kesra, and . to

damma; whence | is called $jsxZa)\ o-a-l, ^e sister of fetha,

^5, js^wX.'! o*Ja-l, < '*/(?r of kesra, and J; S^aJI o*i.f,

/#<? sister /" damma. Fetha before ^ and ? forms the
diphthongs ai and , which retain their original clear sound
after the harder gutturals and the emphatics, e. g. \juJo
saifun , v_j^&. ftaufun ; but after the other letters become
nearly e (Heb. >_) and 6 (Heb. 1_), e. g. uUw selfun,
uyi m'otun (almost sr/w, motun).
Rem. a. After a . of prolongation at the end of a word, both
when preceded by damma and by fetha, an \ is sometimes written,
particularly in the plural of verbs ; e. g. L. -n'* , t yj. . This I, in
itself quite superfluous, is intended to guard against the possibility
of the preceding being separated from the body of the word to
which it belongs, and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and.
In our oldest Mss. it is usually wanting.
10 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

Rem. b. , at the end of a word after a fetha is pronounced

like |, e. g. ^i fata, ^c. rapid, J| *ild , and is called,
like f itself in the same position (e. g. I ' a - Behnesa , |yt

g'aza), 5^aJUJ I i_ftJ^M <^ abbreviated elif , in conlra-

distinction to the lengthened elif, -v LV , 1 1 t k_J5M (see
. 22 and . 23 rem. a), which is protected by hemza. It receives this
name because , when it comes in contact with a hemza conjunctionis
(see . 19 rem. e\ , it is shortened in pronunciation before the
following consonant, as are the . and ^ in j| and _j| before

^,p? (see . 20, 2).

Rem. c. If a pronominal suffix be added to a word ending in
l< _, the ,e is sometimes retained according to old custom, as in
Kjuo. or &uc, but it is commonly changed into f, as sLe<.
Rem. d. In some words ending in g|_ we often find jj_
,.- ,.' B" 9 '' T- P. i '
and &j_ instead of s|_, as j.as. or jj^o., 5.JL0 or SjJ-o,
Sjv or S5\, J;*J or ioj; according to which older mode of
writing we ought to pronounce the f _ nearly as a or e.

8. The marks of the short vowels when doubled are

pronounced with the addition of the sound n, 1 an, _ in,
9 yf j * ~ *
_ or _ w. This is called ^jjyXxi\ , the tenwjn or nunation
(from the name of the letter ^ nun), and takes place only
at the end of a word ; e. g. xlsjue medmetan , o*aj
bintin, JU malun.
Rem. a. _ takes an | after all the consonants except s; as
GU , L^j , but kAA-Li.. However, when it precedes a ,<, no | is

written, as in igtXff ; nor, according to the older orthography,

when it accompanies a hemza, as in % ^& , for which we more usually
III. Other Orthographic Signs. 1. Gezma or Sukun. 11

find \_ aw This clif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel,

which is always short; baban, rihan.
Rem. b. To one word is added, without in any way
affecting the sound of the tenwin, viz. to the proper name .-. ty Amr
(not Amru), genit. ... t* , accus. |j+e, rarely | , . f , so written

to distinguish it from another proper name that has the same radical
letters, viz. , t~ Omar, genit. and accus. ., t < .

III. Other Orthographic Signs.

1. Gezma or Sukun.

9. Gezma , -j*. or JLoya. {amputation) , _, is

written over the final consonant of all shut syllables, and
serves, when another syllable follows, to separate the two;
e. g. JJ bel, *j8 hum, *jJj katabtum, \m*ZjJm sefsefa,
^iJjs kor-anun (not ko-ranun). It corresponds therefore to
the Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew, with which its other
name ,jJCw, rest, coincides.
Rem. a. Letters that are assimilated to a following letter, which
receives in consequence the tesdid or mark of doubling (see . 11
and . 14), are retained in writing, but not marked with a gezma;
e.g. jj^sfcJI, joj ,jjo, yi>J, nolc^.J|, sjj^, yd>J-
Rem. fc. The same distinction exists between the words gizm
and gezma, as between feth and /frAa, etc. (see . 4 rem.).
10. ^and,, when they form a diphthong with fetha, are
marked with a gezma, as jJJ, ..IS; but when they stand
for elif productionis they do not take this sign (see . 7
rem. b, c, d).
12 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

2. Tesdid or Sidda.
11. A consonant that is to be doubled, or, as the
0 - f
Arabs say, strengthened ((jjUiuo), without the interposition
of a vowel (see rem. a), is written only once, but marked
m to s , f
with the sign _ , which is called JutXwJUt, the tesdid
C u .- BE 9 Cy ""

(strengthening) ; e. g. JjJt el-kutta, "SS kullan, LZJI es-

semna, *, semmin, yj) el-muri-u, ys murrun. It corresponds
therefore to the Daghesh forte of the Hebrew.

Rem. a. When a consonant is repeated in such a manner that

a vowel is interposed between its first and second occurrence, no
doubling-, properly so called, takes place, and consequently the tes'dld
is not required ; e.g. vn\fi, 2 pers. sing. masc. Perf. of J*;
oJCxiu, 3d pers. sing. fern. Perf. of the fifth form of ^yj .

Rem. S. A consonant can be doubled, and receive lesdFd, only

when a vowel precedes and follows it. The cases treated of in . 14
form no exception to this rule.

Rem. c. All consonants whatsoever, not even clif hemzalum

excepted, admit of being doubled and take tesdid. Hence we speak

and write iy\\\ ra"asun, JIL*,, sa"alun.

Rem. _ is probably an abbreviated ji , the first radical

Go- OS
of the name Jojuio, or the first letter of the name sjui
(strength), which the African Arabs use instead of the other.

Rem. e. Tesdid, in combination with _, _, _, _, is placed

between the consonants and these vowel-marks, as may be seen from
the above examples. In combination with _ we sometimes find *
III. Other Orthographic Signs. 2. Tesdfd or Sidda. 13

instead of 1; and the African Arabs constantly write _, _, _, for

. t &

12. Tesdid is either necessary or euphonic.

13. Tlie necessary tesdid, which always follows a
vowel, whether short (as in (^JLc) or long (as in t>U),
indicates a doubling upon which the signification of the word
depends. Thus yo! (hmara) means he commanded; ^of
(ammara), he appointed some one commander ; 1* (mur-
run) is hitter, but a word ye (murun) does not exist in
the language.
Rem. The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing
a long vowel and terminating in a consonant. Consequently tesdid
necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels and .g,
though it is sometimes found after |, as in *Lo, ^LuJo
(see . 25).
14. The euphonic tesdid always follows a vowelless
consonant, which, though expressed in writing, is, to avoid
harshness of sound, passed over in pronunciation and assi
milated to a following consonant. It is used:
1) With the letters y, e, <>, <i, ;, )4 u, J* u> u*
Je, Jo, J, ^j, (dentals, sibilants, and liquids,) after the article
jl; e. g. Jjdl et-tamru; \ , ^-, (\ ar-rahmanu; y**i*JI
es-semsu; JUkJl azzolmu; JuyUI el-leilu.
Rem. These letters are called &juu+wJt 0&.|, the solar
letters, because the word y^, sun, happens to begin with one of
them; and the other letters of the alphabet R^w+jul O.J&.I, rt
Amor letters, because the word w|3" , moon , commences with one
of them.
14 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

2) With the letters ., J, .., ., ^ (**i?p)i a^ev n with

gezm, e. g. aj ^ mir rabbihi, jjj ^^o, JJtiy ^|;

and after the nunation, e. g. .jjujo ^lii" kilabum mu-

binun, for kitabun mubinun. The of the words Jwo
^jx, ,jf, is often not written when they are combined
with Li, Jji, tf; e. g. ^^x for ** or ^ ^^c, CU
for ^, ^f for 51 J|.

Rem. J ^( is equally common with 5j|, but ,!wjc, JwtX ,

- .- * .-
UJc , l+ , are hardly ever written separately ; 51 ^jc , on the
contrary, always.

3) With the letter o after o, v>, o, o, yA, Je, Je

(dentals), in certain parts of the verb; e. g. ouLJ Ubittu
for o^jJ lebittu; yi>J aratta for liyoJ aradta; ^J^l

a/ta/W for v^cXi-l ahadti ; fcdaxio basattum for ,^ Ua - a

basattum. This third kind of assimilation is, however, by
no means universally acknowledged, and many gram
marians reject it altogether, because the absorption of a
strong* radical consonant, such as Jc, by a weaker servile
letter, like y, is an unnatural mutilation of an essential
part of the word.

3. Hemza or Nebra.
15. Elif, when it is not a mere letter of prolongation,
but a consonant , pronounced like the spiritus lenis , is
distinguished by the mark _ hemza (w or sS+st, prick,
see . 4 rem.) , which is also sometimes called nebra
111. Oilier Orthographic Signs. 3. Hemza or Nebra. 15

(Swo, elevation); e. g. Jul, JU,, ju|, |J, IjJl, iXaJj^'

-* - s ^ * **

Rem. a. In cases where an elif conjutictionis (sec . 19,

1, 2, 3, and rem. c, d) at the beginning of a word receives its own
vowel , the Arabs omit the hemza and write merely the vowel ; e. g.
Jj Jwil, Praise be to God! |jj|, ^|, jii|.
Rem. ft. is probably a small e , and indicates that the elif
is to be pronounced almost as ain. In African Mss. it is sometimes
actually written L; e. g. 61 , ijJL^t
Rem. c. Hemza is written between the \ and the vowel that
accompanies it, or the gezma (see the examples given above) ; but we
often find ~ptJLvj>. for ~j^,ti* , lX^> for ^ (see . 16),

and occasionally \C^ for I U^ and the like.

Rem. rf. The efTect of the hemza is most sensible to a European
ear at the commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word, pre-
ceded by a shut syllable; e. g. iuLuwo , mas-alatun (not ma-salatun);
^ 1 1 Jul, el-kor-'anit (not el-ko-ranu).

16. ^ and . take hemza, when Ihey sland in place

of an elif hemzatum (in which case (he two points of
the letter ^ are commonly omitted) ; e. g. *& for yL>. ,
- 11 r - i i- *' r f' B *' t" B f'
^ax*j/L&- lor ^jL(*,Li-, (j-jj tor iihu i ij"%5) 'Or (j^j')-

1 7. Hemza alone (p) is written instead of I, I, , , y iin

the following cases.
1) Always at the end of a word, after a letter of
prolongation or a consonant with gezma, e. g. *L> , gah;
*_&., gia; lyu, siiun; %Jd, J>, t-ijo, or more com
monly L_Iis (see . 8 rem. a); and in the middle of a
16 Pari First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

word after an clif productionis , provided the hemza

> - *
has the vowel fetha, as 'tJeL^ij, iS*tjJt| (but for
I^ttX*! and I^ld^! the Arabs usually write .yoljaif
and p^fli*!).
Rem. Accusatives like L-a*u and L-J& are often -written,
though contrary to rule, Lui , Uj& .
2) Frequently in the middle of words, after the letters
of prolongation . and ^, or after a consonant with
gezma, e. g. *jJU tor Sj^yw, ^by> tor uyloyi,

..y> for Lj, J .m.; for JL*L>; and also after kesra and
damma before the ^ and . of prolongation, e. g. ~* 1*1 C
for .^jj&li., (jj*) for u-jj;- Hemza between la, ua,
at, Ti, au and fiii, is however more frequently, though
improperly, placed over the letter of prolongation itself;
e. g. S^JL# tor s t . Jw , iuhs. lor jJqa or x>hs. ,
,_,.. for u.i> or (J-**) , which wyords must always be
pronounced makruatun, hatiatun, rutisun.
Rem. After a consonant with gezma, which is connected with
a following letter, hemza and its vowel arc placed above the connecting
'. * ?
line; as Jl_,|.
General Rem. |, ^, ., are often called simply hemza,
instead of elif, ya, warn hemzatum, because their whole power lies
in the hemza.

4. Was la.
18. When the vowels wilh hemza (I I I), at the com
mencement of a word, are absorbed by the final vowel of
the preceding word, the elision of the spiritus lenis is marked
111. Other Orthographic Signs. 4. Wasla. 17

by the sign _, written over the elif, and called J^ol, or

xJLe^ or jJLo (see . 4 rem.), i. e. union ; e. g. viLLJ | ju^c

i/M 'l-meliki for vjJUiJI tX*c <7&/w d-meliki ; duj| cut,

ra*citu 'bnaka for viiijf

e ool'
; raeitu 'ibnaka.

Rem. a. seems to be an abbreviation of the ^ in J^oi

or aJLa.
Rem. b. Though we have written in the above examples dULJ |
and JloI, yet the student must not forgot that tlie more correct
orthography is viLLJ I and vIJuj! . See . 15 rem. a and . 19
rem. c.
19. This elision takes place in the following cases.
1) With the I of the article J|; as *jsJI ol for
yjv J I yi I , //^ father of the wezir.
2) With the f and | of the Imperatives of the first
form of the regular verb; as 1^!L\ JU for ***m| JU,
he said, listen; Jdb| JLs for Jail Jls, /< */, ?#.
3) With the t of the Perfect Active, Imperative, and
Nomen actionis of the seventh and all the following forms
of the verb (see . 35), and the I of the Perfect Passive
in the same forms; e. g. *C$3t yo for IC^jf ys, he was
put to flight; J^jLu,!: for JlJlLwU, rf?'/ was employed ;
'jjai^l ^ fcu?y #fe (to do something); (joQS^I Jl
M the downfall or extinction.
4) With the t of the following eight nouns:
^1 and +Xi\ or ^1 son. ol*J m* //.-.
18 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

jlCjI a daughter. JL\ a name.

jIIj! tivo (masc). .jjol or .1*1 a man.

jLxiS'f two (fern.). s'L]o! a woman.

9 >of
Rem. a. The hemza of .^w+j!, oaths, is also elided after the
asseveralive particle J, and occasionally after the prepositions mjo

and /jjo (which then lake fetha inslead of gezma), as JUI i^v^J^
fty God (lit. Jy /At' onfAs of God) , for which we may also write
JU! ji'l, omitting the | altogether.
Rem. J. In the above words and forms, the vowel with hemza
is in part original, but has been weakened through constant use (as
in the article, and in .j^jI after J) ; in part merely prosthetic, thai
is to say, prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with a
vowelless consonant, and consequently it vanishes as soon as a vowel
precedes it, because it is then no longer necessary.
Rem. c. It is naturally an absurd error to write f at Ihe begin-
ning of a sentence instead of elif with hemza, as xJJ iV i^- t
inslead of jJL) t\ t *- 1 The A nibs themselves never do so, but, to

indicate lhat the elif is an elif conjunctionis (see rem. e) , they

omit the hemza and express only ils accompanying vowel, as LV,-lj
aJU See . 15 rem. a and . 18 rem. b.
Rem. d. In more modern Arabic the elision of the elif con
junctionis (see rem. e) is negleeled , especially after the article ;

Rem. e. The elif which lakes wasla is called S^Oji I oLn or

J^tfpt S; i ffi (see . 17, 2. general rem.), elif or hemza con-
III. Other Orthographic Signs. 4. Wasla. 19
. ** .,<"*> j &
jtiHctionis , the connective elif; the opposite being - U S \ j 1J4 1| )
elif scjunclionis or separations, the disjunctive elif.

20. The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a

short vowel, a long vowel, a diphthong, or a consonant
with gezma. To these different cases the following rules apply.
1) A short vowel simply absorbs the 'elif conjunctionis
with its vowel; see . 19, 2 and 3.
2) A long vowel is shortened in pronunciation, according
to the rule laid down in . 25; e. g. (j-uJt j, ft
'n-nasi, among men; j)JI jI abii 'l-wcziri, the father
of the weztr, for ft and abu. This abbreviation of the
naturally long vowel is retained even when the lam
of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that
vowel, but begins the next syllable, in consequence of the
elision of a following 'elif (either according to . 19 or
by poetic license). Hence ^IJoj^I &, in the beginning,

is pronounced as if written fcjjuuJj; u6^\ (for yo^f),

w/?o /^<? <?arM, as yoyU; J^HtiM ^3 (for jSLeiH),

subject to change (a weak letter) , as JitJ6. In

the first of these examples the I is an 'elif conjunctionis;
in the other two it is an elif separationis, but has been
changed for the sake of the metre into an elif conjunct.
The suffixes of the 1. pers. sing., I>g_ and ^j, may
assume before the article the older forms ^_ and ^-,

e. g. ^xH (^**J miJ grace which , io\'Jki\ ^^j

20 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

guide me on the may, instead of ^d! tS***i ar>d ici*^'

JetlaJI, which latter forms are equally admissible.
3) A diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels,
according to the law stated in . 25, viz. at into a'i,
and au into ail; as viLiJI iS^f^ & fi **w* 'l-mcliki,

< ^ <5yc* 0/" M<? &/^ for viLUJ I ,5*** ij > *^' ^gta^axi

mustafaii 'llahi, the elect of God, for ail! jj&LLo. The

silent elif (. 7 rem. ) does not prevent the resolution
of the diphthong, as a\L*! L* ramaii 'l-higarata, they

/^r<?w M<? stones. But J and J take kesra, as Kt.w| l

or his name; JJlj ^ if he went to meet.
4) A consonant with gezma either takes its original
vowel, if it had one; or assumes that which belongs to
the elif conjunct.; or adopts the lightest of the three
vowels, which in its nature approaches nearest to the
gezma, viz. kesra. Hence the pronouns of the 2'1 and 3'1
pers. plur. masc, 1*3 1 you, and 1st they, the pronominal
suffixes of the same pronouns, if your, you (accus.),
and 1 their, them, and the verbal termination of the
2d p. pi. masc. Perf. is, take damma (in which they
originally ended); as ^i&Jl ^\ you are the liars;
*JJI Iglwl may God curse them! j^a-lil i>?) you have
seen the man. The same is the case with juo since,
from which time forth, because it is contracted for jJLo .
The prepositions lo with, and ^ from, and the inter
rogative pronoun ^ ho? take fetha before the article,
in. Other Orthographic Si?ns. 4. Wasla. 21

bul in all other cases kesra; as Jl^J! />, ^JJI ^y,

sSA ^x. All other words raiding in a consonant with
gezma lake kesra ; viz. nouns having the tenwfn,
as ^aUI tXsiuc Mohammeduni 'n-nebiyyu; verbal forms

like vLiis, Z+zCs, u^^l. as fjr' S*^ katalatt

'r-Ritmu ; and particles, such as ,j!, Ju, Jo, Jjs,

^, etc.
Rem. In certain cases where 1st becomes j8 (see . 185
rem. b) Ihe wasl may be made either with damma or kesra, ^jt or ^JD.

21. I is altogether omitted in the following cases.

1) In the solemn introductory formula *JU! jv^o, for

xJU! *-L?, w M w<? 0/ God. As a compensation for
the omission of the I , the copyists of Mss. are accustomed
to prolong the upward stroke of the letter v_>, thus: ^j-
2) In the word ^\, son, in a genealogical series,
that is to say, when the name of the son precedes, and
that of his father or mother follows in the genitive; pro
vided always that the said series, as a whole, forms part
either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence. For
example, ivA*jf ,jj Jo) Zcid the son of 'Ibrahim;

1j>1a ^j ,e***^ Jcsus tf'e son f Mary ; ^ Jov C>2i

xJUl iXac ^jj o^e ^ Julw (XU- Zeid, the son of

Halid, struck Sad, the son of 'Auf, the son of Abdu
'llah. But if the second noun be not in apposition to the
first, but form part of the predicate, so that the two
22 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

together make a complete sentence, then the I is retained;

as wLki! ,jjt y+c, 'Omar (is) the son of d-Hattab.
Rem. Even in the first ease the | of ^j| is retained, if that
word happens to stand at the beginning1 of a line.

3) In the article J|, when it is preceded:

a) by the preposition J to, as Jca-JLJ to the man,
for J^J!^. If the first letter of the noun be J, then
the J of the article is also omitted, as alii) to the
night, for jJUJJU, and that for xJLJJ^-

b) by the affirmative particle J truly, verily, as

(j^aiJ, for J^iSf.
4) In nouns, verbs, and the article Jl, when pre-
ceded by the interrogative particle I; as JJljI, for iiufl
is thy son- ? \z>J*j>\, for v^wXilf is it (fern.)
broken? *UJI, for iUJl! is Me >&; ? The elif of
the article may however be retained, so that iUJl with
the interrogative f is often written iUJl*.

5. Medda or Malta.
22. When elif with hemza and a simple vowel or ten-
* *
win (I, t, etc.) is preceded by an elif of prolongation (|_),
then a mere hemza is written instead of the former, and the
sign of prolongation, ~ medda or malta (Joo, s<Xe or
S a ,
SJojo, i. e. lengthening , extension), placed over the latter;
e. g. :U1 sema'un, Li ga'a, ~.J*U1^ yatasa'aluna, for
* .. .. * * ,--
III. Olher Orthographic Signs. 5. Medda or Malta. 23

23. When, at the beginning of a syllable, an elif with

hernza and fetha (I) is followed by an elif of prolongation or
an elif with hernza and gezma (I), then the two are commonly
represented in writing by a single elif with medda; e. g.
Sill for Sill! , ^jl/T for JLpT, Uif for \jj\. In this
case it is not usual to write either hernza, or the vowel,
along with the medda.
- <-'".'".
Rem. a. | is called *V<>,, t| !_jjJiH, the lengthened or
9^ 9 it ^o-o , f e^
long elif, in opposition to , . yii>'( lj ljL'^M, the abbreviated or short
elif. 7 rem. J).
Rem. b. Not unfrequently, a long- elif at the beginning of a
word is written with hernza and a perpendicular fetha, instead of with
inedda (see . 6 rem.) ; e. g. \juo\ instead of LCo|.

Rem. c. Medda is also occasionally placed over the olher

letters of prolongation, . and .e , when followed by an elif hein-
zatum,and in this case too only the hernza is written; as y**i, {, ^ai.

Rem. d. The mark _, written over abbreviations of words,

has nothing in common with medda but the form. So ^ for

-5LwJ| auJlfc peace be upon him.' juj for ju* jJJ| ^^

may God be gracious to him! . for nJJ\ *t~^ may Gd ^ave

mercy upon him ! ,yn JLv? for *JL*uj **-^ *^-'l c^" God bless

him and grant him peace! for jJuL a <Ac; and ^

for J^ajU^. and J^jUai; *jo for cyj^x or *JJ+* impossible;

J<5 and iaJ| for jcLfe and ~al kt| evident, what is evident;
~ ~ 6 - -> ' ~
>jx and ^>*J| for JLa? and JlisJ| absurd, what is absurd; Jaje
24 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

and Ut l| for '_, H/i* and _. 1U 1 1 1 sought, what is sought,

" So ~- .- ^ a ~
for t~^ plural, Laj for LijtX^ A narrated to us, Li
or Lil for Ljyxa-I A fo/rf ks. Frequently however there is no
sign over abbreviations.

IV. The Syllable.

24. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a vowel,
which we call an open or simple syllable, may be either
long or short; as JLs ka-la.
25. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a con
sonant, which we call a shut or compound syllable, is almost
always short; as Jo kid, not Jj> (Heb. Tip). Only in
pause, where the final short vowels are suppressed, does
(he ancient Arabic admit of such syllables as in, itn, an, etc.
Rem. Before a double consonant a is however not infrequent
(see . 13 rem.).
26. A syllable cannot begin with two consonants, the
first of which is destitute of a vowel, as sf or bl. Foreign
words, that commence with a syllable of this sort, on passing
into the Arabic language, receive an additional vowel either
before or after the first consonant; as ^>jjLlt , anoyyoq,
U-LoLL? Plinius, msOjj^ I (he Franks {Europeans).
27. A syllable cannot end in two consonants, which
are not either separated or followed by a vowel (except
in pause).
V. The Accent. VI. The Numbers. 25

V. The Accent.
28. The last syllable of a word consisting of two or
more syllables never has the accent.
29. The penult takes (he accent when it is long by
nature, i. e. is an open syllable containing a long vowel;
as J Is Ad-fa, Jyu ya-ku-lu, ,j*j^i' ka-nu-nun, /TvOjOy*
9 -- '
mu'-mi-nt-na, viols' k(i-ti-bti-tun.
30. The penult has likewise the accent when it is a
shut syllable and consequently long by position; as ,JUi'
kdl-bun, v_*33 di'-bun , yj bur-'un, Ju^j fi-rin-dun,
yj--y&?., ya-ku-ldn-na.
31. When the penult is short, the accent falls upon
the antepenult; as ^sf kd-ta-ba , &j.jlS' kd-nu-nu-hu,
j 1 Jx mas-'d-la-tnn.

VI. The Numbers.

32. To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the
letters of the alphabet, at other limes peculiar signs. In the
former case, the numerical value of the letters accords with
the more ancient order of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets
(see . 1). They are written from right to left, and usually
distinguished from the surrounding words by a stroke placed
over them, as ^Xjoa, 1858. This arrangement of the
alphabet is called the 'Abused, and is contained in the barba
rous words:
26 Pari First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

lino tXdBu 'ca* vi' (jqJuum ij-^5 ^h-v ;yo Ji |

or, as usual in North Africa:
jjijiii t.V <v i o>~wJ> \jaJuuo ^j-*XS h~> vy& tXsJI .
The special numerical figures, ten in number, have
been adopted by the Arabs from the Indians, and are there
fore called ^tU-jJI 3JI, the Indian ciphers. They are
the same that we Europeans make use of, calling them
Arabian, because we took them from the Arabs. Their
form however differs considerably from that which our ciphers
have now assumed, as the following table shows.
Indian: ? ^ $ 8 H $OT7o
Arabic: | f r i* or$ t Va 1
Europ.: 12345 67890
They are compounded in exactly the same way as
our numerals; e. g. \\\, 1858.
Etymology or the Parts of Speech.
I. The Verb.
A. General View.
1. The Forms of the Triliteral Verb.
33. The great majority of Arabic verbs are triliteral,
that is to say, contain three radical letters, though quadri-
literals are by no means rare.
34. From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and
quadriliteral verbs are derived in different ways several other
forms, which express various modifications of the idea con
veyed by the first
35. The derived forms of the triliteral verb are fifteen
in number, but the learner may pass over the last four,
because (with the exception of the twelfth) they are of very
rare occurrence.
jliil XL j^Ltf VI. JiS I.
j^Lil XII. JuOil VH. Jii II.
jpiii xra. jjtilf vm. j^u m.
jJLiil! xiv. Jill ix. Jii? iv.
JJil[ xv. jjailt x. jJUs v.
'28 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Rem. a. The 3. pers. sing. masc. Perf., being Ihe simplest form
of the verb, is commonly used as the paradigm, but for shortness' sake
we always render it into English by the inGnilivc; JJcii to kill,
instead of he has killed.
Rem. b. The Arab grammarians use the verb Jots (byB) as
paradigm, whence the first radical of the trilileral verb is called by
them i.\JJ | the fa, the second .wot! \ the ain , and the third
l>5jj the lam.
Rem. c. As the above order and numbering of the conjugations
are those adopted in all the European Lexicons, Ihe learner should note
them carefully.

36. The first or ground -form is generally transitive

or intransitive in signification, according to the vowel which
accompanies its second radical.
37. The vowel of the second radical is a in most of
the transitive, and not a few of the intransitive verbs; e. g.
j - ,t -
vJJcs to write, JJci' to kill, v_*j to give, -Li to be
unlucky , Juoj to go the right way, \j*=? to sit.
38. The vowel i in the same position has generally
an intransitive significalion, u invariably so. The distinction
between them is, that i indicates a temporary state or con
dition, or a merely accidental quality in persons or things;
whilst u indicates a permanent state, or a naturally inherent
quality. E. g. ' S to be glad, /jy=- to be sorry , 1^
to be blind, but ~j'-r to be beautiful; ^i to be ugly,
JJu to be heavy.
Rem. Many verbs of the form Juts are transitive according to
our way of thinking, and therefore govern the accusative; e. g.
I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. The Forms of the Trilileral Verb. 29

1X to know (scire), J^1V ^ to think, 1^. to pity or have

mercy upon, t 1n. to hear.

General Rem. The same three forms occur in Hebrew and

Aramaic (Chaldee and Syriac), though the distinction is in these lan
guages no longer so clearly marked. Examples of verbs in * and u are:
B'2i , _^ , to be dry , = (jmaj ; NTC to be full, = J^e;

btW to be bereaved, = JJo'; ~C1, ^?, to sleep; etc. See

Gcsenius* Hcb. Gr. . 43, Cowper's Syr. Gr. . 78.

39. The second form (J*i) is formed from the first
(JJJ) by doubling the second radical.
40. The signification agrees with the form in respect
of being intensive or extensive. Originally it implies that
an act is done with great violence (intensive), or during
a long time (temporally extensive), or to a number of
persons (numerically extensive) , or repeatedly (iterative
or frequentative). E. g. vjl^ to beat , Cjy& to beat
violently ; \1S to break , T w<" to break in pieces; -t
to cut , pW* to cut in pieces; .i-wi to separate , .Sji to
disperse; JJcs to kill, Jl*S to massacre.

41. From this original intensive meaning arose (he

more usual causative or factitive signification. Verbs
that are intransitive in the first form become transitive
in the second; as 'i to be glad, ' Ji to gladden;
<JjjJi to be weak, _"w^ to weaken. Those that are
transitive in the first become doubly transitive or
causative in (he second ; as *Jjs /o know, A&. to
30 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

teach; C to write, Sxf to teach to write; Jl^ to

" *
carry, Jt^ to make carry.
Rem. a. The causative or factitive signification is common to
the second and fourth forms, the apparent difference being- that it
is original in the latter, but derived in the former.
Rem. b. The second form is often rather declarative or
estimative than factitive in the strict sense of the term; as *_> jj"
to lie, iocXT' to think or call one a liar; ^dSo to tell the truth,
_ e ,
,jtX<o 'o MmAr that one tells the truth, to believe him.

Rem. c. The second form is frequently denominative, and

expresses with various modifications the making or doing of,
or being occupied with, the thing expressed by the noun from
-a- 0 o -
which it is derived. E. g. ok***. <o collect an army (ji^a.),
!^i.. to pave with marble (,L^.O. (j6y to nurse the sick {ya^y*),
-a- s , 5^
Oyj' to cfrfln an animal of ticks (i>|js) , itXi) to tofo; mote
(< tXS) *f o/"tt *ye. Compare inHebrew jtJ^l, 23T, "!:?'_, ^I5D, etc.
Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 61, 2.
General Rem. JJii corresponds in form , as well as in sig
nification, to the Heb. 7ID and Aram. 7lSP, Vij^o. See Gese
nius' Heb. Gr. . 51. *?!p is weakened from ^!flj5,*) as may be
deduced, independently of the Arabic and Aramaic, on the one hand,
from the Imperat. ^)lp and Imperf. 7^3P,, and, on the other hand,
from the form of the 3. pers. sing. Perf., not only in verbs } guttural
(as \h~2, rh\!f), but in such words as -QN, "ID1, Tti, and in
the whole class p"^, as Thl (for i\>i)- The 2. pers. sing. Perf.
has always , nVtSp .
* . e-o-
) With for in the toneless shut syllable, as innjJ2t&'= KJUao,
nysn == &!>, nnp = iSX i^rn1?' from ft6\ it^niC
from T^NB>,
: - t ' DRBh1
v : : for DRttT-
r : -:
I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. The Forms of the Triliteral Verb. 31

42. The third form (Jili) is formed from the first

(JJJ) by lengthening the vowel -sound a after the first
radical, as is indicated by the elif productionis.
43. It modifies the signification of the ground-form in
the following ways.
1) When JJii denotes an act that immediately affects
an object (direct ' object or accusative), Jkili expresses the
effort or attempt to perform that act upon the object,
in which case the idea of reciprocity is added when
the effort is necessarily or accidentally a mutual one.
E. g. xiir he killed him , aiilS' he {tried to kill him
or) fought with him ; &*Xk he overcame him , LpLi
he tried to overcome him; &&11 he outran him, ijijH,
he {tried to outrun him, i. e.) ran a race with him;
sSl& he surpassed him in rank, aiTLfc he strove to
do so; 8^? he surpassed him in glory, *1L.\J he
strove to do so, he vied with him in rank and glory.
2) When the first or fourth form denotes an act,
the relation of which to an object is expressed by means
of a preposition (indirect object), the third form con
verts that indirect object into the immediate or direct
object of the act (accusative). The idea of reciprocity
is here, as in the former case, more or less distinctly
implied. E. g. viUJI J I vjis he wrote {a letter) to

the king, dLLJI ^2^ he wrote to the king, corre

sponded with him; J J IS he said to him {something),
*J;IS he conversed with him ; ^jlkJLJI Jl JJLt | he
32 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

sent (a message) to the sultan, ~.UaJLdl Jul. do. ;

^yji6y+l\ yuo\ Joe i^*>L= /? sat beside the Commander

of the Faithful, ^*j^^J\ ^1 JUli. do.; x> *sz A*

/// upon him, attacked him, xist: do.
3) When Jkii denotes a quality or stale, JiLi in
dicates that one person makes use of that quality
towards another and affects him thereby , or brings
him into that state. E. g. ~* AA & fo row^A or
^tfriA , aJUolifc Atf treated him harshly ; /Tvw.~- /o
fo ^oorf or /</., juuiL^. /<e treated him kindly ; 1x3
or IS /o &</ comfortable life, jl^IS ta procured
him the means of doing so.
General Rem. J^e.li corresponds in form and signification
to the Heb. "Tjp'p (Arab, a = Heb. o, of which we shall see many
olher examples). See Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 54.
44. The fourth form (Juiil) is formed by prefixing to
the root the syllable I, in consequence of which the first
radical loses its vowel.
45. Its signification is factitive or causative. If the
verb is intransitive in the first form , it becomes tran
sitive in the fourth; if transitive in the first, it becomes doubly
transitive in the fourth. E.g. ^_&. to run, ^ya-l to make
run; JLl^. to sit down, ,JJJL\ to bid one sit down;
jaS-I J^l he eat bread, JjL\ sJS\ he gave him bread
to eat; t-Z&lS &U he saw the thifig , t-^-jJl at, I he
shewed him the thing.
Rem. a. When both the second and fourth forms of a verb
are causative (. 41 rem. a.) , they have in some cases different
1. The Verb. A. General View. 1. The Forms of Ihe Trilileral Verb. 33

significations, in others the same. E. g. )VJLc to know , .^JLt to

leach, *JLcl to inform one of a thing; Lsaj to escape, j
and _S\jl, to set at liberty.

Rem. b. Nol a few verbs are apparently intransitive in the

f'ourih form, 1) partly because the object has been in the course of
lime omitted for the sake of brevity, and 2) partly because the Arabs
often regard as an act that which we view as a state. Examples of
Ihe first ease are : Jujs'l he went forward, advanced, lit. moved for
ward &4* his face, or ft_vmg? his soul, i. e. himself; ,Jls! he
went on boldly, lit. moved forward boldly juuJU himself; >LLjI he
was eloquent, lit. made effective x*iki' his speech. Of the second:
x-*' to abound in lions , Jl^^I to abound in camels, lit. to produce
or nourish them ; .w*u| to be old, lit. to produce or get teeth; IS|
to rfwt'M or remain anywhere, lit. to waAre a p/ac^ /or standing in;
~jCol (the thing) was possible, lit. it put one in a position ( ,.UCo
place) to do it.

Rem. c. Many of the forms thus used arc denondnative , especi

ally those which indicate movement towards a place , the entering
upon a period of time, or an act or state taking place or subsisting
during that time. E. g. *Li| to ao to Syria ULiJI), ^j^j! to

00 to Fm (^j+J I), (jy&l '" to 'Irak. (^'r*^' ^' i*-^' to

GO to Tihama (jLoLflj')*) ^~*-^l an<^ a**"8' ) to enter upon the

~- - -
fcVne o/" morning ( LLiaJI) or evening (iLl^JI), to &<r or <to
something in the monung or evening. Among this class might also
be reckoned the verbs JlLsI and ,JJ!, which we explained other-

*) Compare the German phrase nach einer Stadl machen", and our
own to make for a place."
34 Pari Second. Etymology or Hie Parts of Speech.

wise in rem. b. ; viz. Juj" f he went towards what lay opposite or

in front (jJloJl), and Ijej he went towards the front (.JjJul)-
- "6
General Rem. JJtil corresponds in form and signification
lo the Heb. byy>T\ , Aram. bj2p{< , VjJlb7|. See Gesenius' Heb.
Gr. . 52. ^CpH is weakened from b'3p^} (compare .41,
gen. rem., note), as is proved in Hebrew alone by the Imperal. bl2~n'
the Imperf. b^tOp} (orig. ^Bj?n?)i Ihe Pcrr. of verbs i*B (S'B>1PI
for 2n^~i) , the Perf. of verbs ft'b (T\biPi for ^Jfl), and the 2.
pcrs. sing. Perf. n?Epn. The Hebrew, it will be observed, takes H
as Ihe prefix, instead of the Arabic and Aramaic N. Some traces of
this variety are discoverable in the other dialects; as j|jc for o! <1
10 wish; ,i!jj6 for ^xlj 1 to pour out (p*l~); i^>Us *, for
y| (rad. J| , HON, to row); {\ZJ&, ^&&*n, = pONH

to believe.

46. Tlie />/?/* form (Juubr) is formed from the second

(jjti) by prefixing the syllable i.
47. This form annexes (0 Ihe significations of the se
cond (. 40, 41, and rem. b, c) the reflexive force of the
syllable y. In English it must often be rendered by the
passive. E. g. IwJo /# fo broken in pieces, -t^av /o fc
// in pieces, CtJe to be moved or agitated (. 40), <3l&i
lo be afraid (uLi /# terrify, . 41), juL!*^ JdUtf A* ^tr/
0/i his sword (lXy2 sJJls ta girt a sword upon him
another person, . 41), IaXj to be proud (. 41 rem. b.),
iS*S^> to adopt a title or surname (%SjS), 5*4^ * become
./<?#> (^o^j), ^^wj /o become a fire-worshipper ( "*, J&),
I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. The Forms or Ihe Trilileral Verb. 35

.Jail to become a Christian (JLifl^aS), LJtf to give oneself

out as a prophet (s,-*^ ; . 4 1 rem. c).
Rem. a. The subject of the fifth form is sometimes the direct
object (accusative), sometimes the indirect object (dative) of the act;
as kjoLi' to call oneself an Arab ( IjIwcI), -Juo to adopt as a
9 o
son ((jJl)-
Rem. b. The idea of inlensiveness may be traced even in cas s
where it seems, at first sight, to have wholly disappeared, leaving the
fifth form apparently identical in meaning with Ihe eighth. Thus slii"
ijfcUjf and jjUj! j JUs I are both translated the people dispersed,
but ijjAil expresses Ihe mere separation, ijjyii' Ihe separation
into a great many groups or in various directions.
Re m. c. The idea of reflexiveness is sometimes not very pro
minent; e. g. m^Xj to pursue holly, viz. for one's own advantage,
in order to get possession of; . ,. I Ui | to seek earnestly, viz. for one's
own use or profit; jjy to try to understand, lit. lo try to gain
knowledge for oneself.

48. Out of the original reflexive signification arises a

second, which is much more common, namely the effective.
It differs from the passive in this, that the passive indi
cates that a person is the object or experiences the effect of
the action of another ; whereas the effective implies that an
act is done to a person or a state produced in him, whether
it be caused by another or by himself. E. g. iXc to know,
JLt to teach, .Jlxj' to become learned, lo learn, quite diffe-
rent from .JI& (passive of *JLt) to. be taught. We can say

|iJL*Aj *Ji fjt , he was taught (received instruction), but did

36 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

not learn (become learned)*). Again, ~.G to be separate,

distinct, clear; /\aj to make clear, explain; ^***2 to appear
clear or certain.
General Rem. Juuii' sometimes assumes the form Jjuiii
(. Ill), whence we see its identity with the Heb. t'ISprn or
^ISpnn (n for N, as in . 45 gen. rem.), and the Aram. ^t3PN,
V^^oZj. See Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 53.

49. The sixth form (jS\J&) is formed from the third

(Jxli) likewise by prefixing the syllable L>.
50. The idea of effort and attempt, which is transitive
in the third form, becomes reflexive in the sixth; e. g.
IQ to throw oneself down at full length, v~>:U3 to pre
tend to be dead, JoLiS" to pretend to be blind. Further,
the possible reciprocity of the third form becomes a necessary
reciprocity, in as much as the sixth form includes the object
of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence
upon one another; e. g. aJiLs he fought with him, iti'Utf
the two fought with one another ; UJr/ the two spoke to
him, L+JlSo they (the three) conversed together.

Rem. As the reciprocal signification requires at least two sub

jects, the singular of the sixth form is in this case always collective;
e. g. ii*Uj! xLwJ the people heard from one another.

*) In German, er ward gelehrt (or unterrichtet), ward aber nieht ge-

lehrt (or unterrichtet), lernie nicht, where the same words have both the
passive and the effective meaning. Using a Scoticism , we might say :
he was learned (z=. taught), but did not learn.
I. The Verb. A. Genera! View. 1. The Forms of Ihe Triliteral Verb. 37

General Rem. JutULi' sometimes assumes the form J^Uiil

(. Ill), and is consequently identical with the Heb. ?LJ,pnn.
Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 54, 1.

51. The seventh form (Juuilt) is formed from the first

(JJii) by prefixing a ^ , before which is added a prosthetic f
to facilitate the pronunciation (see . 26).
Rem. For the cases in which this | becomes | , and why, see
. 18, . 19, 3 and rem. b; and as to the orthography | instead of \ ,

$.19 rem. c.

52. The seventh form has also originally a middle or

reflexive signification. It must be remarked, however, 1) that
the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect
object (dative), to which may be added another direct object
(accusative), but always the direct object itself; and 2) that
it never assumes the reciprocal signification. By these two
points the seventh form is distinguished from the eighth, and
approaches more nearly to a passive. At the same time,
the effective signification is often developed in it out of the
reflexive. E. g. (j^iLi! to open (of a flower), lit. to split
itself; wmJoI to break (intrans.), to be broken; Jgi\ to
be cut off, to be ended, to end; <JL&j\ to be uncovered,
to be made manifest, to appear.
53. Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person
allows an act to be done in reference to him , or an effect
to be produced upon him ; e. g. *Cgil t M oneself be pit
to flight, to flee : 3lBt to let oneself be led, to be docile
or submissive ; c tXikll to Jet oneself be deceived.
38 Pari Second. Etymology or llie Parts of Speech.

General Rem. Jjteil corresponds exactly to the Heb. 7t3p3

(for btgpi, as in 3DJfor32CJ, CIpJ for C1J33, 3B?13 for 3tB>U),
save that the Hebrew, instead of prefixing: aproslhclic i-lif (or rather"),
has followed the same principle of formation as in Jjtsf, v^EpD.
The Arabic form appears in the Imperat. and Imperf.; yC pH for
bapm = jiti and bu$] for h&py\ = J^Ij- See Ge-
senius' Heb. Gr. . 50.
54. The eighth form (JJtfil) is formed from (he first
(Jiii) by inserting the syllable 1> between the first and
second radicals. The first radical in consequence loses its
vowel, and it becomes necessary to prefix the prosthetic I
(. 51 rem.).
Rem. y ought properly to have been placed before the first
radical, as in the fifth and sixth forms (sec . 57, gen. rem ). But
in verbs beginning1 with a sibilant, it was inserted for the sake of
euphony between the first and second radicals (see . 115, 116,
117, and compare Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 63, 2); and this was then
done in all other cases, either for the same reason, or to introduce
complete uniformity among- the verbs of this form.
55. The eighth form is properly the reflexive or middle
voice of the first. The reflex object is either 1) the direct
object or accusative, as ^yl to divide, ltjlsl\ to go asunder,
to part; \Jbli- to place (something) before one, \ja'Se\ to
put oneself in the way, to oppose ; CJy to beat, C/Joj6\
to move oneself to and fro, to be agitated (compare the
French baitre and se debattre); or 2) the indirect object or
dative, implying for oneself, for one's own advantage, as
JLj to tear a prey in pieces, JLpilt do. ; J^i to touch,
jT/yH to feel about for a thing? to seek for it.
1. The Verb. A. General View. 1. The Forms of the Trilileral Verb. 39

56. Out of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signifi

cation, which is common to this form with the sixth; as
u-UJI JJus! the people fought with one another, = JSlSJ

uJjJ\ ; lolLl to dispute with one another, = litixS' ; ^J.Xlf

to try to outrun one another, = /LjLU'.

57. Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes

into the passive, especially in verbs which have not got the
seventh form (see .113); as &ja*\ to be overturned (from
dLsl), PtXi";! to be driven back , ^caj| to be helped (by
God), to be victorious; Skxct to be full.
Rem. In not a few verbs (he first and eighth forms agree, like
the Greek active and middle voices, so closely in their signification,
that they may be translated by the same word ; e. g. ^ak and
(joasI, to follow one's track, to relate; LiS and _A*ilf , to follow.

General Rem. JJiJCil has been explained in . 54 rem. as a

variety of JjiAj or JJlAjI , and hence it corresponds (o the passive
or the first form ii: Aramaic, viz. ^apHN or ^HN, Vfr.r/).
See Cowpcr's Syr. Gr. . 92. In Hebrew we may perhaps reckon
as an example rpnfi to contend or vie with , = y^z].

58. The ninth form (Juill) is formed from the first

(Jii) by doubling the third radical; the eleventh (jliil),
from the ninth by lengthening the fetha of the second syllable.
Rem. As llie third radical, when doubled, draws the accent
upon the penult, the first radical, being more rapidly pronounced,
loses its vowel, and therefore requires the prosthelic f (see . 61 rem.).

59. Neither of these forms is very common, and the

eleventh is the rarer of the two. They serve to express
40 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

colours and defects, these being qualities that cling very

firmly to persons and things; and hence the doubling of
the third radical, to indicate that the proper signification of
both is the intensive. The eleventh indicates a higher degree
of the quality than the ninth, and this is expressed by the
lengthening of the vowel in the second syllable. E. g.
JLe\ to be yellow , ULa! to be bright yellow ; &1L) to be

black, &\'y*\ to be jet black; y^Jol to be white, ^eUol to

be pure white ; ^jCj! (from ^jjl) to become purple (of a
grape); -.**! to be crooked, -.Ctl to be very crooked;

^sp\ and Lssl to be wrymouthed or wrynecked; JlsLl to

squint; .lil and .|:t| to turn away or retire from.

60. The tenth form (JJuLiL.1) is formed by prefixing

the letters cw to the first (JJii)- The prosthetic I is neces
sary, according to . 26 (compare .51 rem.), and the
felha of the first radical is thrown back upon the &
of vJLl-
61. The tenth form converts the factitive signification
of the fourth into the reflexive or middle. E. g. IJLll
to give up, deliver over, lJUJLll to give oneself up ; ,jLij!
to grieve or distress, {JtsJ'SL\ to be grieved or sorry;
tXc! to make ready, prepare, equip, Jua-J to get oneself
, - al
ready, to be ready ; yaJL^.1 to yield up (something) wholly,
yaliaJull to claim (something) for oneself, to lake entire
possession (of it); LLLl to bring to life, to preserve alive,
llaajcLl to preserve alive for one's own advantage.
I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. The Forms of the Triliteral Verb. 41

62. The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks

that a certain thing possesses, in reference to himself or for
his benefit, the quality expressed by the first form. E. g.
Jl to be lawful, JkiL*l he thought that it was lawful
(for himself to do); vj*^ to be necessary, -^- .JLJ he
thought it was necessary (for him).
Rem. In this case Ihc factitive is combined with the middle
sense ; for as the fourth form (like the second) is frequently not
strictly factitive, but estimative or declarative (. 41 rem. b), so
also the tenth. Hence v_*&.Ju,| literally means to make some
thing necessary for onese If, to think it so or say it is so ; but
w*^,| to make it necessary for others, to think or say that it is so.

63. The tenth form likewise often expresses the taking,

seeking, asking for, or demanding, what is meant by the
first. E. g. lie to pardon, 1aa1| to ask pardon; qw
to give one to drink, jLjLJ to ask for something to
drink; :jil to permit, (jiuJj to ask permission : iiAi to

help, id>lil| to call for help.

Rem. This signification is also a combination of the factitive
and middle : to procure a drink, permission, ifc, for oneself.

64. In many verbs the tenth form has apparently a

neuter sense, but in such cases a more minute examination
shows that it was, at least originally, reflexive. E. g. l\Jl]
to stand upright, lit. to hold oneself upright; r^SZ\ to be
humble, lit. to make oneself humble, to conduct oneself
humbly; j^saJLlt to be worthy of, to deserve, lit to cause
something to be due to oneself as a right or desert (\\z)-
4'2 Part Second. Etymology or Ihe Paris of Speech.

65. Tlie tenth form is frequently denominative , in which

case it unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses*
E. g. JJL.I to make oneself master Q.) of a thing, to
take possession of it ; ^S^S to elect a person as vizir
(o\ :) ; yjuiaLwt to appoint a person as deputy, successor,
or caliph (xJulL).

General Rem. The lenlh form is properly Ihe reflexive

of a form Jjuuv , which is nol in use , corresponding lo
the Aram. ^EOptt', V^lqI, and ils passive t'CpnB'N, Vj^*-*?,
which sland in exaclly Ihe same relation to one another as the
Arabic first and eighth. See Cowper's Syr. Gr. . 95. Perhaps
5,1m, , to throw down flat on the back, may be regarded as a trace
of the form JJiiLw, since it is nearly identical in meaning with
_&J I (IV. of ,ftJ). "^ so> iQ-^-uj , which has the same signifi-
calion, must be a later triliteral formation.

66. Of the remaining forms of the triliteral verb it

may be sufficient to give a few examples, so as to exhibit
their mode of formation. XII. oi^lVI*.! to be arched or
curved {CstX's- do), vJJlJLLl lo be jet black (AXa. do.),
jlJL-Lf to be sweet (pl&. do.), &s{-M to ride on a horse
without a saddle {^-~k to be naked) , ^JoJax-S to be

gathered together {CJak to bind). XIII. -SeJ^-l to last

long, to go quickly (rad. ioysJ), i>y>.\ do. (rad. i\Xz>).
3llfil to be heavy (jJi to be hard), icAJL\ to mount a
camel, to cling or adhere to firmly (rad. JaXc). XIV.
JXiJLft! to be long and thick (of the hair, rad. JLU),
I- The Verb. A. General View. 2. The Quadrilileral Verb and its Forms. 43

^Je>jJJi\ to go quickly (rad. fi-s)- XV. ^jJXt! to

be stout and strong (jclt to be bard).

2. The Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms.

67. Qiiadriliteral verbs are formed in Ihe following ways.
a) A biliteral root, expressing a sound or movement,
is repeated, to indicate the repetition of that sound or
movement. E. g. LjL to sag baba (papa), yi-yh to
gargle, (j***** to whisper, JLK to shake, *JuO to make
smooth or level, to crush or destroy.
b) A fourth letter, generally a liquid or sibilant, is
prefixed or affixed to, or inserted in the middle of a
triliteral verbal form. E. g. JuiiiiS' to be scattered, =
p , & ] j4+= '" collect (compare Li and *=*); uJLa.\
to roll, connected with JaA /o advance slowly; Jjsy3
/o retire, = Jl&.; ; v^sujI /o re?///-<; or dms/, apparently
from a!; (jUis! & ^<? ^<tf, <?/ rest.
c) They are denominatives from nouns of more than
three letters, some of them foreign words. E. g. J*fftX+i"
/o follow a sect (^_*jejuo); jj Li i /o />/ o girdle
(^';); Jyl^J to put on long trowsers or drawers

(ju^lLL, from the Persian tiJui); jJu /o become a

/?#?// or disciple (juyJUi, Heb. TO-P)} uUJUs ^ /raafo-
9 > ',-
sophize (from sJwJLi, (piX6oo<pog).
d) They are combinations of the most prominent syl
lables or letters in certain very common formulas. E. g.
44 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.
- - t~ - .' -
JJjo to cast up an account, saying dU ji this is it

then, this is the sum; J^lS to say xJUl {JL> (in the

name of God!); jjwi. to say &JU S^Li {praise be to

God!); (jJ^. to sy JUb $11 !Ls 9: Jy> ^ (/ftm? is

o power and no strength save in God).
68. The derived forms of the quadriliteral verb are three
in number.
Jiii I. ^^^__

Jiili iv. jJOiJi m. jJ&& ii.

69. The first form of the quadriliterals corresponds in
formation and conjugation to the second form of the triliterals,
and is both transitive and intransitive in signification. E. g.
jJULi to gather dates, also to be active or nimble; ~f>-S
to roll; '. -fry I & to be proud.

70. The second form agrees in formation and signi-

fication with the fifth of the (riliteral verb. E. g. -\t-,l...Y
to make oneself sultan ( .1 Ul..) , to act as if one were
sultan, to lord it over another ; /jXlis to become poor

71. The third form of the quadriliteral verb corresponds

to the seventh of the triliteral, with this difference, that the
characteristic ^ is not prefixed, but inserted between the
second and third radicals. Its signification is intransitive.
E. g- poa*j| to flow, (5iiiJLLl to He on one's back.
I. The Verb. A. General View. 3. The Voices. 45

72. The fourth form of the quadriliterals, which answers

to the ninth of the triliterals, is intransitive, and expresses an
extensively or intensively high degree of an intransitive act,
state, or quality. E. g. vl^if and JL&Jl to shudder with
horror ; JlpLl to rise high; \^\ZJL\ to raise the head and
stretch out the neck; ^likl to be at rest (from /jL*b to
lean back); JL^ol to be very hard.

3. The Voices.
73. All the verbal forms, both primitive and derivative,
with the exception of the ninth and eleventh, have two
voices, the active and the passive. The subject of the former
is always an agent (person or thing), whose act may affect
an object, or not; the subject of the latter is either the
object of the former (personal passive), or the abstract idea
of the act (impersonal passive).
74. The passive is especially used in four cases;
namely 1) when God, or some higher being, is indicated as
the author of the act; 2) when the author is unknown, or
at least not known for certain; 3) when the speaker or
writer does not wish to name him; 4) when the attention
of the hearer or reader is directed more to the person affected
by the act (patiens, the patient), than to the doer of it
(agens, the agent).
75. Verbs that express a stale or condition (such as
JbJa to be sick, lli to sleep,), are active intransitive: that
is to say, they signify an act which is, by its very nature,
confined to the person of the subject, and cannot pass to
46 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

another individual as its object. Hence they are aptly called

neuter verbs, since they are neither really active nor really
passive, but something between the two. The Arab gram
marians cannot class them otherwise than among the active
verbs, and they therefore distinguish joJuU+JI JLiiill,
transitive verbs, from sjhX*J\ wlc JliibH, the intransitive,
or jwj^UI JUti^l, *#<w that are confined to the subject.

76. The idea of the passive voice must not be thought

to be absolutely identical with that of the fifth, seventh, and
eighth forms. These are, strictly speaking, effective (see
. 48), whilst the other is purely passive.

4. The States (Tenses) of the Verb.

77. The temporal forms of the Arabic verb are but
two in- number, the one expressing a finished act (the Per
fect), the other an unfinished act (the Imperfect).
Rem. a. We have discarded the names Preterite and Future,
by which these forms are still often designated (especially in our
Hebrew and Syriac grammars), because they do not accurately
correspond to the ideas inherent in them. See Gesenius' Heb. Gr.
. 47, note ..
Rem. b. On the forms of these tenses see . 91 and foil.
The Syntax will give more precise information as to their meaning
and use.

5. The Moods.
78. The Arabic verb has five moods; namely, the Indi
cative, Subjunctive, Jussive or Conditional, Imperative, and
l.TheVerb. A.Gen. View. 6. The Numb., Pers., and Gend. B. The Str. Verb. 47

79. Of these moods the first is common to the perfect

and imperfect slates: the second and third are restricted to
the imperfect; the fourth, or imperative, is expressed by a
special form; and the fifth can be derived not only from the
imperfect, but also from the imperative.
Rem. On ihe forms of the moods see . 91 and full. The
Syntax (reals of Iheir significations and use.
80. Instead of the Infinitive, the Arabs use nouns
expressing (he action or quality (nomina verbi). In place
of participles, they have two verba/ adjectives, the one
denoting the agent (nomen agenlis, active participle), and the
other the patient (nomen patientis, passive participle). The
abstract nouns above mentioned are commonly called nomina

6. The Numbers, Persons, and Genders.

81. There are three numbers, the Singular, Dual, and
Plural; and likewise three persons, the speaker (first person),
the individual spoken to (second person), and the individual
spoken of (third person). The genders are two, namely the
masculine and the feminine; but they are not distinguished
from one another in some of the persons (1. pers. sing.,
2. pers. dual, and 1. pers. plur.).

B. The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum).

82. Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and
weak (verba infirma). The verba mediae radicalis geminalae
(y"j?) are included in the former class.
48 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

83. Strong verbs are those of which all the radical

letters are strong, and consequently neither undergo any
change, nor are rejected in any of the inflexions, but are
retained throughout.
R e m. The weak letters are f , . , and ,< .

1. The Active Voice of the First Form in the

Strong Verb. Tab. !.)
a. The Inflexion by Persons.
84. The numbers, persons, and genders of the verb
are expressed by means of personal pronouns, annexed to
the various moods and tenses.
85. The personal pronouns are either separate, stand
ing by themselves, or connected, that is prefixed or suf
fixed. The separate pronouns have longer, the connected,
shorter forms.
86. The suffixed pronouns are partly verbal, partly
nominal suffixes.
87. The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative,
partly the accusative. The former are much more closely
united with the verb than the latter.
88. The connected pronouns, which express the nomina
tive to the verb, are also in part prefixes.
Rem. On the verbal suffixes, which express the accusative,
see . 185; and on the nominal suffixes, . 317.
89. The following tables give a general view of the
separate personal pronouns, and of those pronominal prefixes
and suffixes which express the nominative to the verb.
*) The nomina verbi, agentis, and patientis, are given along with the
strictly verbal forms in all the Tables.
I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 49

1. Separate Pronouns.

Masc. Common. Fi-m.

3. p. 1st he. ... ^sc she.

'2. p. col thou. ... oil thou.

1. P- ... LSI /.

3. p. ... L^je /tay /wo.
2. p. ... Uiil yo /wo.
1. p. ...

3. p. i# they. ... ~Jt> they.
'2. p. jUi! you. ... ^Jxj\ you.
t. p. ... ^ we.

Rem. a. When jb and Jb are preceded by the conjunctions

and o , and, the vowel of the 5 may either be dropped or re-
tamed ; as je; or J8, g or ?

Rem. J. The second syllable of |j| is often regarded as short

by the poets (v w); compare the Aethiopic form hi', ana.
Rem. c. Older forms of J^ff and ixj ( arc Lib and Jij|, used
in poetry, and also in the was! (. 20, 4).

General Rem. For the corresponding- Hebrew and Aramaic

forms, see Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 32, and Cowper's Syr. Gr. . 63.
50 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

2. Suffixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative.

Masc. Common. Fern.

3. p. ... kLl she.

2. p. ^, thou. ^> Q^_>_, ^_) thou.

1. p. ... i /.
3. p. II (ytl, C) LSI (^11, C) <%
they (mo. two.
2. p. Ui (jjC 11) yew ^>o.
1. p.
3. p. 1,1 (^ 1^1) /%. -. /%.
2. p. p (^ 1,1) yo. ... ^ fo) ya-
1 . p. ... Ki we.
Rem. The forms within brackets arc those of the Imperfect and
Imperative; the others those of the Perfect. For the corresponding
Hebrew and Syriac forms, see Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 40. 2, and
Cowper's Syr. Gr. . 8689.

3. Prefixed Pronouns.
Masc. Common. Fern.

3. p. & he. i^> she.

y thOH.
2. p. ...
1. p. I /.
I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 51


Masc. Common. Fern.

3. P- yS ihey two. CJ they two.
2. i> you two. ..
1. P- ... ...

3. P ... v5 they.
2. ... *i> you.
1. P- U *>e-
Rem. These forms are restricted lo the Imperfect. For the
corresponding: ones in Hebrew and Syriac, see Gcsenius' Heb. Gr.
. 40. 2, and Cowper's Syr. Gr. . 87, 88.

90. Of (he two fethas with which the first and third
radicals of a verb are always pronounced (Jos, L.Jt, ^.La),
the former is rejected after prefixed pronouns, as JaJLr,
JJcij'; the latter before suffixed pronouns beginning with a
consonant, as qJjcj, LJu*. When the suffix begins with
a vowel, that vowel lakes the place of the fetha, as
- >

Rem. a. When Hie third radical is va, it unites in pronunciation

with tile y in some of the suffixes. In such cases only one y is
written, and the union of the two is denoted by the lesilld. Thus
from ouo , to stand firm, we gel ^^a2 , ouu . *Xo . for

Rem. b. When the third radical is one of the letters vi>, O, i>,
IjO , ^ , Jfe , it unites in pronunciation with the vs> of the sullixes,
so as lo form a double v^> , but is nevertheless retained in writing.
52 Piirt Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

To indicate the assimilation, the i^y takes tesdid, and the sezma, with
which the third radical ought properly to be marked , is omitted.
Thus, yyjux. for v^jiXax / have served, .^. U >. for .-.Ui
i . -* ><>.-* '
thou hast bound, Ij'Jl^.1 for ij'J^I you have taken. On this
assimilation, and that mentioned in rem. a, see, however, . 14, 3.

Rem. c. When the third radical is ^ , it unites with the ^ of

the suffixes into a single ^ with tesdid; as ^jef they (women)
believed, LLct we believed, for .TwOe! and QjCc|.

General Remarks on the Inflexion of the Perfect and Imper

fect Indicative in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with Arabic.
a) The Perfect. The 3. pers'. sing, masc, which is destitute in Arabic
and Aethiopic of any inflexional adjunct, has lost in Hebrew the vowel
of the final radical; ^Op instead of JJci' . H reappears, however,
when the verb is combined with accusative suffixes; as ipCp Wtald-ni,
ID^COP ketala-hu, T[b'p ketale-kha, which are in Arabic katala-ni ,

katala-hu , katala-ka. The corresponding Aramaic forms are even

more contracted ; e. g. biDp, with suffixes 'JTtOP, "1;EP The
3. pers. sing. fem. |"|7J2p was originally Cr?J2p , as is proved by
the following considerations: 1) the Arabic and Aethiopic have both
oJUci' , and the Aramaic rfep BlL} a', 2) with accusative suf
fixes it takes the form J^CP. as inpfcp ketaldth-hu, Dn^EP

k'talalham; 3) in vebs n"^> il has the form nn^J, with double

suffix, instead of the more ancient pl^i (contracted for D,/j)i Arab.
v^JU. , Levil. XXV. 21, XXVI. 34; 4) the form rV?Kj3 actually
occurs once in the Bible, viz. rpiNj Dcut. XXXII. 36. The 2. pers.
sing. mase. is identical in Heb. and Arab., oJUcj) , rntIP; in Aram,
il loses the final vowel, R7tJp. The Aethiopic diflers from the Arab,
in having k as the characteristic letter of the suffix, instead oft, in this
and the analogous forms of the sing, and plur. ; katalka, etc. Compare
I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 53

- * -*
v^j| t/iou (in which, as well as in b I , seems to be merely a
demonstrative base) with ij thee. The 2. pers. sing. fern. FDtDp
was originally iriTtOfJ, = Arab. oJui' , Aeth. katalkt , for, with
an accusative suffix, it becomes irPR^Ep Wtaltt-hu. This form is
even sometimes found separately in the kelhibh, e. g. Jercm.XXX1.21.
In Chaldee it is Ft^'Cp , but the final * is written in Syriac, though
not pronounced, -t^'} In the 1. pers. sing, the Heb. has pre
served a purer form than the Arabic and Aeth. The transition from
the original clear I of 'RpEp to the dull u of oJUi'. Aeth. katalku,
may perhaps be traced in the rare form ri^Ep {katal-t% e. g. Ps.
CXL. 12, unless this be merely an example of scriptio defectiva, FITttj?
for W/tpp. The Aram, has entirely lost the final vowel, n^t?p.
rvCfr n . The 3. pers. plur. masc. seems to have ended originally
in una (as in the Imperf. and the plur. of nouns), and this termination
has been preserved almost intact in the rare Heb. form p?Jpj5, Aram.
rtap, ." v*t " Usually, however, the n has been dropped, and

. hence we get Heb. I^BJj) , Arab, and Aeth. LJUcS" , and Chald. 1^Bj3.
The Syr. goes a step farther, and drops the tf in pronunciation, though
not in writing, ~V^ * The original termination of the 3. pers.
plur. fern, seems to have been ana, whence the less frequent Aram,
forms l,EP . - v* I ~ ; more commonly, with rejection of the final n,
N^DP , A} B . The Aeth. form is identical with the Chald., viz.
katula; the Arabic, on the other hand, contracted the primitive katalana.
into jJuii' katalna. In Heb. the fem. is wanting. The Arabic
and Aeth. have, as usual, preserved the 2. pers. plur. masc. in its
oldest shape, viz. Arab. LxXxS , Aeth. katalkemu. Generally,
however, the Arab, rejects the final vowel, leaving J^LLka = Heb.
CrVpCp (for u, as in CFIN = !>!, ITN = nlX, etc.),
Aram. jir^Ep (with ] for , as in pnN = C~.N)- The Heb.
form becomes with accusative suffixes IPiblQD = modern Arab.
54 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

The 2. pers. plur. Fern, maintains its full form in the

Arab. {^%JiXXs , with which the Aetli. katalken, Heb. jrHJOp, and
Aram, jrftCp, T.Vf p are identical, the doubling of the final
letter being- no longer audible because of the loss of its accompanying
vowel. In Amos IV. 3 there occurs the fuller form niro^t^n (where
i"l'n~ would be more correct, as also in ri3F)N> instead of !"UfiN)-
In the 1. pers. plur. the Heb. differs slightly in the suffix from the rest
of the dialects , but in other respects the forms arc identical ; viz. Heb.
W^BfJ, Arab, and Acth. UUUS, Aram. N^tOp, ,-^4-e- Tlc
Dual number is peculiar to the Arabic , and has fallen into disuse in its
modern dialects , as it had done long before in the other Shemitic
languages. b) The Imperfect. In the 3. pers. sing. masc. the Heb.
b'&pi and Chald. ^pi stand for Vj2p>, Arab, jjtiu. The a
still appears in Heb. in verbs J?"j? and l")J, as 3D1 for 330', Dip'
for C1|T . Many, however, even of the ancient Arabs pronounced the
prefix with kesr instead of feth , and in modern Arabic the word is
sounded nearly as iktul or iktol. The Syriac has a preformalive n,
"\&a2 the origin of which it is very difficult to account for. The
final vowel of the Arabic has been lost in the other dialects , just as
in the Pert, but traces of it reappear in connection with accusative
suffixes; e.g. in Heb. 'Obepi yiklele-ni, ^}'Cp) yikible-kha.

In the 2. pers. sing. fein. the Arabic has ~\\JJaK> , to which exactly
corresponds the Heb. and Aram. JvtSpFl. The Heb., however, more
commonly uses the shorter '7EpF|. It is not unlikely that this last was
the original form, and that those with final n arose from an in
accurate assimilation to the plural. The 3. pers. plur. masc.
was originally, as in Arabic, ^.*XXju, to which correspond the
Heb. and Chald JI^Bp? (Syr. ^XJlqI") and the shorter Heb.
form 1/t2pV Of the 3. pers. plur. fern, the most ancient
form appears to have been yaktulana , which is preserved in the
Chald. \70p.\ (Syr. ^Ljuai). The Arabic and Heb. shortened
I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 55

it, just as in the Perf. , into JjJUib, TOh'tSp] (Gen. XXX. 38,
1. Sam. VI. 12, Dan. VIII. 22).*) The other persons do not seem
to require any additional remarks, so that we may bring this note to
a close by noticing that in the Hebrew pausal forms, and occasionally
in others, both in the Perf. and Imperf., wc find full vowels, exactly
corresponding- to those of the Arabic, in place of the common Sh'vd.
Examples are: Perf. 3. pers. sing. fern, rc'TI. fl'DPI, DP-T I
3. pers. plur. masc. IJlpb , V122, ITj; Imperf. 3. pers. sing. fern.
'H'Oi'FI ; 2. pers. sing. fern. CllCtt'n ; 3. pers. plur. masc. V13JP,
1JJCB'1., ICIEB^, vb&, pWT, pvm. As the modern Arabic
forms much resemble those of the Hebrew, especially in the Imperf.,
wc give them here for the purpose of comparison.

Masc. Common. Fern.

3. pers. 4*^ cuu

2. pers. vz*jjf ... (5^**5

1. pers. ... . ..

3. pers.
2. pers.
1. pers. HoT

*) The use of Plj'pCpP, which is properly the 2. pers. plur. fern.,

for HO^p1 > is merely an inaccuracy which has gradually crept into the
usage of the language.
56 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Imperfect .

Masc. Common. Fern.

3. pers. 4*xJo (iktub) ... wJcxS (tektub)

2. pers. v_rjdLj is***5
1. pers. * '

9 f r

3. pers. ... 1 JjJo (iktubu)

'2. pers. ...
1. pers. w^C-Ci

6. Forms of the Tenses and Moods.

91. When the second radical of the Perfect has fetha,
it may take either damma or kesra in the Imperfect; as
CJS' to write, -Udo; J-is- to sit down, JLl^- Manv
verbs admit of both forms; as (j^kc to sneeze, ^tajtj
and (j^Lijo.
Rem. Verbs, of which the second or Uiird radical is a guttural
letter, are an exception to the rule , for they commonly retain in the
Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect; as JJii to do, Jjlaj; Jaa

to cut, -Us^ ; lo to create, !j-o ; JL* to <, JL*j; Jai

to foofc f, iiso ; _ Jo '<> throw, Jaj . Not a few, however,

conform to the rule; as yui < *, observe, know, **&>',
"(f^r. to say, |*cyj> : *Jlic < ascend, - 1 [jj ; iJLj to (tora to, 7VrA,

iJJu ; &., to return, .^.i. eo to draw or pull away, cyo .

I. The Verb. B. The Strong Vert). 57

This is particularly the case when the second radical is or e. Some

verbs have two forms; as ^Jo to marry, ^jCo; ^> Ul to Jj/tf,

f - O.- ...... )i,,
etii < ; a j to be at leisure, to have done with , a viJ ; and even

ihree, as >^ fc> cut or rti>, .^.y^i; .

92. When the second radical of the Perf. has kesra,

the loiperf. takes fctha; as LLt to know, ,*Ijl>; /jV*- to
be sorrowful, ^Jy) \jby to be sick, \J*++>-
Rem. Very few verbs retain in the Imperf. the kesra of the Perf.,
as s^Mfca. to think, wwyag . See . 142 rem.
93. When the second radical of the. Perf. has damma,
that vowel is retained in the Imperf.; as ~j,m,~* to be beau-
ti/ul, cj-~=.
General Rem. Willi the above forms compare the Heb. 3FQ',
n1?!!", "CD'. In Hebrew, however, verbs in o take a in the Imperf.,
as W;, JEfP.
94. The difference between the Perf. and Imperf. in
regard to their inflexion is, that the marks of the numbers,
genders, and persons, are only suffixed to the Perf. ; whereas
they are both suffixed and prefixed to the Imperf., more ge
nerally the latter.
Rem. a. In the Perf. the act is placed conspicuously in the fore
ground, because completed; in the Imperf. the agent, because slill
occupied in the act. If we look upon the root JuCji as primarily con
veying the abstract idea of ..killing-", we may regard oJIajs as mean
ing killing-of-me" (i. e done by me), my killing", = I have
killed"; and JJci'l as meaning 1- killing", = I am killing".
Rem. b. In the Imperf. the pronominal prefixes mark Ihc slate
ortonse, and to some extent the gender; whilst the suffixes serve
58 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Rpeerh.
9 9'
solely to indicate the gender. Tims, the 2. pers. sing, masc >_aJJo
is siillieienlly distinguished from the 3. pers. sing. masc. ^^jbo by
the form of the temporal prefix; but to distinguish the 2. pers. sing,
masc. from its fern., a suffix is necessary, and accordingly we get
masc. .^fcAJo, fern. ^\*mS3.

95. The Indicative of the Imperf. is dislinguished by

the third radical having damma , the Subjunctive by its
9!" -- > '
having, fetha; as Iridic. v_^aJo, Subj. _JdC>. The Jussive
is denoted by the absence of any vowel with the third
radical, as v^*jJo: whence it is sometimes called (he apo-
copated Imperfect.
Rem. a. The damma and fetha of the Indicat. and Subjunel.
Imperf. in the verb, correspond to the damma and fetha of the Nom.
and Accus. in the noun (see . 308) ; for the Imperf. is closely akin
to the noun, and its government in the Subjunel. falls under the same
category with the government of the noun in the Accus. Hence the
9 ~> 9 9*
technical name of the Imperf., p . I ^ , \\ , because it resembles

the noun.
Rem. b. The peculiar meaning of the Jussive has brought along
with it the rejection of the final vowel, which seems originally to have
been i. At least the poets make occasional use of the form Jjjib
in ihyme.
Rem. c. In Hebrew , as in modern Arabic , the shorter forms
of die Jussive have almost entirely supplanted the longer ones of the
Indicative and Subjunctive (see . 90, gen. rem.). It is only in a few
cases that the Jussive can be dislinguished from the Indicat., as for
example in Ihe Hil'fl 6'Sj??, b'p]), and in verbs V'y (Clp\ Dpj)
or rxb (rb)\ by; nL,r, by; etc.). See Gesenius' Hebr. Gram.

. 48. 4.
I. The Verb. B. The Strung Verb. 59

96. The forms of the Indicat., which end in ^ and -.,

reject these syllables in the Subjunct. and Jussive, because
the genders, numbers, and persons are distinctly indicated
even after their omission. The 2. and 3 pers. plur. fern,
are exceptions, for in them -. is retained, because it is
absolutely necessary in order to mark the gender. Compare
^jjiiu, IjIiXj, with \yjf\ ,jCIXj L^>> with Ui$"; and
^xyJkj', j-*iJo, with <*>lzf-
97. The Energetic is formed by adding (he termination
^.1 or .1. to the Jussive. If the Jussive ends in / or //,
the fetha of .'_ or ^1 is elided, and the long vowel of
the verbal form shortened, because it is in a shut syllable.
So J^Jbo, ,j^o, from ic-t^'- cJ-^S?' \j-^^.-> from
LixJo; etc. In the dual, the first fetha of (._ is absorbed
by tlie ll of the termination, and the second weakened into
a kesra through the influence of the same long vowel.
Hence ^UjJo, ^lixJo, from LiXJ, LiXi". In the 2. and
3. pers. plur. fern, the fetha of the verb unites with (he
initial fetha of ^1 into a long it, and in consequence the
second fetha of .^1 becomes kesra. Hence J,llLiC> (j>)
from ijJjJo (3).
Rem. a. The syllable ,_ of Ihe second Energetic is appended
only to those persons which have, in the first Energetic, a short vowel
before ^ ; and not to the dual, because its forms would then coincide
with those of the singular, nor to the fein. plur., apparently because the
sound of the syllable /\j (\jSJiSis) was disagreeable to llio ear.
Rem. b. The syllable "._ is often written |_, and pronounced
in pause |_. This at once explains the form of the Hebrew Energetic
60 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

or Cohortative, nnctt'N J will be glad, HPRJO kt us break in

t : : It:-:

pieces, in which the n is a mere vowel-sign. See Gesenius' Heb.

Gr. . 48.
98. The Imperative may be described as formed from
the Jussive by rejecting the prefix of the 2. pers. sing. Hence it
has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive;
but, since it begins with two consonants, it takes, according
to . 26, a short prosthetic vowel. When the second radical
is pronounced with fetha or kesra, this vowel is kesra;
i when with damma, it is damma. E. g. JJiil, o.-al, v_*jo I.
Rem. a. Regarding the elision of the prosthetic vowel (f), see
. 19, 2; and on the orthography | and |, in cases where that elision
does not lake place, . 19 rem. c.

Rem. b. Fetha cannot be employed as a prosthetic vowel, on

account of its weight.

Rem. c. As an Imperative Ihe Arabs sometimes use the in

declinable form JUbi; as Jlyj alight! cL**< listen! vj \ji let
alone! This corresponds to the Hebrew Infinitive absolute ?1C2p
(6 for a , and the final short vowel dropped), which is also used in
the same way; as*TDT remember! Sec Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 128,4 y.

99. The same remarks apply to the energetic forms of

the Imperative as to those of the Imperf. (. 97).

2. The Passive Voice of Ihe First Form in the

Strong Verb. Tab. II.
100. The Perf. and Imperf. Passive are distinguished
from the corresponding tenses of the Active by a change
of vowels. In Hie Perf. Pass. Ihe first radical has damma,
1. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 61

and Ihe second radical kesra. In the Imperf. Pass, the

prefixes take damma, and the second radical fetha.
Rem. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the same,
whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf. and Imperf.
101. There is no special form to express the Imperative
Passive, the Jussive being used instead.

3. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb.. Tab. HI.

102. The second radical of the Perf. Act. is pronounced
with fetha in all the derived forms.
103. The second radical of the Imperf. Act. is pro
nounced with fetha in the fifth and sixth forms, with kesra
in the rest.
Rem. The Imperfects of Ihe ninth and eleventh forms , Jjtfb
and JUtiLs , are contractions for JJLiiu and JJUcjLs . This may
be seen from the Jussives JJUcib and JJUcLs , and the Imperatives
JJlit and JjUsl. See . 106 and 120.

104. In the second, third, and fourth forms, the pre

fixes of the Imperf. Act. are pronounced with damma, in the
rest with fetha.
105. The characteristic elif of the fourth form dis
appears when another letter is prefixed; as Jolb, not JjcsLj,
from JJcsl.
Rem. So in Hebrew ?vp] from 7>pri (with rare exceptions
in verbs i"?, such' as J^C'liT), and in Aramaic ^tSp1 , V^oi, from
*EpN, V^lcI. In biblical Chaldee, however, the form ^UfpiT
is common.
62 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

106. The ninth and eleventh forms were originally

JJiil and JJlii!. But, by a rale of the language (see
. 120), if the last radical in such words has a vowel,
the preceding radical loses its vowel, and the two are com
bined into one letter with tesdid. E. g. jLol for jyo!,
JuaJ for \J^oj,- If the last radical has no vowel, the
word remains unconlracted ; as ^jlLot, \JJoj, \Ji*>\
(see . 120).
107. The formation of the Perf. and Imperf. Passive
in the derived forms is exactly analogous to that in the
Rem. a. The Imperfecls Pass, of the first and fourth forms are
Rem. b. The Imperfects Pass, of the fifth and sixth forms arc
distinguished from their Imperfects Act. only by the vowel of the pre
fixes, which is dammit instead of feiha.

108. Since the idea of the Perf. Pass, is expressed by

pronouncing the first radical with damma, and the idea of
the third form by lengthening the vowel of the first radical,
there results in the Passive of the third form (in which both
ideas are united) the form jojj; and hence in the Pass, of
the sixth, JOiJii.
109. In the Perf. Pass, of the fifth and sixth forms,
not only is the fetha of the first radical changed into damma,
but also the fetlia of the characteristic i> (which expresses
the reflexive idea of these forms). E. g. Joiu, JoJu.
In like manner, in the Perf. Pass, of the seventh, eighth,
and tenth forms, not only is the first radical, or the characteristic
1. The Verb. B. The Slrong Verb. 63

e>, pronounced with tlanima, but also the prosthetic elif.

E. g. Jaidl, Jjasi, Ja&xLf. Compare 98 and rem. a.
110. The ninth and eleventh forms, being neutral in-
their signification, have of course no passive.
111. When the verbal root begins with ^, j, _,
4>, i, \, u*, ji, ^0, ^jd, Jo, or Jo, the characteristic v^> of
the fifth and sixth forms occasionally (in the Kor'an frequently)
loses its vowel, and unites with the first radical to form a
double letter. The forms thus originated take a prosthetic
elif, when they happen to commence with two consonants
(compare . 54). E. g. *AS\, 35l, ^?\U JaS'U,!, for
,,. -=-- e .- -. - - **?. - *?- > a - > o.s-
U5, *3<X3, ^VJ. JsJ'U*J'; *5jo, l5^? ) (J)4>*aj , .ghj,

for IfSSi, Jf>., ^dSaXi, j-giaij. The language in its

later stages admits this in all verbs of the fifth and sixth
forms, merely rejecting the vowel of the preformative L>;
as (jilalsl for {JjJ3, to take breath.
Rem. See .48 rem., and compare such Hebrew forms as~!2~n,
PDTTI, "irUST), to which add the rarer cases U12H, K23H, CC11X
(in pause for CCIIPN). See Gesenius' Heb Gr. . 53, 2 6.

112. The y of the fifth and sixth forms is sometimes

omitted in those persons of the Imperf. Act. to which ii is
prefixed (2. pers. sing. du. and plur. masc. and fern., 3 pers.
sing, and du. fern.); e. g. LLXj, JI2, iXtllS, for LJutf,
Jt-^yv, J^licS. These shortened forms are sufficiently
distinguished by the fethas of the prefixed y and of the
second radical from the same persons in the active voice
of the second and third forms (.Jjo, tX^ui); and by the
64 Pari Second. Etymology or llie Paris of Speech.

fetlia of Ihe prefixed y from the same persons in the passive

of the second and third forms (y,jG>, Acll?).
113. Verbs of which the first radical is \, ., ^, .,
J, or jj, have no seventh form, but use the fifth or eighth,
or the passive of the first, instead. In the (so far as we
know) solitary example of the seventh form from a verb
beginning with ^, namely yu+i], to lie concealed,
the characteristic ^ is united by tesdid to the first radical.
114. If the first radical is ., the characteristic ^ of
the seventh form often unites with it into I; as JjifcJt or

^jjff! from Jjj?; ^^ or ^s\ noni ^\ -kJuil or iajue\

from JajLo; JaJUIl or JaJuo\ from JaJuo-

Rem. These forms arc sometimes assigned to the eighth form;
(5a?l for {SaOJue\ clc.

115. If the first radical be y or ii>, the characteristic

y of the eighth form unites with the initial vi> into y, with
the initial e/ into > or &. E. g. llil, for **X3\, from

**S; viJj'l or ou3!t for olaajI, from yy-i; vbt, for u3l,

from .1$'.
116. If the first radical be i>, 3, or \, the character
istic ^ of the eighth form is changed into o, which unites
with an initial o into 5, and usually with an initial 6 into
5 or 6. E. g. <3l<5\l, forolivl, from 3\y, JJ<Sl, for dlS,S!,

from tiJCS; ^i>t, or 1L!>\, for ~ia.fj|, from ..i.3; So\ ,

J'il, or .5^31, for Jo<>t, from yi.

I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 6$

Rem. The same thing lakes place, though rarely, with an initial ;

e. g. 5iX='- >J^-I. jxiX^I, instead of the common jJt^t,

V**l, f*-^,'' from *> *, *r*-

117. If the first radical be y, ,^6, Jo, or Jo, the

characteristic y is changed into Jo, which unites with initial
Jo into Jo, with initial Jo into Jo or Jo, and occasionally
with initial ^6 into uo. E. g. AJJauel from i^o; ^yiol

from vp-<J=; |JJsl, plkf, or jJLlaJrl, from jJUo; yJa^l,

or <4>Cof, from vj^.

4. The Quadriliteral Verb. Tab. IV.

1 1 8. The four forms of the quadriliteral verb follow
throughout their inflexion, the second, fifth, seventh and ninth
forms of the triliteral (see . 69^72).
Rem. The i^> , which is prefixed to certain persons in the Imperf.
Act., is omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral verb, just as in
the fifth form ofjhe triliteral (see . 112).

5. Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals

are Iden lical. Tab. V.
119. These verbs are usually called verba mediae or
sccundac radicalis geminatuc (])"$). The Arab grammarians
name them +so$\ Jkii!!, (he solid verb, or oLtliij! JolaJI,
the doubled verb.
120. They differ from other strong verbs in two points.
1 ) When both the first and third radicals have vowels,
the second radical rejects its vowel, and unites with the
66 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

third, so as to form a double lelter, which is marked

with tesd'd. E. g. S to flee, for 'yl', ^jh to touch,
tor ijwjwUi

2) If the third radical has a vowel, but the first is

without one, the second radical throws back its vowel
upon the first, and then combines with the third, so as
lo form a double letter. E. g. jJu for )Ju, tXj for
0<Xj, JUj for JuUj- But if the third radical has no
vowel, the second retains its vowel, and no contraction
takes place; as y>v*. oJ-Lo, \Ju, &<X+i-

Rem. a. Forms like y.~, v^jjee, vilJUlio, are, however,

sometimes contracted in different ways. 1) The second radical is
dropped, along with its vowel, or else its vowel is transferred to the
first radical; as odJs -or ^^Jjp for ^jJULIo, vsmmj; for ou*yuo
(compare the Aramaic form PT3 for PITS). 2) The third radical
is united with the second, and a vowel-sound inserted before the pro
nominal suffix. This may be either a) the diphthong ._, as o*J Joo
for \zj3iXjo, a form which is not uncommon in the fifth conjugation,
as oovamJ, o * * h '*', ouuaite', for c>, w*j", ! uaj', pufl <a S3

(compare in the Hebrew Impcrf. PU'DDP lor rD330P); or b) the

long vowel |_, as v^jIJoo for i^jOJuo (compare in Hebrew P12D,
where o = a). The form described under 2 a is the usual one in
modern Arabic.

Rem. b. According to rule 1), the Hebrew contracts 23D into

3D, 133D into 12D; according to rule 2), 33D^ into 3D\ 'OSO1
(orig. yasbubit) into 130^, 33D3 into 3DJ, 33DH into 2DPI, eta
Sec Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 66.
1. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 67

121. I" the Jussive, however, the second radical not

unfrequently throws back its vowel upon the first, and com
bines with the third, in which case the doubled letter ne
cessarily takes a supplemental vowel (. 27). In verbs
that have a or i in the Imperf., this vowel may be either
fetha or kesra; in those that have u, it may be any one
of the three vowels. E. g. (jd*j or ijoju for pLA*g;
. -
Jj or lii for <j>; <Xj, J*j, or <Xj, for i>tX+j.

122. Those persons of the Imperative in which the

third radical has a vowel (sing, fern., dual, and plur. masc),
frequently do not follow the rule given in . 120, 2, but
keep the second radical apart from the third; as ^jil,
l.jit, t^jjil- In case of the usual contraction taking place,
the prosthetic elif is obviously no longer necessary, and
therefore (he Arabs say ^Lj, iti, !j~i, not \Jlh\, llil,
l.lit, instead of ^nJs!, etc. The masc. sing, undergoes
exactly the same contraction as the Jussive (.121), rejecting
at the same time the prosthetic I; e. g. Jdi. for u^LacI,

li for \A\, jj for 5 Joel.

123. The same rules that apply to the Active of the

first form, apply also to its Passive, and to the third, fourth,
sixth, seventh, eighth, and tenth forms. But in the second,
fifth, ninth, and eleventh, the second or third radical cannot
be united with the other, because it is already doubled.
Consequently \-J, yj&, j3' and ;'r>'> undergo no con
68 Purl Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

124- In the third, sixth, and eleventh forms, a long

vowel, namely a, precedes the double consonant, which is
allowed in the case of fetha alone (. 25 rem.). However,
the uncontracled forms, such as ooli, ^a.Li, v_*jIIo,

'iSS\Salit, not unfrequently occur. Forms like \\J>, ))y**> an(*

Jojil, are never contracted.
125. The Jussive of the derived forms may undergo
exactly the same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-
form, by throwing back the vowel of the second radical
upon the first, combining the second radical with the third,
,s i
and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel. E. g. itaf
for xJLbt, jJLsf for xJULsf , the 1. pets. sing. Juss. of the
fourth form of Ji> and Jj.

C. The Weak Verb.

126. Weak Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which
one of the radicals is subject, on account of its weakness, to
transformation or rejection; and which consequently differ
more or less, in some parts of their inflexion, from strong verbs.
127. The weak letters are I, ., and ^.
128. There are two sorts of weak verbs.
1) Those that have among their radicals a moveable
elif or hemza, the weakest of the gutturals. These are
called verba hemzata.
2) Those that have among their radicals one of the
weak consonants . and ^, which approach very nearly
I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 69

in their nature to the vowel-sounds u and L These are

more particularly called weak verbs (verba infirma).
129. In a root there may be two, or even three weak
letters; as ^L , s>;, ^il. Verbs that have two weak
radicals are said to be doubly weak; those that have three,
to be trebly weak. These may be reckoned as forming a
third class of weak verbs.

1. Verbs that have- a Hemza among their Radicals

(Verba Hemzata). Tab. VI. VII. VIII.
130. These are divided into three classes, according as
the hemza is the first, second, or third radical (verba primae,
mediae, ultimae radicalis hemzatae). The following sections
point out wherein they differ from the strong verbs.
131. If the elif with hemza and gezma, at the end of
a syllable (I), be preceded by one of the heterogeneous
vowels flamma and kesra, it is converted, after the damma,
into . with hemza (.), after the kesra, into ^ with hemza
(^). Hence jj for eJo, 1. pers. sing. Perf. Pass, of

To ; IsJ for li'Lj , 3. pers. sing. masc. Imperf. Pass. I. or

IV. of Ji\; yjji> and oJU- for isAia and oLi, 2. pers.

sing. masc. Perf. Act. of jl5 and {iJ*>, for li5 and L*i
(see . 133).
132. The . and ^ represent in these cases the sound
to which the hemza inclines through the influence of the
preceding vowel. The hemza is retained, not only to show
their origin from I, but also to remind us that the syllables
70 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

_ and ,^_. are not to be confounded in pronunciation with

._, u, and ^_, i. The damma and kesra remain short,
whilst . and ^ are pronounced like I itself; that is to say,
at the commencement of a syllable, with the spiritus lenis
between the preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies
the hemza (as j5, danu-'a, not danu-wa); at the end of
a syllable, with a slight emphasis and resting of the voice
upon the soft breathing (as ^5x&, sani'-ia, not xan'i-ta).
Rem. a. In modern Arabic, hemza in the middle and at the end
p- p-
of words has so completely disappeared, that . and ,c, when pre
ceded and followed by vowels, become and ^ ; except when the
former has damma () and the latter kesra (,5), as explained in
" 2- > i-
. 133 4. The modern Arab also pronounces ._ and (<_
like the long vowels _ u and i$_ " Even in the ancient language,
especially among the poets , we find traces of a softer pronunciation,
or total rejection, of the hemza ; and hence the custom, at the present
day, of resolving the verba tert. rad. hemzalae into verba teniae ya,
as ^jjf for \j>, to read, oo* for y!v9, ^5jJu for IjJy-
This change has already begun in Hebrew (see especially Gesenius'
Gr. . 74, rem. 21, a and c), and is universal in Aramaic.
Rem. b. The hemza gezmatum over and .g falls away after
an elif hemzalum, because of the impossibility of pronouncing it.
Hence .>!, not ->!, Imperat. of j$\; Juojl, not Joo^l,

Imperat. of Jlo \ ; j.l, not jjl, 1. pers. sing. Imperf. Act. of

jj|, IV. of J>\\ ,jUjI, not ,jUjI, Infinitive of "w! , IV.

of ,jjo|.

Rem. c. I is always retained after fetha in the ancient dialect
I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 71

as wj'Ls. In modern Arabic, on the contrary, il passes into the el if

of prolongation ; as jcl_>, JJ'Lj, for ycL), J^L>- Compare in
Aram. bzW, \li, "*?., ^U; and in Heb. fetfi, *1DN\
for 'rrN1, "1CN\ corrupted from ^;Ni, "lCN"1 (Gesenius' Heb.
Gr. . 67, 1).

133. In the same way, I passes into . or ^, when it

is pronounced with damma or kesra, and preceded by fetha;
or pronounced with fetha, and preceded by damma or kesra.
E. g. yljj, for JLU, to be brave; *j^Q, for *^-> or

-liLs, /'/ agrees with, Imperf. III. of lit; ,UJut, for JJul,

ff^rw mv/A, &? reconciled to, Imperat. VIII. of *^f; 3i>, for
Qi5, /to <? OT<'f7J worthless; Juj, for oL, impression
is made, Imperf. Pass. II. of l$l; ..Ubdl, for JlxJI, Infm.
vin. of ~$f.
Rem. At the end of a word , |, pronounced with damma and
preceded by fell a, is usually left unchanged; as |JL> from \Ji,

U-fj-j from ^a#, lyAj Imperf. Pass. II. of ^yj , instead of .-aj,
jJLaj , .o Bui the latter form is commonly used before the accu-
salive suffixes, as S.-iu .

134. Finally, I becomes t or ^ in a syllable which

begins with an elif hemzafum pronounced with damma or
kesra (I or I), and is preceded by a syllable ending in a
consonant. E.g. u-^o, for u^LIj, Imperf. of ^^j; Jj^JLx,
for JjLLc, Pass. Particip. of JL; *IJj, for |^->, he acted
~i-' *-
stingily and meanly, Imperf. IV. of Jj; IZXXmA, put on
armour, Imperat. X. of .il .
7'2 Pari Second. Etymology or tlio Paris of Speech.
R e m. | at the beginning of a word remains unchanged, except
*. ^ o - s
in the cases staled in . 135. E. g. o! , }l3t, ...U-st.
135. At the beginning of a word, if an elif produc-
tionis follows the radical |, the two elifs are combined into
one, which is written either with medda alone, or with medda
accompanied by a hemza to the right of the elif, or with
hemza and a perpendicular fetha (see . 6 rem. a); as
yd, jje!*, or jxl, for -joll, to consult, III. of Lo| to order.
The same thing takes place when a radical I with gezma
(I) is preceded by an elif hemzalum with fetha (compare
. 132 rem. b); as J|, Ji\, or Ji\, for will, to prefer,
IV. of l3| to surpass or .tw/. In old Mss. we often find

136. In the more modern stage of the language, elif

hemzalum with fetha passes into ., when preceded by fetha
and followed by an elif of prolongation; as f.Lalls, for
l.jjotli or l.wol-S , they deliberated together, 3. pers. plur. Perf.
Act. VI. of ljo|; l^-lpt for flails, or llLli, they have
become intimate friends, from Li.| (for i>.|).
Rem. The same change sometimes takes place even in the third
form; as ijiJ| to be intimate with, __.| rfo., i<\\l '" be opposite
or parallel to, -*! to console, for k_jL)ll, etc

137. The verbs <X-->.f to take, 1*1 to order, and Jj'l

to <?/, reject the first radical in the Imperal., making ji*.,
lo, and J^T.
138. When the conjunction : or <j, #> [(recedes
the Imperative uf verba primae rad. hemzatae, (he prosthetic
I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 73

elif (which in other cases would take wasla) is elided,

and only the radical elif (with gezma) is retained. E. g.
y^i and bind, \b\j and permit, ^U and come, Joels and
hope, for yJ\y (jilU; etc., from Lj, ^61, ^i'l, Jocf.
Also jjet:, with restoration of (he radical 1, as well as jjoi,
but always jji, J^ (see . 137).
139. The first radical of (XL.! is assimilated in the
eighth form to the characteristic ^ of that form ; jJbo! , for
JLfiJLt (. 1 32 rem. b), to take for oneself. The same thing
* ^ *
sometimes take place in y.|. to gird on, and js.!, to give
wages, which make <-J^\ or yJi\ , to put on the article of

dress called .M, and -sxJul or Ut, /# receive wages,

to trade.
Rem. From these assimilated forms are derived the secondary
radicals jkiaj', to lake, and sio, to trade. See . 148 rem. b.

140. Verba med. hemzatae are occasionally inflected

like verba med. rad. ^ et ^ (. 149 and foil.), and take
an elif of prolongation instead of the radical hemza with
fetha. This is particularly the case with the verb JUu to
w, which has JU, for JU,, JLLs for JL-_J, JJ*o for
JLL>, J^l, for JuJ (Imperat.). Sometimes tl.e elif hein-
zafum is elided, its vowel being transferred to the preceding
(previously vowelless) consonant. E.g. Ju*o for JL*o, from
JUL; ^5j for ^clyj, from ^C / see; dU I to ./, f>r
Jilt, whence vjJUc, for J5Lo, angel (r]N?c).
Rem. On the same phenomenon in Hebrew, see Gesenius' Gr.
. 72, rem. 4. In Syriac it constantly lakes place; as ^j^, to ask,
74 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.
iniperf. ^ ) 1 i , imper. *\|^,; *z>]2 to be in pain, imperf. -^i
imper. w^s; -U to labour, to be fatigued, imper!-. ]|1j imper. J$.

2. Verbs which are more especially called

Weak Verbs (. 128, 2).
141. These likewise fall into three classes, according as
the letter . or ^ is the first, second, or third radical (verba
primae, secundae, tertiae rad. ^ et ^).

a. Verbs of which the First Radical is . or ^

(verba primae rad. . et ^). Tab. IX.
142. Those verbs primae rad. ., which have kesra as
the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. and Imperat, reject
the . in these forms. E. g. Jj: to bear children, impf.
JjJ for Jj>, imper. jj for jdj| (jJjl); jS* to promise,

impf. Jk*j for <W>, imper. J^. for J^jf (iXejl).

Rem. Many verbs primae rad. . , of the form Jjt , have in

the imperf. Juloj instead of JoljLj (contrary to the rule laid down
in . 92), and hence elide their first radical. E. g. v>. to inherit,

vi>j; cii to abstain frmn what is unlawful, c^j; i5jo to love,

liMJ5 L9^1 to succeed or prosper, iSjLj.

143. But those verbs primae rad. ^, which have fetha or

damma as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. and Im
perat., retain the . in these forms. E. g. Ji.: to be afraid,
J^a-Lj, Jkil (for Ji-jl); yj* to be visited by the murrain,
yjlj. The same is the case with those verbs which are at
1. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 75

once primae rad. ^ and mediae rad. geminatae; as oi (for 3i>:)

to love, S^j for oS^j, <Sju! for Sill.

Rem. In verbs primae rad. , of which the second and third radicals
are strong:, and in which the Imperf. has fellia, some Arabic dialects
change the } into I or ^. E.g. Jka.b and JcSou, for JJa.jj ,
from Jl, *o and uu or s\aj, for ,*^J, from
* to & in pain. Others even use the forms JlSuo and uu.

144. In a few verbs, of which the eight following are

those that most commonly occur, the initial . is dropped in
the Imperf. and Imperat., notwithstanding that the characteristic
vowel of these forms is fetha.

eS to let alone,
t**> 5.
J <$5 do., '&>
0 -
e\j to restrain,
9 - - o
iLxj to be wide or spacious,
li; to put down or place,

^Jpl to trample upon, fcj, Us.

iSj to fall,
*. 0
S*i to give, v4^
Rem. a. The reason why the is elided in these verbs pro
bably is, that the fellia of the Imperf. and Imperat. owes its existence
only to the fact of the second or third radical being- in each case a
guttural or scmiguttural (.).

Rem. b. c<3 and \&1 are not used in the Perf.

76 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

145. In (hose forms in which a kesra or damma pre

cedes a vowelless . , the . is changed into ^ or . produc-
tionis, according to the preceding vowel. Hence Jiif, ojol,
for Jt*jl, oSjjt, Iniperat. I.; ,JCjI for ^O, Perf. XL;

ctjol, ^Ijua**,!, for ^iS^t, c!3^a1|, Infin. IV. and X. ;

Z^yt for 4^;r-?> Imperf. Act. IV.; C*&-}\, &yxl\, for

vol, coycJ, Perf. Pass. IV. and X.

146. Verbs primae rad. ^ are inflected in almost all their
forms like the strong verbs: e. g. JLu to be dry, imperf.
U^Jj^j y**?. * lJC easy, imperf. Ju-

Rem. Dialectic varieties of the Imperf. are ij**jLj , for iimaaj ,

from jjff ^ a ; ,j* Lo , for [U.Lo , from imJo to despair. See
. 143 rem.
147. In those forms in which a kesra or damma
precedes a vowelless ^ the ^5 is changed into ^ or .
productionis, according to the preceding vowel. Hence L*j|
o 6 O - 810
for >-j!, Imperat. I.; .Lj| and .L*aa*J, for *Uol and

.llkwli Infin. IV. and X.; j-^j, -k^?' ^or rt^W' kjuj,

Imperf. Act. IV. of T ^>o and \h> to be awake.

148. In the eighth form, . and ^ are assimilated to
the characteristic y, producing ^j for yl and 00 ; as 3Ju\,

for JoiLl (JulSjI), to receive a promise; 'JLjS, for IUcj!

(lljiil), / /?/y at dice.
Rem. a. Sometimes, however, although many grammarians dis
approve of it , . and ^ are not assimilated to the cj , but pass after
I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 77

fetha, damma, and kesra.into the homogeneous lellers of prolongation,

|, ?, tf. E. g. jjtfj| for tU5^l ( 145). 'j~3)\ for^Jbt

(. 147), in thePerf.; lV*sG for <X*, 1^'^ for r>yA*i>> in

the Iniperf. Compare . 139.

Rem. b. From these assimilated forms are derived secondary
radicals ; such as IdOJ to suffer from indigestion (^a.j) , ^
to fear ( Sr), jJlS to be bom in one's house (of a slave), to be
a hereditary possession (jJi). Compare . J 39 rem.
General Remarks on verbs primae rad. ^ et ^. As
initial . passes in Hebrew and Aramaic (with very few exceptions)
into i , we have in those languages only one class of these verbs, viz.
i"B (Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 68, 69, 70; Cowper's Syr. Gr. . 112,
113). They share to some extent in the same irregularities as the
Arabic. For instance, the Imperat. of 2D' , *fiowi (fr *-sov-), is 3Tli
*S n = J^ from J**i; the Infin. of \tfV is T\V/"\ = J

from >. : . But in the Imperf. they take the same course as the
Arabic dialects mentioned in . 143 rem. and . 146 rem.; e. g. 3B/1
for 2B^ (SIB'V), like JcSX.o from Jka-j, .*Vju from /^-j'
)f " V
J^t VP-' like ^hw from p^y u"^ from u**^' Z'H
from zj- (0,5), -aJU from , aL (pJJ), with N instead of \

The original .reappears in the derived forms; as Nifal 2^13 (for

2t2>lJ), Hif'Jl 2iB*in (for2^in), woio'l, Hofal 2tfin (for 2tS*lPl,
see . 145). The assimilation of . lo a following letter, which is
confined in Arabic to Ihe eighth form (. 148), is found in Heb. and
Aram, in the first, as well as in the derived forms. E. g. J7ST to spread
out Lij, Hif'ilJJ'Sn (JTSin); %n idhd Q?T), imperf. \^S
nedda, Chald. JHT by dissimilation from yv (JH or jnV);
,jaL irtM, imperf. _sii nWte&A, Chald. 2FP (3FIV).
78 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

b. Verbs of which the Second Radical is . or ^

(Verba mediae radicalis 5 et ^). Tab. X. XI. XII. XIII.
149. Verba mediae rad. . et ^ (called by the Arab
grammarians oy=.iM JJJI, the hollow verb) differ from
strong verbs only in the first, fourth, seventh, eighth, and
tenth forms. The following sections indicate the principal
points of difference.
150. 1. a. If the first radical is without a vowel, and
the third has one, the vowel of the second radical is thrown
back upon the first, and the . or ^ is changed into that
letter of prolongation which is homogeneous to the vowel
that the first radical has now assumed. E. g.
jyb, he says, becomes Jjk> Imperf. Act I.
-a-*j, he goes, j*^*k.i ('-

Ojiu, he Is a/raid, olio, do.

- o- , > \ --

Jyu, it is said, JLSj. Imperf. Pass. I.

JuJL>, pardon is granted, JUL;, Imperf. Pass. IV.
-yb, he remains, rH^4 Imperf. Act. IV.

^jjJIj, he softens, ^jJL>, do.

\yXy- I , remain, Ij-^J't > lmperat. Plur. IV.

9 "^ 9 *
lyjJt, soften, y*i'> do.

-Jil, he remained, Jj\, Perf. Act IV.

r^JLH , he softened, ,ji"> do.
I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 79

|.ja1j, he stands upright, L&ij>, Imperf. Act. X.

(j^ill, he was thought gentle, ^jJil\, Perf. Pass. X.

JotiLyj, pardon is asked, JUu*L>, Imperf. Pass. X.

151. 1. b. But if the third radical loses its vowel, the

long vowels \L, V5_, }L, are changed into the corresponding
short ones, because a shut syllable does not admit of a long
vowel (. 25). E. g.
jJb, for JyiL, (Jyb), Jussive Act. I.
w^*j- ~^-r^ (wlwo), do.

oiia-j. JLiy; (o^iso), do.

<A>, Jlij (Jyy)> Jussive Pass. I.
|V?j, |i*Ju (^^^' "*uss've Ac(- i^T-

Jif, Ju^ (J^sT), Imperat. IV.

0, ^J cyT), do.
51 , o^oLsl (owoy>l), 2. p. sing. m. Perf. Act. IV.
yytXs'l, y<J^*' (yyt>jil), do. Pass. IV.

c*j j I , ouUX&wl (ouUAXwl) , do. Pass. X.

^S\, ^lil (^pl), 3. pers. pi. f. Perf. Act. IV.

ij*?' *>**' (^^'0. 2. p. plur. f. Imperat. IV.

Rem. {jXi, for ,jjJo, Jussive of ^, to be, is somclimes

slil! farther abbreviated by the poets into JLj .
80 Pari Second. Etymology or Ihe Paris ol Speech.

152. 1. c. In consequence of the changes produced by

the operation of the preceding rules, the Imperative of the
first form loses its prosthetic I (see .98 and . 122). E. g.
Jjjif becomes successively JLsf, Jil, J^i".

vA/wl jJUjil > yf ' ' y*

Oyi^l JL>I, '.art I , Lto

1awXu' I.j^avI. . . . , '<Am.

(iia.l tjjLia.1. . .. , LiLL..

Ijllil '^jL^' > UjL

153. 2. . If three open syllables follow one another
in immediate succession, the first of which has fetha and
the last any vowel, then the . or ^ of the middle syllable is
changed into elif productions , without any regard to the
nature of the vowel that accompanies it. E. g-
becomes Perf. Act. I.
r? P>
jy=* oLL., do.

jps JUb, do.

wCW sLJ, do.
y_*AiO ul, do.

OJul 5liJf, Perf. Act. VII.

oLilj, Imperf. do.

I. The Verb. C. The Weak VoA. 81

S^Sl oliil, Perf. Acl. VIII.

* f
Jo*>)' t>bvl, do.

JujU o\3^j, ImperC, do.

154. 2. b. Bui if the vowel of the first syllable be
damnia, and the . or ^ is accompanied by kesra, (he
damma is elided and the kesra substituted in its place, in
consequence of which (he } or ^ becomes ^ produclionis. E. g.
J^i becomes QyS) J^*i\ Perf. Pass. I.

^yc*t (^j^jCwt) l3a*~I, Perf. Pass. VIII.

'' ." I ' . I A
JUU1 yJUUxl , (10.

Rem. Instead of Juo (J.i')i *,-**< (~<*<)> (j^*4 ((J^*^)'

* _ (L*&), some Readers of Ihe Kor'."in pronounce Jlajs, *-*,
(jdxi , c ^., wilh a very slightly sounded danima. This is tcchni-
cally called 2^flJ| J ( -.yt , giving the first radical a flavour (lit. scent)
of the u-sound.

155. 3. If the first radical has felha and the third is

without a vowel, three cases arise.
a. The second radical is . or ^ with felha. In this
case the second radical is elided along wilh its vowel,
but ils influence is strong enough to change the fetha
of the first radical into danima, if il was ^, and into kesra,
if it was ^. E. g.
^i for y-Jcli', 2. pers. sing. m. Perf. Act. I.
<Dy*> cu. , CIO.

82 Part Second. Etymology or tlic Paris of Speech.

//. The second radical is . with damma or ^ with

kesra. In this case the second radical is elided along
with its vowel, as in a, hut its influence is sufficient to
change the fetha of the first radical into the homogeneous
vowel. E. g.
oJLb for szJJc, 2. pers. sing. m. Perf. Act, I.
" "* "" A
o^jc o>*aJ6 , 00.

c. The second radical is . with kesra. In this case

the same elision takes place, but the influence of the
characteristic vowel t suffices to change the fetha of the
first radical into kesra. E. g.
oJU> for vi>i^i., 2. pers. sing. m. Perf. Act. I.
156. In the Perfect Passive of the first, seventh, and
eighth forms, if the third radical loses its vowel, the ^
productionis (. 154. 2. b) is shortened into kesra, according
to . 25. E. g.
for oJLo (oJLo) , 2. pers. sing. m. Perf. Pass. I.

(oJjjJ), do.
7 -- 0 O ' *> O 9 0 *
I oJixX*| (oJyCwl), do. VIII.
Rem. a. In verba mediae rad. ., instead of oJLi', oJU, etc.,
the forms oJls, oJLi*, etc., are also admissible, in which case
the passive does not differ from the active voice.
Rem. b. In verba mediae rad. ,g, and in those mediae rad. . of
the form Jot, the 1. and 2. pers. m. and fern. sing, dual and plural
Perf. Act. and Pass, arc identical in form. E. g. ouu for ouuj
(. 155. 3. a) and ouLo ; vsJl? for **** ( 155.3. b) and >1a1aJ&;
for ciAiv&- (* ^-W- 3. c) and
I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 83

157. Most verba mediae rad. . take damma, and mosl verba
mediae rad. ^ kesra, as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. ;
e. g. from Jk~ (J^O. to move away, comes Jjyj (Jjjj);
from JLS (i}'S), to give in a present, Jyj (J^Ij) ; from Jib
(jps), to be long, J^ki (J^k>, 93); from ^ {&$,
to adorn, ,jjj-; (^jLj). But in some which are of the
form JuJ, the Imperf. takes fetha (. 92); e. g. from JK
- > ,, ',0- - -
(Jo\), to cease, comes JLj (Jow); from Ju (Js-y), to ^,

obtain, JUj (J*1j) ; frm **-& (^e*^). ^ wA, iULs

(Uyio); from oik (ojk), to fear, oik O-i^s!); from ^.G

(^3), to *%?, pllj (^)-

158. In verba mediae rad. , et ^, of which the third
radical is y or ^, these letters combine with an initial
v> or ^. in the pronominal suffixes, so as to form y and ~..
E. g. sJ, jU*> ^r oX?, |^x<o. from i>li (ty>) to <fe;

oj, for oJLj, from cylj (oyo) to pass the night; ^t-o,

for {jjJe, and ,j-^j, for (j-Loj, from ^Lo (,jj-e) to

guard; Ll, for IIL, from jG (^jju) to <? separate. See
. 90, rem. a, , c.
159. In the passive of the third and sixth forms of verba
med. rad. ., the . productions (. 108) does not coalesce
with the second radical into Z, For, if it did, the peculiar
feature of these forms would be effaced, and they would
become identical in appearance with the second and fifth
(J Is and (Jliu). Hence we write Jj*S, Jjy"> nl Ji*>
84 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Jju. For the same reason, no coalition lakes place in the

same forms of verba mediae rad. ^, which are always written,
for example, *>*-? and i>^-o-
160. Some verba mediae rad. ., and a very few mediae
rad. ^, of the form Jk*i, are inflected like strong verbs; as
Tx to be one-eyed, imperf. >**j; \J+>o to be woolly,

imperf. ol^aj; J^- to squint, imperf. jpsf; \yi to be

wanting, imperf. >C*j; d^o to have a particular disease

(juL*). said f a camel, imperf. lU^ij.
161. Some verba mediae rad. j et ^ may follow in the
fourth form either the strong or the weak inflection. E. g.
CAii\ or <>.jt, to reward, from ^_,Ls to return; '\'A or
.J, to perceive by the scent, from _L to Wow (of the
wind); -L1! or *jl&I, to w cloudy, from pLc <to.; JL.|
or JJcLl, to observe a rain-cloud, from JLL.
162. A few verba mediae rad. . have only the strong
inflection in the eighth form; as \%^>.\ to be neighbours, from

C la.; \'y\ to borrow, from 'Xe.; (jjitl to help one another,

from ^Lc.
163. A great many verba mediae rad. admit in the tenth
form of either, inflection, but they generally prefer the weak,
with the exception of a few, which almosl always adopt
the strong. E. g. CjLsjjcL! or CSyssJiL\, to give an

answer, grant a prayer, from v^Us.; i_j*aJuJ, to approve of,

from CJCo, JJixL\ to be bent with age, from ^Is a bow.
1. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 85

Rem. On the formalion of Ihe nomina agentis ct palienlis of

the first form from verba med. rad. . el ., see . 240 1.
General Remarks. On the inflection of verbs V'j? and i"y in
Hebrew and Aramaic, seeGesenius' Hcb. Gr. . 7i, Cowper's Syr. Gr.
. 116 122. The principles of contraction are in general identical
with those followed in Arabic. For example: Kal, Dp for dp,
t It -It
Dip for Qip, D'pi for Dip?; Nif'al, DlpJ (orig. nakam, a be
coming 6) for cipj, DIP? (orig. yikkam) for cij?>; HifTl, D'pH
for D'lpri; Hof'al, Dplfl for DlpTl. One important difference is,
that in the 2. pers. sing. Perf. Kal the Heb. has Pep, the Aram, ncp
(kamt), instead of the Arab vi*Ii". Such forms as niwri, niClpJ,
H'fC^jpn, resemble the corresponding forms in verbs J?"y ; but others,
constructed after the analogy of the Arabic, also occur; as J2BT1
PEOH, JlFlcn In the active participle Kal , the Hcb. has Dp (for
D1J3) and sometimes Dip (o for a); the Aramaic, on the contrary,
presents us with the exact Arabic form, DNP = f^Tv
It ft

c. Verbs of which the* Third Radical is y or ^

(verba terliae radicalis ; et ^). Tab. XIV XVIII.
164. These verbs are of five kinds; namely:
1) Verba tertiae rad. ^ of the form Jii ; as Q to make
a foray or raid, for ^k (. 167, 2 a).
2) Verba tertiae rad. ^ of the form Jii ; as Jcl to
tfras, for j^jj (. 167, 2 a).
3) Verba terliae rad. ^ of the form J*i ; as ^a' to be
pleased with, for lo"! (. 166, J).
4) Verba terliae rad. ^ of the form J^J ; as ^jL to
be ashamed.
5) Verba lerliae rad. ^ of the form jJii ; as ill to be
86 Pari Second. Etymology or llie Paris of Speech.

165. There are three things to he noticed regarding

the third radical of these verbs; namely, that it retains its
power as a consonant, or it resolves itself into a vowel, or
it is elided.
166. At the commencement of a syllable, one of two
things takes place. Namely:
I. The third radical maintains its power as a con
sonant between the vowels aa (I..L, Lj), a (i)>
ua (!i_), / (i (^5), i a (Lj_); as also when the
preceding syllable ends with a consonant. E. g. UCe>
*" of* . 9~ t o . Jo^ * - . -- - * o*
-/> ^5^" '57**" 5>**' cj'jt4^' v5*?;' ;' <s?f'
(jLxeyi; jyh, ^o., ^j\yO) The letter j between (he
vowels t a (:_) and l a (!:_) always passes into^;

as t-^, i^yc, for i-s; jS-^ - The letter ,^ is never

found between the vowels u a, ii a.
R c m. In the first and second classes , the 3. pers. fern. sing,
and dual of the Perf. Act. I. and II. might have been yy.yc , Li'iyt,
vsyyov , ujyo, , etc., after the analogy of ouyfl j , ouy^ a"d
o.w: but the Arabs followed in (he sing, the masc. forms |yc ,
^e (. 167, 2 a), and, not being able to say *^>|yt and ^Le.

or ouycj ( 25), they substituted ^yft and o*j0\ In lne

dual, on the other hand, where they might have said IS'lyi and
Lj'Lc. , they followed the received fern. sing, in adopting Li'yc.
and Lo7.
II. The third radical is elided between a short vowe
and the long vowels i and u, and the two vowels are
contracted in one of two ways.
1. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 87

1) Inlo a long vowel; namely .._ into ._, as lLZ

for \yjJL, (j^v*.? and LjAj for {j^yu and l^viS; ^j_

into ^_, as \ya\ for Ija-oj, ^)y*j>. aiK' 'j*rJ fr (J^?t5

and I^Afp.; (5^- into ,^_, as ^vis and ^yiS for

&?.,y& and ^jAS; ^e^- into ^_, as jj-*^ and ^IS

for ^kajoJS and 5***J-

2) Inlo a diphthong; namely ..1 into 11, as |.yt

for lyV&; ^j- into ^_, as t^o. for !^y>, ^y^y. and
l^o for ^^a^Ij and Ija^Lj, ^y*J and t^CJlJ for
^j^jyu and IjJvAj; ^jj- into ^_, as ^^>-f and ^ji'

for jjjLxai-j and ^uoj, ^v*j and ^yii' for ,'.

and ^vAJ'-
167. At the end of a syllable, the third radical is
either vocalised or elided. It may stand at the end of a
syllable either naturally, as in yy^yt = vdlxs, or after
dropping a short vowel, as in ^Cj for -c-*^ = J^iib-
Hence arise the following cases.
I. 1. When standing naturally at the end of a syllable,
the third radical is vocalised in two ways.
a) If the preceding vowel be homogeneous (1 or _),
. and ^ become letters of prolongation, that is to say,
II urn and ^_ iy pass into ._ it and ^_ ?. E. g.
w-.s-w for c.ww, o-o'-i. for ooy&, o-ui) for u>jy4i

(from ^oj for 1^, according to . 166, I. and . 168).

88 Pari Second. Elymolog-y or the Paris of Speech.

b) If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (1), il

forms with . and ^ the diphthongs 12. and Jjl. E. g.
cJ.Cft, gazauta, for gazawta; oJye^, ramaita, for
2. When the third radical stands at the end of a
syllable, not naturally, but in consequence of a short
vowel having been dropped (l! for :~, Jjl for J^l and
,5 1, 1_ for .'_', ^_ for ^_) it is vocalised in three
different ways.
a) 1 1 am and ^1 ay become a, but for the sake
of distinction we write \1 for aw, and ^1 (. 7, rem. b)
for <?y. E. g. |jl for ^, ^ for ^ej, ^yu for
^^Aj and ^yu>., ^ji for ^^s and ^^s.

b) y. u/v becomes ._ //; as yJu, ^Jlo, for

c) J$- iy becomes <^_ i; as ^p for ^-J-

II. The third radical is elided:
t) When standing naturally at the end of a syllable.
This happens in the Jussive and Imperative, in which the
signification of the form produces the abbreviation. E. g.
yij, yz\, for }yu (jUj), jyct (jr>*); |^->. p;l 'or

is**;] ^;P-
2) When il does not naturally stand at the end of
a syllable. This happens in the nomina agentjs, J^b

I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 89

(.80), JJuLo, J*jL, etc. (see .236), before the tenwin

of damma and kesra. These vowels are elided at the
same time, but the tenwin is thrown back upon the kesra
of the second radical. E. g. *C for ^eC and ^'y )lt

for ^U and ^\1 (^U, AL, . 166, I.); ^C for

15^5 and ^'; (r?'j' r^9; c^ for is^* and i5^5

^^iw for ^Ajo and ^j>\ etc.
168. It has been already mentioned (. 166, I.) thai
when the third radical is ., it passes between the vowels
ta (:_) and ia (!:_) into ^. After ^ has been in
troduced in this manner into the 3. pers. sing. masc. Perf.,
it maintains itself throughout the whole inflection, as far as
the above rules permit. Consequently, we get from (1^T

(for 'yo'^) the forms v-Luy^ , ^^J, (5^)!' uf^p' from ^7*'

169. Final . is changed into ^ in all the derived

forms of the verb; as ^ye, ^Ij. i5V^'> vi^>> t^'r*'

170. Tn the nomina patientis, Jyxsx (. 80), of verba

tertiaerad. ., the long vowel ._ it is changed, as it were, into
1_ uw, and the . thus obtained coalesces with the radical
. into ; as .duo for ..-Jtc. In verba tertiae rad. ^, the
influence of the third radical converts this secondary . into
^, the two coalesce into ^, and, in consequence, the pre
ceding damma becomes kesra; as .Ifli for ^fo, i5rr*
90 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Such verbs as ^S* , in which (he final ^ stands for .

. ' 3 -
(. 166, I.), admit of either form, though ^c-oy* is more
common than v4y-
General Rem. Verbs final and ,< present some inieresting
points of comparison with tlie corresponding forms in the other Shemilic
dialects. In Aelhiopic the difference between them is even more
marked than in Arabic. Ana (to be downcast, distressed, captive)
is distinguishable from ana (to mean), only by the mechanical conlri-
vance of writing the former ULfc and the latter ^Lc (. 168, I. 2. a) ;
but the Aelhiopian writes and pronounces talatva (to follow , iLS),
bakaya (to weep , -Jo). The Hebrew and Aramaean, on the oilier
hand, arc worse off than the Arab, for the former writes D , the
latter N (in intrans. verbs i or ), whether the final radical be
or (C ; and, consequently, verbs of this class may be confounded,
even in Hebrew, with those that are properly to (|). See Gesenius'
Heb. Gr. . 74, rem. 21, 22. The only Hebrew verb that retains
final 1 is "6$, to be free of care , secure, safe (Ar. iL), whence
the participle lj?tt>, and the 1. pers. sing. Perf. ipit>tt*; but the third
radical frequently appears in the shape of a \ especially in pausal
forms, as VBH, Kh&\, JVRB"., WB1R, jlOR, and in the
passive participle vol The principles of contraction are much the
same in Hebrew as in Arabic. TOi, Tr>l, etc., stand for galay,
gillay, etc., just as ^o. , ^a. , for ramay, g allay. The 3. p. s.
fem. Perf. T\TOl (in pause DR^p has been already explained in
. 90. Gen. Rem. ; the ordinary form T)blDp sometimes occurs in
pause, as rPCfl, Ps. LVII. 2. In such forms of the 2. p. s. Perf. as Vih\
and pi^JJ, i stands for > , and is still farther weakened into t
in the forms nv3 , n,?i, etc. The Aramaic has here the advantage
of the Hebrew in having preserved the diphthong, especially inSyriac,
as R^J , a -^ See in general Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 74.
I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 91

3. Verbs (hat are doubly and trebly weak (. 129).

171. I. Doubly weak verbs are divisible into two classes,
each of which comprises several varieties. The first class
consists of those which have both an elif hemzalum and a
. or ^ among their radicals; the second of those in which
the letter . or ^ occurs twice.
Rem. There is no trilileral verb that has more than one radical

172. 1. Of the first class there are three sorts:

1) Verba hemzata and primae rad. or <^;
2) Verba hemzata and secundae rad. . or ^;
3) Verba hemzata and tertiae rad. . or (^.
Each of these admits of two varieties, according to the
position of the elif hemzalum.

173. The first sort consists of a) verba secundae rad.

hemzatae, as \\l to frighten; and b) verba tertiae rad.
hemzatae, as \ol to smooth,' ~J?l to tread upon. Such
words follow in their inflection both the classes to which
they belong; e. g. Imperf. pj, tjo, Uoj (. 1323 and
142, 144).
Rem. The Imperf. of l<pJo, to despair, is ^Lu, rarely
ijuZfj or (jLu; llslmperat. (j-L)!, rarely yu2i\

174. The second sort is divided into a) verba primae

rad. hemzatae, as ^1 or v_>te (for C/.I) * return, J I or
- * ' " '
Jl* (for J^f) to return; and b) verba tertiae rad. hemzatae,
as *ll (for %^L) to illtreat , *La. (for U.) to come, *li
92 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

(for *-) to wish. Each variety unites the peculiarities of

the two classes to which it belongs.
I. u.
Perf. 3. p- s. CT* *L1 *Li *Li
- 0
2. p. s. oof VVx'iiVi'

ft >
Imper. 4 r <5? Li
Perf. pass. ^4 *I5^ *ir *is4
175. The third sort is divided into a) verba primae
-* ,* ..*
rad. hemzatae, as ^s| *io come, ^jt to refuse, ^o! to curdle
(of milk); and ) verba secundae rad. hemzatae, as ^b f- to
fo far off. They are treated in their inflection like the two
classes of verbs to which they belong.
,* .. _*
1. Jit, OO't, ViAAJ'l ^LS; col (. 132, rem. ); o,f.

^t, ool, ouol

*, t. .*- - of-
II. <u, yyu, eju ^LL>; Lit; rLi.

Rem. The Imperat. of the verb j't is not unfrequenlly shortened

into o> (compare . 137), which, at the end of a sentence, is written
gj . The same thing holds good in pause of all imperatives that
consist of only one letter ; as 5. for \, from .eL to see (.176);
tS for o, from J' to keep faith (. 177).

176. The elif hemzalum of the verb ^1. is almost

always elided in the Imperf. and ImperaL For example:
I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 93

Tmperif. Indicat.
3. m. 3.f. 2-rn. 2. f. I.e.
s. *?
iSf~ *?
D. J^f. yjfcf J^f
*}*? 0 -- 0
P. is?
6 -*- 6
?- ?
D. I* 9 "9 9
9 9. ?
Im perat.
ra. or J (. 175 rem. c. G;'; P. m. ;
Remo. The Pert Act of .gf . almost always retains the hemza.
Rem. i. The Per Pass, is 1j. (like .!*)) In the Impcrf.
the hemza is elided, just as in the Active voice; e. g. io", j->,
ror i5't3' *ji-
Rem. c. In the fourth form, when it signifies to shorn, the hemza
is always elided: ^J, ,!, o*J\t; (^jJ ; *Jj |. Otherwise
it is retained.
177. 2. Of the second class, in which ^ or ^ occurs
twice, there are two sorts; a) those in which . or ^ is
the first and third radical, as ^sz to guard, J: to be near,
^a.: to be sorefooted (of a horse); and b) those in which
94 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

^ or ^ is the second and third radical, as ^li, to roast,

^.S to be strong, lya. (for !*&.) to live, ^k to have an
impediment in one's speech.
178. The first sort follows in its inflection the verbs
of the two classes primae and tertiae rad. . or ^. E. g.
^, ^Jy o^,; ^5 ,j or h (. 175 rem).

iXy <*&y ^*)y i^->> J l' *J-

iS^'y **^5' v;y*H' vS^T*' f^[ (for r/)'

179. In the second sort, the second radical undergoes
no change whatever. E. g.

(Cjj, coy, ioy; <5yy; yf-

via. , ou* , ouufc : Las? ; __=> I

Rem. a. We write Luus , Lust, not ,-axj, ^V5?) to prevent

the union of two ^ , and also , in the latter case , to distinguish the
Imperf. of a~^ from Qie proper name _^sa_> ./o/in.

Rem. b. ,-xa. admits 1) of the contraction of the two .g,

a) in those persons of the Perf. I. in which the second . has a vowel,
as ^a. for (5*i-; *) in the Imperf. I., as ls&J, ^i, ^j+si';
s a -.. G-- or.
c) in the nomen actionis II. (. 80), &U^ for kjuls^; 2) of the tf/wi'on
o -
of llie second ^ in the Perf. and Imperf. X., as <\,..f , *a 11f
for i<\ v,f; . -yi 1V ,<** also admits of being contracted

into _e , and Laaj into ju .

I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 95

180. II. Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two

classes: namely 1) those in which one radical is hemza
and the other, two . or ^ ; and 2) those in which all the
three radicals are . or ^.
Rem. We pass over Ihe second class, as it consists of only one
or two verbs that are hardly ever used; e. g. I_L> to write the
letter .g .

181. Verbs of the first class are of two sorts, namely

a) those in which the hemza is the first radical, as ^it to
betake oneself to, to withdraw to; and b) those in which
the hemza is the second radical, as .el: to promise. The
former are inflected like of and ,c^ (. 179), e. g. ,5:!,
^:l, vsaj^I, (5}Lj, ol; (he latter like JUL and _s^
(. 178). E. g.'

3. m. 3. f. 2. m. 2. f. I.e.

s. T-
* *
D. I3f5 U#$ Ui#
P. l^-'j G&

Imp erf. Indicat.

S. rf <tf u#
P. ^ *S
96 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Jussive. -'

3. m. 3. f. 2.m. 2. f. I.e.
s. 13 B ^b5

P. s& * lA &*

S. m. I or l, f. ^t; D. c. LI; P. m. f,f, f. "ol.

Appendix A-

1. The Verb JJJ.

182. The negative substantive verb (jlJL!> ^ /ww no*>
is not, has no Imperf., and is inflected like verba mediae
rad. . et ^.
3. m. 3. f. 2. m. 2. f. 1. c.

O. iauJ OUWUU OW*wJ QywJ cwJ

D. LwfcxJ L*-^v' i.t.y>w I I * I

1 IfcMjJU /TwtwJ iVA^mJ ^AauJ LLwJ

Rem. o. lylli is compounded of if, nof, and Ihe unused

ywjl = Heb. tt*? or B'N , * , was.
Rem. ft. Instead of ipJu we find occasionally i^>^) , -which
is indeclinable. It corresponds to the Aramaic * .v3, n1^., n'1?,
compounded of H? and iPi>t< , IVN, _] .
I. The Verb. Appendix A. 97

2. The Verbs of Praise and Blame.

183. The verbs of praise and blame (_J*J! Jliil

-jJI.) are **j, to 90 ^00fi?, and (j*Jo, to fo bad. They
are used as exclamations, and are generally indeclinable,
though the fern, o>**j and puwo , and occasionally the

dual li*j and plur. LjLj, occur.

Rem. a. Instead of *jl3 we may say *ju, *ju, an^ iv*J>
which lasl is obviously the original form. In like manner ,pjb has
been formed from luJb.

R e m. b. These forms are to be explained as follows, i) Every

Arabic verb of the form Jots or Jjcs may also be pronounced
jJLs; as ^. jo for ^jo, o5 for IjO , l^P for l^P, ^JU

for *Xe, tXg-i for t\-g-<i and J*-g-i, /Tww*^ fr ,T)-,*,L=k'

uJ for >Jyi', vwai for ,v<V', -J'for -5^ a contraction

which is sometimes extended to the passive Juls, as Jojo for
\*a (from 1 t-m) Hence |Vj becomes ^ff''1- 2) If the second
radical be guttural, its vowel , instead of being- elided, may be trans-
fcrred to the first radical; as tX^i for (V (? -v. , ^jSi} for v_>jst>-
-Hence .^jlj for ju, u***J f(>r i>~o- 3) The form Juts, which
has been thus attained, may lake an additional kesra to lighten the
pronunciation (Juls) ; as L\ g >, | ^jjC(>. Hence **J. These

observations cast light on the pecu'iar form of intransitive verbs in

Aethiopic; as 1"(\L, '. gabra (to do) for gabxra (compare Jl^c),
tffiL,'. sakra (to be drunk, JSim) for sakira, P'flfl! yabsa (lobe

98 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

dry, fjtuu) for yabisa, <&Cfl" karba (to be near, vjji) for kariba
or karuba; and, when the second radical is guttural, ^fh^- mehra
(to have pily upon, *s) for mah'ira, tvi}'. sehna (to be hot, .TjJS')
for sahina or sahuna.

3. The Forms expressive of Wonder.

184. The Arabic language possesses ' two forms of ex-
pression, called by Ihe native grammarians v_*i|Ld I Jlii I or
verbs of wonder. The one is the 3. pers. masc sing. Perf.
act. IV., preceded by Lo, and followed by the accusative of
the object that causes one wonder; as Ijov JiAsI U, what
an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the 2. pers. masc.
sing. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition v_> with the
genitive; as Jov? J^ail. with the same signification as before.
Rem. a. The first formula lillerally means : what makes Zeid
excellent? can anything make him more excellent than he is? The
second: make Z. excellent (if you can, you cannot make him
more excellent than he is); or, more literally: try (your ability) at
making excellent upon (i_>) Zeid.
Rem. b. These expressions of admiration are seldom formed
from the derived forms of the trilileral verb (not very unfrequenlly,
however, from the fourth), and never from Ihe quadrililerals. If they
come from verba mediae rad. geminalae or tertiae rad. et ,g, they
follow the inflection of these classes; as: sul Juit Lc or Jjuil
xajLj, horv strong his father is ! \-.%f iM Lc or *-. t < x!,
flow blind Amr is! But if from verba mediae rad. . et ,e, they follow
the inflection of the strong verb ; as : jlL! Lo or xj J.jj| , fom>
nif7/ fe speaks !
I. The Verb. Appendix B. 99

Rem. c. These verbal forms arc, of course, indeclinable.

Rem. d. ffAAwrrt Le and 2LS>-t Lio, horn handsome lie is!
admit of the diminutive forms (see . 269) atJUox^-l Uc and Lo

Appendix B.
The Verbal Suffixes, which express the Accusative.

185. The following are the verbal suffixes, which

express the accusative.

Mase. Common. * Fern.

3. p. s him. l her.

2. p. d thee. ... viJ thee.

1. p. ^me. ...


3. p. . L^s (hem both.

2. p. .. US' you both. ...

3. p. 1 them. ^st> them.

2. p. ft you. ^Syou.

1. p. ... [5 us.
1 00 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Rem. a. The same forms serve, when appended to the noun,

to express the genitive ; excepting that my is \& instead of j.

Rem. b. The damma of 5, L^jo , J8, and Jjd , is changed

after __, ig_, and i<_, into kesra; as juj'Lj , Z g t ?l > , A*

will come to him, to them; I 1 iii'il, . (?'*''! j com* <o Mew (dual

m. and f.), to Mem (plur. fem,) ; \j^3Ji Li thou (fern.) hast not
been pleased with him.

Rem. c. The ,e of the suffix 1. pers. sing, is sometimes elided ;

as (jJiJ'l for ^Ju|, Ar *.

Rem. d. Old and poetic forms are: ,g_ and j, ^so (^D
or p&), Lf. See . 89, rem. c, and . 20, 2 and 4.

Rem. e. On the suffix pronouns in Hebrew and Syriac see Gese-

nius' Heb. Gr. . 57 and 89, Cowper's Syr. Gr. . 64-66. In
general, the Hebrew and Aramaic suffixes closely resemble those of
the modern Arabic, as is shown by the following table of the suffixes
appended to a noun in the singular.

Sing til ar.

Masc. Common. Fem.

Ar. 3. p. xJyJS'i pron. kildbo, and sometimes written I |? <l p

sjt abuh.

Heb. nbns, lans

T : * T :

T T n^K T T

chaid. nans
ft nanst t :

>ni3K (Syr. jinl ) NPI12N (Syr. h,al>'])

I. Tlie Verb. Appendix B. 101
Masc. Common. Fern.
Ar. 2. p. liLjUc^T pr. kilabak. iJbLx Pr- kitabek.

iJ^jI, abuk ^Jly>\, abuki.

Heb. rg?Q 1=3?
T= 1 T

Chaid. rrro
ll T !
rjON 7J12N (Syr. ^sos'l)
Ar. 1. p. ... ..

Heb. '3TI3
* t :


Chald. On 3 (Syr. *oLd)

"3N (Syr. ^j)

Ar. 3. p. j^jliJ' 6Sf)
6 > 1*
Heb. 02ri3
t t : 190?
GH'2 IO1^
chaid. (Din) pnans pnaro
JliTON (Syr. ^oSia^l) pTTOK (Syr. ^aSs'l)
Ar. 2. p. potif ... (^XjUT)

Heb. D33n3 )33P3

E?1-*? J3'3K
Chald. (Q13) ]l23.n3 1321*13
1 : ;
p313K (Syr. ^ac'l) jSCM (Syr. ^al'l)
1 02 Pari Second. Etymology or (he Paris of Speech.

Masc. Common. Fern.

Ar. 1. p. ... Q&(
- >*

Heb. .. . 1J2n3
* t :

Chald. ... ^2ri3 (Syr. ^L,)

KM3K (Syr. ^aa'l)

186. Some forms of the verb are slightly altered by

(he addition of the accusative suffixes.
1) Those persons that end in the elif otiosum (see . 7
rem. a), reject it before the suffix, as being no longer
necessary (since it was added only to prevent the possi
bility of the termination . _ being in some cases mistaken
for the conjunction :, and); as \%ya they helped, _j.JaS
they helped me.
2) The final consonant of the 2. pers. masc. plur.
Perf. retains before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the
long damma which it had in an older stage of (he
language; as jvajC you have seen, ^yJSu you have
seen me. The same thing takes place with (he accusative
suffix of the 2./ pers. masc. plur. IS, when it is followed
by another suffix (see . 187) ; as IstJjUjyj, lie shewed them
to you.
3) The 2. and 3. pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally
reject the termination > before (he suffixes _j and li;
as ^jjAj for ^iS-wcU, you order me, IjjjUtt for LLS^JUtS',
you hate us.
I. The Verb. Appendix B. 103

4) The vowel __ in the termination of the 2. pers.

fem. sing. Perf. is sometimes lengthened before the suffixes;
as jtoljj' for uLl^, thou hast broken it.

5) The ^5 of the 3. pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba

tertiae rad. ^5, may be retained before the suffixes, or
(which is more usual) be changed into I ; as jyo. (. 7
rem. f) or sUeT, ta //*/w ?/.

187. A verbal form may lake two suffixes, provided

they do not indicate one and the same person. These two
may both be appended to the verb, the suffix of the 1. pers.
naturally preceding that of the second or third, and the
suffix of the 2. pers. that of the third. E. g. JLulixel,
jujliie!, he gave thee, it, to me; I^jCloJo, he fvilt suffice
thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee againvt
188. Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal ob
ject expressed, not by the accusative suffixes attached to
the verb, but by the genitive suffixes appended to the word
Cl, iyya (which never occurs alone). The following are the
compound pronouns thus formed.


Masc. Common. Fern.

3. pers. sl>! ... UcIjI

2. pers. JLjI ... vJLaf

1. pers. ... JL!

1 04 Part Second. Etymology or Ihc Paris of Speech.

Masc. Common. Fern.

3. pers.
'2. pers.

1. pers. ...

3. pers. S*4
2. pers. M

1. pers. GGf

Rem. a. The suffix of the 1. p. sing, is in lliis case ,e, instead
of < , because all nouns ending- in |_ lake that form. See . 317
rein. a.
Rem. b. LjI seems lo be derived from Ihc radical .g.l, whence
Ihe cognate word Sbl, a sign, the figure or body (of anything), whicli is
identical with the Hebrew PIN (for ["PN), Aram. flN, Z\. The word
TIN (Aram. JV, rv, i-) is used in Hebrew as a pronoun, but with

a wider range than Ul , since it is frequently prefixed to definite nouns

in the accus. (see Gcsenius' Heb. Gr. . 115, 2 and the note ) In
later Hebrew and in Samaritan its use is even less restricted than in
biblical Hebrew, for it is connected with prepositions in such phrases
as QVn inlta, Samar. PICV FUV3, on that same day; PinifO
V1ND, Sam. ny"IN rlfl'S, in that same land. The Aethiopic uses
kiya with Ihe pronominal suffixes exaclly as the Arabic docs L>J,
but whether the two words are radically connected is perhaps doubtful.
189. These suffixes compounded with LI are used in
two cases.
II. The Noun. 105

1) Very frequently, but not always (see . 187),

when two suffixes would otherwise have to be appended
to the same verb; as sGl ,jLkef, instead of ajulkr-l,
he gave it to me.
2) When the pronoun is, for the sake of emphasis,
placed before the verb; as ^gjc^j eJUU Juju CAj!,
///<? (none but thee) me worship, and to thee ivc cry for
help. Compare in Heb. W}TI \fh 'rilNn, Jerem. V. 22.
Re m. a. The suffix attached to Ls! is always that which would
occupy the. second place , if appended to the verb. In certain cases
this form alone is used , either for the sake of precision or of euphony.
Thus, he gave me to him must be worded ,AZ\ ilia-el, to distinguish
it from mvlUfl he gave him to me; but it is euphony that requires

L>! slktt, he gave it to him, instead of xffit Ur|.

Rem. b. A very strong emphasis is expressed by prefixing the
pronoun with Gl, and at the same time appending the pronominal suffix
to the verb; as ^.juli 15b!., me therefore, fear me.

II. The Noun.

190. The Noun, **LbM, nomen, is of six kinds.

1) The nomen mbstantivum , or Substantive, more
especially designated {JLW , and also o^oliJI, quali-
ficabile, that is, a word which admits of being united with
a descriptive epithet (adjective).
106 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

2) The //omen adjectivum, or Adjective, jLLoJI , quality,

descriptive epithet.
3) The nomen numerate, or Numeral Adjective, JL\
o Jul! I , the noun of number. .
4) The nomen demonstrativum, or Demonstrative Pro-
noun, sLi5H ***f, life <?# of indication , that is, by
which some object is pointed out.
5) The nomen conjunctivum , or Relative Pronoun,
s*-*^" JyoliJl, the noun that is united (with a relative
6) The pronomen, or Personal Pronoun, ,% ^tM **^l
or Ia^oJI, Me ow />ta/ ts foytf ?' wrf, also called

XjULCII, avrwvvfica.
Rem. Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in
. 8489 and 185 9, and some further remarks regarding them
will be given in . 317- The numeral adjectives and the demonstrative
and relative pronouns will be handled separately, afler we have done
with the nouns substantive and adjective (see . 318 353). The
nouns substantive and adjective we shall treat of together, because, in
regard to form, they are identical in almost every respect.

A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective.

1. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and
Adjective, and their different Forms.
191. Nouns are divisible, in respect of their origin, into
two classes, primitive and derivative. The primitive nouns
are all substantives; as Je>. man, yj horse, ^^JLt eye,
*L* water. The derivative nouns may be substantives or
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 107

adjectives, and are either deverbal, that is, derived from verbs,
as L>.w.b5 division (from 1HJ to divide), -XxJut a key (from
^.ii to open), <jajyo sick (from \J>Jo to be sick); or
denominative, that is, derived from nouns, as SjJLLo /?/<w?
that abounds in lions (from &Z.\ a lion), .jLIjI human
(from jjUUl a human being), V-JLL*' a #///<? fey (from Jjlf
a <fy^). At a later period, nouns were formed, in the
language (or ratlier jargon) of the philosophical schools,
from pronouns and particles (we might call them departicu-
latin), as JUjlil egotism (from bl /), {JuS qualitative,
and ililf quality (from C^jS how?).
Rem. In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according' to the
etymological principle , a verb is frequently given as the etymon of
what are really primitive nouns, and a comparison of the meaning of
the two shows thai the former is in fact the derivative word. Thus
sLc, water, is not derived from 5L0, to be full of water , which is
given in the Dictionaries as its root, but, conversely, 5U0 is a denomi
native verb, formed from % Co.

192. Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal

classes; namely:
1) Nomina veroi, JucjJI tl^t;

2) Nomina agentis, JjtUL't *-U*mI, and noniina patienlis,

The nomina verbi are by their nature substantives, but

have come to be used also as adjectives; the nomina agentis
et patientis are by their nature adjectives, but have come
to be used also as substantives.
108 Part Second. Etymology or Ihe Parts of Speech.

193. Connected with the nomina vetbi are the four

following classes of deverbal nouns.
1) Nomina vicis, &S)\ iU-LT, nouns that express the
doing of an action once.
2) Nomina speciei, pUJT iU-Il, nouns of kind or
3) Nomina loci et lemporis , ^jUJI^ ^KJI iU*J,

also called nomina vasis, \J,Shl\ &1+.J, nouns of place

and time.
4) Nomina instrumenti, Jill iL^I, nouns denoting
the instrument.
194. Denominative nouns are divisible into six classes;
1) Nomen unitatis vel individualitatis , gjJ&.Jt *->*.!,
the noun that denotes the individual.
2) Nomen abundantiae vel midtitudinis , SvXCM *,!,
the noun that denotes the place where anything is found
in abundance.
3) Nomen vasis, &l*Jt **!, the noun that expresses
the vessel which contains anything.
4) Nomen relativum, y^^uUJI *-liM or 1,11)1 (^
M referred noun, the reference or relation), a particular
class of derivative adjectives.
5) Nomen abstractum qualitatis, jUaOJ! ,**,!, the
abstract noun of quality (see . 191).
6) Nomen deminulivum, -,*^x\\ ^il! or w*a*iaJ| (lit.
Me lessened noun, the lessening), Uie diminutive.
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 109

a. The Deverbal Nouns.

or) The Nomina Verbi.
193. The nomina verbi, JJuUt tw-,1 , are abslract
subslanlives, which express (he action, passion, or stale
indicated by the corresponding verbs, without any reference
to object, subject, or time.
> - -?r
Rem. The nomen verbi is also called .Jco^j! (lit. the place
whence anything goes forth, where it originates), because most Arab
grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the
simple idea of this substantive. We may compare with it the Greek
Infinitive used with the article as a substantive.
196. The nomina verbi, which may be derived from
the groundform of the ordinary triliteral verb, are:
1. & 13. J3 25. &J&J

2. J** 14. & 26. iUS

3. 15. J<xi 27. Jyii

4. k8
16. JJkj 28.

5. it 17. u^ 29. kJyti

6. & 18. yi3 30. ajjju

7. in 19. Z*b 3i. JkAAJ

8. i& 20. &Z 32. K-Luii

9. jjjti 21. 33. JiLo
10. sjLxj 22. 34. JouLc
11. ioUi 23. Jlii 35.
8 -o >
12. 24. L'L*i 36. SJLjuw
110 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

197. All these nouns cannot, however, be formed from

every triliteral verb. The majority of verbs admit of but
one form, very few of more than two or three. What these
are, must be learned from the Lexicon.
198. The five forms, which are most frequently used, are:
1. S*l, 2. JJJ, 24. Dlii, 28. JjAi, 30. xj^ii.
1) Jjij is the abstract noun from transitive verbs of
the forms Jjts and Jla*; as JJcs to kill, JJci" killing or
being killed (. 201); *^i /# understand, *^i under
standing, insight.
2) JjjlS is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs
of the form Jii; as jJLs and (jlJLs. /o sit, &y*3 and
U^JLa. sitting; -^C- to go out, r*'J*- going out.
3) JJLi is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs
of the form J*i (. 38 and 92); as 'J to be glad,
8.-.- - 8 - . ^"
vi /oy ; fjdjx /o fo *?&, yoyo sickness.

4) lllii and xJJii are the abstract nouns from verbs

of the form JJii; as Jl$1 to fo smooth, &JL4I and
t, g... smoothness, ease; /7aL & fo rough, jjj^ij*.
roughness; jw* to be generous, i'Ay^ generosity.
Rem. a. The noun Jjii is also derived from verbs of Ihe form
--- <.. - --
Jii , sometimes along with Jii , sometimes alone ; as ^_^JLb
to seek, v_JLb search; Cj-J* t0 flee> 1>** flight.
Rem. i\ The abstract nouns of verbs which express flight, or
8 e .
refusal, usually lake the form Jlii ; as J, w3 , dyi, , to flee,
0-8-6, -c ' ~-
J>i, %uo, i>lj*i ; -j! to refuse, iUI. Those that express
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. Ill

sickness or ailment of any kind have Jlii, as Jutw to cough,

8 ^ , 9- _ ,
JLxm. ; violent or continuous motion, ^ikjii, as .Lis to fly,
s c 6. ' o _
^l^is, ^Aa- to palpitate , ^Uii.; change of plpce , Jui*,

as Jk-k. to travel, JkAaJ ; sound, JLii and Joi*i, as ^<j

to croak, _}I w 3 and _,', iS g * to soft, J * g ft , J g -^ to

s - ^ -- 9. - > 9- ~ - ^
w9>A, Juyjjo, ^J-JJ '0 bray, ^jL$j and (3*^3, va*^J t0
9 , -- J 9 -. 9~. -
roar, yLaJ and _..; office, trade, or handicraft, gJlxi,

as s_ q .I jy to succeed, ii^La- to te successor (iLi*JL=.) or caliph,

the caliphate, ^.zf to write, kjUo <At> <?/}fe of secretary, JcLL

to sew, j&Lia. the trade of tailor.

199. If the middle radical of a verb can be pronounced

with two or three vowels, and its signification varies
accordingly, that verb may have several abstract nouns,
one for each form and meaning of the Perfect. Thus,
i^ is the abstract noun from iST lo raise; jjiil and &&!.
from *bl to be high, exalted; &tLi, &cli>, and xiLi. ,

from li^ to /<<re> fowrf voice.

200. If a verb l.as only one form, but several different
significations, it has often different abstract nouns, one peculiar
to each of its meanings. E. g. ., to judge, makes
jjCsk, but when it signifies to bridle (a horse), *&.; ^L,
lo fall prostrate, has y*. or syi, but when it means the
sound of rushing water, *j^-
201. The nomina verbi are used both in an active and
a passive sense; as aJus his killing (another) or his being
1 I2 Pari Second. Etymology or Ihe Paris of Speech.

/ailed himself; L$a>.}Lo| Jolj \ji\j\ & 1jJuju $ work no

evil upon the earlh after its having been well ordered ;
.^IjLM ^3JL=^ JyUl ^^oUJl y^b\ &i*Jt tX in this
year el-Mdmiin publicly espoused the doctrine of the Koran's
having been created.
Rem. There arc also nomina verbi that have always a passive
signification; as j^, existence, from <X>. to be found, to exist.
The noun from Ihe active tX^-m, to find, is ^Ijka*..

202. The nouns formed from the derived forms of the

strong triliteral verbs are as follows.
11. J-**Ai'> kJlxju , JLiii', VII. Jliiil
JUutf, J& V1IL JUtflj
111. sDUii*. IX. jlxil
IV. 9
X. Jlxjb^J
0 &
V. JLiij XI. j^L*ii

VI. JxliS XII. JlloJf

Rem. Of the nouns belonging to II., Jlis is the original, Jujuu'
Or o-
by far the most common; aJLxftJ is chiefly used in verba teniae rad.
s- -. - o^ /-
et (g, but also occurs in the strong verb, as gwTJu, 2L0J0.
0'- ~> B" .. ; # ' *
In III., ftJLr uLc is more common than Jlii; JULo is very rare,
9 s
and so also is Jlxii' in V.

203. The nouns formed from the quadriliteral verbs are:

I. j&i, LUi III. j5Ll*i!
11. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subsiantive and Adjective. 113

204. The abstract nouns of the verba mediae rod.

geminatae are formed according to the rules given in . 120.
2 - 6 o - 2-.- G - o, o_. Go ^ - 8- o--
Hence Joe lor ojuc, o-* lor j^jx (from oj, BjAj for )>*i'
(from the second form of 1c).

Rem. a. Those nouns, of which the first and second radicals are
pronounced with fetha, undergo no contraction; as Ojuw, JuLft ,
g - - s-,
pi<nf , JJLo.

Rem. 6. The nouns of the Uiird and sixth forms may either be
8 - -. - > Go., 6 J.-- 2.-^
contracted or not; as gOi^Ujo or s<>Ljo, _r >l m a or v_jLo.

205. The formation of nouns from the verba hemzala

takes place according to the rules laid down in . 131 6.
206. Those verba primae rad. ., that reject the . in
the Imperf. and lmperat (. 142 and 144), drop it also
in the verbal noun. E. g.
ii tXc Irom tXcj , imperf. imper. Jw=

Sjae Joc^ 4*

"5 u)5
lS*>* LtU a

The termination si, with which these nouns are fur

nished, is a compensation for the lost radical.

Rem. a. Not a few verba primae rad. . , however, have nouns

of the form Jots, though they drop the first radical in the Imperf.;
e. g. pTy 'yg, jLy, ^Lj, ^4, ^y Others have both

114 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.
forms; e. g. ^6y m^i, Lo^ and &**>, Qj, ^yi, ^

S- - - > ^ 0 0 9 -
and Sj\ ; tXr- j , i\*J , <Xt j and g <\e .
Rem. b. In nouns from verba primae rad. , Ihis radical is
changed into ., if it be without a vowel, and kesra precede; as
i^jLail for v_/L&.t, from the fourlh form of v_d.:; V.IaajLwI for
sli^AAut, from the lenth of ,!. See . 145.
9- 9'
Rem. c. Compare in Hebrew, rfT? (s'JJ), ni#"] (&j\), D25^,
nji, from -6;, trv, ao't, jnj; ring (StXe), nsj); (sii),
n;i^ (JU-u,), from "1JP , yyi , jti*\ Corresponding forms in Syriac are
\2 (rad. ,io), ]Ll2 rad. ^1*).

207. Nouns derived from verba mediae rad. et ^

are subject to the same irregularities as those verbs (. 150
and foil.).
208. If the noun from a verb mediae rad. . or ^ be of
the form JjiS, the 5 or ^ remains unchanged; as Jls, JL^.
209. If the letter ., pronounced with fetha, be preceded
by kesra, it is converted into ^; as JSs for JiyS, from
IIS"; Sillf for aSCs, from ,jLo; t>U&t an(* ^4$ fr

t>UJS3f and <>&(, from the seventh and eighth forms of <Sli.
Except in the third form, where it remains unchanged; as
Syi from ^(i, jl^a. from ^La-, t from jjll, ^e

from j^Li. *!^s from ^u, j.1^1 from ^pl, g|^j from j^lj.
210. Peculiar to verba mediae rad. et ^ is the
nominal form xJJLii, in which ^ always takes the place
of the second radical; as 5U.*j5 from 1|3 G>)> Kj***-"*
from CJJe (y?ye), xSy+i from ^Lj (^jo), x^jiojui from
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 115

Jl3 (J*S).
211. In nouns of the fourth and tenth forms of verba
mediae rad. . el ^, (he second radical is elided, after
throwing back its vowel upon the vowelless first radical;
and the termination si is appended to the noun by way of
compensation (compare . 206). E. g. jwUl and jLoUill
for Jpl and Ifp&ll; s5Lil and sSlixll for oUlt and

Rem. Nouns of the fourth form without the jj very rarely occur;
e.g. IlS't in the Kor'an, ch. XXI. 73 (forfllst, IfLit).

212. In nouns formed from verba (ertiae rad. . et ^,

the third radical is retained, when the second immediately
precedes it and is vowelless; as .ye, ^*r, ye\, ^$li,
V- r?.
213. In nouns from verba lerliae rad. . et ^ of the
forms Jjii, Jki, and Juti , the third radical (which in this
case always assumes the form of ^) rejects its damma,
throws back the tenwih upon the felba of the second radical,
and becomes quiescent. E. g. LbJ for ^JaJ, _. for 1^6^
iyt)), ir^ for (jr> tftX* fr i<>"2 (compare . 167,
I. 2, and II. 2).
214. In nouns from verba (ertiae rad. . of the form
SJLii, the . is changed, after the elision of its felha, into
elif productionis ; as s^Lo for il)Je, alia- for Slii, sfc\
for gy\, s'UCi for 'yCi.
116 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

Rem. a. We often find, however, the (etymologically more

G ' - O I - 6 I -
correct) orthography s JLo , iiu , 5-51 ( 7, rem. d).
6...- 6---
Rem. b. In the same way as sLaj&. for 'iyKs- , we find
G, o - G---0-- G - - t, 6. ~ o S -70
SLijjo for SLyeyo (s^Ojjo), suyc for Xxi'wo, etc.

215. If the noun from a verb tertiae rad. } be of the

form J J*l or ijjd , the . productionis of the second syllable
combines with the radical ^ into ".; as y^, ^JU, for jj3t>>
.yix. Bui, if these forms come from verba tertiae rad. ^,
the . productionis is changed, through the influence of the
third radical, into ^, and combines with it into Jj, whilst,
at the same time, the damma of the second radical becomes
a kesra; as _S. , {1aoJi, for &*), tjgya* (compare . 170).
A further assimilation of the vowel of the first syllable some-
s 2*2 s
times takes place, as i\ for _s|, i*j^, for iS*^> Jus^ as

in the plural of substantives we find .I^a, "^a.g, ji>, for

2 > 2 > S.) Go.-.*- G-
l5^* l5-?^> (i*> lroni u-y*') l<a^) yi>-
216. If the noun from a verb lertiae rad. ^ be of
the form Juuti, the ^ productionis of the second syllable
combines with the radical ^ into ^; as ^ye for .-j*,
from (^ys, imperf. ^.-jj m *ne san,e frm froni verba
tertiae rad. ., the third radical is converted into ^, and
combines in the same manner with the ^ productionis into JJ.
217. In the nomina verbi of the forms Jlii, JUii,
6 , 7
and JLii, the third radical of verba tertiae rad. . et ^ is
changed into hemza; as sUi., g^Ca., ?ISo. The same thing
takes place in the verbal nouns of the fourth, seventh, eighth,
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 117

and (enth forms, as jlkel, siLsvit, eLsvj!|, ELetV^ll;

and in thai of the third, when it has (he form jUs, as
zlju from ^oLi. This change is caused by the preceding
long fetlia.
218. In the nomina verbi frgm the fifth and sixth forms
of verba terfiae rad. . et ^, the influence of the third
radical (always ^, . 169) converts the damma of the
penult syllable into kesra, and the syllables ^_ are con-
traded into _ (according to . 167, IT. 2). Hence Jl^o
for JJaJ (J^sxj), Jly for Jlyj (J!y>).

/S) The Nomina vicis or Nouns that express the Doing of

an Action once.
219. That an act has taken place once (alio), the Arabs
indicate by adding (he feminine termination si to (he verbal
noun. For (his purpose (he form JJLS is always selected
in (he firs( form of (he (rilileral verb, Jy^if in (he second,

and JXii in (he quadriliterals. E. g. ileS, 8c\*i\ SjI^,

IZi, xs>.L=., &jL=-l, XiLiXil, SjUaJI, M<? ffc/ of helping,

sitting down, striking, fleeing, rolling, vexing, being un
covered, turning round, once. These nouns are called
Sj-JI *UJ, nomina vicis, or nouns (hat express (be doing
of an action once.
Rem. a. Nouns of this sort, derived from weak verbs, do not
5 ' 8-0-
dift'er in form from those of the strong verbs; as sj^ti, &4j',
8 - 8-o- -- -. - - -
SjtXe, x*x. , from J^, ^U , liXe, ^xu .
118 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

Rem. b. If Ihc verbal noun happens to end in s_, the feminine

termination s_ cannot, of course, be appended to it, and the singleness
of the action can only be expressed by means of the adjective scX=.|
one, as c\ji.U Suclst, from .,1s | , IV. of -(J.
R c m. c. From these nouns a dual and plural may be formed to
express the doing- of the act twice oroflcncr; as du. J 3yai , pi.

y) The Nomina Speciei or Nouns of Kind.

220. The eUJ! *>(, or noun of kind, has always the
form JLUi. It is placed alter an adjective, to restrict the
quality ascribed to a person or thing to the particular act
indicated by the verb from which the noun is derived.
E. g. XaxT ^vlw^. y*> he is beautiful as to his manner of
writing, that is, he writes a good hand.
Rem. Nomina speciei are very rarely fanned from derived forms
of the trililcral verb or from the quadrilileral, and cannot be distin
guished from their nomina vicis.

S) The Nomina Loci e( Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time.

221. The nouns called v_jJaJ! iUJ (nomina vasis),
or jjLc-Jl; (jKiJ! *Ua,! (nontina loci et temporis), are
formed after (he analogy of the Imperfect Active of the first
form of the verb, by substituting the syllable 1 for the pre
fixes, and giving the second radical fetha, if the Imperfect
has fetha or damma, but kesra, if the Imperfect has kesra.
E. g. OJ-&* a place for drinking, a reservoir or water-
trough, from k_>wCi to <&/&, imperf. vyr-kJj J^-* the time
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 119

qx place for watering (camels), from Jl$3 to dra&, imperf. Jl^Ij ;

cI^sjc *#<? & when, or /?/< where, one is thrown down
or slain, from cj_e to throw down, imperf. cj->oj; v_JdCo
/?& wfortf writing is taught, a school, from wJcS' to
write, imperf. v_*j>; -j^ anu" iM-doc, a place of egress
and ingress, from -^yi to go out, imperf. _ljbo, and JlL.3
to go in, imperf. JJ.Ju; ^1^ the place where, or time
when, several persons sit, room, assembly, parly, conver
sation, from (jUia. to sit, imperf. (j^Xso ; Juoax the place
aimed at or made for, aim, intention, from dJaS to 0?a&<?
/o/-, <w <z/, intend, imperf. JuaJu.
Rem. a. These nouns are called i_jjiJ! *l |W | , because
fc'm* and jj/<ir are, as it were, the vessels in which the act or stale
is contained.
Rem. b. Twelve of these nouns, though derived from verbs in
which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma, take, not
withstanding, kesra ; viz.
1. .ysff the place where a camel is slaughtered.

where one rests his elbow, the elbow.

s -
3. <X^o ofprayer, a mosque,
A |S -
where anything falls,

where one dwells, habitation,

ft ?. - where the sun rises, the east,

7. (ZUai of ascent or rising,

9 -
where the sun sets, the west.
120 Pari Second. Etymology or Ihe Paris of Speech.
8 o-
9. ij'r*-0 ... of division, in particular, where the hair
divides in different directions, the crotvn
of the head.
10. ouojc . . . where a plant grows.
s -
11. yitLo . . . where the breath passes through the nose,
the nostril.
12. viLwuuo . . . where a sacrifice is offered during a religious
Of Ihese, nos. 5, 7, 9, 11, and 12, may be pronounced with
fetha, and the same license is extended by some grammarians to all
, T So- Go
the rest. Instead of . *\ : * some say y&Juo .

Rem. c. The same c'ass of nouns exists in the other Shemitic

languages. In Hebrew, the vowel of Ihe first syllable has frequently
been weakened into and ; as 2H\tfC 35JC (2UjO), DlpD
T I - t- t:- It

(OJJ3D), 23-1D (Zf^), -13-10 (1^5^), H2TO Ola^).

222. Nouns of time and place, formed from verba primae

rad. ^ et ^, retain the first radical, even though it be
rejected in the Imperfect of the verb (. 142, 144), and
have invariably kesra in the second syllable. E. g. JusLo
the time or place of a promise or appointment, fixed time
' - '.-So-.
or place , from Jusi to promise, imperf. Juts; .**?* the
place where anything is put, a place, from 'mj>l to put
> - - s o- ^"
down, to place, imperf. ^oj ; J^yi a />/<? //</ is dreaded,
* ' ' - o-
from Jus.; /# fe afraid, imperf. j\&..j.
223. Those formed from verba mediae rad. . et ^
undergo changes analogous to those suffered by the Imperfect
of the verb (. 150); that is to say, after the second radical
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjective. 121

lias taken fetha or kesra, according to . 221, this vowel

is thrown back upon the vowelless first radical, and the .
or ^ is changed into the homogeneous letter of prolonga
tion (I or ,). E. g. JJx (Ijix) place of standing, place,
from jili to stand, imperf. ^yb (ppO; yoUto (yo^*)
diving -place, from ^JoVk to dive, imperf. JouC* (yoLiu);
vjLioo (<jLdaJo) and <*-}\~$x (^_>JLgJe), a place that is dreaded,
from oLL to fear, imperf. ol=2 (oysl), and t^jlje /<? /r/-,
s s
imperf. kjLgj (vIaa^S); <J^* (J^***) /'&' #/" resting at
mid-dag, from Jl_5 /to s/<?<^ / mid-dag, imperf. JuJb (JuJb);
jixLLo (SjJLe) hollow place, a cave, from .li /o be hollow,
to sink, imperf. \yJu (\Ju)-
224. Those formed from verba tertiae rad. . et ^
follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jii from the same
verbs (. 213). E. g. ^5^0* (^saJLc) place of refuge,
from l.svi to escape, imperf. jsJl>; ^r* (<*y*) pasture-
ground, from if. , /o pasture or ^raze? , imperf. _tjj ;
*q~ 9 - .. --"
^.juo (^yix) //'^ j/tff<? where one slops, from ^j /# stoj),
imperf. ^^aj; ^ Uo (^iLc) do., from ^1 to ^0 or resort
/# place, imperf. (C.L; ^5*^ (^jiajo) ////, from ^Js
to fold, imperf. |Ciaj; ,5*** (ic***) a bend, frm {S*2 1
bend, imperf. .-*
225. Nouns of lime and place not un frequently lake
the feminine form g_; as &Jl&x time or place of occupation,
business ; jLelciJe /ta />/c<? where cattle, etc., arc watered;
xjw^jo ///f /ww*/ /" </ sword with which the Mote is struck,
122 Pari Second. Elymology or the Paris of Speech.

the edge ; sClix (s^ix) a cave; sLclx (SUel) pasturc-

ground. If derived from a strong verb, the second rad.
generally has in this case damma instead of fctha ; as
j-<Jw cemetery, Sjlioo place for drinking, banqueting room.
Some nouns have even three forms; as iXL^x a place
where people perish, a desert. Peculiar is iLia/c, the place
where a thing is supposed to be, from "Lis to think,
suppose, imperf. .jiaj.
226. Some nouns of time and place, derived from verba
primae rad. . et ^, take the form JliJLe (see .228). E.g.
o"3y.x time of birth, from jj: to bear ; oULyo appointed
time for the fulfilment of a promise, from j^: to promise ;
ci>ULyo appointed time, from ^*ij /<o /f # lime.
227. The nouns of time and place from the derived
forms of the trilileral verb, or from the quadrilileral, are
identical in form with the nomina patientis or passive part i-
ciples. E. g. Jk^ax />/?<? 0/ prayer ( J^o /0 /ray) ;
J^.Joe //? place through which, or //><? time when, one, is
made to enter (J^Lo! to make one enter); o^aax place or
time of returning (o^-oil to return) ; ^xJLo />/ or time
of meeting (^kxJ\ to meet); t^jLwe the first day o/ the
- <. ~ s ' , >
<o//m (JX$JI J^iI //* new moon appeared).

t) The Nomina Instrument or Nouns that indicate the

228. The nouns which denote the instrument that one
uses in performing the act expressed by a verb, are called
in Arabic sJ5M iU*J, nomina instrument. They have the
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjective. 123

forms Jam, JIjuw, and iXslx, and are distinguished from

(lie nouns of place and time by the kesra with which the
prefixed * is pronounced. E. g. &xi* or _lii!*, a key,

from ^xi to open; qom (for ya-ajix) and ^tvif, a pair

of scissors, from yai' and ^e J> to cut; $ JL* , /7<//<e or

halter , from 5li /o /<?ffrf; (j'Cye Cor j')^^ a ^a^ance or

/ra/r of scales, from ^v: to weigh; ryj* and t^-'^y*-, a fan,

from _L to Wow (of Uie wind); i&SLe, a broom, from

^ to sweep; SlSZ* (for 'iSsl*), a staircase or ladder, from

^jfT to mount.
Rem. t. A very few have the form JuuLe or &JuuL ; as
Js^Suuo, ><?, from J-fcv< to s/J; Jue, threshing machine,
a mallet, from .so fo pound or crush.

Rem. 6. The corresponding Hebrew nouns have and , as

well as -, in Ihe first syllable; e. g. p"VO, ETIj3^C, jS.TC,
nnsp, ppqtc. *

f) The Nomina Agenlis et Patientis.

229. The nouns which the Arab Grammarians call
J-cLUl ili*J, nomina agentis, and JjiiJ! iUJ, nomina
patientis, are not participles, since they do not of them
selves express the idea of a fixed time, but verbal
adjectives, i. e. adjeclives derived from verbs. They have
their name, not from their own signification, or that of the
verb from which they are derived, but from the voice from
124 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

which they are formed. For example, *3ls and Jkllc are
called nomina agentis, though the former comes from a
neuter verb (to stand), and the latter from one that has a
passive sense (to be arranged).
Rem. Verbal adjectives often become in Arabic, as in other
languages, substantives.
230. The verbal adjectives, derived from the first form
of the triliteral verb, have two principal forms, namely, the
nomen agentis, JlcU, and the nomen patientis, JjjuLc.
E. g. v-ajIS' writing, a secretary, from v_*JU to write, i_jjijCo
written, from C*xf; *i>LL serving, a servant, from 15S-
to serve, AjtViff served, a master, from *ji*.; f*>->

judging, a judge, from IX&. & judge; ^K to'??^, from jjfc'

to be; OyA-lx found, existing, from tXa.. ; ^y^ '#<

from jjjL.
Rem. JkcLi is Ihe Aram, btop, "Vjus, and Heb. btip (with

o for a). The form J jjuLc does not occur in either of these languages,
the Heb. using instead of it ?'t3p = Jjjii , and the Aram. ?'Cp =
Ju*i (see . 232 rem. b).

231. Besides these, there are other verbal adjectives

derived from the first form of the verb, of which the
following are the principal.

Jkii Jub

Jjls JJii

J*i JJii
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 125

Jlii (j^**
cilia lO^**
JkAJtS lO^*

232. Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs,

and express, partly, a quality inherent and permanent in a
person or thing, which is their most usual signification
(see . 38), and, partly, a certain degree of intensity.
Examples: v_>jLo difficult, from vloui; v_><Xc sweet, from
l1<J-c: y^y^s- handsome, from % v> ; j^: rough, from

^5; ^i <?<W, from ^s; ^a. wr;y, from ^^; iaju

or iaij, awake, from Jajy ; ^Ju or ^Ju, intelligent,

- _ s - s
from ^iXj; J^. /<ytf, coarse, fat, from Ji.; ,j<> /?,

$*, from jj 5; (.JLo Adrrf, from vljLa; Ilk. wwC, from

pL.; Ix bitter, from Jo; JJ^ blunt, from 1^; ^Lla.

cowardly, from ,j-s?.; pLsui brave, from *^-; J I Us

and Jo^b, foff^, ///, from Jib; *o> compassionate, mer

ciful, from *^J; >-*** tight, from oli.; ^*& numerous,

, from jiT; v_>. jy addicted to lying, from Ljj^; J^l ^/W-

tonous , from J^l; J.y> or Jjj', talkative, from Jls;
jjl-Xu. drunk, from yCI; J^LlAc angry, from u^r;

(TjLcJO repentant , from *<X3; cJ^Jr* nuked, from ^.x. ;

1 26 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.
I - * - * rf ^ ? - c .-
v_)J^>l humpbacked, from i-jfcXi.; *-ef /*, from ^;

j^=>.f rtfrf; t>l*J black.

Rem. . The forms Juts and ^^kii, as also JulsI, when

it denotes a colour or deformily, arc chiefly derived from neuter
verbs of the form Juii, JuLu; whilst neuter verbs of the form
Juii , Jjuu , generally give rise to the adjectives JJLs and Julj.

Rem. ft. JuuuT, when derived from transitive verbs, lias usually
*> >e- 8 -
a passive sense ; as J.tU> j?m = J.XJLc , *^r^. wounded =
s > - "j '' 8 i^
?raS>. The same is sometimes the case with Jjjii , as i_5
s ', 9 >^
ridden upon, i_>JL&i milked, J.-w wf, " messenger.

Rem. c. The same adjectives, but more especially those of the

form JjAi , often indicate either a very high degree of the quality
which their subject possesses, or an act which is done with frequency
or violence by their subject ; and hence they are called SuAj I
- j*-e
SJkJLxiJ I , intensive forms.

Rem. rf. Many of these forms exist in Heb. and Aram, (see
Gesenius' Heb. Gr. 83,1.); e. g. tej? = Jjls, ")ej?=Jk*,

Tbj5 = Juii, 7IBJ3 = Jyii, ?>Cf) = JkA*i, etc.

233. From verbal adjectives of lite form J^U, as well
as from some others, is derived an adjective JL*S, which
approaches very nearly in meaning to |L*i and Jo^x**
since it adds to the signification of its primitive the idea of
inlensiveness or of habit. Hence it is called XiJUJf **J,

Mi? o of inlensiveness. E. g. JJ'I eating, Jfl glutton

11. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 127
G,*5- o * - g y -
J^TI; ^'oJ6 'y'^' v-stjjf ff (habitual) liar = ^.SS;
0 ** s fi *
|JLe knowing, learned, ..iLe twy learned.
Rem. a. The nouns which indicate professions and trades
have usually this form ; as X*L.abaker, ic\Z^L. a tailor, .Lsvi
a carpenter, gLa'S water-carrier, JL^a. a porter. Compare in
Heb. and Aram. K'2V\ , 2H, n2E2, n're, ^C, etc. Gcscnius'
Heb. Gr. . 83. I. 6.
Rem. b. To some adjectives of this form the termination si is
s ^ s .-
added, which gives still greater force to the meaning; as iLoi^
exceedingly learned, juL^uj profound genealogist, JtlLaLT
^rrotf traveller, xA oi very quick of comprehension, xgl ,~^
v_aaXJ| a great collector of books. The same termination is more
rarely appended to the adjective J^eli, as .1. oiw who hands down
poems or historical facts by oral tradition, Xj.K; ti> crafty,
*- ' - I- 1 L
iUffto; x*i'U clever, crafty (compare in Heb. P^np from ,Hp);
or to Jjls , as i&fAA taunting another person with favours con-
*l .' ' -
ferred, xj.jS" ?yw^ JLLJLo Jnvrf /) disgusted with.
Rem. <. Other intensive adjectives, less common than JLii,

arc Jlxi, JkA*i, Okxi, and J^i or J\xi . E. g. ,jLa.

very handsome, Lo tvry far^f, tf.J one who devotes himself to

//(C Sfurfy o/" (A sacred writings; ^_^yJ& and *j*m , drunken,

6 - G . * ' o _ .
JuJLa going astray, wandering, {jajyC fond of opposition, a^
9- G, - J '
boastful , (Sjji^a truthful; y tp*^ breaking in pieces, crushing
?o Ms, jijT^P , Sx.j , prone to laughter, to sleep, Kaiic always
Go- 0 4- G * - 6 * >
on the watch; .s.j fc'nVf, *yii> everlasting, ^.Jo or i^.tXi',

mosr Ao/y, - yj* or _wu, greatly to be praised. On the other

1 28 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

hand, Jutiw , JIaa* , and Jui*ax , are, slriclly speaking, sub

stantives (nomina instrumenti), but used metaphorically as adjectives
to mean "doing something like a machine, mechanically, and therefore
invariably (habitually)". E. g. jl^ or ,lt-^J thrusting with
9 .- o 6, .- a . 9^ 9. ,
the spear, j<A (?* or , fLV a e, talking nonseme, p*'** or JiUj
9.^ ? 8 - o 9. - i,
very hospitable, .jLeJuc docile, .!jjL/8 toW, daring, -LiCc or
8 5 . . Ii.'i si" . O^-o
^jJCXjo, talkative, Ajojuo or ^jjqjtic , using perfumes, ..^jS^ujo

poor (pCC, ji^sjsie). Sometimes (he intensive termination 1 is

added; as jLclcXiix, 5>l<Xg^-

234. From verbal adjectives with three radicals, or with

three radicals and a letter of prolongation, are derived
adjectives of the form JJiit, which have the signification of
our comparative and superlative, and are therefore called
Juual}t 111, the noun of preeminence, or Joualill Joiit,
the form afalu denoting preeminence. E. g. ^J*^. beauti
ful, (j-U.| more or most beautiful ; ^s ugly, js\ uglier,
Rem. Of Ihis form there remain only a very few traces in Hebrew,
none in Aramaic. Such are: 21DN lying, false (of a stream that dries
9 is
up in summer), from 213 = ui)o; "11ZN fierce, cruel, perhaps
8 .5
connected with ^B breaking in pieces; irvx (for ItVjSI) lasting,
perennial, = .jj't j ; and even these have lost their original signification
as comparatives and superlatives. Sec Gesenius' Hcb. Gr. . 117,
note *.

235. No Ju^oiJl *L\ can be formed from the verbal

adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms of the
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 129

verb, nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or de-

> ,0*
formities (because they are themselves of the form Jutil).
If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the
qualities expressed by such adjectives, we must prefix to
the corresponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives
Jc&l stronger, M.<>- \ more beautiful or excellent, ^s-o'l
uglier, SL. better, ^ worse, and the like. E. g. Juil
ji^L (stronger as to redness) redder; \ljq\Jz U*-L3' 'A I
(more excellent as to teaching and training) a belter teacher
and trainer. This form of expression is sometimes employed
where a simple comparative might have been used; as
* -? %, - - it?; ' ' -ii! <" ,!.' \> .--of
Jo&! j I S.LsviK lg$i <i*Jj> *Xj ^ f*^"* owii |ws
JLls, M?, fl/?r //*<#, yowr hearts became hard, like stones,
or <?#<? harder (lit stronger as to hardness), where tX*i|
jjlli = ^5*-^' (el-Kor'an II. 65).
236. The verbal adjectives formed from the active and
passive voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb,
and from the quadrilileral verb, are the following.

Triliteral Verb.
Act. Pass. Act. Pass.

11. Juujo JjuLc VII. J-juU-o JJuLijO

6 - -
f o>

V. JJla^o JJtCAX X.

VI. J*xULc XI. JULLo ....

1 30 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

Quadriliteral Verb.

I. ijjuuix JJjlLo 111. JSXxaa JJUjlLs


Rem. a. The characteristic vowel of the second radical is the

same in all these verbal adjectives as in the corresponding Imperfects,
excepting- the active adjectives of the1 fifth and sixth forms of the tri-
literal verb and the second form of the qnadrililcral, in which the second
radical has _ instead of _.

Rem. b. The prcformative .. lakes in Arabic the vowel _, in

Heb. and Aram. (e. g. bttpv, ^t?p!? = ^tOpHO, ^tSpHC =
"fine), but the Aclhiopic seems to have retained the original vowel
in its prefix tf3! ma (connected with ^Je who?), as tf'U^O '.
maammez) oppressor (DCPI , Vti~), d^Klrif'. (makwannen) judge
(j^DC), <F"i<^'. (manafek) sceptic, heretic ((Jjlli), <PQ<)X".
(mared) causing to tremble, dreadful (JLft^, TJPC), ^4^Cf
Imafri) fruitful (n~lD) , ^fl'l,<?3ihC ' (masla'mher) imploring
meraj(^s.yXj^jo), ^TClXf*'. (malargwem) an interpreter ( _~- ^ Xx)

237. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba

mediae rad. geminatae, the mles laid down in . 120 are
to be observed. Hence, ^oLc becomes 5Uo (see . 1 3 rem.) ;
,.**,* s1 i ' '"

238. In the formation of verbal adjectives from the

verba hemzata, the rules laid down regarding those verbs
(. 131 6) are to be observed. Hence we write J>\ for
J$H (. 135), Joll for JOl (. 133), vJ^J or J,^ for
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 131

o^U, |V**J for jvj^, 4l^o for ^jILo (. 133), Jyc for

pt (. 131).
Rem. | preceded by kesra becomes .g; as _juo for LjLff-

239. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba

primae rad. ^, the rule laid down in . 147 must be ob-
served; as j^yo for *-*yyo.

240. In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba

mediae rad. . et ^, the place of the middle radical is
occupied by a ^ with hemza (arising, according to . 133,
out of \); as Joli (for Jltf), JsUL (for JUL), instead of
- 9 -
Jjlii, >-;U.

Rem. This rule docs not apply to the verbs mentioned in . 160,
which retain their middle radical unchanged; as j.Lft, JoLo.

241. In the nomina patientis of the first form of verba

mediae rad. ., the middle radical is elided, after throwing
back its damma upon the preceding vowelless letter; as
^ydaJo, for ojjiaJo, from oyJx*. The same thing takes
place in verba mediae rad. ^, with this difference, that (to
indicate the elision of the radical ^) the damma is changed
into kesra, and, in consequence, the . productionis into a
^; as mjjJi, instead of ;-yo, from pj*I*-

Rem. In many of these verbs, however, the regular form of the

.... 9 > o - 9 > ^
nomen patientis is also admissible; e. g. ^^yieue and ^m^ojo from
e,0^ o , 9, . 9
/jLfl, SoyAJOui and ioj^x from JoLL, J^Xo and JaJCo
from J Ij'.
1 32 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.
242. Verbal adjectives of the form Juoii, derived from
verba mediae rad. . et ^, become by transposition Jk**3,
and then pass into JJi, which is in its turn frequently
shortened into jJi. E. g. oyyo or ouyo, dead, for yy^-yo,

JLoji (^Ai); ^ or y^j, soft, easy, for ^^aIJ, ^^1

(>^)> (^** or (j4* "**#> contemptible (J^ya); oili or

v_iIS, exceeding (vJLj.5); Jt3, blight Cj*S); *,!*> wicked

243- Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba

mediae rad. } et ^ follow the same rules as their Imperfects.
244. The nomina agentis et palientis of the first form
of verba ultimae rad. ^ et ^ have already been mentioned
(. 167, II. 2, and . 170). Verbal adjectives of the forms
cLxj and J^uii are treated according to the same rules as
'" . 2' , g
the nomina
2 ,
patientis (. 170);8,2,
e. g. .<Xt an enemy, ~*i
unjust, ^ym generous, noble, (_yo foy, ^, captive, for
9 > , 0 >, G , 0 , G
^<^c> l5?*?> ^?T**" ^W""0, <&*+"' "
245. In all adjectives derived from verba tertiae rad.
et ^, if the second radical be pronounced with fetlia,
the ^ and ^ (which is converted into ^) reject their vowel
or tenwfn, and assume the nature of the elif maksura (. 7,
rem. 6). If the form be one that admits of complete
declension, the tenwfn is transferred to the second radical.
According to this rule are formed: 1) the nomina patientis
of the derived forms, as Jp for Jp, (JoLi for .Jew*,
^JaLo for tit* (jJojLo); 2) adjectives of the form JJLll, as
I. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjective. 133

^1 for ^1, ^^ for JL^I (jA)\). Compare . 190.

I. 2, and II. 2.

b. The D e n o m i n a l i v e Nouns.
r) The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote the Individual.
246. The SiX&yl *U*.|, or nouns of individuality,
designate one individual out of a genus, or one part of a
whole that consists of several similar parts. Tliey are formed,
like the analogous nomina vicis (. 219), by adding the
termination 1 to the nouns that express the genus or
whole. E. g. iLcUa. a pigeon, from -Ua. pigeons, with
the article, -U2J, the genus pigeon or the whole number
of pigeons spoken of; slsc 5 a bit of gold, a nugget, from
<_fcS6iJ> gold; klo 0 straw, from (jJLi' straw.
Rem. Similar forms in Heb. are : 1JN, iTON; p. DIM; 1J/TS',
rriytT; TV?, iTVtt'. See Gcscnius' Heb. Gr. . 105, 3, e.

/?) The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multiludinis.

247. The SwVXJ! U~I, or nouns of abundance,
designate the place where the object signified by the noun
from which they are formed, is found in large numbers or
quantities. They have the form aJLiuLo, more rarely JJtli,
and are, consequently, a mere variety of the nouns of place
8 - -f - * -
(.221). E.g. ijJulLo, <Jjti> or jUjLwo, JjLsswo or sJli^x,
iusjjo, KKxwtx, ff ///f<? abounding in lions (<Xf), /oavw
(v_JLaj, 7JJ1B'), beetles (Juts*), wolves (v_a26), beasts ofprey
(m^); X-fcvfo**, sliiLe, a bed of melons (.^jJoj) , cucumbers
134 Pari Second. Elymology or Ihc Paris of Speech.

y) The Nomina Yasis or Nouns denoting (he Vessel tliat

contains anything.

248. The noinina vasis, el^JI *L_wl, have the same

form as the noinina instrument (.228); e. g. jjdx a needle-
case, from s'.j # needle ; ^J^ a milkpail, from v_*X&. or
v_>juL^. w/7/i- ; ^^JU a milkpail, from (jjj ///, or a brick-
mould, from il*J /veA\
Rem. A very few lake Ihe form JoLLe or SLXxjLc (see . 228
g > G o > g -. > i,>
rem.); as ^jrjoe oiljar, from ,.jJCj oiV; aJ.S\JL* a phial
/br keeping kohl or cyesalve (JlSXJ ), to be carefully distinguished
9 ' .6
from J^SXjCo , <* iz/ (Juuc) or instrument with which it is applied
to the eye.

d) The Nomina Relativa or Relative Adjectives.

' - ' L . O-O ~_ a fo.
249. The relative adjectives, Sj^UCII iU-w^l, or simply
wLLLpt (relationes), are formed hy adding the termination
Jj_ to the nouns from which they are derived, and denote
that a person or thing belongs to or is connected therewith
(in respect of origin, family, birth, sect, trade, etc.). E. g.
"LoJ earthly, from ^j>A the earth; ,r|'A >/r, from

L)*MJi //< am; ^-uL&. descended from Hasan (^^1&.);

_^uj' belonging to the tribe of Tem'im {**+2); ^JLiuci born
or ot / Damascus ({&*&); ^v-a* Egyptian, from
LJL5 Egypt; ^SjL, a freedman of Sad (jJLl); [^JU
scientific, from |JLc knowledge, science; {Ju^. one who
I. Tlio Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 1 35

belongs to the sect of the Hanefitcs, so called from llieir

founder Abu Hanlfa (&&*>.&. ._>!); Jo Jo from JuJc, fcff^;

Rem. a. The nomina rclaliva are chiefly formed from substan

tives and adjectives, but in more modern Arabic, and especially in the
language of the schools, from the oilier kinds of nouns, and even
from particles (see . 191).
Rem. b. The nomina rclativa derived from adjectives properly
express "belonging to the class designated by such and such an
Rem. c. This termination is common in Heb. (m. i , f. p|'
and n1 5, as >;N~t2" Israelite, ''"UJ7 Hebrew, vpj strange. In
Aelhiopic, i is generally used to form certain adjectives which are de
rived from oilier adjectives; as rh/nfl." (Iiarrasi") a ploughman, d^Oih".
(mahhari) compassionate, from the obsolete filZntl'. (= iijlT^,
tfT) and tf3'*lC"" whilst ami and ay are the usual relative termi
nations; as (f.S'Ai'E: (medrawi) terrestrial, 5lCtfl*i:JPlr<E: (kres-
ttyan'iwf) Christian, h'Z'. (ayyawi) or Ai.PJ?! (ayyay) Me (from
}\J'. ay, of what kind? which?). The Aram, has the last of these
forms, viz. i , ^_, in general use; as i~\$C Egyptian, , ..t^
250. In forming the nomina relativa, (lie primitive
nouns undergo various changes in regard to the auxiliary
consonants, to the final radicals . and ^, and to the

I. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants.

251. The feminine termination gl, Xj_, and jb_, are

rejected ; as iSZa Mekka, JlCc ; kikJU Malatya, ^kJUo ; xlLjue
Sicily, J^iua ; S Jlc a promise, <j;tXx .
1 36 Pari Second. Etymolosry or the Parts of Speech.
s '
Rem. In the case of nouns which, like SJ^e , have lost their first
radical, if the third radical be a weak Idler, the first must he restored
o- S -
and the second take fetha; as i^ui (from <), ,e -<*> (on ,ne
second see . 258 and foil.).

25'2. 1) The feminine termination ^1 is rejected in

nouns that have four or more letters, besides the ^; as
^Lo. a bustard, ^sL^. But if the nouns ending in ^_
fem. have only three letters besides the ^, two cases are
to be distinguished, a) If the second letter has a vowel,
the ^5 is rejected; as ^Cia. a swift camel, ^\'tj- b) If the
second letter is without a vowel, the ^ may either be
rejected (which is preferable), or changed into . ; as JJL&-
pregnant, JJU* or ^JLla.. 2) The letter ^ is likewise
rejected in nouns that contain four or more letters besides
the y&, if it belongs neither to the root nor the feminine
termination, but is what (he Arab grammarians call i_aJI
(jLi.il I or the appended elif (i. e. which gives to the word
to which it is appended the form of a feminine noun, with
out, however, its being actually of that gender); as tJv*^-
a bug or tick, (lsl*a.. But if such nouns have only three
letters besides the ^ , it may either be changed into . (which
is preferable), or rejected altogether; as lJ&- a sort of
heath, ^^iJLc or (5AJLt.
Rem. Later and corrupt forms are ,e.jU*&. and ^.Uu >
with long a before the . .
253. The termination ^_ of a relative adjective falls
way when a new relative adjective is to be formed from it;
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 137

as (jtiLi aSafiile, one of the sect of e's-Safii (^il&Jt);

libjif Afincan, from xlij.il Africa.

254. The plural terminations -j._ and y|_, and the

dual termination ^C, are rejected in proper names; as
' c. S , 9 ',o So . .. o^ So,
tV*^}' 15*^?) > y'<^**' i^S^*1?' (J*-"***' l5*****

Rem. a. Foreign names of towns, ending in .jj_, sometimes

change this termination in Arabic into /T_. at other limes retain it.
In the former case the termination is rejected, in the latter it is pre-
Jos,. Soe 9 o a 3 o
served ; as ~..jmJ3 Atnnesrm, ^jj^SS , but .j^ywUJ , -teytJJi ;

--. - -
/Tj.aa jti ' Nistbis, _*juflj, but .jjiAjy^j, < jj ** a,i

Rem. ft. Some proper names, chiefly foreign, are very irregular

in their formations ; e. g. Sj-aa-i, i*> *-=>; )^***J ^St*^ t&y' i

8 ,- >o.-o. S^ofo. I - rf>l ' i? "" ' "

e * , -- ci -

Tiberias, J>JJ&> ; .^LaOuu.ol, ^c?;^'- We may, however, use

S 2o-o So, S.^o s-
^jjy*., ^g. <vh<nl , ^5v> ^jlXo^. ^ty. makes cither

jsi'^ or tf^-

Rem. c. Quite peculiar are: ^Li (with the art. -xLfcJl),

fcm. juxLw , from ..LiJI Syria, and ^X+i (with the art. _jLaJI),
O- ^^ ^^- S f" " 3
fern. xajL+j, from \t H Yemen; instead of _*Li and ^j
which are also used.

255. The letter ^ in the forms aJLti and silii, when

not derived from verba mediae rad. geminatae or infirmae
\ 18
1 38 Part Second. Etymology or (he Parts of Speech.

(. or ^), is rejected, the kesra of JL*i being at the same

time changed into fetha; as Swvil Mesopotamia, &y*\

JUjJkiJI cl-Mcdina, ,-jJue; -Ui* /<//>, .-***; SJ>xg!>

Guhaina (a tribe), j-a^- . But, if they come from verba

mediae rad. geminatae or mediae . vel ^, they remain
5- - 8 .. S - -
unchanged; as &US.&. reality, Jai^; SJocXa. a piece of

iron, J^Jo<X&.; ^j^> ^jp*?, JlAj^b; &I**i small jug,

JkjJLs. In the forms Jyui and Juii, the ^ is rejected

only when the third consonant of the radical is .or ^;
o 8--B- S - - 2 ^ >
as ^<X* (a tribe), ^<Xt; ^ (a tribe), &y\ ^a2 (a

man), ;5vai>- Otherwise it remains unchanged, as J^uifc

(a man), J^oi&i; J4^c (a tribe), I^SjLz.
Rem. a. There are, however, some exceptions to these rules.
o- - 2 - s- - 2
E.g. SaxaJs nature, jl*j3o; &ojwo a city, ^ajcXx (to dislin-

guish it from ^Joo, belonging to el-Medina); ifkjJi , JotXff,

g<^> 2 -> , , g T, s _
I*aJL, names of tribes, ^yS, JtVff, (5*A*; &fc (a tribe),
i , 2
-XXc . 8(C^* ' a ProPnet> makes (Cj^j , from the assimilated
form ^.
0 6
Rem. ft. Words of the form jJi (for JuuJ, . 242) from
radicals mediae . el {g, reject the second ,g along with its vowel
kesra, or in other words follow the shorter form Jui ; as -xxb from
vJJ^is joorf. Cut ? Jo (a tribe) has l5l.b.

256. The ^ produclionis of the nomen patientis in verba

tertiae ^ may be rejected, and the radical ^ changed into
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. f 39

, whilst (he kesra of the second radical becomes fetha; as

"_x)jjc thrown, Jsv***- But the better mode of formation is
to reject both the ^ productionis and (he radical ^, so
that the relative adjective coincides in form with the nomen
patientis, ^y-

257. Lastly, the . productionis in the forms Jyu and

jLL*3, derived from verba lerliae } (.244) is rejected, and
g _
the second radical takes felha instead of damma; as .dS
0 ' - s - -
(for *jiXe) an enemy, (j<Xc-

II. Changes of (he Final Radicals . and ^.

258. The elifima/csiira (| or ^ , . 7 rem. b), as the third

radical of a trilitcral noun, is changed into . before adding
the termination J^_; as ^jiS a youth, JjJci; Lox a staff',
Jjj^ai ; ^5 jo a w/ie, J^ji . But if the noun has four
letters, the Dnal ^5 (I does not occur in such words in good
Arabic) may either be changed into ., which is the better
form, or be rejected ; as t_^JL/> a musical instrument, (5-^Lo
or JLglf ; ia*x meaning, ^yjJuo or ^loLo- If the noun
contains five or more letters, (he ^ is always rejected; as
*C.~' chosen, nfc-A-" The same rules apply to
the final ^ of radicals tertiae . el ^, which falls away
in some nouns after kesra (see . 167. II. 2); but it must
be borne in mind that the missing ^ is to be counted as
one of the letters of (he word, and also, if it be changed
into ., that the kesra always becomes fella. E. g. *i
140 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech,

(for ^) blind, &^*k\ (for {g$r) sorrowful, &f$!\ ^li

(for ^Is) judge, ^^d\Ji or J-oli: c\*/> (for ^tXJiiJo)

o who is hostile or unjust, ^iXiiLc.

Rem. Such forms as ^.Ldtio, for ^yijw, are modern

and corrupt.

259. The hemza of the termination i|_l (the elif nwm-

diida, . 23 rem. ), when it marks the feminine gender,
is always changed into . ; as *Ljx virgin, ^.Kj*.;
*Ldl*J! (a town in Persia), ^jL^Ju. If the hemza be
neither the feminine termination, nor a radical letter, but the
so-called ,jLL}M Swff (see . 252, 2), or if it be a
radical letter, but sprung from an original . or ^, it
may either be retained unaltered, or changed into }; as
sUJU a large sinew in the neck, ^s.L*JU or ^.UJU;
tL^, (rad. Ul to be high) heaven, ^tX^Z, or Jj.l^. If,
on the contrary, the hemza be an original T, it always
remains unaltered; as %\ Ji (rad. |j), ^tlJi.
Rem. From ilwOJ (a tribe) is formed <1- a <, and from
tUtLflJt (a city in Yemen), ^jAjuJe.
260. Primitive defective substantives, i. e. those which
have lost their third weak radical, as v_,|, ^.1, ,*&., si),
Si), etc., necessarily recover it only in cases where it
reappears in the dual and plural; but if this reappearance
be not necessary, the third radical may be omitted in the
relative adjective. In all cases where the third radical is
restored, it appears as . whether it was originally ^ or
H. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjeclivc. 141

rio*. E. g. v_>! (rad. .jl, dual ^\yi\) a father, &yi\; ^\

-^* ' 8 , * 9
(rad. ji.t, du. ^I^i.1) brother, ^^i.1; **J (rad. yd) fl

dialect, JjyLJ; ^jI (rad. ^5aj, du. ,jQjI) w, ^xj| or

g - 3^3-
^yj; Jo (rad. ^Jo, du. ^tju) tf //#</, ,5 Jo or ^Jo.
s*. St. So*-
Rem. oo>i, a sister, and oub, admujhter, make y^j
S 3 - * '5 -- ^^^
and <jy_s . as well as ^ci>! and ^j-o-
261. The third radical ^ of the form Jots, and more
frequently of the form &1*1, is retained unchanged in some
nouns, as ^JSs a gazelle, _,Jib; whilst in others it is
changed into ., in which case the second radical takes
fetha, as jbJs a village, \Sy- "" me second radical
in such nouns be a . or ^ , combining with the third radical
into ^, this ^ is resolved into its original consonants, the
second radical takes fetha, arid final ,5 is converted into . ;
as JLk (for ^jJc) a fold, ^^o\ "^ (for ^5^.) ^r
g ^ g^ 60-' 3 --
Wi%<?, if^^a.; ^ (for ^xa.) //Wff^, ^^ .
8^9-;.- <>,,,, 9-:->
Rem. Nouns of the forms Jouti , &JLuu, JuLKi, iLLati, etc.
from verba teniae rad. . ct .< , reject the ^ produclionis and change
' a s _
a radical jc into . ; as .^Jus, ^.-Lc.. See . 255 6.

III. Changes in the Vocalisation.

262. In the form Jixi, the kesra of the middle radical
is changed into fetha; as JJLc a king, t-XXc. But in the
form J**, the kesra may be retained, for the sake of asso-
9 g
nance with the preceding vowel; as Jo! camels, Jol or
142 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.
2 - -
Jot. In Juts, the felha may either be retained or changed
into kosra; as .^jlc grapes, ^aJLc or ^u*.
Rem. In nouns that consist of more than three consonants, the
vowel of the penultimate letter is not altered. An exception is
i^JLii' (a tribe), which makes 1 * '< in preference to ^JUu.

263. Kesra or damina of the penultimate consonant is

changed into felha in all forms in which a . or ^ has
been rejected, or in which a final ^ has been changed
, -, g g _ g _,
iulo^ ; as s*?v4>'> t5;>^-' 15-*^ > iS>**- (see the preceding .).
In nouns of the form Jjti, in which the last consonant is
a ., the gezma may either be retained, or replaced by fetha;
9 - , , , 2 ' - o o.- 2 c-
as .Jo /fa? desert, ^.do; *i grammar, ^^si.
264. If a relative adjective is to be formed from a
proper name that is compounded of two words, the following
points must be attended to. I. If the two words form a
proposition, as \y& JajLi' {he caiTied mischief under his
arm, the nickname of a celebrated poet and warrior),
or are contracted into one compound word (^y> v-^y>
mixed compound) as viLJju, liULJls, the towns of Baalbek
and KalikaVa, then the second word is omitted, and the
termination Jj_ appended to the first; as U;U, Jou,
JLs. II. If the first word is in the slalus constructs,
governing the second in the genitive, two cases arise. 1) If
the governing word be one of the nouns >ot father, ^1
aw?, J mother, or oUj daughter, it is rejecled, and ^_
appended to the governed word ; as X ^j| Ab'u-Bikr, ^Jo;
ylJpl .\jf '/<& 'z-Zubeir, Jl. 2) If the first word be
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlivc and Adjective. 143

any oilier than these four, two secondary cases arise* a) If

the idea of deflniteness through the status constructus still
exists in the consciousness of (he speaker, as in liLe
. I w.A- 1 the slave of Hosein, the first word is rejected,
and the second takes ^_; as {SuM^. b) But if the idea
of deflniteness is no longer present to the mind of the
speaker, then: or) in cases where no uncertainly can arise
as to the person intended, Jg_ is attached to the first word,
and the second is omitted; as (j-JlS-'' *' is?**'' *-**'

fci'UDl (Camets-nose, nickname of a man), ^i>! ; .jjjJl "jti ,

^yu; *JLM cXaa*, ^5tW*5 Dut $ ^ uncertainty might
arise by so doing, the first is omitted, and the termination
added to the second: as J^ibfl J^t, J^&l; oLLo Ju^,

ti5>)U, Guadalajara in Spain, ^.L*:. s*jjl& *>\f

(a tribe) makes ^LLi or Jj^Li (from the assimilaled form

Rem. In many cases, however, more especially such as fall

under II. 2. b. u and (9, strange forms arise by the rejection of some
consonants, or (he combination into one word of a few letters (genc-
r.iily four) selected from the two nouns. E. g. ^ ^~>. from
j ~ -. w * . v. ,.

wye, ^i ^ Hadramaut; ^.J^Lc from Jjdl jJle (a family in

Mekka) ; ^*Ju from (j<*jlSJ I Juut (a tribe) ; *oa from
U*+M (Xle (a tribe); ^yi-yllaJ!, the name of a poet, whose
mother was from ^ULw^ik , and his falher from v..|.>. In
S . A a- . A r? > v^
later limes we meet with such words as ^^.jiw* from t>Jl *

(a town), j-JyiO from jj^l yd (a family in Spain), iXXejJLc

from JJ.4JI JuLe , ^XJLo^j from dUUo jj|, (cAa^j,

144 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

ignoramus (Fr. abicidaire), from tXsil abuged, the first four letters
of the alphabet (. 32j.
265. A relative adjective is. never formed from the
plural, even where the sense might seem to demand it, but
always from the singular; e. g. .Leli acquainted with the
laws, from Suu**i a law, plur. &)y>'i \S)'-'/2^ a sc^er
of mats, from y*^s> ff w<tf, plur. 1^&.. Such plurals,
however, as are either really proper names, or approximate
to them in sense, are excepted; e. g. .U3| (plur. of j*J a
leopard) the tribe of 'Anmar, ^.Uil; ^liXjl (name of a

city, properly the plur. of &LtXx), ^uljJi; jLaiSff //'<?

Helpers (of Mohammed, epithet of the tribes of kus, ^.^1,
and Hazrag, ^y>&-U at el-Medina), ^Laif.
R e m. In more modern Arabic, many relative adjectives are formed
from (lie p!urals of nouns that indicate the objects with which a person
usually occupies himself in his trade, studies, etc. E.g. l_JJO (plur.
of (.jUiT ) books, -xXj <* bookseller; v^jLftL (plur. of aLeLy*)
2 t *^ 6
watches, j'liU* a watchmaker; ^jt.^. (pi. of SLs!*^) wounds,

<u|.ft. a surgeon; \^j\Jue (pi. of SJlg) qualities, attributes, j'ULo

one who recognises in God attributes distinct from his essential nature.

266. Biliteral particles double their second consonant

before adding ^_, provided it be a weak letter; but if it
be a strong letter, this may be done, or not, at pleasure.
E. g- J if, i"J; "Show much? l^or L^ J (for Q)
2 '2 *
w^y? J1D or _J. If the second letter be a quiescent elif,
there is inserted between it and the termination Jj_ a hemza,
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 145

which may be changed at pleasure into a .; as if not,

S ' 5 - 2 -
(ceil or ic.bl. The pronoun Lc what? forms JjUo.
267. A younger relative termination, borrowed from
the Aramaic, and used chiefly in scientific writings, is ^A_C,
as >..,> fl</y, ^iUlla. (iVi>Q; ^^dij */, JliUJb (.i1ii);
_jp #w?/, ^U^ Ui-oi) ; ^y> >?*/, ^';jj 5 ^y external;
^jlA. internal.
,'S-e ~^o*
c) The Abstract Nouns of Quality, jUilC'l iULl.
268. The feminine of the relative adjective serves in
Arabic as a noun to denote the abstract idea of the thing,
as distinguished from the concrete thing itself; and also to
represent the thing or things signified by the primitive noun
as a whole or totality. It corresponds therefore to German sub
stantives in heit and kcit, or schaft and thum, and to English
ones in head, dom, ty, etc. E. g. B^frM the divine nature,

the Godhead {*}y'\ God); &Z*Zy\, xli-eJl, substantivity,

adjectivity, from ***t, a substantive, and uL^j, an adjee-
//<?; jUjsUJI the what, substance, quiddity (Li what?);
jb*UJf wateriness (sL* water)-, iilxli' totality; jUaaJCM ff#
///<// relates to books, the book-trade, etc.; ilil^\ what con
stitutes being a Hanifitc, the. sect of the Hanefites; jiAjllAUt
Christendom, the Christian religion; jb^gjJl Judaism.
o >
Rem. In a few cases the termination y._, borrowed from the
Aramaic m_, is similarly employed ; as ii>yi&b( divinity, (l^ooi-Sk.),

wyy-15 humanity (]2oXl] ), y^ilLo ry<% fllnnSv), i>j *<=>

omnipotence, etc.
146 Pari Second. Etymology or Ihc Paris of Speech.

.") The Diminutive.

.O-O , .
269. The diminutive, .ijl ^^i or jjjJaz}), when
formed from a Irilikral noun, lakes the form J>1*I; as
N_Jo </a^, v_*aJLJ: J4=- * MZ> Jy^?-- When the noun
is quadriliteral, it takes the form Juuju ; as v_, .JLt a scorpion,
LjyjJLe . When the noun is quinqucUlcral, but (lie fourth
letter a weak one, the diminutive is JkAfcuti ; as ,^c
sparrow, ^juuap..
Rem. a. In forming- a diminutive, it is not usual to fall back
upon the root-consonants. On the contrary, the servile letters are
generally taken into account, as long as the word docs not exceed the
P ., -?., ' "~f S|' 7 s. ->
formJ^Ajts; as j.J WW, OT-) y-Uajuo a mantle, "jf "

See however . 282.

Rem. *. The first syllable of the form Jyiai seems to have
been occasionally pronounced with kesra instead of damma; at least
the lexicographers mention such examples as ouy*J , aw (8 _*./),
oouUu, for o-uj, etc. This may be owing to the proximity of
the radical .c in these words.
Rem. c. There arc no certain traces of this diminutive form in
any of the other Shemilic dialects ; unless we consider as such :
jlE^Ett' the cerastes, a sort of snake (oLu), j'O'CN (from j'JCN,
a contemptuous diminutive, like JJai&.^ I), |v- v^ a youth, (*jJLt

from -}Le), and IL^aL a fawn, (Juji. from Jkx). In the case

of the two Hebrew words, the vowel i must be regarded as a

weakening of > (orig. i), like rpSj for rvSj (H^).

270. When the noun contains /5w letters, of whicli

the fourth is a strong one, or more than five, the
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlivc and Adjective. 147

diminutive J^xlii is formed from the first four, and the rest
are rejected; as JJLljLl a quince, jlL~; ^jJi^li. a
nightingale, Jj^lL. But if there be among the consonants
several servile letters, these are rejected, or some of them;
as j-L&Xx rolling oneself, _JL&.i>; JlJCuLx striving to
perfect oneself, J^JjCo; jULsvx chosen, Jjfiuo (for IxLauo),
and not lxl^\x.
Ren), a. If there be more servile consonants than must necessa
rily be cut off, their relative importance for the signification of the
word is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained. In
J^jCiLwe , for example, .. is preserved in preference to ^ or y ,
because it indicates the participial form. But if a!l (he consonants arc
of equal value, we may select which we please, and therefore Ihe
diminutive of ^jJJLt, sort of thorn, is cither JuuJLt or JuJLc
5 a .- *
(for ^JjJLc).

Rem. b. The termination ,t_ , when appended to nouns of four

or more lellcrs, is not rejected, but remains attached to the diminutive,
which is formed out of the preceding consonants; as ^|wic\ saffron,

Rem. c. Nouns containing five or more consonants do not cx-

ceed the form JuuLai ; and therefore a word which consists of four
radical and one or more servile consonants, rejects the latter at once
(except in the case specified in . 269).

Rem. d. In place of the rejected consonants, a ^ may be

inserted immediately before the last letter; as J>,i m , rj. jLm.

271. The feminine terminations sL, ^1, and *H; the

relative termination ^_; the ending ^C in adjectives of
148 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

which the feminine is JJii; (he dual and plural terminations

,j!_, y_ , and y!_; and Ihe second syllable of the plural
form Jliil ; are all disregarded. The diminutives must
be formed out of the preceding consonants, and these termi
nations added to them. E. g. *Ji a casllc, kklxi: Jy^
pregnant, JouJ*; Lsli Martha, LxJlo'; *fj7^ red, ilw^a.;
^wili (from a place called Jile, supposed to be inhabited
by the ginn) demoniacal, mighty, perfect, ^JjJLZc ; ^j^
(fem. ^3L^) drunken, ^ClCl; yJCjuL* two Muslims,

^jUlLLo; j^liJLo Muslims, ^yiil^Jo; yOJLi Muslim

women, v^Uli***; JU&.I camels, JUia-f-

Rem. a. The fem. .^.1 is rejected, when the noun consists of

five letters, the third of which is strong, or of more than five ; as
l5>*3 the back, JLJi; iCVaAJ a riddle, yJLukJ. But if, in the
quinquelilcral noun, the third letter be a weak servile, either it, or the
-. - > --> r-
^ , may be omitted; as .e.L^a. " bustard, ,g.jLv&. or _*jo.
(for j*aa*).
Rem. ft. AH diminutives ending in these terminations (excepting
those of the dual, plural, and relative adjective) have fetha over the
consonant that follows the syllable ^_.

272. The termination jjfl in trilitcral nouns, of which

Ihe feminine is not Juii, is regarded as radical, and conse
quently the diminutive takes the form Jul*!**; as .jl laJL.
power, a sultan, ^jalll ; ^jUoLi <^'A ^*kljui.
273. Proper names, consisting of two words (see . 264),
form their diminutives from the first word, the second
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 149

remaining unchanged; as jJLM jJx Abdu 'llah, &JUf tXlxc

'Obiidu 'Uah; A*\jl>, dLJlij.

274. If a diminutive be formed from a Irilitcral femi
nine noun, which has not however a feminine termination,
g~ is added to the diminutive, provided that the primitive
has no nomen unitatis (. 246). E. g. y-.i* *, k^-a^a;
J^ house, S-jij; ,j Zoo///, jUaju,. But if the primitive
has a nomen unitatis, gl is not appended lo the diminutive,
9-' 9 c!
in order lo avoid ambiguity. E. g. yS? trees, y^ff, but
gj^? a tree, iyx^l". ob ?#/?, *iu, but gob <aw 00." or
S-o -?
cow, s-Aiu.
Rem. a. The diminutives of the fern, cardinal numbers, from
3 to 10 inclusive, do not lake g_ for the same reason; e. g. j- ,
In.) 9- o- 9 , u,
/SPd (fern.), ,...<> S. , but x... tS. /nxr (masc), g m t S. .
Rem b. If the noun contains more than three consonants, g_ is
not added lo the diminutive.
Rem. c. There are a few exceptions lo bolh rules. For example,
9 o- 9 o - > 9- Bo-.'
Uj>, "" makes >_,-. ?,* ; >*>, flwrf of camels, Jo. J;
>o- 9 o-> 9. s > ~-
i^jji, a *ow, (j^jjJ; whilst ^1 Jo , <A<? //(/, and tU, the
9- o ' > 9' > 9' o->
tWAr, have ii+jjujo and -o*. (for &ijo>.).

275. The double consonants in nouns formed from verba

2, 9.-,
mediae rad. geminatae are resolved; as Ju a /'#, JJJ^J';
y.MJs CeY/? (tr. tasse), (jxuuJe; Juo ///<?, g Jo Joe.
276. If tlie second radical be a weak letter, and have
been changed by the influence of the vowels into another,
the original letter is restored in forming the diminutive. E. g.
^_>b (^jjj) 0 door, v_jo^?; v_/Li (>_/jo) eye-tooth, ^juo;
150 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.
8^ B- . 8^e-> 9 > ,s *\ 8 -* 9 ' /6|'\

/wwir of scales, J^yjl*.

o " _ 9 - >
Rem. g ^jj, a 1%, commonly makes i^s.-<i, inslcad of
S, o^ 9 c.^ 9 o -
^jui (for 8^jui). From o^aj, os, and ^oui , an old
9 - 9 o^ ' *
man, may be formed tiOJ and ^o.*i, bul the regular forms
arc bcller.

277. If (he second leKer be eilher a servile elif, or an

ellf, llie origin of whicli is unknown, it is changed into .;
?> .- ', 9 o-> 9 -. ^ . . 9 - >
as ,j,Ls norsentan, y^yi; *j'l&. a signet-ring, ^ *-* ;
r.s, - - . . 9s > sT- 9o-
jbl^ animal, SLojO; _,La ivory, s^-

278. If the third letter be weak, it coalesces with' the

preceding ^ of the diphthong ^ into Jj; as +"%k a youth,
o_- 9 >e 9.-*- 9 -
f/tttft?, |jJlft ; Jyj I glutton, J^o I : *jyUs fl w<7^ ostrich,

|vxJLb ; Jj Jk. twoo/i-, J^tXa. ; ^ai a youth, ^ ; Lac

staff, xjuot
Rem. In words of which ihc second and third radicals arc con
tracted into ^, these letters must be separated, and treated according
2 ,' 9 i> ~ 2-' 8e-
to this rule and . 276 ; e. g. ^b a fold, (^is), ^^b ; x*a.
9-o - 9-
a snake (SUas*), Iua.

279 A quadriliteral, of which the third and fourth

letters are weak, rejects one of them; as Jl=s! John, _s! (for
^gik); ^^>f Wtwrt, ^1 (for lStf^\)\ <5^o %, ^a^o

(for iS^>); y&s- an enemy, ^jjt (for ,^><Xe).

280. The infinitives of verba priinae ., which reject the
first radical and take the fern, termination si in exchange (.206),
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 151
.......... 6 - . 9- o, j
resume the . in their diminutives; as gtXe a promise, gjotr.;
StXa. affluence, ii\A&.y
Rem. They arc distinguished by the g from the diminutives of
the form Juti in (he same verbs; such as Jolc. from <Xt, etc.
281. Nouns which have lost their third radical,
whether they have the fern, termination i! or not, recover
it only when they consist of but two letters besides the g.
E. g. Z\ father, (jj|), ^1; .1 brother, (^|), JXl; 5
a j 3-' r- / 6<"' j s'' Sr- / S"t!
wwm/, ^xj; 2L0 water, iuyo and ^5^0, xa* 0 w/>, 8^*a*m ;
9-* ., . S*~f -- r. o,> , 9e.-j
&o| maidservant, jUxf ; SjU* year, SLfruU. and SLyu* ;
jiijs 0 ////>#, Igllff, *aaIj, and xlii. But if they consist
of three or more letters, exclusive of g, the third radical
does not reappear. E. g. yols a judge, yaj^S; gjJLLo
calling for help, jiX.
9- 9 >
Rem. |vi , moulk, of which the radical is 5 j , forms its dimi-
nulive accordingly, xjjj.

282. Those nouns which, aNer having lost their third

radical, lake a prosthetic elif, reject the elif, and recover their
original letter. E. g. JL\ a name, ^JL\ ^\ a son, Ju;
Go . 9,, 1

9 0 * 9 o
Rem. The diminutives of .^.^| , sister, andoJj, daughter,
9 * 9 o,
are formed like those of \ and .^ol, and distinguished by the

fern, termination; iu|,

283. Another way of forming diminutives is to fall
back upon the root. If this consists of three consonants, the
diminutive is J**i ; if of four, Juuxi (see . 269 rem. a).
1 52 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

J'j. g. UUBjl*, ut<nc; cy,L, 6j>a ; ,jels, ^^-aJ- 0^~l,

Julu, ; -.^"1 tiJyae . This sort of diminutive is called jaaJLs

*x&.L*JI, Me softened or curtailed diminutive.
284. Wilh regard to this sort of diminutive the following
rules are to be observed. 1) If a masc. noun ends in Si,
this termination falls away; e. g. iiXs- (a name), viola-
2) Fern, nouns in ^L and i\l reject these terminations and
lake _: as Ju^., sJUaa.; ?l,.~., ,-.
Rem. Very irregular diminutives arc: Jk* a <" Joi..;
9 o , 0 . , i , > 8a ,. i. / ?f s' " ' 8 Is -
v_jovo sunset, ^U-jlAx ; iUwt nightfall, jj.> AxAt and ^LyiUr ;

,jL*jl a human being, ^Lu-joI; SJjJ anight, iULuJ (compare

the plur. JUJ for JLp); )^> s<ww (plur. of ,^1), ^y^'-

?/) Some other Nominal Forms.

285. The form sJlii frequently means a small piece

of anything; as juiai* a p, ;**f fragment, .<X> a
spark, HJijA. a rag, *>_ r sect.

286. The form jUjls is often used to s;gnify a small

quantity, such as can be contained in a place at once.
_, 6 -o > , ._ . 9 r* * 9,o 9- o J ,
E. g. &jaaS a handful; SJS\ , &! , kx^dx , a morsel, a
mouthful; 'tyi, a draught of water. It also denotes colour;
as il^A. redness, ilLo yellowness.
287. The form JUL* denotes diseases; as -Ua. a fever,
& cold, JULL cough, e\jJo a headache, JUsP, t>Lo,
disease of the spleen (JLsfiP), /" M<? /w (Jui").
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 153

288. The form JLflii denotes small portions that are

broken off or thrown away; as 5|1j, iSbS^S, filings ; Sufi*
shavings; &x$ji, iuol^i", parings; lJjJ', ksXmS, JLoUs,
G' -- G - 9
sweepings ; sJla a little food got ready in haste ; SiULe a
small quantity of broth (left in a borrowed pot, when it is

2. The Gender of Nouns.

289. In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible
G 5 .- f
into three classes; 1) those which are only masculine (jiXo);
2) those which are only feminine (vioyo); 3) those which
are both masc. and fern., or, as it is usually phrased, of the
common gender.
Rem. None of the Shemitic languages have what we call the
neuter gender.
290. That a noun is of the fern, gender may be as
certained either 1) from its signification, or 2) from its form.
1. Feminine by signification are:
a) All common nouns and proper names that denote
females; as J a mother, ^.yc a bride, \j an old woman ;
lolo Mary, jjjc Hind, iULl Sudd.
b) Proper names of countries and towns, because the
So* S- i ?'- , ,
common nouns ^cJ, &otXx> and ju^s, regarded as the
mothers and nourishers of their inhabitants, 'are fern. E. g.
Jeuo Egypt, \js Mocha.
c) The names of the winds and different kinds of fire,
G q ^
because the common nouns *, wind, and .b, fire, are
fern. E. g. JL*s the east wind, .j4> the west wind,
154 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris or Speech.

jUi. the north wind, C>Ji~>. the south wind; **** , (*-*3t ,
blazing fire, LjU, ^J&J, hell-fire.
d) The names of many parts of the body, especially
those that are double; as Jo hand, J.L* foot, ^lc eye,
J^u, tooth, Jkxf shoulder, J^f liver.
5 ft. So , Sof S- 0 . -
Rem. ,jj. /"'flrf, &&.1 face, i_ij| ose, j*i mo(A, -J^o
breast, ,Ja^ belly, . g to fcflcAr, and Ihe names of Ihe blood, muscles,
sinews, and bones, are muse.

e) Collective nouns (*IUT xLi, resembling (he plur.),

which denote living objects that are destitute of reason,
and which do not form a nomen unilatis; as Joj camels,
%y> a herd of camels, pi! sheep.
2. Feminine by form are:
,. . - G- , -1,' J /
a) Nouns ending in S_; as jUs* a garden, LJJb dark-
wt'.v.y, iiljo., or ^jts, <//<-'.
b) Nouns ending in ^1 or C (elif maksura, . 7 rein, b),
when that termination does not belong to the root; as
^'J>b memory, _* a kind of plant, LaIj the world, G^.
a vision or dream.
c) Nouns ending in i\l, when that termination does
not belong to the root; as t\lhp a plain or desert,
fcULoli a mouse's hole, tLT-lT glory (of God), /tfvVfe (of
man), i-%lL. vainglory, arrogance.
Rem. a. A Tew nouns ending in ji_, and those verbal adjectives
to which 1 is added to inlcnsify their signification (. 233 rem. b, c),
are niase., because llicy apply to males ; c. g. jLftjJLi. a deputy or
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjective. 155
9 * * 5- --
caliph (compare in Italian, il podesld), jLeiLc very learned, io!
a traditionary.
Rem. b. With the above rules compare the usage of the other
dialects. Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 105, 1. 3. 4. Cowpcr's Syr. Gr.
. 132, 2.
291. The following is a list of nouns which are fem.,
not by form or signification, but merely by usage.
T3 7 f
earth. hyaena.
0 >-
viper. metre.
well. Lo staff.
Hell. axe.
s ,. 0 ,o
war. Paradise.
wine. O*^ cup.
S , o,
house. waterwhcel.
0 o
coat of mail* catapult.
1 ^
bucket. razor.

V5*3 mill.
v fire.
wind. to shoe.
0 c-
sun. soul.
292. Masculine or feminine are:
1) Collective nouns (**i! xJib), denoting animals and
plant?, which form a nomeh unitatis. E. g. *L^. pigeons,
e 00
S\y* grasshoppers, locusts, Jo bees, J^3 palmlrees.
* When it means a woman's dress, it is masc.
156 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

These are masc. by form, fem. by signification (cU&.

2) The names of the letters of the alphabet, and words
regarded merely as such; as oiJJSM tXfl>, or vJL)!5H Ijjs,
this elif; <>jo gLo, or Ijjo bLo, this word 2L0 (water).
The fem. gender is the more usual in these cases. A word,
regarded merely as such, is treated like a proper name,
and therefore does not take the article.
3) A considerable number of nouns, of which the
following are those that most frequently occur.
^oJ hare (generally fem.). t\^MU heaven.
jCj a sort of robe. \3y wrkei.
iLol finger. ^%<& barley.
Go, O
^5 Jo breast. Jolj^a. #wy, raw? (via strata).
6," >
Xjo peace.
JL&. slate, condition.
yjL&. booth, shop. cLo akind ofdry measure.
Jul*** /wM. ^sp forenoon.

^P** Journey by night. \Syb white honey.


c ^* weapon. Js hinder part.

^jUaJLy emperor, empress. (jLjX wedding.
0 = ^
|vJLi peace.

JL* ladder.
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlivc and Adjeclivc. 157

(jpLe neck. ells' tibia or shin-bone.

cJaXIc spider (gen. fern.) jJJ /^/.
^li horse. >iJLlx w?.
viJULi s^flP. v5** intestines.
US &?c& <?/* w 7?*rX\ A* salt (gen. fern.).
^yi bow (gen. fern.)
293. From most adjectives and some substantives of
the masc gender, feminines are formed by adding the termi
nations il, ^L, or t\L (. 290, 2).'
8- .
Rem. Only _ is appended lo the masc. without farther affecting
the form of the word; ,<_ and i|_ have forms distinct from the masc,
which must be learned by practice.
294. The most usual termination, by the mere addition
of which to the masc. feminines are formed, is si; as *^~
great, ^t^r ; d^- a grandfather, Sje*. a grandmother;
(_ii a young man, sUi a young woman.
Rem. g_ is a compromise in orthography between the ancient
ia>_, at, and the modern g_, a; a view which is confirmed by the
comparison of the verbal form oJliiS (3- p. sing. fern. Perf.) with the
Heb. PI1? Ep (see . 90, general remarks). The original ia> appears in the
0 o 9 *
dual, in the words cuj and .^ ~~ 1 , and in some oilier instances in the
> ^ o .
Kor'an (such as o*^ for y t ~^ . ). The Hebrew generally has, like
the modern Arabic, p in the absolute stale of the noun, but also
P , and more rarely P , P (Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 79). In the
construct stale the ancient n, P, has everywhere maintained itself
(Heb. Gr. . 87, 2 b) ; and the p is found in Phoenician even in the
absolute. In Aramaic, N is usually substituted for J"l, as |]oLa =
n^ifG, but the original p appears in the construct and emphatic stales,
158 Pari Second. Etymology or tlic Paris of Speech.

&i!oAr> lk!cLs. The Aelhiopic has preserved the ancient n , as

lit', (gannal) a garden (JU=L ; r.33, D'.i; \L^, fil^, lLl^).

295. Feminities in ^1 ate formed:

1) From adjectives of the form ^^JS, the fem. of
which is jjil; as ,jllAc angry, ^Ac; [^W^ drunk,
^'vX: jjULLi sated, ^u.
2) From adjectives of the form jJiit, when they have
the superlative signification, in which case the fem. is
J^*i; as Ji^l M<? largest, ^JLCJI; yUsiH /A smallest,
^cjiwaJI; ffocSH the greatest, ^htH.
Rem. a. Adjectives of the forms .^Lii and ^}HJtj form their
fem. by adding jj_; as .jLcJu repentant, JijLctXJ; ^Ljfi naked,

Rem. ft. The fem. of j.| (for Je.j or Jill), first, and ^1
, 6 - * ^ * o _*
(for _i.| 1), last, are ^| and iy>\ The numeral adjective jLa.!,
on<r, has ^tX&.l.

296. Feminines in *C are formed from adjectives of the

form Jkjtif , which have not the comparative signification; as
lloT yellow, i\^Jo\ J^>-\ having a handsomeperson, i\C&L;
ilatLLT humpbacked, tLaJ^.. Many of these adjectives are
not in actual use in the masc; as *MU discharging heavy
and continuous rain, iLCJL&. beautiful.
297. All adjectives have not a separate form for the
fem. The following forms are of both genders.
1) Jy^, when it has (he same meaning as JlcU;
as syjua Jta.N 0 patient man, > -yo 8 Ijjci patient woman.
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 159
o ? > , . o -- 9-
,. jjf /y/ff^, v jCi grateful. But if Jyrj has the meaning
9 JO ,
of Jyuix, or is a substantive, it makes a fern, in s_; as
iwj^S'. (= v-u/yc) camel for riding upon, i^S\\ uJLa.
. . s- .. >-
a camel or */<^<?p gy/ for its milk, ioJLe*.; J**j a
.9r '-
messenger, &->*;
2) Ju*i, when it has the same meaoning as Jyuto,
and is joined to a substantive; as Juas J^. murdered
;///?, JuaS Sljjct murdered woman. But if (he sub-
stan live be not expressed, it makes a fern, in _; as bJjs
g - s -
kanjaj JAw # ///<?/ A<?a- fc butted. If J^uii lias the
9 l~ 8
meaning of J^cli, it always forms a fern, in _; as -uaS
helper, s^a^d; *ajLi intercessor, RjuuLa; Ua<

temperate, chaste, jLac .

8,, S , G
3) Jii^, Jliix, and Juiaa*. which were originally
nomina instrument (. 228), but afterwards became
'intensive adjectives (. 233, rem. c); as *J*Ju i\ys\ an
obstinate, sclfwillcd woman; ^l&cXx iuli fo"<J she-
camel; jjJojuq kj.li.ff woman who uses a great deal
of perfume.
Rem. a. <\c hostile, ^jjCw^e />oor, and ^ULuo speaking
the truth, form fcniinincs in _.
Rem. J>. Adjectives which arc, by their signification, applicable
to females only, do not usually form a fern, in jj_ , but arc used in the
9 a- 8 -
niasc. form; as JwcLa. pregnant (but itJLeLi, currying a load), i&JLb
J- 6o> > s i> s I ^
divorced, m^oyo giving suck, ^.co , tXffb, having swelling breasts,
oT' 8 . - 0 o>
(jojL*., o^Lb, wojuo, menstruating.
1 60 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

3. The Numbers of Nouns.

298. Nouns have, like verbs, three numbers, the singular,
dual, and plural.
299. The dual is formed by adding ^\1 to the singular
(omitting, of course, the tenwln); as CJ& a book, ^GUtf".
Rem. a. If the sing-, ends in S_ , s is changed into io (see . 294
OS* ,s*
rem.); as &of a nation, ^Uuc|.
Rem. b. If the sing, ends in a quiescent .g (.<_ or ,<_), which
was originally ^ mobile (compare . 167, 1. 2. a), it becomes so again
in the dual; as ^i a youth, for lS*i , .jUuS ; ^vfo memory,
for ^jfi, jjlj-^i. If the sing, ends in a quiescent | (Lor |_),
which was originally . mobile (compare . 167, I. 2. a), the . is
restored in the dual; as 1 ^r a s/^r, ,L ^>f ; Lft| an Aga,

otjil- If the sing, of a quadrilitcral noun ends in a quiescent

.g, which was originally a , the . is not restored in the dual, but
becomes .g mobile, as c*JLo a musical instrument (fromLaJ for , g 1),
^UygJLe; ^o jjc rendered contented (from ^o. for ~e0. jjLuooo.

Rem. c. The hemza of the termination i(_, denoting the fern.

(. 296), becomes ., as i\liue yellow, ^liLio. In the
terminalion g|_, when sprung from a radical . or ,c, the hemza may
either be retained or changed into , , though Ihc former is preferable ;
as gf3j a mantle (for (J|5.), ,j!*|3j or ^Ijl3,; %\J^S a dress

(for^Ll^'), ^1*11^ or cj|^LlS'. In the case of an (jli^l v_iU I

(sec .259), the latter is preferable; as gULlc, jjliLJLc or .|eLJLc-

If the hemza of B|_ be radical, it cannot be changed into .; as %\ Ji

^ ~&)
(from LJ), ,jU|Ji.
II. The Nouik A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 161

Rem. if. ir a , has been elided in the sing, after a kesra and
before a damma with tenwFn (sec . 157. II. 2), it is restored in the
dual; as ^ , for ^^ , mU*; , for ^^ , ^jll^
(compare . 166. I). In like manner, an elided . is restored in the
6 * 6* 9^* 9^ * ^^* ^ .* ^
dual of some words; as ^_,|, |, (for ^j|, ^.|,) ^I^jI, <j'j-t-

,jj| and ^f (for ^ij and y^) have ^jLof , ^U-^l 5 out?, like

jbf, makes ^UcIjI.

Rem. e. If the third radical has been elided before 5 in the sin-
gular, it is not restored ; as fcjL! <* dialed, for 8*4J, .l.KJj_t; aJ
, G-, . ^ -, 9-- G^o, I"-- *>--
<A<r $ww, for ix*J , (jUXJ. 5 Si-i '</>> 'or -fr*A jjUuLA ; SjLw

, a^JLw,
y^ar, for f-f- ^Uuu.,.

300. There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic.

a) The one, which has only a single form, is called
^ss?J| ,*4-l or A84JI -V-f-tj the sound or perfect plural

(pluralis sanus), and *JlLj| l^A-l or xiiLlJI Z&. , /#<?

complete or <m^'r*r plural, because all the vowels and con-
' sonants of the singular are retained in it.
b) The other, which has various forms, is called sL)
j-wXJt or ouuXJI -,-^ j the broken plural (pluralis
fractus), because it is more or less altered from the singular
by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change
of vowels.
301. The pluralis sanus of masc. nouns is formed by
adding the termination -.._ to the singular; as ijjLt* a thief,
)yS,L*. The plur. sanus of fern, nouns, that end in il, is
162 Part Second, Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

formed by changing g~ into vil>ll, as 2&ASJ, uyli.UL; of

G- 0 -
those that do not end in g_, by adding yL to the sing.,
- - ^- G . o-
as fciyo Mary, yyUj^o.
Rem. a. If the sing, ends in clif maksura, with or without lenwin
(ig or (<_), or in kesra with tenwln (_), arising out of ^ _
(. 167, II- 2), orin aquicscenl ^ preceded by kesra (,_), arising
out of ._, then the rules laid down in 166. II. 1. 2, and
. 167- 1- 2. c, are to be observed. E. g. itLouc , for ^IkAx

(. 245), chosen, ~\, iSa^gja for r\. i U p * , and in the oblique

cases ^wAAla-fljo for JwaaaIo-ojo ; (C^V0 Mses> ^\%*uyo for

^^ju*/^jc; ^Ls, for (e-iiLS, a judge, ^y^U for -j^uAtj', and

in the oblique cases /jjuilii for ^jyuali; (jl^l? for A^-l*

" -
barefooted, r\jiQ\ for ~.wJiiLi|.

Rem. t. The tjezma of the middle radical in fem. substantives

, . 9 o- . 6f- So Of. f., Oro
of the forms Jjls and iJL*i , Juu and iUxi , Juts and ju*i ,
derived from strong roots (i. e. those of which the second radical is
not or ^), passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which may
either be the same as that of the first syllable, or in all cases felha.
s o - , s .- - - S- o - 8-o - g .- - -
E. g. Jli> Dad, wyltVeo; wt*aj', JUte., a dish, icjl**aj',
0.--- Go 8- ~ - G-o-
aUto ; JoJO xft, tofJUSC or vi>fjUJ8 ; g. v<_ a fragmetit,

\zj\jmS or uyLJij; Jm^- Cmw/, cj^La. or i^l f~^ ; x*JLb

t 9 i -1 i Gi'i'i' , , . 1 > 9-rii
darkness, qL+JLb or v^jLJUo . In the forms Joii and jOuti ,
, G ,- o - 6. -
the yezma may also be retained, as ^|, w.\ ol+JLb . If the
third radical be , the form uj^kju is not admissible; nor, if it be
^ , the form y^jt . E. g. g^ji summit, ol^O or oljji
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjeclive. 163
5-oj . . s ,
(bul not y!.<3); &aj a pitfall, \zj\j^\ or isjLui (but not
i^jLajv). If the middle radical be . or ,g , the gezma is always
5 ~c ^ 6 . a .- G o*. . o
retained; as sv^a. a f, ud!vj^; jLoju <w* <"#/, helmet, ^Loaj.

Rem. c. If and ^, as third radicals, reject their felha in the

fern, sing-., and become quiescent before & , or pass into | (. 214, and
. 7 rem. c and d), they are restored in the plur. alongwith the vowel.
q I ^ 8 -" G^ -" .. 0 *" S. --
E. g-. syLo or jjiLe , prayer (for jjJLe) , yyl^JLa ; SUs ,
m*, spt-ar, tube, (for sytj',) ^l**i'; Ui, ?'r^ (for ****>)
ttyCJci; sliLo, thrown, (for SjyLx,) wL>Cyo.je (compare . 167,
I. 2. a, with . 166, 1).

Rem. d. If the third radical has been elided in the sing, before
. - . . g .. G- o
8_i it may be restored in the p!ur. or not. E. g. x.Af (for ft, -r^ or
s- . 8 ,-- G. - - B-- 6-0-
j idc), a thorny tree, e^l.-xifc and cjvg^ig ; ix-wu (for juJLu/
9-- G 6.--, 8- 8-
or S$JU>), a year, ^LjU* and ed gjj..,; iUJs (for 'iyja), the
8 . -,' G, GO
jwinf o/" a weapon, jyLklb; jj (for 5vJ). <*" armlet, a ring,
0 1'' s"'i 8"K 8 1 't 6 e~i
CJljjJ &J (for XjuJ), the gums, v^>lJ. om or Sib I (for
o!-,-. s- g f G-- *
XaJo), daughter, makes m>Lo ; and o^l (fr S*-^!), a sister,
G -. * S^ 8 a^" c 9
i>La.f. -I, a mother, has oLjjjcl (Syr. )ZoO*s|).

Rem. <?. The hemza in the terminations M_andz|_ is subject

lo the same rules in the plur. as in the dual (. 299 rem. c). Hence
from if wis9, 8*ULw, 2U*, 5*1 i', are formed v^jllL^P,
8iT*~ ,,.*- V'~ 6 iT'..

302. The pluralis sanus masc. is formed from:

1) Proper names of men (excepting (hose (hat end in
s_, as Jc^is), (heir diminutives, and the diminutives of
common nouns that denote rational beings; as ^ift
164 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

'Olhmtin, jjjUe; jJL^ 'Obeid (dimin. of jJLfc 'Abd),

^tXAxt; Ju^-s (dimm. of J^ a flw), ^yUwa...
2) Verbal adjectives which form (heir fem. by adding 8_.
3) Adjectives of the form JulsI, which have the com
parative or superlative signification.
4) The relative adjectives in ,e_.
5) The words ^!j| (for ^&) a son, ,JL& one of (he
/or classes of created beings, ^J /fttf earth, Jjcf
family, .6 ike possessor (of a thing); which make jj*Jb,
^JLi, ,j^;'> ur^'' and cyj^ (used on|y in tne
construct slate ..<i).
Rem. . Adjectives, however, have the ptur. sanus only when
joined to substantives denoting rational beings.
Rem. b. Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and
adjectives that have the plur. sanus, but more especially from adjec
tives when used substantively.

Rem. e. To the words enumerated under 5) may be added

V * *
-;.JJLc , the highest heavens, and J| or Jf (construct form
of ".J, I), possessors, which have no singular; as also the numerals
denoting the tens, from 20 up to 90 (. 323).
Rem. d. Some fcm. nouns, especially those of which the third
radical (, ,, a) has been elided, have a plur. sanus masc. ; as xJLu,
> 9 ^ t 8->. .'
a year, )Ju; K*as. a thorny tree, ^yeA\ iS a ball, }J.
In such cases the termination s_ disappears entirely.
303. The pluralis sanus fem. is formed from:
1) Proper names of women, and such names of
men as end in iL; as ^_*Ij\ Zeinab, oLuj)> xaiJo
Talha, I>l2Js (. 301 rem. b).
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjeclive. 165

2) Feminine adjectives, the masc. gender of which has

the plur. sanus.
3) Feminine nouns in ^_ and t|_; as ^vto. memory,
oLiwfo; ^\Jd distress, yt:!wi (. 3,01 rem. e).
4) The names of the letters, which are generally fern.
(. 292, 2); as *x* an m, i^Aix*.

5) The names of the months; as pl^Jl the Moharram,

vJutJs; ^JJeut) Ramadan, ^jK^Saua^.
6) The feminine nomina verbi (. 196), and all nomina
verbi of the derived forms (. 202); as v-ajjaS a defi
nition, vilibJiS; cUoil a feof, v~LcUoS'f ; l.'^i^oS a
technical term, ..! -CNlU^I
Rem. The nomina verbi of the second and fourth forms, when
9 o -
used in a concrete sense, admit also of a pluralis fraclus ; as >_* n.'i'i
iwftjJli, composition, i_ajLo5', iJLJto ; ^OjlS' date, a

chronicle, ^jJlS; oU> \ a rumour, qia^M

7) Nouns of foreign origin, even when they denote

persons; as ,jaCL few/, vLsollL; ^ULLUjo

hospital, i>lSLljUJo; ^tjjoLi a jet dcau, cASta oUi ;

lei fl /^, ^f^ct; Lib 0 Pasha, y^L>.

8) A good many masc. nouns, which have no plur.
fraclus; and some fern, nouns, which have not a fem.
termination; as -Ci. a warm bath, va>LcU&.; yjb*A the
earth, oLSCl; U*2 the heavens, &l^ (though tliis
word is also masc).
166 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

9) Verbal adjectives, which are used in the plural as

substantives; as oUStf" entities (from ^X being); yy|l5s.Lo
beings (from <>^>>jo found, existing); icyUJLi? creatures
(from ^jyJ^s created).

10) Diminutives, even when masculine; as Jkll&.

hillock, uyikxia..
304. The more usual forms of the plur. fractus of sub
stantives and adjectives, which are derived from triliteral
roots, and in none of which (excepting JJts I) does any letter
precede the first radical, are Iwentynine in number. The
following is a list of these forms, with (he corresponding
singulars, and examples.
Plur. Fract. Sing.
r 1. idii, &J& (rare); as ibis a town,

tgji (for J-ys, . 213); SJ^S a

O 8-..- 0 ,.,.
dynasty, J.j; xj.j a fr, oj;
iUi ///<? beard, ^L (for .^i); iy^
a trinket, J^a. (for -J-^.).

i. Jii 2. XJL*i; as Siag present, uAai; KaI

< G -> 8- J y - '
tf atf/wtf, v_aa5; jvfl a form, \yo'i
s.Jo* spark, ^j^ (for ^Jea. or
Jj, . 213).
3. Jsii, fern, of Jiil as a superlative
(. 234 and . 295, 2); as tfl
greatest, Jo; <g>klo smallest, JLa.
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjeclive. 167

Plitr. Fract. Sing.

/ 1. Juiil, not comparative and superlative

(. 232 and 235); as '^ red, *J^L;
(joaj! w/<?, oao (lor u>oju); Oj-wI

H. Jii Wsrc/fr, Jy (for S^L); oJlL| /}//wp-

backed, ^>JLa. .
2. i^*i, fern, of Jail, not comparative
and superlative (. 296); as *Tlto
yellow, wfco; *L=wC /<7<?, ^.yt.

1. Jsii, Jui (rare); as Ju! a lion, Jul;

o '. > ^1
^^ /J /</<?/, ^jij; 8 - a leopard, lj.

G B 8
2. JLii, JLii, JLii, not derived either
from verba mediae rad. geminalae or
s -
verba terliae rad. . et ^ ; as J| Ji the
5 * -
neck, Jjj> ; <JUuI, thorny tree, Jou ;
oLiT ff ^oo/i-, v^jOT; JiCs a bed, jili;
J^-i furniture, t^i; ^S the shinbone
of an animal, ^Jf.
III. jJd 8 _ s - O ,_
3. Jotxi, -Li*j, JL*i, not derived from
verba terliae rad. . et ^; as tjuaji
8 > > 5
a twig or ;orf, 4*^'! r?.r" a sea^
,j .. 0 > > 8.. .- ', . 8 > >
throne, bier, .y*,; LLyLy a ship, (jj*;
xjuSP a leaf or page, v_isP; o***. a
pillar, iXix. .
168 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

Plur. Fract. Sing.

B .. 6 >-
4. Juols, Jyti, verbal adjectives not having
a passive signification, and not derived
from verba terliae rad. . et ^; as
G . ^ , 6? > S > -
jjjo 0 w0 warns, %jO; )j-^
patient, ^o; J^Ji docile, JJi.
si -
Rem. a. An exception lo no. 2. is .jULc
Rem. 6. Some verbal adjectives of the
forms Juuu and Jjjti with a passive sigmi-
fication have likewise the plur. Jjls ; as J**)
a messenger, Jlw

Rem. <r. The form Jjts is admissible in

all these cases, unless Ihe word comes from
6 o
a radical mediae geminalae; e. g. ^_^dS,
(Xwl, Ju, i_*Jki fullgronm she-camels (for
" j i-
vju), from ub ('or v_-u).

Of o
IV. fci 'ills ; as s-Us a piece, pSaS', *+&>. a
?, |ja.; iQ. /oe^r 0/ hair,
13; Swyw '0fc of walking, manner of
living, character, JL.

1. Jii, JJii, JJii; as wk Mtf sea, ^U^;

Vw>1j ^ /?/<? 0/ c/0/^, dress, i-jIju ;

So o r o . ,.
tXS an arrow, \<X2; <->-><> a n'v>
0 i
!L3i; ^>oj a spear, -\*y
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 169

Plur. Fract. Sing.

s;- G -t >
2. XJLii. SJLii: as fauaS 0 '//'. tLai" :
Syx an occasion, a tune, .L* ; juu^s a
/am, eUuo; xitJp ff M77/p o/ cloth
or paper, a note, cLsx ; kJb a low-
lying, level district, clib.
3. JJii, xJjii, not derived from verba
mediae rad. geminatae or terliae rad.
. et ^; as Jl=>. /'//, JU=.; Jl^
s ' s '' s
a he-camel, Jli^; JLo\ /!fo ?, e>U ;

9 ,^ ; as Jifc.
4. Juts 9 , , 9, ; s,^
/ man, JU>. ^1
beast of prey, cLL*.
V. JUL* <
5. JJii, fern. aJJii, verbal adjectives; as
^tJua, i. iyjto, at/pcull, v_>Uto; k_><\,
S^o^ 9 : 9 " 6^0 ,
f. SjtXc, *#<?/, i_>'^' v^""> f- *y-*>
6 "

6. ^jikjii, fem. RiiUts. verbal adjectives;

as ^jLoJo, i. SjUJo, repentant, pi JO;

7. ,j}Uti. fem. jkjii, verbal adjectives; as

> . ' ' ^ ' .. 9 -
jjUiiaft, f. aU^j thirsty, jiltat;
^lAip , 1. ^x^ir, angry, i^Ldc.
3 , 9-
8. Ju^Ai, fem. XJL*i, verbal adjectives,
not having a passive signification; as
170 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Plur. Fract. Sing.

ijbjjfc, I". tei-M, noble, 0L4: yiiv*.

8 '_ _ ' o, o - 9r't'


8 I '
9. J^U, verbal adjectives; as v^-a-Us
companion, _?. ^v <a ; *-l3' merchant,
9 s 6 -
>lsao; Jffli drinking, thirsty, jLgj;
IjLs standing, alls; l5ll sleeping, plii;
cK (for ^cQ shepherd, &le.
. .. *{ 9,,, Bo- ,, 9 '
1. JJii, J*i, Jii; as wi /<? w, ^s!>
(wgjii //<<? sot*/, owjii ; jt-i' an ichneu-
9 >> 9c. ., G > J
zbo, ^^j ; ^wid a grinder, u*-*i 5
6> .. 9 >> 9o> , 8 >
iXia- <v legion, >>yi> ; Oo # row, *>j-?.
8, . 8 9 _* 9 ,i 8 -
VI. Jyd < 2. Juii, Jk*i; as <XJ a lion, o^\; J-*S
Mtf /cwr, oJi; J^ci # mountain-goat,

9 9
3. Jutli, verbal adjectives (rare); as oiilj
standing, oJj; (j*JL&., <Xtli, silting,
9 > 9 ,, 9 .', . ' 9 >
(jyL&., Jyu>; 0J&L& a witness, Oy$-s-
f 1. J^li, verbal adjectives, not derived from
verba terliae rad. . et ^ (with rare ex
ceptions); as fjXs* a judge, X&.; *jJ>^
9 s> 9 r-f , 9 s > . .-
sleeping, * j ; volc absent, ^_*xt ; s^
VII. Jjtf
| <? soldier, ^Lr. (for ^ye or lye, .21 3).
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 171
Plur. Fracl. Sing.

2. xJLeli, fern, of Hie preceding; as S+iLo

fasting, llj>; jiLcG a female camel
thai is turned loose, J^jj.
0 a, s
VIII. JL*i JxLi, verbal adjectives, not derived
from verba tertiae rad. . et ^ (with
rare exceptions); as *Aa. a judge,
iKa.; li\f an unbeliever, ,\If: *3lS
sleeping, l\yj; \[1 a soldier, |vx.

IX. sJjti <M^ i verbal adjectives, denoting ratio

nal beings, and not derived from verba
tertiae rad. . et ^; as JlcU # w&-
?, xJUi; Jocf perfect, iX\ ya-U,
o * q T s, ,
a conjuror, 'iSff; 3Lj selling, icb (for
X. SJju . J^li, verbal adjectives, denoting rational
beings, and derived from verba tertiae
rad. y et ^; as ^H soldier, g|Ce
(for 5yt); yoLs y4?<?, Las (for
sjuaj); L 0#i? w^o ^ff& dW by
* * > - >
tradition, g|:. (for Sj*>)-

1. Jjls, J*i (rare); as ^j # oa-, s.y?

or Sjjo'; _.j a husband or wife, &&.:;
i>ji a 'truffle,
~ 2St>~e;
. <xj
V. an ape, ?.-'
; O G, 0 '"" s/,'
XI. kJLii \ viJbo <w&, XJoi>; Juii an elephant, XJUs.
172 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.
Plur. Fract Sing.
2. JJLs, not derived from verba (ertiae rad.
. et <^; as &Ji an earring, xbyii;
0 <ws<? or casket, x>.i>; ^0
*~ G s 6
fotfr, iioo; \jS a jug, i\.

1. Joii, Joii; as .yj <wi <u-, jLju; ^j-tac

branch, kLac.
B-* 5-<
2. jjii, as "A (for^i.!) a brother, 8^;
*' ic v ji 9.-
xii. UUU < ^ (for ^j a youth, txti.

3. JLii, JLii; as JLt gazelle, ii-is.',

liLc </ youth, a slave, X^JLc.
S , 8 '. 9 - 9,ti
4. Ju*i; as (5^o (for^jtyo) ^y, 'Luyo.

/ 1. Juts, not derived from verba mediae

rad. . et ^ ; as ^si tnc sea, ~s\ ; u*Ju
the soul, ,j*fci3l; sJLl the face, xs*.\;
9 * o^ 9* o * 9'o*
Jo a bucket, Jo| (for Jo! or Jo!) ;
Jjb an antelope, _Ji>! (for ^lis!) ; Ju
(for (^Jo) the hand, jo! (for ^Ju!).

2. Jkii, jjii, Juii, not derived from verba

mediae rad. . et ^ (rare); as Jua.
xm. l\ < 8 to * . * * G- _
hill, J4.!; Lac (for ya&) a staff,
yact (for ^g-ac! or yaxl); j\i. //<c
G , S G '9, e
fool, J^t; JJLi # lion's cub, JuL^t;
Juii- *0tV, JJi'!.
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 173

Plur. Fracl. Sing.

3. Feminine quadriliterals, not ending in
si, which have a quiescent letter (long
vowel) between the second and third
9 ^ 0>.* Si*.*.
radicals ; as cK o the arm, e .<3! ; ^j'Ue a

female kid, (3*^1; (jr*4J <* o/A, ,j*j!.

Rem. JjlsI occurs in a few other forms,
and in some of the above even when derived
from radicals mediae _ et , : as aaw a
9 >o* 9. --
6<wtf o/ ^m/, ^J ; .L^S rfay, ^ji| ; %

9 J c* 9 of 9 >** 0,-

9 .. 9l* Sit*
.:,>) a house, ^&\ or j>?.

1. Triliterals of all forms, but rarely JJL*

and JJii; as Jo* r, vLkxl; w^j
(for sSyi) a door, >_>0; v^ (fr
,_aIS) #/</ she-camel, k-Llil; .jjI
9-- *-^o* 9 * 9.-*
(for ^-aj) a son, tujl; v_>f (for yj\) a
father, sLl; Jo #><?#, *Lf or vLJ!
90 "S -0 * 90,

jUi'l; **< (for ^) a #?<?, %\+J\

Juke the artn, jL^lcI; yOc grapes
9 - o* s 9 i 9 -
i_jllcl ; Jol camels, Jbl ; ^j a leopard,
a ,o* 9 o-~
^Uil; ^^5 the young of a bird, |yl
^ 4^; A^ dWj v-jLbtl.
174 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

Plur. Fract Sing.

2. JJii, from verba mediae rad. . et yg,
and primae rad. ?; as i^h a dress,
i_>tjj|; uUw sword, oLuJ; -^j
<%, pLI (for {}!); ^Jjtime, ia>tlt.
Rem. 2.*&, 'fesj, makes f-Luif , and
not (as one would naturally expect) &Liui|.

3. JLels (rare); as .jells clean, pure, >L^bl;

jjflLS # helper, .LaSt.
4. Jui*i, verbal adjectives, not having a
passive signification (rare); as ufc>> &
o - of 9 - 0 o^ 0
ft00&, otj-wl; ouyo Or oyyo (lor ooyo,

. 242), <&?, 2>tp|.

B^ 9 0,
1. Jii, Juii, JJti (rare); as
tr the
young of a bird, it&.*i!; Jkij $/W,
8- o* S ' 00 * 9, *
kJL*j|; v a button, g.if (for >})!) ,
9oJ 0- of Si) /7 , ,
o tower, &b>oi; .3fc / 0? 0/
a reptile, S3t(.

2. JJii (rare) ; as >K (for >>Z\) provisions,

S^\l; JLL (for JL&.) un uncle (by
the mother's side), ilLiLf ; lis (for Js
o .-.- ' 8- o*
or yis) the back of the neck, JLlaj! .
3. Quadriliterals, of which the antepenult
letter is quiescent (a long vowel), espe
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjective. 175

Phir. Fract. Sing.

XV iiilT < c'a'^ nouns f tne forms Jlii and

JLii; as ^u=- a #>%, &sva.l; *L*is

/oorf, &i*Jsi; %\y& physic, kj^ol; JjLU

/<? tongue, SLuJI; idl ^o</, &2i\

(for iLgJM); -Lol 'imam or priest,

iUl>l (for &**!!); glls courtyard,

juisl; iJl^s /we A^dT/, sJLof; o*x

pillar, SJl^I; oUe. a &<? 0/ bread,

4. Jui*i, verbal adjectives, derived from
verba mediae rad. geminatae or ultimae
rad. } et ^ ; as us^c mighty, glorious,
9s * 9 - ft c f-
Sjjtl; iJLlAc temperate, chaste, Sjitl;

yuua <fea^ JUa.|; ^yo a ooy, (for

' 1. Jxli; as |vjls. signet-ring, *2\'yL>\

crucible, (JjUJo.

2. JlcLX, substantives; as JJLs # mould,

vJJLs; J^K" //* ^ff^<? between the
shoulders, Jkffy; v;^* ^ ^ 0/^ a
176 Pari Second. Etymology or Ihc Paris of Speech.

Plur. Fract. Sing.

earners hump, of a wave, etc., 'r>M

J Jl=.Lw the seashore, Jl&.L*.

XVI. J^el^i \ 3. Jjeli, masc. verbal adjectives (rare);
as u^U a horseman, yu^yi; ^Ls a
follower, j*i\^-
4. Jt^li, verbal adjectives, applicable by
their signification only to females (.297
rem. ) ; as J^cLa. pregnant, J^ol^a. ;
(jojI&. menstruating, (jdSLi*-.

5. sJLtli, substantives and fem. verbal

adjectives; as XjLeLo thunderbolt,
(JjxL*e; 8^t>b rarity, a witticism,

><>Uj; ixa-Ls companion, ^j*\yo;

ibsL&. # ^/r/, Jpi. (for (j^l^?-, see no.

XXIII. rem.).

6. tiLtli; as tlXoLs, il&jlj, M* /?&

0/ a mouse, j^olls, (3Jl%i-

XVII. Jutiii Fern, quadriliterals, of which the third

letter is servile or quiescent (a long
vowel), whether they have the fem.
termination il, or not ; as &j\ a cloud,
v^Sl^? ; jL2) an embassy, letter, short
' ~ Z- 9^ - ~^-
treatise, JoL^ ; s^v= * island, >*Jy>-',
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 177

Plur. Fract. Sing.

JULi the north wind, JoU*; \^t
an old woman, ySlsE; ZJyXs* a niikh-
camel, ^jS^ks*.
r 1. JJJ, from radicals mediae .; as yA.
ff /fo/<, ^Ucxa.; yy~ a wall, ^Cu*;
>y. a piece ofwood, a branch, ^Iju^c.
2. JJti ; as CiiL. a male bustard, (jlj*^ ;
La: rf of small bird, jjljLo^;
J^j fearrrf, ^y] -X2 (for -y) a

crown, ^Lssuu'; v^ a fo*T ijr-+&>

^15 /?>r, ,Co ; ^si (for ^33) yoBjfc,
3. $x; as ops kind of bird, ^t3Lo;
0*=* a fuldmouse, ^0y>-\ Ju
nightingale, ^j'rAJ-
4. Jlii, and more rarely JUi; as -jLc
foy, */<?, ^jUJlfi ; v'r^ * raven,

<7 gazelle, (jiCe-

S 0^ 9 . -
5. Jutli (rare) ; as iaSU*. ff w#, ^Lk*?-
0* 9- *
Rem. | (ror ^i.|), brother, has

^!yL|; Lf (for lpi), a maidservant,

^jI^OK lSA^O, *V (J*-*-*"*?-

178 Pari Second. Etymology or Ihe Paris of Speech.

Plur. Fract. Sing.

1. Jk*a; as ofa. 7'00/, (j"-***-; j gh
/'//i? focA-, /ta s/^wY side of a wing-
feathcr, ^fJ&\ ,jJaj the belly, the
long side of a wing-feather, ^LUoj.
2. jjti ; as jJJ a town, ^IjJj; J\j,

6 9
3. JkA*i ; as i_aa. fffXtf <?/ bread,
G.,o> 8 - . .6,-oj
^ULcn; v_***i # twig or roa, ^l^aj';
Xix. ^^Jd < S G ^ * 9
l^dis a male ostrich, ^Ulis; JuJU*.

a friend, ^jiLi*. .
4. JkjtU, verbal adjectives, used as sub-
slantives and not derived from verba
mediae rad. . et ^; 'is u~;v
, w->Li a horse-
B.^o 2.- ' 9.o
?a/?, jLJ; iLi a yaw/a, ,jlLi.

5. Jkiil, fern, iikii; as ' , ^ | red, .*Ai~-;

pJo\ bald, ^LiLo; ^t <fcfl/; J,UJ;

r 1. Juixi, verbal adjectives, applicable lo

rational beings, which have not the
passive signification, nor are derived
from verba mediae rad. geminalae or
tertiae rad. 2 et |^: as ja&s poor,
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 179

Plur. Fract. Sing.

0 f
tlJii; Iax! an emir, iL*!; \J*j^s
;x. Kai <
biff/^ ill,} ; Juiao stingy, i^Lsxj.
s -
Rem. SJjJLai , a deputy, a caliph, makes

2. J^ftli, some masc. adjectives, with tlie
same restrictions as above; as wtLi.
_ > s i e
/wrf, iL**i; Jjslc. #>tf, 5U[fc; i.Lo

upright, i\S^a.
j_ ft Q
XXI. i^kxil J^*^ niasc. adjectives of the same
kind as XX. 1, but mostly derived from
verba mediae rad. geminatae or lertiae
rad. . et ^j as jjj<Xa friend,
***** o* S m .- S *-
ibiXol; lj* (for ^yc) #?/</, y,

tlijit; w^Ai, Ju^, a friend, ilia.?,

OUJ (for iLLl.T, OUiF); JujJi

strong, iljuil; ^^ n'd *U**'! J;

friend, a well or *?'/, *LJ^I .

G, 9 S _ o*
1. J*i, Juui, J^li, Juiit, verbal adjec
tives, denoting injuries, defects, etc., of
body or mind; as JyuCS sto, Jo*;
^ '^.wounded, ^'f*; ouy (fr^?^)

XXII. ,^jii < cfc<7</, JyS ; ^jlwI a prisoner, ^JL\ ;

180 Part Second. Etymology or Ihe Paris of Speech.

iiJUlje perishing, jOjd; JoLc poor,

JJ^; ^jxj paralytic, J&y, \J^, or

2. ^jiUli, verbal adjectives; as ^"^Lf

/<zzy, jlSj 'yJ+Zal. angry, (5IAI;
J,liyc hungry, Ji'^k.
r 1. iC*i"; as *KJlc a virgin, JSS; *|Jsp
/fc/</ or />//, ;L^-

2. jJii, jJii; as (Cpci a judicial reply,

XXIII. Jlii < jLT; ^li //fo elevated part of the
skull behind the ear, lij.

3. jJU, fern, adjectives; as jJ-a- /"*<y-

Rem. Jlis stands in the nom. and genit.

for QJls and ^Lii (both with the art.

iJLjlLM). The accus., however, is always

liLii , with the art. Jl wit ( . In the same

way JJJ, ntVjrflr, makes JLJ (ace. J 111);

JJd| , jxopfe, JU| (aec. JUef) ; and ^eJ ,

Me <?WA, ^jeM (ace. ,c-<U)-

(1. The same substantives and adjectives

as no. XXIII. 1, 2, 3; e. g. ^Iji,
^L^p; v5$lH, (^Lii; JUi.
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 181

Plur. Fract. Sing.

2. Jj^kai, Joixi, verbal adjectives; as
IjKSL drunken, ^j&S*; ^11"^ an9ry>
^Jli*; ^l3J* /w^-y, ^31^; j*~1
a prisoner, ^TLZl ; *jOj orphan,
^olT; *jIJO boon-companion, ^oftX3
Rem. Instead of Jlii we also find
^Jlij and ^Uls; as ^K, ^U**' or

3. L*i, fern, substantives from verba

tertiae rad. 5 et ^; as &|j^ a present,
UljJe; 'six* fate, GUi; iU&J subjects,
\21\ ; Ilka, (for iLk^) ', LjUli-
Rem. We write Usljjo instead of^ljje,
etc., to prevent the repetition of the letter ^
(see . 179 rem. a).
?- So- , ? |V
, 1. JJb; as Jl*x^ a wflw, J^u^; ^-U

2. jUi ; as .Us*. tf <ws, 7***" "

3. j^Q; as "H. a pilgrim,

XXV. Juuri 4
9 .-.
(rare) (for ^U) /&/', ^i (for ^yc);
!tUo ^0 ****; ^y& a *^P
182 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

Plur. Fract. Sing.

? <-
XXVI. Uyii (rare) . . . Jkxs ; as JJu a husband, iJyu ; *
S " 9 9
an uncle (by the father's side), iuu ;
JLs. an uncle (by the mother s side),
xJ^^ik.; j*& a wild ass, '*)*$
9 .. 9-- ?-.-
1. Jmi; as - s/0#<?, h^.-
XXVII. UUi 9 r
2. JkclS; as uUl3 a plunderer, xjL^j ;
v^s.Uo fl companion, Xj12s> (also ibl^p).

1. jJjii, xAii; as il^JLa. a circle or rw<7,

i^JJLa.; s:Jo windlass, JSL*.
XXVIII. JJu <J 2. J^li , as Jusb drinking, thirsty, J^ 5
JJlb seeking, y^JLis ; lolX se?~vant,
tXi.; mAS a follower, an attendant, *S\

XXIX. JJii (rare) J^li; as oLa drinking, v_>-&; ^>u

helper, JcS; yoXz a merchant, jJp3;

^>a.Lo companion, _*?; J*K

Rem. a. The above rules regarding; the correspondence of cer

tain forms of the plur. fractus and of the sing-., arc subject to many
exceptions. The dictionaries also give many forms which we have
9 o -
not thought it necessary to notice ; c. g. ^x*w an old man, a chief,
9 - -j-, >, 9 o _ "~"o 8 . 8- ^ a -
KdaJtwo and iL^yu&uc ; Jla a slave, jcJuji, ^j|<Xv, sJujw,
M^jaAjc; and (lie like.
Rem. ft. Many forms of the plur. fractus seem to be derived, not
from the sing, forms in actual use, but from others, which arc obsolete
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjective. 183

or of rare occurrence. E. g. Jxli, pi. *i^jis, (as .x-Li a poet,

> 5 , G - 9 . - - o,
4!-JUi,) from an obsolete JkAAi (v**-i) ; and J^fcls, pi. JJls ,
9 - , ^G
(as viL'Lft perishing, JuL*,) also from an obsolete Juxi (viJLJbo).
Rem. <r. From the preceding: table it is obvious that one sing.
Go-* 6
may have several forms of the plur. fraclus; e. g. w- the sea, .lgi ,
G >> 9>c* So, 9 .- S ,. S J o* G - o >
\y^ , ysit ; Ju>e a slave, 0U , Juux , tX^t! , .jl Jux (sec
6 , - S o- S . - 8,-o*
also rem. a); ,_>.&. Lo a companion, y_^P, oLP, l_>LSP(,
kjl_P, .1 A<g-
Or one sing, may have several plurales fracti
g .-
and a plur. sanus besides; e. g. tXffLi one who is present, a witness,
> , - G s ' G > > G.^o* > -, G I-
^JjeLi, J-g-i, iJj-g-cO) OLj*iV, tXfll^ci; Jolc serving,
> , - 9.SJ G,,-
worshipping, "..JuLc, OLx , j'JytX-. In such cases, if tlie
sing, has several meanings, it often happens that each of them has
one or more forms of the plur. which arc peculiar to it, or used in
G o -
preference to the rest. For example: oyo means: 1) a house,
2) a verse of poetry ; in the former sense the plur. fraet. is more
G > > o* n . , o*
usually iw)jo than v^juoI, in the latter always nyutJt- Again,
G o-
..wlC signifies: 1) an eye, 2) a fountain, 3) peculiar nature or essence,
9 > >
4) a distinguished man; its plur. fract. in the first sense is jjjlc or
G > of G . , of G > > G > o*
^wl&i, rarely ^LlcI; in the second, ,jaa or ^jjlcI ; in the
G o^ 9 * ~*
third and fourth, ^LLftl . Or, to take another example, jt" means:
1) //*<; tW/y, 2) a valley, 3) a frt'&tr, 4) the interior, 5) <A /on^r side
of a wing-feather; the plur. fract. in the first and second significations,
"-- 9,>> s r>o*
according to the lexicon el-Kamus, is .jJbj or fajj , rarely
g ^ l G ' f G ' o*
,1 iJaj; in the third, U or >U^|; in the fourth and fifth,

305. The forms of (he plur. fract. of substantives and

adjectives, which consist of four or more consonants, are
184 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech,

exhibited, along with the corresponding singulars, in the

following table.
Plur. Fract. ' Sing.
r 1 Quadrilileral substantives and adjectives
(g not being counted as a letter), the
consonants of which are all radical; as
cJdLi a frog, coliLi ; slkls a bridge,

JoLIS"; JtyL a gem, v?&-.

i. jjiii 2. Quadriliterals ( not included), formed
from triliteral roots by prefixing f, cj,
(J.US) or j.; as LCi, <7 /fr^r, jLo!; ^jiif

(jUu;) a viper, cli! (for ,-clil ; compare . 304,

no. XXIII. rem.); xjj^vS" experience,
L-'jl jv5; iUiuuM means of subsistence,

(jiolii; ,-Iii meaning, ,jIjLo (for _iULo;

compare . 304, no. XXIII. rem.).
Rem. a. In Ihe plur. fract. of the form
JlcLLo from verba mediae rad. , the , is
not converted after the clif produelionis into
hemza (3), as happens, for instance, in
form XVII. ofthc Irililerals (Jolii), or in the
nomen agentis (JlcII, 240), but it
o . - ,. o - . - ,
remains unchanged ; c. g. L*uo, &&.U*uc,
; <?ptv .yxwr /"or walking (from _Lw for

xj-w)) ^Lwuo; whereas ^jLm^o is the

plural of ft** tu_f a cr/ (from

c~*:>). In
11. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjective. 1 83

Plur. Fred. Sing.

Ihc same form from verba mediae rad. Ihe
, is usually retained, as iwjjix bowcase,
U^.ULc; sClXc (from ^li for Cf) adescH,

, . LLo ; but in a few cases it is changed inlo

- s . -- -. ^ ^-~
^g, as (joULo (from yel* for \jOyh) a
j>/ce /or diving, y,ojULo ; sUlo (from . Lc
for Clt) a , -jl ix ', and in one inslance
inlo hemza (j), viz. jUjufbo (from v_>Lo for
CjyCi) <* misfortune, io.Lox, ^oLojo,

and y_>2Lfljo.

Rem. ft. Adjectives of Ihe form JJiil,

which have the superlative meaning, form,
> ,
when used as substantives, a plur. J^tlil;
e. g. Jil greatest, ^\ .

Quinquelileral subslanlives and adjectives

(g not included), of which the penulti
mate letter is a litera productionis (I, y ^) ;
as ^UaJuI e sulton, ^^o^J^; ,jjJC*
II. JuJlii

(for ^uJy5); Sjr? a desert, ,c,G (for

LjJlj) ; iliaif a fovourite (wife or

concubine), JJsla? (for ^MjS>); ~?yaj-

a picture, o.LoS; ^oLS a chronicle,

(J*e?) io.Q (compare . 136); _Ui* a foy,
186 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Plur. Fract. Sing.

sir'-ij-M ; ,jjlCx poor, ^xTLLo ; JuJ.S'l

a garland or crown, JuJfcT; c JJLi

spring, ^uliT; u"y*L=- ffl buffalo,
' i . ikNWL>
iw*AXl^; 8 ' \" # Spy, ' i"

Rem. a. The plur. JuJlij is sometimes

found in cases where a quinquelileral sing,
form is either rare or does not exist ; as
itAJ'Iyi* stgnet-rings, from ^LiLi. = *J'L=.

(pi. fStpi.); ***lj<5 dirhems, from *Ut\0

= ^jo (pi. |UlJ5).

Rem. 6.'' UL>t> dinar, Jeljxs caraf..
and .!j i> rt<? council ofstate, a public office,
a collection ofpoems, make wAJUO, luvtj:,

and ^j.llt) (as if from sing, forms Ui>,

JeLi', and ^jl^ij). fX+?.$> brocade, has

' i" or (j^AxUO;

tart, ^j^juoLcO ' i" andj9*1
> ^* > .*
furnace, ^uQI or (jjl3u'|.
' 1. Occasionally substantives and adjectives
of five or more letters (principally
foreign words), of which the penulti
mate letter is a litera productions ; as
(illl a master, a teacher, Juolw! and
sjo'UJ; JuiJLj, disciple, a pupil,
II. The Noun A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 187

Plur. Fraci. Sing.

9 > r '
tWiki and gtXc&i'; o^lJUi ((ptko-
aotfoq) a philosopher, sJ^J%.
2. Substantives and adjectives of four or
more letters, which have not a litera
productions before the last radical,
especially when they are words of
III. iJUlii <J foreign origin, and a great many
relative adjectives, consisting of more
than four letters. E. g. JiLc an angel,
&Jo^Lo ; JJJJLo one who polishes swords,
Joll-o and SJj'Lufl ; vjsLl (&r7xo7rog)
a bishop, ob'U,! and JtAsLil; ^axS
9^ --^
(Caesar) the Byzantine emperor, iye\*S ;
^^ili (ririB) Pharaoh, il&fc; ^j*
a Moor, Jblo; ^oIJJLj //^ of
Bagdad, sJi>Ulj; ^ii^^ajo z of
the Berber tribe of Masmitda, SjoeLai;
^JL^ descendant of \i-Muhalleb,

Rem. a. This form is also found, though rarely, in quadrililerats

which have a litera produclionis before the last radical ; as vU-=*, <*
o- i
tyrant, a giant, soLa. .

Rem. *. In forming the plur. fract. of nouns which contain five

or more letters (exclusive of s and the letters of prolongation), one of
the radicals is rejected, generally the last. E. g. t^jyjSXe. a spider,
188 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

vJjTlit; ^_AjJtVlt a nightingale, JoULc; 1<uJ-5 sort of cap,

(jo5kj", ^^kS (for ^u,&S), or (_>^3; xsL'U...| a pillar,


Rem. . The forms of the plur. fracl. of quadrilitcrals and quin-

quelilcrals are also used in forming plurals from oilier plurals (*!.
-f7 . g t_" "
m+~L\ the plur. of the plur., or secondary plural). E. g. Afr a nail
or claw, pi. .UJbf, pl.pl. yAiLbl; &j> a hand, a benefit, pi. Jo!
(for ^Jol), pi. pi. Ob! (for (cOb!).' From the p!ur. fract. may
* " s o
also be formed a plur. sanus by adding v^>tl ; as viJo fowse, pi.
G J J 6 . - J G ~ G J '
^^*J> p'- pl- aUvU homes, families; (JjjyL a road, pi. jjj,
pl.pl. icjLs'Js. Such secondary plurals can be properly used only
when the objecls denoted are at least nine in number, or when Ihcir
number is indefinite.
R e m. d. Plurals are formed from a great many relative adjec
tives, especially those that indicate the relations of sect, family, or
clienlship, by adding the termination si; as IxiLi a follower
of e's-S'afii (^ajULft), klxi\jLS\ the whole sect; ^Jo a Sufi,
>o t - g o, ,
iui^xaJt; ^gjUit a member or client of the family of Othman,
iujUiill. See .268.
Rem. e. The plural of some nouns is anomalous, or derived
from olher forms or roots than the sing, in use; as *! a mother,

v^)L^cf (Syr. ].U,]f IZoiie)); ,j tfl mouth, sLil (from a smg.

s .\ T' 8i' s.-o* 0. - Ge-<,
5^s); l\x water, a sprtng, sLyo, sLxl (from a sing. 8U) ; s'Ljef
a woman, 2L*yj, 5**j> ,jl.-wj (from Ihc rad. |u*j|, whence
Heb. #{?, n'K, for -^JN. ntf'JN). ^Llif, a human being (Heb.

JWN, for jliiN, ]WjN), has usually ^Li, instead of the older
andpoelic ^li) (Heb. tffcjj, Aram. NJMN, |li|).
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substanlivc and Adjective. 189

306. As regards their meaning, the plurales fracli are

totally different from the sound plurals; for the latter denote
several distinct individuals of a genus, the former a number
of individuals viewed collectively, the idea of individuality
being wholly suppressed. For example, ^.jJLc are slaves,
i. e. several individuals who are slaves, Jjux slaves collect-
ively ; ^U** Voun9 men> youth (juvenfus), = i_jU-;
Rdau^jfl old men in general; iLoUiaJf the whole race of
'Othman. The plurales fracti are consequently, strictly speaking,
singulars with a collective signification, and often approach
in their nature to abstract nouns. Hence, too, they are all
of the fern, gender, and can be used as masc. only by a
conslructio ad sensum.
R e in. We mg.sl distinguish from the plurales fracti those nouns
which are called c+^LI sU_<i! (like the plural), as Jji bees, on
which see . 246 and . 292, 1. The former may be styled abstract,
the latter concrete collectives. A third class of collectives is formed
by those nouns, to the meaning- of which the idea of collectivcness
attaches; as ,jj> people, JC**^ an army. These differ from the sLu&i
h+sL\ in not admitting of the formation of nomina unitalis (. 246).

307. The plur. sanus and the plurales fracti of the

forms XII., XIII., XIV., and XV., are used only of persons
and things that do not exceed ten in number (3 to tO),
and are therefore called xJUl! t e y^ , plurals of paucity,
whilst the rest are named s-iXJI cy+c*, plurals of abun
dance. This observation applies, of course, only to such nouns
as have also other plurals, for if one of the forms alone be used,
it is necessarily employed without any limitation as to number.
190 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

4. The Declension of Nouns.

a) The Declension of Undefined Nouns.
308. 1) Undefined substantives and adjectives are, in
the singular number, either triptotes or diptotes. Triptotes
are those which have three terminations to indicate the
different cases; viz. _ (Norn.), _ (Gen., Dat, Abl.), and C
or I (Ace, see . 8 rem.). Diptotes are those which have
only two terminations; viz. _ (Nom.) and 1 (Gen. Dat., Abl.,
Ace). The former are called by the Arab grammarians
Owilc, declinable, and the latter o**iax jjS, indeclinable.
2) The dual number has only two case-endings, which are
common to both genders; viz. ^JC (Nom.) and ^1 (Gen.,
Dat., Abl., Ace). 3) The pluralis sanus has likewise
only two case-endings for each gender;- viz. for the masc,
/j.-I (Nom.) and :%_>_ (Gen. Dat., Abl., Ace); for the fern.,
oC (Nom.) and ^C (Gen., Dat., Abl., Ace). 4) The
plurales fracti are either diptotes or triptotes, exactly like the
singular (see . 309, 1). The following is the paradigm
of the declension of undefined substantives and adjectives.
Masc. Fern.
Proper. Common. Proper. Common.
Sing. Sing.
N. iXi\ Zvid. Jj&. a man. jiso Hind. iLLa. a garden.
rt I ' - < .. a "

Ac. |Jo\ iL?.N Ijop

II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 191


Masc. Fern.

Proper. Common. Proper Common.

Dual. Dual.
N. j) u'^
* 0.-
V**) liJ1^-
0 "
G.Ac. i*i*3
Plur. !sanus. Plur. sanus.
8 -? 9 ,c<

G.Ac. ttyUL&.
Plur fracl. Plur. fract.
0 .
N. U^"
G. .... J>;
Ac. ISO*
Adj ectives.
Masc. Fern.
N. ,jJL&. siding. &sjoLT mourning.




G. Ac. C^L^?L&-
192 Pari Second. Etymology or Ihc Parts of Speech.

Masc. Fcm.
Plur. sanus.
N. (jj-JL?. iLiiits
G.Ac. ilh^r
Plur. fracf.
0 f J S cs j
N. QMjk

zf s>
G. -
<* ^
1 e
Ac. C:&L
Masc. Fcm.
N. Othman. _* Zi'inab.
G. Ac. ,jUii
^ 8j
N. ^^5
G.Ac. c^3
Plur. sanus.
N. ^uU voUJ-i;
G. Ac. tj^i*-*** ib.015
Plur. fract.
(of ,jo a dirhem)

N. k9
G. Ac. PtJ5
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 193

Masc. Fern.
N. ol*l black. <$Jks\ distinguished. i\3yL black.
. Ac. dy\ J^dil *\Oy~

G. Ac. ^j^I (^iJLdil ^o*lk>u>>

Plur. sanus. .
N - I ' t
G. Ac .... "ijJUlst

Plur. fract.
(of JLsolj mourning)

N j^lit Isiji
G. Ac J^gT liT^S
Rem. There are two words in Arabic, in which the final flexional
vowel of the sing, affects the last vowel of the radical part of the Sub
s' . , ">, - ?'", , 8-0,
slanlivc; viz. yol, a man, and aJj I, a >, for f^el and *Jbf,
which are also used.

Sing. Nom. *| |Jb|

Gen. ^yel iw>-?l

Ace. Ulol UII|

1 94 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speeeh.

General Remarks on the Arabic Dcc'cnsion as compared with

llial of the other Slicniitic Languages. In the other Shcmi'ie
languages, as also in modern Arabic, the case-endings of the singular
have almost wholly disappeared.* In Aelhiopic, the old accusative in
a is retained, both as an accus., and to mark Ihe construct slate of
nouns; as 'emna mar'eta medcr, "from the dust of the ground"; takala
gannala, "he planted a garden". In Hebrew, traces of all three cases
arc discernible, viz. 1 = _, i = _, and H = or |_

(compare . 97 rem. b), though the first two have lost their peculiar
force, and arc chiefly used by the poets as archaistic forms (see Gese-
nius' Hcb. Gr. . 88). f The Aramaic has lost them completely, for the
status emphaticus in X (as N13i the man) seems rather to be a post
positive article t than the remnant of a case (the accus.). The dual
does not exist in Aethiopic. In Aramaic, the nom. early fell into disuse,
and its place was supplied by Ihc oblique form J' ; as P^JI the
two feet. In Syriac, however, 1he dual has maintained itself in but
three words, in Ihe form en (contracted for ayin) ; viz. _*?z, fern.
_,2iZ two; __z)io two hundred; and ,-Ji^le Egypt- In Hebrew,
the corresponding termination is D] (with Q for 7, as in CN *f =

* They are still used in some parts of Arabia and Mesopotamia,

though, as in Hebrew, with but little regard to grammatical correctness.
See Wallin in the Zeilschrifl d. D. M. G. vol. V. p. 6, vol. VI. p. 196,
and von Kremer : Miltcl-Syricn und Damascus (Wien, 1853), p. 203.
t The adverbial terminal ion C has been explained in two
different ways, some regarding il as an accus. = \t-, with C for ]
(as in the dual and plur.); others as an obsolete plur. = cv , on
which see a subsequent note. 1 prefer Ihe former view. Examples
are: DJON, or DjDN , truly (]GH), QlTi gratis (JP1), ODV by day
(QV), Dp,_! 'n v"i" (P1-))* and. wim fur a CNPS, instantly
(for 0'ynS, from yriS). See Gcscnius' Hub. Gr. . 8, 3.
\ Compare, for instance, in Swedish, maun-cn, "Ihc man", as
dislinguished from en man, "a man".
Very rarely j , as in 7TND, fr 'he common pjlND, two
hundred; and |i , p-jPi, fem. j'fnfl, two (for jl-jpii PR**!?)
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 1 95
So St '
.I , |n"3 thumb = ..Igjl , C3E3 pistachio-nuts => jjaj ,
Vff-H to be fat = 1**5). In Ihese cases, the is merely an auxiliary
vowel, lo lighten the pronunciation; as IV2 = c^uo, so p or C1
= ^jl; compare C^JB' with (JjOjI, CHJ with ,jJtXj, DTtftP
(rUir) with ,jJoiuL (all)-* U is farlher lo he noticed, thai in
Hebrew and Aramaic the use of the dual is confined lo the noun sub
stantive, and generally restricted lo objects that are united (by nature
or art) in pairs. See Gescnius' Hcb. Gr. . 86 b. In modern Arabic,
the dual is but little employed except in the substanlivc, and then in
the oblique form .jjI- In regard lo \he plur. sanus of the Arabic,
we must firsl observe that as (j._, ^jL, are dynamical develop
ments of I, ii, and |^j_, yC, of _, il; we should natu
rally expecla form -\\1, uC lo correspond to |_, jt_. This an
(ace. ana) has been actually preserved in Aelhiopic as the plural of
various classes of adjectives; e.g. Gh*p: rehhuk, "distant", Oh-S^"
rchhukan. f In Aramaic (as in modern Arabic), the oblique termination
1 is alone in use, as p"l2J men, ^Jol oxen; and in Hebrew, D
is substituted for j (as in the dual), whence C'tt^K men, CTO steers.
For the fern, the other dialects have, in exacl accordance with the
Arabic: Aelh. at (ace. ata); Aram, n , ^ (m the construct ; the
absolute form 1 , <^-, is difficult lo account for); Heb.n1 ( for a).
See Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 86. Of the Arabic plurales fracli there
are no certain vestiges in Heb. or Aram. The Aethinpic, on the con
trary, has plurals of this sort exactly corresponding lo some of the

* Very rare forms are: I) D' (like Aram, en), in the combination
*"!KT CW, fcm. PpETJ? D'Ptf, twelve; 2) C, in the proper
name CTJJ = CWgj and 3) 1 (for }i, see last note), in the
proper name JtVl = JYH. It may be, however, thai C and j
are not contractions of C\ and p, but the actual nom. = ^jf_-
t Hence, perhaps, may be explained the very rare Hebrew form
C , in D32, gnats, = U<32, with C for J.
196 Tart Second. Etymology or the Paris or Speech.

Arabic forms. See Dillmann's Grammatik d. Acthiopischen Sprachc,

136 and foil.
309. The following nouns are diptotes.
1. Several forms of the pluralis fractus; viz.
a) Quadrisyllable plurales fracti, the first and second
syllables of which have fetha and the third kesra,
that is to say, (he forms jUtli (XVI.). Jslii (XVII.),
JJLii etc., and JuJlii etc. (I. and II. of nouns that have
more than three radicals letters); as L>\3 followers,
v_*jla? wonders, ylejSs bridges, ^*&kl sultans.
b) Plurales fracti that end in hemza preceded by elif
memduda (Jl), viz. i^kii (XX.) and *3(il (XXI.); as
*U=* wise men, *L3jl /fiends (compare 2. a and 3. b).
c) Plurales fracti that end in _ and ^1, viz. Jl*i
(XXIII.), Jii (XXII.), and J& (XXIV.); as JJ virgins,
(-a.l* nounded men, \$X*ai Christians (compare 2.b and 3. b).
2. Various common nouns and adjectives; viz.
a) Common nouns and adjectives which end in hemza
* ~'- ****** **
preceded by elif memduda (*l_); as *Ljk a virgin,
tLi-o white (. 296). Compare 1. b and 3. b.
Rem. This rule does not apply lo cases in which the hemza is
radical, as g| j' from \ji (compare . 299 rem. c, and . 301 rem. e).
b) Common nouns and adjectives ending in elif
maksura (^); as ^Jj memory, llSi the world (. 295,
2),^';tL drunken (. 295, 1), ^'JkJo smallest (. 295, 2),
jjl first (. 295, 2 rem. b). Compare 1. c and 3. b.
Rem. Excepting those in which the elif maksura is radical; as
* > s - J
^ Jje guidance (for ^JjS, . 213).
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 197

c) Adjectives of (he form JJtSl (. 234 5), of which

ihe fern, is jJii and OkAi ( 295, 2, and . 296); as
v_*at most wonderful, f. ^aP; y*=>\ red, f. iL*&..
Bui adjectives of the form Jiil, f. fcliil, are triploles;
as Juc.l poor, f. SjUcJ. Common nouns of this form are
usually regarded as Iriploles; e.g. JtV.! a hank, &a\ a
woodpecker, Juo\! humming ; but the diptole form is ad-
missible, as JtX=>.t, Ju^-I-
Rem. Adjectives of the form JjlsI, when used as nouns, always
retain the diptole inflexion; c. g. *S*&\ a fetter (properly dun), Oj^wl
a serpent (prop, black).
d) Adjectives of the form ,j^ii, of which the fem.
is Jk*i (.295, 1); as ^UCu,, f. ^L, drunken.
But (hose of which Ihe fem. is *Sik*i (. 295 rem. a)
are Iriptotes; as ^Xi^'j, f. aSlijJ, repentant. Adjec
tives of the form ,j&*i are all Iriplole, their fem. being
formed by adding si (. 295 rem. a); as ^jLjC^) f-
xSLj^c , naked.
e) Distributive numerals of the forms Jlij and JJiJLo
(. 333); as ilia and ^-iic, /wo by two, ^k!i and
oJUuo, three by three. And likewise ^1, (he plur. fract.
of yi.1, and of ils fem. i+i*-\, another.
3. Many proper names; viz.
a) Foreign names of men, as ..5! Adam, *a*0
Abraham, (j^ft Isaac, &M$ David; excepting such as
consist of three letters, (he second of which has gezma
or is a litera productions, as j> Noah, JeJ Zo/.
1 98 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

b) Proper names that end in elif maksura (compare

l.c and 2. b) and elif memduda (compare 1. b and 2. a),
whether Arabic or foreign; as a= John, *^1S\ Zachariah,
JJu Ydla, JoJ Leila.
c) Proper names in ^.C, whether Arabic or foreign;
as (jUiat Gatafan (a tribe), ,j*e ' Othman, ^jUuL,
Sufydn, Kj+*X~. Solomon.
d) Proper names that resemble in form the verbal forms
Ji*3 and Jk*3, or any of the persons of the Imperfect;
as juS* Summer, jJLi Jerusalem, i_>wa Dorib, tX-=>.|
Ahmed, Joyj Fez'id, yojo Tadmur (Palmyra), woUj
e) Common nouns of the fern, gender, consisting of
more than tliree letters, when used as proper names; e. g.
v_>JLc a scorpion, i^>le 'Akrab (a man's name).
f) Proper names that end in si, whether masc. or
fem. ; as ilCo Mekka, SLjlsU Fatima (a woman), icj
Ztoya (a woman), jlsLb 7fe///, s't>lii" Katada (men).
g) Fem. proper names, which do not end in si, but
are either of foreign origin, or consist of more than three
letters, or, though consisting of only three letters, are
trisyllabic, owing to their middle radical having a vowel.
E. g. Ja* Egypt, '.y>. Giir, ^>\ Zeinab, o\s.~ Sudd,
Ju, Hcllfirc (as the name of a particular part of hell).
But fem. proper names that consist of only three letters,
the second of which has gezma, may be either diptote or
o Go
triptote (though the former is preferred); as Joye or jjje
Hind, Jlci> or j^ta Dad.
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslantis'o and Adjective. 199

h) Proper names of men and women, which are actu

ally or seemingly derived from" common nouns or adjec
tives; especially names of men of the form JJL (from
J^li); as S&. Omar, JL Zu/iar, ^ 6'i/m; and names
of women of the form JL*i (from xJUls), as ILLlS Katam,
,jiUs Raka's, J X=- Hadam. These latter, however, have
more usually and correctly the form Jlii, and are wholly
indeclinable; as -Uai', jilij, JSa-
Rem. a. Besides being used as proper names, the forms Juli
and JUL? are often employed as vocatives, in terms of abuse ; e. g.
e*Ai. L Oimprobe! f ^Ui. G; jJ L> Ovilis! f. cUCJ L>.

Rem. b. In compound proper names of the class called ,Xx

So, '
_&.yjo (. 264), the first word is usually not declined at all, and the
second follows the diplote declension; nom. .-., * . J> -^ , JJUJuu ,

gen. and ace. vsyO. "**^i vlJUJUu. Both words may, however,
follow the triplole declension, the second being in the genitive, and
the first losing the tenwin because it is defined by the second (sec
.313 and foil.); nom. .-_<, r , ^ -. gen. owvii. acc- cjy>-a=>-

The proper name U5/ r Juw admits of a third form, for we may

say i^jjj (^tX*-* (ke ""l"j **"); or *->t^ ^lXjm, gen. and

acc. "*-j*j ^cXjw (like ^v., ^i ^ , v^ujewid^.); or ^*> ^tX**

in all three cases. Proper names of men ending in aui are wholly
indeclinable; as fv*-*A_w , xuhoi; *S?*^*

* s . s
319. Nouns ending in ^_ for ^_ or ^_ (. '213 and
. 245), which follow the first declension, and those in ^_
and C, for ^2, which follow the second (-309, l.c, 2. b,
200 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

3. b), retain in Hie oblique cases the termination of the nom.,

so that their declension is only virtual (JLjJJli), not ex
pressed ( "kQ or external (LfiUb). E. g. Lac for yaS,

y,oA , and \ya. ; ^. lor ^^a.. , ^g^ , and U*< ; ^wiu

for i^w&j and ^5*^0.
311. Nouns ending in _, for ^_ and ^_ (. 167.
II. 2, and the Paradigms or the Verb, Tab. XVIII.), or Ji
and \L, (see the same Tab.), have the same termination in
the nom. and gen. (dat. abl.), but in the ace. C_ (according
to . 166, 1). E. g. ^U for !>U, ace. l^ll; rlj for

_xK, acc. LyoK; yto for ^y**, ace. byu>; jjo lor ^vs,

acc. Uxwo; vAj for ^yb', acc. byu; ,j*j' for v5*->, acc.

Lu^s; ^ (verbal adj.) for ^, acc. ll^ ; jvc (verbal adj.)

for ^i, acc. ll^.

312. All plurals of the second declension, which ought
regularly to end in (-g_, for ^_, follow in the nom. the
first declension instead of the second, and substitute _ (for
,j_). They moreover retain, according to .311, the same
termination in the genii, and consequently follow the first
declension in that case too; but in the acc. they reman
true to the second declension, and have ^_. E. g- xjjLs.,
9 -- ' i- ** '
pi. nom. and gen. \\f*, for &Jf> (instead of ^.La.), acc.

j^J^.; S**, pi- nom. and gen. ^jlii, fur ^jULo (instead
of ^gjULo), acc. ^LiJe ; i\Jip, pi. nom. and gen. jbs?, for

(5^l<s (instead of ,5, lis?), acc. ^l^e.

II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Subslanlive and Adjeclive. 201

b) The Declension of Defined Nouns.

313. Undefined nouns become defined: 1. by prefixing
(lie article Jl; 2. a) by adding a noun in the genitive;
b) by adding a pronominal suffix.
314. If an undefined noun be defined by the article,
the following cases arise.
1) If it belongs to the first declension, it loses the
Norn. J^tH J^-i'l a^?^' iLa^J! JU^JI
the man. Hasan, the city, the chaste (woman), the men.
Gen. J^s-Jl y^il k->j<XJI x**i<JI JL.ZJt

Ace. J^yl ^j-U-i sLtXiJI Sivi-gsJl J^>-p'

Rem. The final | of the ace. disappears along with the lenwfn.

2) If it belongs to the second declension, it assumes

the terminations of the first, and becomes Iriplote.
the black (m .). the black (f.). the chief men.
- 0*-
Gen. dyJi\
Ace. OyJSS
3) If it be a plur. sanus fern., it loses the tenwin.
Nom. cAiikJl the darkness. cjUJUIeCJ! the creatures.
Gen. Ace. v^UJUaJI ^[ji^Xkui !
Rem. a. The plur. sanus masc. and the dual undergo no change
when the article is prefixed ; as ~jLJaJf those who beat, ,5b>J|
the ttvo men.
202 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Rem. b. Nouns ending in _ drop Ihe tenwin and resume their

original ,j; as ^cfZJI from L, ^UlJ| from ,jLjm , ^L^JcJ!

from ^5, is/y$ horn J^. (see . 311 2).

315. If a noun in the genitive is appended to an unde

fined noun, the following changes are produced.
1) The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions
are declined in the same way as if they were defined by
the article (. 3 14-.
0*<rO 9 - 0 f- _ O-O
Nom. jJJI ^j\3f uf;^' i&*' xJL>iX3l JU?m
the book ofGod. the lowestpart ofthe earth, the men ofthe city.
Gen. JlM oUc^ ufj^f' J^' ^.&+& $^)

Ace. Jj| 6LiT ^SM Jill &1<^^ 3^-;

Nom. ^liyLkjfvliL^ . r^ jj-

/A<? ivonders of creation. every day.
Gen. yli!jLswJf v-4^ r J?
Ace. yyLSyUoT vSSlie ^ jj"
G * 9 e G
Rem. a. The words ^_,f a father, I a brother, ^-^ a falher-in-
tow, and ^jjo a fn^mgr Mm$r, after rejecting (he tenwin, lengthen the
preceding vowel.

Worn. 'f
jj|, ' %t
j-f, -
^J-*-*'' - for -'
***! ' f etc-
Gen. ^|, ,^1, tS^> ^y^; lr y I , etc.

Ace. Ut, IL.I, I ^ Ujo; for ^>|, etc.*

* The same thing is Ihe case in the other Shemilic languages; e. g.

iBeb. i-JN, Y-N, with suffixes TJ*2N, TjipN; Aram. T|12N, TpriN, Tjicn;
Aeth. MI-IK abiika, ace. AQTl : tea.
II. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 203
The word .i, the owner or possessor of a thing, which is always
connected with a following genitive, has in the gen. ^3, in the ace.
| ; whilst *i , the mouth (Aram. E1E), which is used instead of i,
makes either: Norn. *j, Gen. *i, Ace. *j;

or: yi, , Li.*

Rem. 6. Proper names of Ihe first declension lose their tenwin,
So, . ->
when followed by the word ^j| in a genealogical scries; as tX+^
,y (^ 4o jJLL. .jj j.ftJLs- MtJj Mohammed, the son of Ga far,
the son ofHalid, the son ofMohammed. On the elision of the | in Ihe

*\\, see . 21, 2.

6 o
Rem. c. Instead of ouLi , a daughter, we may use, when a

genitive follows, the form $jj\

2) The dual loses the termination ^.

Nom.^UaJUjflJui *L&. the two slaves of the sultan came.
Ace. j! JxTjI-i. ooTr 1 saw the twofemale slaves ofmyfather.
Rem. If an t-lif conjunctions follows the oblique cases of the
i, i- ' ""
dual, the final ^ takes a kesra instead of a gezma; as ^lsjIsI ^ V
viJUQ | , / passed by the two female slaves of the king (sec . 19

and . 20, 3).

3) The pluralis sanus loses the termination >.

Nom. *iXJQ| Jb *L&. the sons of the king came.

Ace. vlXJQt LSJU oolC / saw the king's sons.

Rem. If the plur. ends in ^jj > acc- ij-? (for(j^_ ' \J^~^'
these terminations become, before a following gen., ^_, ^_; ana u

* With these latter forms compare in Heb. PID, conslr. i, with suffix Tp.
204 Part Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

the genii, begins with an elif conjunct., the final . takes damma,
and the final , kesra, instead of the gezma; as jJUt .U.^-i ,
xJUl fa <a * ( 20, 3). Regarding the | otiosum which is
^ 9 o
often, though incorrectly, added to the nominal term. and _ , see
. 7, rem. n.
316. If a pronominal suffix is added to an undefined
noun, (he following changes lake place.
1) Triptotcs and the plur. sanus fern. lose the lenwTn,
the dual and plur. sanus masc. (he terminations .j and
J ; as ^uT a book, juUu his book ; m>UJLfe darkness,
Lji'LJLis ffc darkness ; (jUlf /#># books, dGU&' /Ay //>
books; ^yi^ sons, JyJ //*y .v<w.v.
2) Before the pronominal suffix of the 1. p. sing.
^5 (see . 185 rem. a, and . 317), the final vowels
of the sing., plur. fractus, and plur. sanus fern, are elided;
as ^^f my book, from i_jU<Sf; ^"^f my dogs, from
d%f, plur. fract. of v_Jl5"; ,gJ'CL&- my gardens, from
ou?' , plur. sanus of 'ibJL ; ^g\'j* mU followers, from
*jipr, plur. fract. of jU.
3) If the noun ends in 8, this letter is changed
into (or rather, resumes its original form of) ^; as
ii*j a favour or benefit, .-A+ij.
4) If the noun ends in elif mobile or hemza, this letter
passes before the suffixes inlo 1, when it has damma
(Norn.), and into , when i! has kesra (Gen.); as gUj
women, noin. with suffix s.Llj, his women, gen. &SU*j-
But when it has felha (Ace.), it remains unchanged, as
ace. st-Llj.
11. The Noun. A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 205

The Pronominal Suffixes thai denote the Genitive.
317. The pronominal suffixes attached to nouns to
denote the genitive, are exactly the same as those attached
to verbs to denote the accusative (. 185), with the single
exception of the suffix of the 1. p. sing., which is ^_,
and not ^.
Rem. a. The suffix of the 1. p. sing-. (_, when attached to a
word ending in elif maksiira (,_), in the long vowels |_, ,e_, ._
or in the diphthongs (e_ and ._, becomes ,g, the kesra of the
original form Jj_ (see . 20, 2) being simply elided. Further, when
the word ends in (c_ or ,_, the final .g unites with the .g of the
suffix into ,c ; and when it ends in ._ or _, the is changed into

jg, and likewise forms ,g. E. g. ^cl^P my love, for iC&lJ8

from itfjjc; igLlJaL. my sins, for ^..Kl UX^ from Kl Uv, plur.

of "l^^ ; ^li5Lc my two slaves, for ^sXx&i. , from j-UoiLe,

nom. dual of J&&- ; <c\j my judge, for _a^IS' ( JLcoli), from

(j^U; >L..<i wy Muslims, for ^tA,..xi (^gs* >><<)) or

.-A^A^yuo (^aa+1**x), from ^xj+Xm** , /T^*L*jo , plur. of *Xuo ;

^oikt my two slaves, for 'jJoiLc (^LyoiLft), from (jjyoSLe,

genit. dual of -Xfr ; t->^* my elect, for ^>. oU^^ U.trimio)

or <8h,^< ( **chixi), from ^. ah<nxi, ^*Bfo-ixi, plur.

of thou.
206 Part Second. Etymology or (he Parts of Speech.

Rem. b. Just as the verbal suffix j is sometimes shortened

into jj (. 185 rem. c), so the nominal suffix ._ occasionally be
comes _, particularly when the noun to which it is attached is in the
vocative; as vjj7 my Lord ! +*$ G 0 my people !
Rem. c. What has been said in . 185, rem. b, of the change
oflhedammain g, Lje , *sb , _kjc , into kesra after _, (c_, or
i5_, applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes. E. g.
xjUa of his book, ajJijjl*. his two female slaves, joJLs'Ls his

murderers, L^ajUcS', * a >l *^j etc.

B. The Numerals.
1. The Cardinal Numbers.
318. The cardinal numbers from one to ten are:
Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern.
6 , f - o . _ 8 -o- 0 o.
JL=>-t ^i3~^| 5. iiiiii^ (j>S.
(Xa-U ^-^'; 6.

6 " I-' I''
o. suJUJ" ..iUj
S'.rr 6.-:-: o- o s
3. &3*S e,}kj 9. JbWtaJ

. 8~..* O-o* 0- r , O j -
4. &*Jjl (*J;' 1(J- Sv-^x wa

Rem. . On ,cJl&.| see .295 rem. b. For siikj, <^^->,

g- I , g I - 9
we may also write &aJLj, vJLj ( 6 rem. a). ou* stands,
according to the Arab lexicographers, for i^> Juy (compare . 14, 3).
8 0
and that for iwjui- The correctness of this view is proved by the
n. The Noun. B. The Numerals. 207

diminutive juwjjuu, the fraction |uJu*,, a sixth, and the ordinal

adj. (i,i>L*<, sixth.

Rem. b. If we compare the above numerals with those of the

Hebrew (Gesenius' Gr. . 95), Aramaic (Cowper's Syr. Gr. . 165),
and Aclhiopic (Dillmann's Gr. 158), it is easy to perceive their
perfect identity; and, therefore, only one or two forms deserve notice
here. The Aram. V~)F\, f. pFPlR , is a contraction for ]]~\P.,
the exact equivalent of the Heb. D^B* (P becoming- IP', as in Ni^fi,
snom, = J^B*; and j exchanging with -i, as in rU"?, 1o rise, =
The daghesh in the Heb. fern. Q'Ptf
- :
indicates the loss of the
in ^liUJ. The Heb. nt&'fc', #12-*, stand for TVV"^, V~!& (see
rem. a, and compare the Aelh. sedestu and sessu, for sedsu). The
Chaldee form nrtt', ["PE* (Pt&O is identical with the Arabic; whilst in
the Syriac masc. \k, or ]L*.l, the original doubling has left its
trace in the hard sound of the t (compare C,FIB').

319. The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern.

form, when the objects numbered are of the masc. gender;
and conversely, the masc. form, when the objects numbered
are fern. E. g. s'^e JL., or JL&.. LiLc , te# ?<? (lit.
i, a decade, and a decade of men); yA& rULj, or
' L~j , Ar, te women.
Rem. Tlie cause of this phenomenon, which also occurs in the
other Shemilic languages (see Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 95, 1), seems lo
lie in the effort to give prominence to the independent substantive
nature (. 321) of the cardinal numbers, in virtue of which they differ
from the dependent adjectives, which follow the gender oT their sub

320. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triplotes,

with the exception of the duals ,jUjI and ^UojI or ^uij.
208 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

,jUi stands for ,ciUj, and has in the genit. ^Ui', ace. lliUi
(according to . 311).

321. The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always

substantives. They either follow the objects numbered, in
which case they are put in apposition with them, as Jl=
SLS^JLs, of three men (lit. of men, a triad); or they precede
them, in which case the numeral governs the other sub
stantive iu the genit. of the broken plural, as JL&.% RS'iLs,
three men (lit. a triad of men).
Rem. a. jjlii' has, in the construct stale, nom. and gen. _jlij,
ace. ,1j13 (see . 320).

Rem. b. If the numerals from 3 to 10 take the article, they of

course lose the lenwFn ( 314).

Rem. c. (mQj'I and .jUtlS'l are sometimes construed with the

genit. sing, of the objects numbered, and then of course drop their
final ^ (. 315, 2); as J^.. Uul, two men, instead of ' ^i^
- . ,* ' ' '
. --
,jUj!, or simply \J&J>>y

322. The cardinal numbers from 11 to 19 are:

Masc Fern. Masc. Fern.
11. JLc uV^-l iijAt ^Jl=.! 16. yi^c iiXw fJLc o-*

12. wCv^C- Lot jjw^C LXol 17< ^wf &JU*w SyMwX *a^

1 3. yiLc ioiLi* sJU cyiU 1 8. wU-^c xoUi' iiwCuuC ,<*L*3

14. Ju Kju>! iiJwX *j J 19. w&f xjuwj iiu^c *-w*j

15. va^C <U<*4

w^uuC 8U<*4 "^ s
8yw* M**Jv
11. The Noun. B. The Numerals. 209

Rem. a. For jf , $ r JWs we a'so And \>f ,1 t ',

_i^ ^jU-:'. and s^i-c JWJ'-

Rem. b. The cardinal numbers thai indicate the units in these

compounds, from 3 to 9, vary in gender according to the rule laid
down in . 319 ; but the ten does not follow that rule, for it has here
the form , -fr p with masc, and g^&c with fern, nouns.
Rem. c. These numerals are indeclinable, even when they take
the article, with the exception of , Af ULS't and SJLc UcajI,

which have in the oblique cases ^c ^o'l and j.^f _aaj|.

323. The cardinal numbers from 20 to 90 are:

20. 50. 80. - '-r5
> -- 4 9 O
30. 60. 90.

40. 70.
? " -. ' '-
Rem. a. r.jikj may also be written ~.jLLj.
Rem. b. The cardinal numbers from 20 to 90 are both masc.
and fern., and have, like the ordinary plur. sanus masc. ,j_ in the
nom., and /Tvj- in the oblique cases. They are substantives, and lake

the objects numbered after them in the ace. sing., so that they do not
lose the final ^ . Sometimes, however, they are construed with the
genit. of the possessor, when, of course, the ^ disappears, leaving in
the nom. _, in the genit. and ace. <_.

324. The numerals that indicate numbers compounded

of the units and the tens, are formed by prefixing the unit
to the ten, and uniting them by the conjunction \, and; as
,j.j**c tX&.| one and twenty, twenty-one. Both are declined ;
as gen. ^JLxj Jl&.|, ace. ^JLe^ IJ^J.

210 Part Second. Etymologry or the Paris of Speech.

325. The numerals from 100 to 900 are:

100. ioLo 600. idle '"

200. ijLxSLi 700. &jLo ***

300. iP^cs^'
400. -1 "'I jL (jW

500. 900. &5u Lis

Rem. a. For ibU (Aelh. ^ti't'. meet, Heb. PINO, Aram.
' s; ' i '
!"!NO, llie) we also find Jujo. The plur. is {jy*-*, uL*>c,
T ' ' "
or ^Lo.

R e m. J. The numerals from 3 to 9 are often united wilh &3Lo

into one word; as XjUjuJ.
- v
326. The numerals from 1000 upwards are:

1000. 100,000.

2000. 200,000.

3000. * 300,000.

4000, 400,000.
etc. etc.
11,000. 1,000,000.
,* , o
12,000. LeJ! w^ UjI 3,000,000. uJf
- &fii
etc. etc.
327. The numerals that indicate numbers made up of
thousands, hundreds, tens, and units, may be compounded
in two ways. Either a) the thousands are put first, and
II. The Noun. B. The Numerals. 211

followed successively by the hundreds, units, and tens, as

rj,jjzZ J-s.!j &5b a**"5 oiM Su^LS, 3721; or b) the
order is reversed, and becomes units, tens, hundreds, thou
sands, as oil I iiJuj juUjlLIj {jjybjZj JL&.I.

2. The Ordinal Numbers.

328. The ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are:
Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern.
Jjl /&*/
'4 WwOLmU
k~~j>L2 .>/.<///.

IujLj second. sjuVL seventh.


iU-cLi" eighth.

Juulx fourth. JjuJjs ninth.

6 ii

Rem. a. J. | slands for j:|| or Jl.l, j.l for JJ or

j, according lo the form JJLst, f- Juti, from the rad. J.I or

b- c* * si
JL. lis plurals are: fjj-'j!) Jolil, and J|, for the masc;
9 i
Jit for Ihe fern.
R e m. b. Aj makes, of course, in the construct state and with
Ihe art. jLS , jL*J! ; in the ace. LajLj , construct stale and with
the art. ^j|j, ^jUJI-

329. The ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are:

Masc. Fern.

wu t^oLa. , Ar joL= eleventh.

y&* ii* iij^ix iujp twelfth.

212 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

Masc. Fern.
r^f viJb SliLf ii}\J thirteenth.

IJLtL *jK 'iy&. **fU fourteenth.

etc. etc.
Rem. These numerals are not declined, when they are undefined;
but if defined by the article, the unit becomes declinable, whilst the
ten remains unchanged ; e. g. y&x vidliJl, gen. l&j oJLilj,
ace. ., j, r oJUJt> If the art. is prefixed to ,ciiL^ and jLj,
they become in the noin. and gen. e.jL-i.l and _jLaJ|, in the ace.
^lit and ^UJI.
330. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are
identical in form with the cardinals; as ^.JLa twentieth,
/j.wcLlJI the twentieth. If joined to the ordinals of the
units, these latter precede, and the two are united by :; as
^..jJLe. jLa. one and twentieth, twentyfirst (gen. ^yiyi+s. 1 ^La.,
ace. jjjwiut^ LjLs.), fern. ^j^Lft^ &<>U>. II a compound
of litis sort be detined, both its parts take the article; as
^j.j-ijJI. <*j!JI //? twenty-fourth.

3. The remaining Classes of Numerals.

331. The numeral adverbs, once, twice, th?mice, etc.,
are capable of being expressed in two ways. 1) By the
accusative of the nomen vicis (. 219), or, if (his should be
wanting, of the nomen verbi; as ^y***^* \\ **y2 fLs> he
rose up once or twice ; ,jJJUa ?l lJ^'5 ^L% Jots,
he fought once or twice. It is also permitted to use the
simple cardinal numbers, the nomen verbi being understood;
II. The Noun. B. The Numerals. 213

as ^jliol LJuilLlj ^jJuiot UuLol , thou hast given us death

twice, and thou hast given us life twice, i. e. ^julj'Lo! and
^jS*\J^L\. 2) By the noun a'Lo, and similar words in (lie
accus.; as 8.x or^, ^jjuy* /<#, ^yLx eJb, or oJb
' ** * s ** e
.ll, or cyL*S5 >iJLj, thrice; gjf .j.?j *r* twenty times;

^5-=>' Su www <? again; etc.

332. The numeral adverbs a /&"*/, second, third time,
etc., are expressed either by adding the accus. of the ordinal
adjective to a Gnite form of a verb (in which case the
corresponding nomen verbi is understood) ; or by means of one
of (he words s'jjc, 'l*3, etc., in the accus., accompanied
by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it. E. g. lilli' *l&.
(i. e. UJLj I An eLa-), or SjLJLS S^x *l&. , ^ c<7^ M/rrf

ISkw; vsJUJI *L*- (i- e. eJUJI ^^^Jl *L.), or gljt *li

kifLiJI , ^ cffzwtf the third time.
333. The distributive adjectives are expressed by re
peating the cardinal numbers once; or by words of the
forms JUis and JJLLc, either singly or repeated. E. g. *L&.
v^juot ,jjUj! (Ja") or t5*i* i^JI *L., the people came
too py too; cjiki !.iU, or eJLix l.iU*., /^y caTwe *#rw
by three. The most common words of the forms Jlij and
JuLix are: i>L&.!, i>L=*5, <Xa.y>; *U3, ^yii* (lor (cxix);

u.Xj, oJJuo; and cU, ,cy.

334. The multiplicative adjectives are expressed by

nomina patientis of the second form, derived from the car
dinal numbers. E. g. {SJJx double; viJLic' threefold, triple;
214 Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

jj! fourfold, square. Single or simple is ol&o (nom.

patient. IV.).
335. Numeral adjectives, expressing the number of
2 ,
parts of which a whole is made up, take the form Jlii;
2 p- 2 - ' 2 ->
as ^jUj biliteral; ^j'^Lj trilileral; ,-feljj quadriliteral, a
tetrastich; etc.
336. The fractions, from //>? up to a tenth, are
expressed by words of the forms JJii, JJls, and Jui*i; as
s f* o ' 8 ,r ,. eo > o > . .,
oJu, oJu, or vi*.-yU, a third ; ^Ju*, or ^Ju*,, a sixth;
^^j, or ,j-yj, eighth. The fractions above <W?/A
are expressed by a circumlocution; e. g. \jo ety.| kiXi
!el=. ^jjJLe, M/w parts out of twenty, ~. A half
. O o

Rem. The form Juts occurs in the same sense in Heb. and
Aram, (see Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 96); e. g. JS'o'PI a fifth, yai a
fourth, li^ol a third.
337-jThe period, at the end of which an event usually
S o
recurs, is expressed by a noun of the form JuLi, in the
accus., either with or without the article; as LilS', or oJLL'f,
ry /////</ (day, month, year, etc.).

C. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva.

338. We treat of the nomina demonstrativa (including
the article), and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina
inlerrogativa), in one chapter, because they are both, according
to our terminology, pronouns, the former being the demon
strative pronouns, the latter the relative.
II. The Noun. C. The Nomina Demonslrativa and Conjunctiva. 215

1. The Demonstrative Pronouns and the Article.

339. The demonstrative pronouns, s'jLiiH iUHl, are
either simple or compound.
340. The simple demonstrative pronoun is |j, this, that.
Masc. Fern.

Sing. \'o (sTi, x5!J). i^i> (t>, 5<i,

^ (*J, XJ,
li (L6).
. Nom. ^13 ^

Gen. Ace. ,jot> ,j-J

Plur. comm. gen. Jy, ^f.

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun is used
to indicate a person or thing that is near to the speaker.
- i 7
Rem. a. The u in ^( and t*i!| is sAorf, , being merely
scriplio plena. In this way j| can be distinguished in poetry from
if , the fern, of J.|
j| '.? , first, in which the u is long.

Rem. *. Closely connected in its origin with |<3 is another mono-

syllable, viz. .i (= Heb. i~IT), .which is commonly used in the sense
of possessor, owner. It is thus declined.
Masc. Fern.
Sing. Nom. ^ (TV) y|6 (rW)
Gen. ^3 v^,|j

Ace. |j I,!3

Du. Nom. 1.3 LSljii

216 Pari Second. Etymology or (he Paris of Speech.

Masc. Fem.
0 f
Gen. Ace. ,5.6
Plur. Nom. ..0 , A* (nH ^-1.3 , y^l
Gen. Ace. [C.j, 4,1
The u in J.t and as in J,.! and 65U .
341. From the simple demonstrative pronoun are formed
compounds :
1) By adding the pronominal suffix of the second
person (d, J; Lii"; if, ^S), either 0) alone, or b) with
the interposition of the demonstrative syllable J.
2) By prefixing the particle L.
342. The gender and number of the pronominal suffix,
appended to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon
the sex and number of the persons addressed. In speaking to
a single man, <J!<i is used; to a single woman, dlj; to
several men, 1576; etc. But the form JI3 may also be
and in fact usually is employed, whatever be the sex
and number of the persons spoken to. In regard to their
signification, these compound forms differ from the simple
pronoun in indicating a distant object.
Masc. Fem.

Sing. J|5 that. Jli, AjJ

Du. Nom. >*Jb!<i Jjli
Gen. Ace. Ai^i> i^*5

Plur. comm. gen. d^l, JLj^I.

II. The Noun. . C. The Nomina Demonslraliva and Conjunctiva. 217'

Rem. The m is short in diU and JLSil.l, just as in <J.|,

~ i
t5ll , and J.! (. 340 rem. a, b). All these forms may also be

written defectively, J|, *^|, ^Jf, J^|, JGbH (or iUJ)t).

343. By inserting tlie demonstrative syllable J before

the pronominal suffix, we get a longer form JJI3 or JLJ5
(often written JJj, . 6 rem.).
Masc. Fern.

Sing. dUj that. dUb

Du. Nom. >Jil3 >ii3li

Gen. Ace. iilL i JCLS'

Plur. comm. gen. v*JU^f or JJiU.

Rem. a. jiJULi' is a contraction for dULi . In the dual, vlAjtj,

Jills, stand for iJUjlJ, vlJUblj'; and dLLi, iOui\ for

- .- - . - r *
J-Lj3, viU-Uj. The plur. is very rare, d^^ I (.342) being
generally used instead.
Rem. b. Some grammarians assert that there is aslight difference
of meaning between JI3 and dU3, the former referring in their
opinion to the nearer of two distant objects, the latter to the more remote.
Rem. c. The syllable J must not be mistaken for the pre
position J (which, when united with the pronominal suffixes of the
second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a de
monstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the relative
pronoun. See . 345 and . 347-
Rem. d. From 13, vi)!3, and yJUii, are formed the diminu
tives L> 6, f- Ca, JLjO, iilAjO, etc.

218 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

344. The particle lie (which has the same demon

strative force as the Latin ce in hicce) is called by the Arabs
sjuJxi\ v-il, the particle that excites attention. It is pre
fixed both to the simple demonstrative !o, and to the com-
pound d!J (but never to vtUo). Before 13 it is usually
written defectively, Ij^e or \jj*; before i)t<i in full, Blaise.
. Masc. Fcm.
i t
Sing. Ij^e this.

Du. Nom. ijl^i

Gen. Ace.
Plur. comm. gen. s^Llse, eilye. .
In like manner, dtilie, fem. ti)lS'l, dLuli, etc.
Rem. Li is identical wilh llic Aram. S", ]si, this, as an
interjection, lo !
345. The article J I called by the Arabs Sl^l
i_AjjjuJt //* instrument of definition, *iU!i <JJiH w ^///"
arf /<tj, L-njjjU-M j.^1 Mtf ttofl 0/" definition, or simply ..iU!
rt? /#*, is composed of the demonstrative letter J (see
. 343 rem. c, and . 347) and the prosthetic I, which is
prefixed only to lighten the pronunciation. Though it has
become determinative, it was originally demonstrative, as
still appears in such words as ...jJI today, ^\, now, etc.
Rem. a. It is sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative
pronoun (= .gjJt, 347). Compare, for example, in German,
der = weleher, "who".
II. The Noun. C. The Nomina Demonslraliva and Conjunctiva. 219

Rem. b. J|, or, as it is pronounced in some parts of Arabia, fial,

is identical with the Hebrew art. -n , for S?l See Gesenius' Hcb.
Gr. . 35, rem. 1.

2. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative

a. The Conjunctive Pronouns.
346. The conjunctive pronouns are:
1) 1,5 jJ! who, which, thai; fem. _*J|.
2) Jjj> he who, she ?vho, whoever;
Li that which, whatever.
S6 So*
3) ,5 1 he who, whoever ; fem. iul she who, whoever.
4) J^jI every one who, tvkosoever ;
Ujf everything that, whatsoever.
Rem. .two, Lo, ,f, Jul, and their compounds, JmjI,
,-cS* .....
Lj|, are also interrogalives, which indeed is their original signi
fication (see . 351 and foil.). They ought therefore lo be treated of
first as interrogalives and then as conjunctives; but it is convenient
lo reverse this order, in order lo connect the relatives wilh the de
347. The conjunctive ^fj-M is compounded of the art.
Jl, the demonstrative letter J (see . 343 and . 345),
and the demonstrative pron. 13, or rather .3 (. 340
rem. b). When used substantively, it has the same meaning
as ^jjc, Lc, viz. he who, that which, whoever, whatever;
when used adjectively, it signifies who, which, that, and refers
necessarily to a definite substantive, with which it agrees in
gender, number, and case. It is declined as follows.
220 Part Second. Elymology or the Paris of Speech.

Masc. Fem.
Sing. (JJf) ^ (^JO
_s -
Du. Nom. yjljOJl 0UJUI
Gen. Ace. cH^"' c4^'
Plur. &&)1>

Rem. a. ^JUt, ,^'t and ~wjjj|, are written defectively,

. s ^ s ^
because of Iheir frequent occurrence, instead of .ejJUt, -ajUI,
and 'wjJJLM. The other forms, which arc not in such constant
use, retain the double J of the article and the demonstrative.
Rem. b. The tribe of Hudail (Jo jjc), according- to the Arab
". ' . a **
grammarians, used ".. jj| in the nom. plur. masc, Tjj jj| in the
gen. and ace. This r\. jj| must, of course, at one lime have been uni
versally employed as the nom., ~j jj| being the form that belongs
to the oblique cases; but gradually the latter supplanted the former,
just as in modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur. sanus, ^yi,
has everywhere usurped the place of the direct form .j. Even the
sing. ,c jJ! is an oblique form, the nom. of which ought properly
to be jjJt.
Rem. c. (cjJI was originally, as its derivation shows, a de
monstrative pron., and finds its precise Hebrew equivalent in ni^n,
fern, -ipn, comm. HD (=JJ|). SceGcscnius' Heb. Gr. .34, rem. 1.
. c"** & "T * "
Rem. d. From ,ejdt are formed the diminutives UJoUl ,
[IxXM, etc.
Rem. e. Instead of 15JJI, some of the Arabs, especially the
tribe of TayyV (%ZSd), employ .> (Heb. IT, Aram. H, 17,
II. The Noun. C. The Nomina Demonslraliva and,Conjuncliva. 22 1

Aelh. H '. za). It is then either wholly indeclinable, or else declined

as follows.
Masc. Fein.

Sing. Norn.
Gen. iS*

Ace. lS
Du. Nom. Lil$S
Gen. Ace.
Plur. Nom. y|ji
Gon Ace. t5j*

348. The conjunclive pronouns ^y> and Li are indecli

nable, and differ from ^ jJI in never being used adjeclively,
but always substantively, so that they correspond to the
Latin is qui, ea quae, id quod, Gr. oorig, fjTig, 6,ti.
The former (^j^c) is used of beings endowed with reason,
the latter (Li) of all other objects.
Rem. The corresponding forms in the other Shemitic languages
are: of persons, Aelh. dJ-I manii (ace. <Pi\ mana), Aram. jc, _ie
Heb. ic; of things, Aeth. <f%\ mi, or ^tt'. ment (ace. ^Sl";
mcnla), Aram. HT2, lie, Hcb. DC.

349. The conjunctive pronoun ^|, fern. Jul, he who,

she who, whoever, is regularly declined in tlie sing, according
to the triptote declension, but has commonly neither dual
nor plural.
Rem. The Aelh. has the same word, hS '. fayJ who? of what
sort? The corresponding Hcb. vocable is in, used as an adverb,
where? in interrogative phrases i{< (Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 150, 1),
222 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

which appears in Aclh. in &JB"fe I faytej where? T\A.'. ('efoj how?

Syr. JJLT] where? \jj] who? ^^] how long? elc.

350. Of ^\ and \jt, U, are compounded A^jI he

who, she who, ?vhosoever, Uj I thai which, whatsoever. Only
the first part of the compound admits of being declined;
gen. ^~|, L^l; ace. ^t, t^f.

b. The Interrogative Pronouns.

351. It has been already stated, in . 346 rem., that
the conjunctive pronouns (with the exception of ^jJ!) are
ajso interrogative, which is indeed their original signification.
To them may be added li', how much, which is 1) inter
rogative, 2) according to our ideas, exclamatory, according
to the Arab grammarians, enunliative (AlsJ%S)\ but never
Rem. The inlerrogative Co may be shortened after prepositions
into . , and is then united in writing both with those prepositions
witli which such a union is usual, and witli those with which it is not
(though, in the latter case, it is better to keep them apart) ; e.g. *j, J,
|vC (for j. ^k), p5H , jL^ , j.CU> (better ^ Jt , jl JS , p ^g^)-
In such cases, the accent is transferred from + to the preceding syllable
(as bima, 'ila via, elc.) ; whence it happens that ^ and li are sometimes
shortened in poetry into ij , and li . This is also the origin of is ,
for If or \^f (lit. the like of what? the worth of what?), Heb.
PIB3, HO 3, Aram. NC2, lias-

352. The interrogative pronoun ^jo, who? has the

distinctions of gender, number, and case, only when it stands
alone ; as if one should say : Some one is come, or : / have
II. The Noun. C. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva. 223

seen some one, and another should ask: Who? Whom? In

this case its declension is as follows.
Masc. Fern.
Sing. Norn.
r* f .- --
Gen. nJue (ouuc)
Ace. lie'
Du. Nom. ^Oi
G *-<! * . <j .- ^ --
Gen. Ace. kj4** yh*^
Plur. Nom. ,jJi-o o . ""

Gen. Ace. v2>^*

The interrogative pronoun U, ^<atf.? is never declined under
any circumstances.
353. The interrogative pronoun ^|, fem. *||, who?
is either construed with a following noun in the genitive,
or with a suffix, or stands alone. In the first two cases,
it loses the lenwfn (. 331, 1), and has no dual or plur.;
as -lf ^f which book (lit. quid libri)? gen. ^JjS 7A,
* * ^ ^
ace. vjliT^I; ^jle. iu! which eye ax fountain? I^J|, \\,
which of (hem? When standing alone, or used like ^J, in
. 352, it forms all the numbers and cases.
Rem. a. ^| is often used even before Tern, nouns; as .^xe Jr!
which eye or fountain (lit. quid oculi, fonlis)?
Rem. b. Instead of ^\ with a suffix, the more general and in
definite Uj! is sometimes used; as \S\ 1\ yO dill! v_^l Uj|,
which is dearer to you, he or I? in which example Lilt stands for
LL>|, wAj'cA of us?
224 Pari Second. Etymology or Ihe Paris of Speech.

in. The Particles.

354. There are four sorts of particles, o.Jl!; viz.
Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Interjections.

A. The Prepositions.

355. The prepositions are called by the Arabs o^la-

Li I, the particles of attraction, or J*4-l (from the sing. iL Lit),
the atlractives, i. e. the particles that govern the genitive.
They are also named u^diii.! ov-> the particles of de-
pression, and XiLiiH o.*j., the particles of connection,
because the distinctive vowel of the genitive (/), and con
sequently the genitive itself, is called \j6jjL\, the depression,
and because this case has its peculiar place in that con
nection which many prepositions with their genitives really
represent (see . 358). They are divided into separable
prepositions, i. e. those which are written as separate words,
and inseparable, i. e. those which are always united in
writing with the following noun.
356. The inseparable prepositions consist of one con
sonant with its vowel. They are:
1) u in, at, near, by, tvith, through (Heb. Aram. 3,
Aeth. n: ba).
2) cu by, in swearing, as JUL> by God.
ttl. The Particles. A. The Proposiiions. 225

3) J to (sign of the Dalive), for, on account of (Heb.

Aram, b, Aelh. A: la).
- <
4) : by, in swearing, as sJJ|: % 6W.'
Rem. a. The damma of the suffixed pronouns of the 3. pers.
8, I t<c , IjC, .wJ6, is changed afler i_j into kesra; as jo, Z g <
See . 185 rem. ft, and . 317 rem. e. The ancient and poetic form
ajD changes either both vowels, or the first only; ^ (7 ' or ti (? > -

Rem. ft. The kesra of the prep. J passes before the pronominal
' 'if
suffixes into fetha ; as J to him, ij) to you, (Jj to us. Except
the suffix of the 1. pers. sing., which absorbs the vowel of the prepo
sition ; ,1 to me.
Rem. c. t), as, like (Heb. Aram. 2), which is commonly
reckoned a preposition, is really not so, but is merely a formally
undeveloped noun, which occurs only as the governing word in the
genitive connection, but runs in this position through all the relations
of case (similitudo, instar).

357. The separable prepositions are of two sorts.

Those of the first class, which are all biliteral or triliteral,
have different terminations; those of the second class are
in reality nouns of different forms in the accus. sing., de
termined by the following genitive, and they consequently
end in fetha without tenwfn (.1).
358. The separable prepositions of the first class are:
1) jl to (Heb. H, -b).
2) ^t&. till, up to, as far as.
3) {jji from, away from, after, for.
4) in, into, between, among, about.
22G Pari Second. Etymology or the Paris of Speech.

5) ^JJ, or ^jJ (!jJ), with (penes, apud).

6) ^jx of, from, on account of (Heb. Aram, jc, rr"
Aelh. "h<pil 'emna, or 5i<?: V/).
7) JJLo, or joe, from a certain time, since (compounded
of Jjjo and .>, <?.r ^o).
Rem. a. ^f, igjJ, and also J^e (. 359), preserve before
the suffixes their original pronunciation A | , igjj, and J^

(compare ^ and iSy); as juJI, juit , pi^yM. L^jJ- Tlie

damma of the suffixes of the 3. pers. passes after the diphthong into
kesra, according to . 185 rem. b, and . 317 rem. c. The suffix of
the 1. pers. sing., jc_ (orig. ,^_), combines with J|, i^jj, and
J^ inl ,eJI> <5<3J> J^- i wiln i inl i- See 317, rem. a.

Rem. 6. The ^ of J^e %-> and .jcWi >s doubled in

connection with the suffixes of the 1. pers.; _,iLc, Lie, ijo,
LI*, ^JJ, LijJ. If /\x. and [\Jo are prefixed to Jvo and
Lc, the ^ is assimilated to the ., in pronunciation, and the two
are usually written as one word; \ t<* , 1 , , ,%**, Ujc, for
Si ^ C
\j-*** or (J-* (J*) elc-

Rem. c. When followed by the article, the prepositions Ajo

-. .. -
and lJ^e. are occasionally abbrevialcd in poetry, J| 'y being con-
traded into Jl* , and Jf J^e. into j\ ; as JLjLo , or Jli Jlx ,
for JLj! ^5 eUJLc for eUJI J^c .

359. Examples of prepositions of the second class are:

ILc! before (of place) ; ^i between, among (pa); 3Ju after
(~IJ?2); v^Jsi wider, beneath (WIR); Jy*. round, about; ^S
under, beneath, on this side of; Jki o?vr, above, upon,
III. The Particles. B. The Adverbs. 227

against, to, on account of, notwithstanding (^g, ~b$);

jJLt with, in possession of {apud, penes, Fr. ckez; "TBJJ);
yjby* instead of, for; ^jli above; JIS" before (of time,
^3j3); II jJ before (of place, D"]i?.); ii, also lo, with (cj;);
*t; behind, after, bcgond; fc^r / Me middle, among.
These are all, as before said, the construct accusatives of
Go. o
nouns; such as (jju interval, J^. circumference, etc.

B. The Adverbs.
360. There are M/w soils of adverbs. The first class
consists of particles of various origin, partly inseparable,
partly separable ; the second class of indeclinable nouns ending
in u; (he third class of nouns in the accusative.
361. The inseparable adverbial particles are:
1) I, interrogative, A^ix^y) Oj-&., the particle of
questioning (num? utrum? an? Heb. ri).
2) ,jL, prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to ex
press real futurity, as *JJt a^jCuUCCI, 6W wtff suffice
thee against them. It is an abbreviation of o^l, / //<
<wrf (Heb. Aram, rjlc, jiajj <w/).
3) J, affirmative, certainly, surely.
362. The most common separable adverbial particles
are the following.
1) Jk.| yes, certainly. '
2) ol, or |jl, ## /!<?#, in /#/ case.
2'28 Part Second. Etymology or (he Paris of Speech.
-* *
3) y\ nonne? Compounded of f (. 361, 1) and $
not (Heb. tibri).
4) rl, interrogative, an? ^ J (Heb. dn . . . . n),
utrum .... an?
5) Lcl nonne? Compounded of | and U not.
6) ui certainly, surely, truly; literally /<?/ .?<?<?/ <?,
<?r<? (Heb. ;n, nan, Syr. ,_.j). It is joined to the accus.
. of a following noun or pronominal suffix. ,t iutro-
duces the subject, and is often followed by J with the
predicate; as l^XJ &JJI ^1, pm/y God is great.

7) U3|, restrictive, only (dumtaxat). Compounded of

oi aild L*'
8) ^1 how?
9) ^1, explicative, frequently used by commentators,
that is.
10) \s[ Ves' surely; as in JJtj ^t, y^, by God!

H) ^il **r*J ,jj| ^ whence? ^f\ j whither?

liul ivherever (Heb. p in j^to, JN, n:).
12) Jo, Jo, y, on the contrary, rather (Heb. ^2, k2$).
13) Luj wMtf (connected with the prep. -JLZ between,
14) pi, y^, there (Heb. ctf, Datf, Syr. ,_^i).
15) lais o/y, solely, merely (lit. rf enough).
16) 5i, with the Perfect, now, already, really
(jam). It expresses that something uncertain has really
taken place, that something expected has been realised.
III. The Particles. B. The Adverbs. 229

that something lias happened in agreement with, or in

op|>osition to, certain symptoms or circumstances; as *&jS
*L&. JLsi y *j y?*y> J was hoping that he would come,
and he is really come ; ^Uo JJIi Isa^P OLl ^, he^
was hale and well, and now he is dead. It also serves
to mark the position of a past act or event as prior to
the present time or to another past act or event, and
consequently expresses merely our Pcrf. or Pluperf. With
the Imperfect it means sometimes, perhaps.
17) ia3 ever; always with the Perfect and a nega
tive, as JaS **j') Li, I nave never seen him.
18) yS not at all, by no means.
19) $, used a) as negative of the future and inde
finite present, and as representative of the other negatives
after : (and), not; b) as a prohibitive particle (ne), joined
to the Jussive. It thus combines (like the Aram. t*b, if)
the signification of the Heb. ti'b and bx.
20) p, negative of the Perfect, but always joined to
the Jussive in the sense of the perfect, not.
21) O not yet, joined to the Jussive.
22) JjJ, a contraction for ^1 S, not, it will not be
that , joined to the Subjunctive.
23) U>, negative of (he definite or absolute present
and of the perfect, not.
24) S* when? Heb. inc.

25) pju (ixi) yes; abbreviated for 1*5, it is agreeable.

230 Pari Second. Etymology or Ihe Paris of Speech.

26) Jje, interrogative, num? utrum?

27) ikjc (ill) nonne? Compounded of Jjd and i(.
28) Uue (Lie), demonstralive, /<<??<? (compare Heb. n3ri) ;
whence are derived viJUsc, >iJULli and Qiljb or llgje
J<?r<? (see . 3424).
363. The same substantives of which the accusatives
serve as prepositions (. 359), can in general be used as
adverbs, in which case they take the termination u, and are
indeclinable. E. g. Juu, tX*S kj, afterwards; oi', {j*
ooi', beneath; ^Jyi, jjJ ^y>, above; jJLs, JuS jjjo,
before; ^i*l&. where, vijk&. ^jjo^ whence, vi*!^ <c" whither,
Uili. wherever; \Jbyk ever, joined to the Impcrf Indie.,
but always preceded by a negative, as (jilt JlijLi! if, /
v# never leave you; JLk, in JLi 51 nothing else, only this.
364. The accusative is the adverbial case xar ^Eogijy
in Arabic. Amongst the most common examples of it are the
following: tJol for ever, with a negative, never; \&z?.vcry,
placed after an adjective; l,^ together, of two or more;
* ' * * -
La-vLs. outside, without ; iL=Jj> inside, within; ilU-i /o Mtf
/</?, Lu*J /o ^c r^/; llxi^ w/tfc//, iLJi Aftfc; ^Lp y
/^/</, KL^i ^y day; Lolj 0 </<7y, o/v; p*^l todby
(Aelh. F^I #<)> |<Xfc tomorrow; LjLsioo gratis (Aram.
}2B); ULo together; etc. To the same class belong the
following adverbs.
1) ^y^z- W/t.
2) Uj - sometimes ; lit 0 //< quantity of that w/iich
a .
(s_>> = Heb. m).
HI. The Particles. C. The Conjunctions. 231

3) vi4;, U?j, whilst.

4) CiJL, prefixed to the Imperf. to indicate real
futurity (see . 361, 2); lit. in the end.
5) Ulu, S, and, with the omission of the negative,
liL,, especially, particularly ; lit there is nothing equal
or like.
6) U^S how?
7) <X&.:, used only in connection with pronominal
suffixes, as &5JL* he alone, I#JlL: they alone. It is
efymologically = in\ but in sense = -15 in Vl2b, CT?1:.
Rem. a. In iu+jo], yesterday, Heb. t^EN , the kesra is not the
mark of the genitive, but merely a light vowel, added to render the
pronunciation more easy.
Rem. b. oJL! , ulinant, would that / and J^ , Jul! ,
perhaps, which both take pronominal suffixes (as -xJ would that
/ .' &J; ,-*!*-!, or Jul), perhaps I , jjlxj), seem to
be not nouns in the accus., but verbs.

C. The Conjunctions.
365. The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians
call, according to their different significations, U.t| v_i..j&.
connective particles, or isl&J! 0.7A. conditionalparticles) are,
like the prepositions and adverbs, either separable or inseparable.
366. The inseparable conjunctions are:
1) ' (, oU> Ojjs.), which connects words and clauses
as a simple coordinalive, and (Aelh. I wa, Heb. Aram. i).
232 Pari Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.
0 - 9 O ^
2) o (i.hc Oja., or more exactly wyoyi Jo.(
particle of gradation), which sometimes unites single
words, indicating that the objects enumerated succeed or
are behind one another; but more usually connects two
clauses, showing either that the latter is subsequent to
the former in time, or that it is connected with it by
some intern^ link, such as that of cause and effect It
may be rendered: and so, and thereupon, and conse
quently, for, although in this last sense ^Xs is more
usually employed. In conditional sentences, *j is used to
separate the apodosis from the protasis, like the German
so; and it also invariably introduces the apodosis after
the disjunctive particle Lot.
367. The most common separable conjunctions are:
1) o! when, since.
2) 131 when. Both of these conjunctions, as well as
!3l ( 362, 2), are connected with the obsolete noun
if, time, the genitive of which occurs, for example, in
(XaJu^. then. Compare Heb. in and vn, Chald. JHK,
Aeth. .EkJil now, tfJfcK: when?

3) Lei, followed by vj; vJ Ul, as regards .

Used twice or oftener, it corresponds to the Greek fiev ih.
4) jjl that, in order that (ut), that (quod). Com-
pounds: ^ as it were, as if; J^ because; see no. 6.
Further: ill that not (ut non, nc, quod non), comp. of
^S and 51; ikJQ in order that not (ideo ne).
III. The Particles. C. The Conjunctions. 233

5) Z)[ (Icjk Sj^) if; j although (etsi); com

pounded with j (. 361, 3), ^ truly if. Aram. ],
vi; Aeth. "h<P\ ema; Heb. CN. \, compounded of^
and bf, 1) if not, in which case it stands for a whole
clause; 2) U%lT oU (exceptive particle), unless, ex
cept, with a preceding negative, only. Heb. n'tcn, Aram.
N^N, PI; Aeth. h\l ('alia) but. lit, compounded of
^| and U; ,? \J[, or j| .... CStj, 'Mer .... w.
6) $ that (quod). It is followed by a noun or
suffixed pronoun in the accus. The pronominal suffix s,
when attached to ^|, often represents and anticipates a
whole subsequent clause (iLoJul ***** or cj*-*^' rft***
f&j pronoun of the story or /ffcO- Compounds : ^ <w
?'/ >m;, as //"; ^bl because. See no. 4.
7) 1 1 or fp<?/, '<?> Heb. in, Syr. o|.
8) li, ^>, Atai, thereupon. This word is rightly reck
oned by the Arab grammarians among the conjunctions,
because it always slands before verbs and clauses, and
does not admit of another conjunction being placed before
it. Connected with it is the adverb Ij (. 362, 14).
9) IT (JjJLiS ol^- , a particle assigning the motive
or reason) in order that, with the Subjunctive. Com
pounds: JjO in order that, "^f in order (hat not.

10) ,jXJ, jjXI, often with : prefixed, but, yet. ^jXJ

is placed only before nouns and pronominal suffixes in
the accusative.
234 Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

1 1) U after, when (postquam), with the Perfect.

12) p, hypothetical particle, if (Heb. >). Com
pounds Sp, pUp', Up, if not.
13) Li (Xxy+jjJ! Ce, 0?tf denoting duration), as long
as, with the Perfect.

I). The Iiiterjections.

0 f
3G8. The interjections are called by the Arabs y!Lof,
sounds or toa. Some of (hose most commonly in use are:
I or T, ah, oh! st, si, sjt, sljl, Lf, Uclj, <?/// oAu/ lj
0/ alas! Jj bw/ J|, LSI, ho! $\, }k, ^., ibc ^.,
up! come! &/> slop! Lo hush! silence! l$o lo! ^o bravo!
ci at oJ i o- i i -ci,
ol, ol, ol, \j\, fie! ^, orooff, comehere! ^Ljjje,
oriiyLjjl, far away! A& (C?n) comehere! bring here!
The vocative particle is G before nouns without the article,
L^jI, or Lgjf Lj> before nouns with the article.
Rem. a. The noun that follows | not unfrequcnlly assumes,
instead of the usual terminations, the ending' !_ or g|_; as |Ju !,
or si Jo; !, 0 Zeid! i\j>*j*ie*+i\ jyo| |i alas for the Com
mander of the Faithful! If the noun ends in difmaksura (.e-), the
c is changed into |, and a simple g added, as sLwjjo ! , 0 Moses !
though La^jjc l may also be used.
Rem. b. From ^1 (lo which suffixes may be appended, as
1 G" ?"
iiL; we to thee.') are formed the inlerjeclional nouns ** and Jo,
111. The Particles. D. The Interjections. 235
whence we can say, for example, Jul) l?l, JoCJ Lii,

Jo; , xs!j , aJ Ju^ , sJ Juy I , clc.

a ,
Rem. c. jJLiC admits of being declined like an Imperative; e. g.
-? - s', > ,
sing. fern. ,Jj8, dual LiJjD , plur. masc. ly+JljC . Ljb may be
joined with the pronominal suffixes of the second person, in which
case it is equivalent to the Imperative of iXa.1; as LaSTjO fafo her.'
Or a hemza may be substituted for the ii), and the word declined as
follows: sing. m. *L, f. lso ; dual Lc.L, plur. m. *.U, f.
ojljB; as juuUs l.ji! fjlsc, take, read my book.

Rem. (J. L> is occasionally written defectively ; as ^1 < 0 my

brother! > JWL> 0 son of my uncle ! JUI JmmO 0 apostle

of God! Laj| has a fern. LajI, but the masc. form is generally
used even with fern, nouns.
Rem. e. 5' and 1 3! are often employed in the sense of lo! see!
* * * j o"" " "
lit& is then called by the grammarians -yl -II * A^tf \'$\, & or 13!&
iix U <rv cl| f Uiat is to say 'ida indicating something unexpected.

V E E B S.

First or Simple Form
Tab. I. Active.
Perfect. Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Jussive. Energ. I. Energ. II.
Sing. '.%i
3. m. "-

1. a v^JUi' Jos! Jos I ,j-Us! ^j-U*l

3. m.
^us ,.,**x; lUL ...^klib

Ails &&> i*&

p ^^ a J. t it --
3. m.
ya Or1^
fx as \ j n *>
2 m.


I.e. Juiiij JJtlb JJciLj

N. Ag. N. Verbi. Imperative.

Simple. Energ. I. Energ. II.
Sing. m. Joli is Sing. 2. m. Jai'l
r. f. Jobf
Dual. 2. c. 3JUcSl j*a ....
Plur. 2. m.

u> IXlzif
of the Strong Verb.
Tab. II. Passive.
Perfect Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Jussive! Energ. I. Energ.H.
Jjj J^-Sj iM&j tMJy i^-^J kJ>^"*A
3. m.
-o j s ~. - 9
f. oJj3 JJcaj JJJb

2. m. Oobj JjLoj


l. c v^JUii Jus I
Dual. ^ Nr -
3. m. * Sr
f |'f...'. \T?84 ikifij XX55 ^^LiCiLS

2. c. 1^x1x3 ...&&'
Plur. e 9 a ' -- o )

3. in.

0 9 ft \ -0 9
2.m. o..'f.'. ? = ?..'.

^ -o G ^f
I.e. U-US Jut&j JJJu JlaO (J^-^U ^j-^Ai

Nom. Pal. Sing. m. JXiLo f. kJJCJLe

Oilier Forms of ihe PeiT., Impf., and Imperaf. Acl., and (lie N. Verbi.
Perf. Imperf. Imperat. N. Verbi.
0 f,
am'. U^ lA^ 0*4="!

&> &
^jji (2. m. oJ^i ) ,j^Aj 07s! 0/
(2. m. oA-uikj>)
6- t J

Tab. III. Derived Forms

II. in. IV. V. VI.
Perf. & JtflS Jos! JkliS JjIaS
9 ^ .,
Iniperf. J^> JjLL> JjJu JJiflAj JouiJCj
0 ,_ Cr

Imperat. JoU jolt JJin Jolib'

9 ,
N.Ag. JbiLo Jo'ULo Juax Jl&uo
0 0 (_ 6 ,
N. Verbi. Jlis JUs!
Perf. J# J-y1 jas! JJJb" Jjjis
Imperf. Jo'LL; JJtib JoLi)
0, , 0 ^.o |
Nom. Pal. JJiiLo Jo'ULo JJjLc/J Jo'LaJwc

Tab. IV. The Quadri-

I. II. 111. IV.
Porf. Ja^ju Jai+S\ la+it

U . o .- c
8, 0-; > g ,11
N. Ag.

N. Verbi. > t"t > in vl hi*,;! J. lnv.I


of the Strong Verb.


Jisl JUofl

Jlissl jlissl
JulAjI Jjiii'l
-.-o- -- 0 1

JJjLuo JJlL jJkSju

literal Verb.
I. II. m. IV.

Perf. yk+S
> .- o -^ > .' 0 - " >
Imperf. -j b i j

N. Pat. .8,-o^j
Ute^ 6~c^->
U ,&/* S,'c,^ 2,-,'

Tab. V. a. First Form of the
Perfect. ___^^^ Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Jussive. En erg-. I. Energ.ll.
Sing. G 7 -- O J 0 -- a a 9 - as >^
3. in
w ? .- i. J O - - * - G y .-
7 .- 7 W * a a >-
2. m. viojoo 0<
f. i>i>t\^ ^jjnXt-> i5<^*i t5(^*i
C >? c J 0* a a >* a >*
1. c. in>Jjc tXjcl Joel 6<Xx\
Dual. S - BB 7 _ - ..- * 7--

3. in.
Ijw* i.jliXo ld*J IJvh) lcx->
., a - s >, ,a - . a >-
I. U'J^o t.jl<XtJS

2. c. Uiojoo u!Jo>j !tX*j |Jl^

Plur. i .
3. m.

> ^ ^ a j^ i>- a >, ei>^ 4 >~

2. m. pJcXxi (j; J*-* '^J-*5 \j<XJ' ^jJ-tJ' (j*^5
ft 4 0 * O " J i, ... (I * (. . . _ . - L 7 *- .-
f. ^jJ'JtX* (j^^*J' ^^^^ ,jt>J^J jjU^J^J" - - -
. .* a * * - ? .- w * . cto~~ w i. 7-- C 7

N. Ag. N. Verbi. Imperative.

Simple. Energ.I. Energ, II.
S.- 2^ cjg' a^>o? ^>?
Sing. m. oLc Joo Sing'. 2. m. Ojool ,jjjoo| ,j^Juol
Ge. ^ >tl7 S JO* 70*
8^Lo f. i^OJuel ^Ojuol ^jJtXxl

Dual. 2. c. |3jj>| ^I5j\i|

Plur 2. m. t^Juo! ^Ojuc! ^Ojool

1. ^j JtXx! ,jLji> Jwcl ....

Verbum Mediae Rad. Geminatae.
Perfect. Imperfect.
lndic. Subj. Jussive. Energ. I. Energ. II.
Sing. > 0 y Of

3. m.
0 0 * 6 -
C f
f. icxX *+3
- o f
* ->
2. m. J*5 Jus
o t
r. ^N^*3 I5***3 (5*M
6 S -*
9 0 t
I.e. Juct
Dual. 6 '' ....
3. m.
f. Lj jkx It**? o'^"
. *-> 0
2. c. ItXis ltX*3
, 4 , -. Z ^ )
3. on.
O J 0 0 J C 0) 0 - 0 * MS 0 f 0 >
> 0 9 , 4 -> - - .. 1

2. m. utX*J o<&
a 9 o * o^o> o--o> o^ci> w | * * --
f. ,jJ'*>tX ij^J^* O^4^*3' ij0t^ (ju^a^j
a ;
o - 6^ > o .
Nom. Pat. Sing. m. o.Jujo, f- s\>.Jm/>-

Oilier Forms of the Perf., Imperf., Jussive, and Imperat. Act.

Perf. Imperf. Jussive. Imperat.
Sin"- s - * - f ' ? '
* ' .... .... (U) or Jwj Joo or Juo
o. m. -
oo. a
J Zaj ^jjj, ^aj, or^jj ppi\, yi, or ^i

JJi (2. m. v^JLc) J^j. jXj,J^j,orJ^ jLUl, jU, or Ji

Tab. V. b. Derived forms of the Verbum Mediae
Rad. Geminatae.
HI. IV. VI. VII. vm. x.

_ . ' 4>Lo Joe! l>Uj Jdbl jJLof cX*JCwl

Perf. -
Imperf. oUj i\j t>U*J JJJ-o tXX+j iX*a**j

Inipcral. ooLc OtXjoliTtXxl J>J>l*J' JlUjI OjuCel OcXtJuxlor j^Xm.1

S.-> it 8,^-> s.-o 8^<, S-o
N. Ag. oLjO tX*e jUaxi JlOJuc (XX^o
G, .- G, ^ o, 2.-^ 9.7 0,0,^ o, G^o c,
N.Verbi. Oljoo >!jue! oUj JjUj! oljuuol iMtXt&J

Gc5. - >

Imperf. OU_j Jk*j ^U^J (>&<S>. <Jo>UJ iX)X.,;

S.^> 2^> i.*.*.* -l-'<,, 2^o>
N. Pat. oLfr* cXvo i>U*a> JjLuo JJU

The remaining Forms present no irregularity; e. g.

Perf. Imperf. Imperat. N.Ag.etPat. N.Verbi.
9 w -> s -> G c-
Act. 3j^o
0 =->
Pass. 5SJo o<Xt
s 6 --
Act. O<XtJw0
G * -
Pass. OA+3

Tab. VI. Verbum Primae Rad. Hemzatae.

I. n. III. IV. v. VI.
pcrr. -1? **
r' '.'*. f
-% <T r'
r' <T t"
-Sf- tjU
-7.T-' or r'V
' if' i' 'f " '"*' '**' '*' 'a-f '"T ' ri
Impcrf. vj'Ls JwcLs jJ.j yi'yi Y?'-?. j-*'*-*^ j-> ^ or y^' ^

Impcrat. jij! Jucjl j'i j'l ^j! Ju j Li' or *J'1J"

S~ 5:Sl S..E' s.t> G?--> 9 ,-j--> s.,---
N. Ag. j_:l jiy0 ti'T10 Tiy* Jiy*A r^V-* 0T yi}y*j0
8? 9 *, 6. T, 8. - , S^.f- G'.-j-- b*,
N. Vcrbi. j! ~-V'-> )-jl >UL)( jju jj'U> or j'ly>
Passive. - '"? -... f - ... f -5* -...*> -4 f
perf. /-' 7* 7^' 7^' 7^ 7^ or 7^r
>;* >6.*> >-:.*> >-.t lf-* '.t- r,
Impcrf. oj oJ v_'l-s y->fi y->LiL> v->UL> or y->1>
S '..- 6?*> 8- ti 9".j 6a.?-> G'."j-.-> 6j.
N. Pat. jLo T^y J"3 V J"^* r-9^0 jj>-* or jj'ljjuo

Perf. Impcrf. Imperat. N.Ag.etPat. N.Verbi.

VIII. Act. vaaj' rpH r^' .*j"wc i^io!

Pass. *ii".l y*j'-? via'

X. ACL jUu,! jJUuhaJ wj'Uuul yjLuMjO . jLaaAmJ

.. _. J o ' >'Jf .. a > 0 -^ 0

Pass. yj'yLu/f wjuumJ jUii<

The VII. form is wanting in all verbs of this class, according

to . 113.
Ta b. VII. Verbum Mediae Rad. Hemzat ae.
1. 11. ill. IV.

Active. tit

Perf. Jl: PS1

Impcrf. JLj ^LL>
* t- 0 --
** f*

Impcrat. jtll ;t:i (jsi 0\
s _,
N.Ag. JoLm oLuu yjLj i^U pZLo
N. Verbi. 6V 8 M- g- 7i
J'j* . \Lw


r1 *t iL> JSU

N. Pat. J <nXI i*^Lo


Impcrf. |.ci^<_) OuiS3UL> |V"^ jjjljfla

0 -?
Impcrat. pto i*iL> j^xJj
N. Ag. *!** 1*5^** pSpdjo

N. Verbi.
Jis oiiii r&J{ f*^]
Perf. 3* &"

j*0 ^ 0 J
Imperf. *!xaj
9 ? - 0 >
N. Pat. j*iLLc rUlS ^ J-VJUmX
Tab. VIII. Verbum Tertiae Rad. Hemzatae.

2. s. m


Imperat. f _>! ,-i*! LkLl

N.Ag. ^IJ ^jL* ^ielL

" c" It g ' ' Si "
N. Verbi. g'vJ 8(jJ U^ S**Jt> ^UwAJ

Passive. e.J *? *
*,o> f-oj f,"<" ' t-l -
Imperf. |_o U-jj Uaji Laj KUj

N. Pal. V.wye g>.^ ZJaiS? fwAX I.Lyd

iv. v. vi. vii. vin. x.

tot Iwo Kyj' LLwJl UupI Ij^AMif
Imperf. v5r*J 'r^. M'-J^ 15***^? ic^*4^ <5r*****^
it' of fs~ Vi-" * - "t * "i -.
Imperat. i5j-?' '***' liUJ' ^5+**^' (5***' (^T^**1''
o > fc ~ > .-.-> % - c ft - <. > fc 0 .-
N. Ag. \Sj** ^Sr*** iSy-t** ^t**^0 isf1-^* iSfrj-*****

N. Verbi. gfl^ ?"jj 'lis jU^il gUiffl xKlxlf

Passive. * f *-> >. e ' ". * i * I
Perf. ^7?' ^/^ ^^ iSt^' tf*8*' IS/***-*
Impcrr. i'^j I^xj IjLa^? H-**^ I 'irgj t
?-" ?s^,> ?-. .-> ?^o ?--o *,u^
N. PaU l_oo IwvJ-o KLyU* UmwJma ULXfrfl Iwylw

Tab. IX. Verba Priniae Rad. . et g.


Perf. **9
>, ~- 9 ^
h) & ^ 9 ** * 9. - 0 ^
S 9 0 -
Impcrf. <X*J &yi *s6.s O^-yrt

Imperat. tXc J^ Ojuf wuot

6 o 9 o - S o *-
N. Verbi.
btXc &j\

Passive. - > - > >

|X^ toy *, mwJ

J - > > - J - > > ^ 9

Impcrf. ^jJ i;^ *jJ
O JO- 9 > o- 0 Jo- 9 a. 0 > o-
N. Pat.
*** ^;y rV

Active. - ,6,
Juul 1 vmOI
> > 9 C * 9 C- 9 o0^0-
., o i o0 -
Impcrf. % .W.A S

0 O* O 0* CJ O 0. O 00.
Imperat. \_/^' %AM.^I Ajlj! vmo'
6 > 9 j 9 es > 0 c > 9 c -- u j 9 o o
N.Ag. yAMiXjO (\*X*M>A yM*.M

N. Verbi. iSuul ><-ol ' \LmuUum1

Passive. *> - I
duut v**Ol
> - > >- > -a > - > > o o * o o >
Impcrf. JULAJ

9 - > 9- > S -6 > B - a> 9 -e o > 9-0 of

N. Pat.
Tab. X. Verbum Mediae Rad.
Active Voice of the First Form.
Perfect. Imperfect.
3. m. JIs J-j Jjy

2. m. oJUi JJu J*&> JJo i^-V"

1 >&** ^y" 4^" r*3 c^y" ch?y"

I.e. J.j'1 J.i'1 Ji!
3. m.
3li j#S

z. c. ....
Plur. e >

3. m.
f. (>k i>M> i>^ t>J^ (j1-^
2. m. r**35 ory" 'yy3 Vy" ^Vy"
2 )(>) >^ >-* * 9 * m *** $ 9 **
f. ^jXXl ljJjL> ^yXJti jjjju ^UlfiJ
I.e. LLli Jyij Jyi3 tMJ ePy^
N. Ag. N.Verbi. Imperative
Simple. Energ.I. Energ. 11.
Sing. m. JjLS' J? Sing. 2. m. Jo> lyy &>*
_ 0 rT-
* 0y c^y' cWy-
Dual. 2. c. ^J
ijjv ....
Plur. 2. m. \yi J Jyy dyy
^ull ....
' 32
Tab. XI. Vetbum Mediae Rad. ,5 .
Active Voice of (he First Form.
Perfect. Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Jussive. Energ.I. Energ.H.
^'n- "I*" ' ' ' ...1 T ...1 * ' l ... **. ...\

UI^\Wuu yA.wJ ^X*wO muJ niJUO ^twLuO

.- o 1 ^ -- - o .^ *- ^ *
'2. 111. O^m UuO UwJ whO i^ly^Wfc3 l^JYrV**^

O - ^ ^ Ct " ^
f. Sr'T*^ ^VJy*wJi ^jAJ ^Cw^wj' (MjAi-O iO^X.W*-1'

' f ' f ' f ' 1 o' 1

1. C. U-'T^U rty* J"^"^' vawI |MyAyl i^yA-wf

I- Lj\Lw .jI^AauJ) 'j-*^**-' 'rfy^-* uj'>-*-w-5

2.c. Us/-. ^iJa-J I^S l^u-S ^l^i ....

Plur. 1 I ' - ,' - , - - '
3. m. 'j; uj/**? V^ '.j/*^ u/*^ O/*^
f" tj/^ 07*^ (J/i^ (JT^- c)l-i7*^

2. m. p2y? 0}T^^ )7* >"''>' )7**?^ idt**!^' (jr^*-*

N. Ag. N. Verbi. Imperative.

Simple. Energ. I. Energ.H.
Sing. m. yjLiy yA* Sing. 2. m. ^, (JJ^ iJT**?
r -'"T' r s c
I. 5vJU i. iy&? \i)}&? \i))**2

Dual. 2. c. tluy J?'/*-*

Plur. 2. m. I^uu, (jr*-* (jr^

Tab. XII. Verba Mediae Rad. ? et &.
Passive Voice of the First Form.
Perfect. Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Jussive. Energ. I. ' Energ.H.
3. in.
f. oJLas Jlfcj* JLaJ' JJiS tffas ^JU*
2. m. oJLs JUij JUu JJu s*tf ^U*
I. olJj ^jjJUii' ^Ub' JUL vl^ U-P*
i.e. JLs JUI JLSf Jil ylil tffol
3. m.
5IU$ ^Ub 31SJ *UJ yfts
f. J^Utf
2c. i*si ....
3. m.

2. m. ,?>JUtf ^jJUs
. f. vj^e v^^' &&> o^> ,liJLH
I.e. LLU- JUL JUb JJb ^Ui ^Ub
s. > - Or >*
Nom. Pal. Sing. m. Jjjix , XJJw
G ^ 0, ^


Tab. XIII. Verba Mediae Rad. y et &

The Derived Forms.

Perfect, o. s. m.
Jtssl &J
2. s. m. oJj|

Imperf. JuJb
(i r.
Imperal. J^l JLsJf Jill
0 -
N. Ag. JuJLo JLwuUO

N. Vcrbi. 8 "l ' 1

JLyXot JUast
J**l J***'
Imperf. JLiAJ Lft<UMJ
_> 8 1 "C '
N. Pal. JLLo JLiiLo

111. VI.
J..; wu. J.Li' j-jLu. JjiJ" wuwj' JjL&j o LmJ
,-> . ^ ',!- > . - > ',s - > a .- - ^^-* >^. - ^-
Imperf. Jyo y***J J;^ *J"*J *J*&s> j-^**-^ J}"-**^ oLmJij

N.Verbi. Joyu *axm*5 SJ.Uw s^jLmjo Jju juJ J.LiiJ' jUmJ

Passive. f-.. --> T .. - -.?.? - 1 ... -

J^s ^* Jj^i ^.j*" uy-> r***-> ^yj Tv^**0

IX. Perf. ,>^,| Imperf. jjl^S N. Vcrbi. of3-lt

Tab. XIV. Verbum Tertiae Rad. }, Mediae Rad.
Active Voice of the First Form.
Perfect. Imperfect.

Sing. 9 0-- > 0^ CB 9 0 9 e--

3. Ml. IJO J-s

0 1., 9 e S * 0 9 t.-
f. O5j~o
w 9 0 9 0
2. m. ^J~o jJJj JUS ^Jwtf
a 0
f. i/^J (5<xo*
lj^^' i5<^' u*
J 0 ^ -. e 0*
I.e. y^Jo ^Jl ,5Jui
Dual. - o.

3. m.
I^Jo" '5J^> u'iJu>

2. Jo ^^ . o -- . > o- . J o.~
c- Uj, Jo ...UJuo I. J-o lijjj'
Plur. > 0- O- J 0_

3. m. I^Jo ^JOj f^XiJ !;J-o

0 9 c^ > c- o . 9 0
L e4^ c4^ cy4*"4* ily^o (j^Jwo

* m. *j,Jo ,o,Juu l,JU3 1,4X0 ,.jJoj .".j-JUS

etf4 o4
S 9 a - o-

O3} Jo c J-o .'JUS .o,JOj ...b.Jwo

J o^ 9 0 9 O G 9 4 9 U
1. c. LijiX Joo jjoj joj (j5t^i ui4^0
N.Ag. N. Verbi. Imperative
Simple. Energ-. I. Energ.ll.
Sing. m. i>lj ^ JJ Sing. 2. m. Jul ^Jo! ^Jo!
s.- .-
f. SjOU l^J! (jJI ,J!

Dual. 2. c. |j JJf ^,15 jJl

_ -9 c' 9 0* ti 9 Q*
Plur. 2. m. tjjl ^Jl ^Jt
> of 1 I oj
^ Jol ,jU^ Jo!
Tab. XV. Verbum Tertiae Rad. tf, Mediae Rad.
Active Voice of the First Form.
Perfect. Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Jussive. Energ-.I. Energ.ll.
Sing. 0* Si - U

3. in. ^') 15^ ry

C o
f. 17s ^?
2.m. vuyo
0 .-#- 6 a .--
9 0. e .- o*
t. c.
is*;' 1
Uuoj Llfjj
3. m. 9&p \~tJOyi
f. ULo yi^JS UJ V^Si-> A**P

2. c. Uixj J^f UuoJ Vtfr* u^p

Plur. .0 9 0--

3. in.
&*) i>*^ &qi* *>*# c)^?y
GS ) 0 -
2. in. i "i 0 "%

W | Of
G^? &*/ &*? m - o^
I.e. UjUOt

N.Ag. N.Verbi. Imperativ e.

Simpl :. Energ-. 1. Energ. II.
0 u- GS - 0.
Sing. m. J! Sing. 2. m. fj! cJ^;J
r r C9 c .

Dual. 2. c. L**>!
a is.
Plur. 2.

*>*?;! ^>^?;j
Tab. XVI. Verba Tertiae Rad. } et tf, Mediae Rad.
Aclive Voice of the First Form.
Perfect Imperfect
Indie. Subj. Jussive. Energ. I. Energ. II.
Sing. - - '<" '> --- B - - o-
3. in. &?) IS-8/* &*f- U*^ VJ**5/? O*-0;*
f. vsaI**; ^y ^i^s y^p ^^p c^P
2. m. o*ju^ ^^J ^^5 yoy* e^y c^7

4 ' .' ft '.f -.? s "iT .--,*

I.e. ojuo> ^^1 ^y yoy ij^;' (J^V-0;'
3.ura. ^; ^^V- ^j* ^7* vj^P

Plur. . '- _ '- ,"'- ,'.'" -- 0,-0.-

3. m. 'r; or/* r0/* 'r^ or8/? i^r*/*
tj*-; kj^T^ (J***/* cJ"*"0/? ^M**^.
2. m. !ju^ Or8/3' 'r8/3' Ir*/3' or*/3 or8/3"
f- cf^; ij*-'8/3" (J*"*/3 i^*-8/' u^*-8/3'

l. c. Lu^ is**8/3 ^T3 u67i 0*f e^/3

N.Ag. N.Verbi. Imperative.

Simple. Energ. I. Energ. II.
Sing. m. y^lj Lon Sing. 2. m. J&J cJ*"^1;' O"^)^
9- .-Q.-o o-o. (B-o. 6^0|

Dual. 2. c. Uijf jjtl^;'

Plur. 2. m. 2>y (j^o;' ijr^1;'
Tab. XVII. Verba Tertiae Rad. } et l.
Passive Voice of the First Form.
Perfect. Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Jussive. Energ.I. Energ.II.
Sing. ,. J * of ^ OJ .-of C - .' v
,^tX3 i&*i i<i^-i OJ^i (JJ^X-S?
3. m.
0 9 C - - L
I vsajJJ i^tXxj ^ftX-o JJu ^jjjoo
_ -. f ^ 0 f ^ of ^ 0 f 8 * - of
2. m. ciOXi i5(Xa5 (5tX^> iX-o (j-sJOi*
O ~- O 9 O / ll> 0 - 0 J
r. oocVj ^cXaj 151X0* (^iXo ^jjJoo ^HcX-o
> f e - - 0*
1. c. oo<Xi ,5tX3 Jul
Dual. .^ - of . -^ Of . . , , 0 >
3. m.
.- - Of
f. LiJjJ LSjus
1 * ' '
..- .. of - - j>

2.c. UxjfcXJ ....

Plur. > .- 0 >
3. m.
0^ e> w .-0 ^ Ul
V -0 0 f .. 01
2. m. !&>*
Of * o .- o f p ^ef u ^ 0 y w.^u^uf
f. ^jXi(\i ^jjh)JJ (jjjuo ^J-o ^jUjcXjo ....
^ 9 . of .-of -of fiy y al fc - ^ fll
t. c. 1^><\J iiXaJ i,5tUJ cX-o ,o->duJ ^JJJ
S > o - Gcs j c ^
Norn. Pat. Sing. m. .JO* f. s.JoLo

45^ **5jr*

Taib. XVIII. Verba Tertiae Rad. ^ et tf-

The Derived Forms.
H. in. IV. v. VI.
Active. --
PerC ^ili iS*2 ^LsS
Imperf. ,-oLoij
15^ 15^^'
Imperat. ijaS (joLs jidil joJu (jfiUtf

N. Ag. m. yeLii (jeUii

s- - ^ > 9, il 9- -<,-;.
r. iu2JU kx^iLfljOc
G, i~
N. Verbi. u^aS- yoUi
Passive. - >>
Perf. &** t5^r*
Imperf. ^8\ ^oLo)
5* b >
N. Pat. m. ^Lu -^Lao
f. S'UiSjO s'L^LLo sLiiLo sLcLiiXc sL^ulLc

Perf. Imperf. Imperat. N.Ag.etPat N. Verbi.

VII. Acl. odiut jaaJuo v.Ldiiil


VIII. Act. '.'..t.\ vLiXi'l

is*1*': ijdi-sl

- '.x\ -.-(.>
Pass. ^5-fl^J
0 > U < 0 - 0 1
X. Act. (jajKUnI ?LLfc*.wl
- - o f # e .- e J


Printed by Kr. Nics (Carl B. Lorck), Leipzig.

Synt a.;x.;

I. The Several Component Parts of a Sentence.

A. The Verb.
1. The States or Tenses.
1. The Perfect, ^CJf (Vol. I. . 77 9), indicates:
a) An act completed at some past lime (the historic tense,
the Greek aorist, German imperfect, and English past); as:
Juv *L&- *j. then came Zeid; *_>UJl ^JS LJJL&., they sat
down at the door.
b) An act which, at the moment of speaking, has been"
already completed and remains in a state of completion (the
S*- ^ * q 9 9^ '
Greek, German and English perfect); as: ^1 x+*j W*^'
|yCJL* i-t*M. be mindful of my favours, which I hate con
ferred upon you.
c) A past act, of which it can be said that it often took
place or still takes place a use of the perfect which is
common in proverbial expressions, and which the Greek
aorist also has; as: St. J! yyl., historians say (have handed
it down by oral tradition from one to another) ; ..."^Jl (J^ul,
commentators are ayreed (have ayreed and still ayree).
V. II. 1
2 Pari Third. Syntax.

d) An act which is just completed at the moment, and

by the very act, of speaking; as: aJUt dbjuiul, / conjure
you by God; Ijjc du*j, / sell you (Ids.

Rem. On the similar uses of the perfect in Hebrew, see Gesenius'

Gr. . 124, 1 and 3.

e) An act, the occurrence of which is so certain, that

it may be described as having already taken place. This
use prevails in promises, treaties, bargains, &c, and after the
particle 51, not, especially in oaths or asseverations; as:
Lclj xj ^Uu5l to vLJLaS SJ&! Cot (jJali*. ji ^li^l Hiaili

Jo5Lj ^ ^i (5Xs. bl^l ^ oJwxIj ^.Ju*, ^r/ 2rt',

therefore, quarter on one of two conditions, cither that you
will accept (lit. have accepted) what we have proposed to you,
or that you will keep it secret and refrain (lit. have kept
it secret and refrained) from doing us any injury, tUl we
get out of your country ; xXXs o*il 51 &JJU, by God, I shall

certainly not remain in Mekka; Lc ^l| ^jy>Li. 5> ouJl

,-*I*=J ts^}j oJLLt, / *tfr ^ff/ aww j&ztf not make me
intoxicated, as long as my soul remains in my body.

Rem. a. Compare the Hebrew usage, Gesenius' Gr. . 124, 4.

Rem. b. When a clause commencing with 5l is connected with

a previous clause beginning with Lo followed by the perfect, or li
followed by the jussive, in that case 51 does not give to the following
verb in the perfect the sense of the future, because it merely supplies
the place of these particles ; as: jj iJu i_>otJ&Jt .^wo t_-.-L"
I. The Slates or Tenses. 3

^jOl si.) y* -..A 2$\, I have experienced wonderful things,

such as neither those who see have seen, nor those who narrate have

f) Something which we hope may be done or may

happen. Hence the perfect is constantly used in wishes,
prayers, and curses; as: Jlii' *JU| *ty- may God {be he

exalted!) have mercy on him! ajLe Jj, may his reign he

long! iiJljo oJLas*, may I he made thy ransom! ^jlJU! ouol>
wiiiiest thou avoid execration (a formula used in addressing
tbe ancient Arab kings)! aJJI iUiJ, 6W curse thee! The
proper signification of the perfect in this case is: "if it be as
I wish, God has already had mercy on him, &c." The per
fect has this sense also after $; as: |L3 **?' L IxxsJ if,

may you never meet with injury, as long as you lire ! yd* $
cJjj, may thy teeth (lit. mouth) not be broken! When a
conditional clause precedes the optative, the particle v_j must
be prefixed to the latter, in order that the influence of the
conditional particle in the former may not extend to it; as:
-CsL oyujsi iU* ijj' vJUr^, if thou art '/bn Hamm'am
(lit the son of Hammam), mayest thou be saluted with honour!
Rem. On Ihe oplalivc use of Ihe perfect in Hebrew, see Gesenius
Gr. . 124, 4, note .

2. The perfect is often preceded by the particle Jj", al

ready (Vol. I. . 362, 16). When this is the case, if the
perfect has either of the meanings mentioned in . 1, b or d,
it now implies (hat (he act is really finished and completed
1 *
4 Pari Third. Syntax

just at the moment of speaking. Its completeness may con

sist either a) in the removal of all doubt regarding it,
in its perfect certainty as opposed to uncertainty; or b) in
its having taken place in agreement or disagreement with
what preceded it, in accordance or non-accordance with
what was, or might be, expected, or just a little before
the time of speaking. For example: *&i\s*- SpCj by^S jJ

^aSLJI gjkj Ufflso jS(X>) >*jaJ*J\ |bl i viLoo ^ JJla.,

we have already spoken of the vizirate of their ancestor
Hhlid ^ibn Bermek in the reign of el-Mansiir, and we will
now speak of the vizirates of the rest (in this example the
just completed act is contrasted with the future one); ^j!
ooU Jki viJuLf, My daughter is, as ?vas expected, dead,
or /% daughter is Just dead: yajo dUji v^JJ: jJU _>^^Jf bof,
* regards the post ofgovernor, I appoint thy son governor
of Egypt (. \,d); Sy.fJ\ oy^ <** J^ '^ ^^5 J JL*
he said to him, You promised this, and he replied, I now
really fulfil what I promised.
3. The Pluperfect is expressed:
a) By the simple perfect, in relative or conjunctive
clauses*), that depend upon clauses in which (he verbs are in
the perfect; as: ^*xUl j wcl U f^jyb tj6j&, he laid be-
- T -- >o -
/or them what cl-Mamun had ordered ; sol jUb> c>jls. (j*Jb,
ta .?/ ^m? his father had sat ; _^^J| Jl .Jii\ J^j U-li
b\L J,Ii, and after the ox had come to the place, he turn"
*) By a relative or conjunctive clause we mean a clause that is joined
to a preceding one by means of a relative pronoun or a connective particle.
1. The Slates or Tenses. 5

ed his back in /light; jail J#| joi' U py&l he fled af

ter his kinsmen had been killed.

Rem. Compare, as regards Hebrew, Gesenius' Gr. . 124, 2.

b) By the perfect along wilh the particle Jo, prece

ded by ; or without it, provided the preceding clause is one
which has its verb in the perfect; as: ^s. Jj>: to..A.|, he
led him out blinded (lit. and he had been blinded) ; Jt Jo
<Xx*iJl S$ Jl| JCf jj sJ^ji cULaJt, ^<? ?/ early to el-
Fadl, and found that he had gone still earlier to the palace
of ar-Ra'std (lit. and found him, he had already gone early).
These clauses with Jo and Jo-: are clauses expressing a
s '
state or condition (JL>.).
c) By the verb ^, to be, |)refixed to the perfect; as:

oyJJI ^ol, ar-Ras.d died at Tus, after he had set out

(lit. and he had set out) for Horasan to combat Raft 'ibn
el-Leit. These clauses also express the state (3^0-
d) By jjbT and the perfect, with the particle Jo inler-
posed; as: jl l^bjjel A l$ijUj *J;>4- oujj Jo oJj
JuLaJI, I had brought up and educated a female slave; 1
then presented her to el-Fadl. Sometimes the particle jj
is placed before both verbs, instead of between them; as:
,jl i>>Jo Jjj Lgjkj X-ioULf Jlo" **-La xUI Jj-w> ^jl i^ijJ

J. I JkA***J jJ: ^ U>S' J^cxj, there is a tradition that

the apostle of God (God bless him and grant him peace!)
6 Part Third. Syntax.

said to 'A'is a (God have mercy on her.'J, after she had

vowed (lit and she already had vowed) to set free some per
sons of the children of Ishmacl, 6fc.
Rem. a. When one of two or more pluperfects is anterior to the rest
in point of time, it is indicated by means of the particle d*2, the others
having merely ^; as: J| 'Z. ^^ JLjJaj JuyiJI i>Lo

jJLs-*-*. J^ v_jlijj itUaJt /^5 ^J"* *^*' 'ir'Rast^

died at Tils, after he had set out for Horasan to combat Raft 'ibn
e l-Leit, who had rebelled (lit. and this Rafi' had already rebelled),
and cast off hist allegiance, and taken forcible possession of Samar
Rem. b. A conjunctive clause may be introduced between ~M '
and the following perfect; as: w*^. jjJtXJI .^La ,Jb LJ /m

*lyoil| **a* Kfi. ajuai. .JulJI, after the news of the enemy's
making for Akka (Acre) had reached Salahn 'd-din (Saladin), he had
assembled the commanders.

4. a) If two correlative clauses follow the hypotheli-

cal particles L), ?/j ,jl If, // that, and ilL!, //" wo/' (vol. I.
. 367, 12),* (lie verbs in bolh clauses have usually the
signification of our pluperfect subjunctive or potential, though
occasionally too of our imperfect subjunctive or potential.
For instance: SiX^.1^ Iwl ^Ut JJul viG^ *[a ^i, if thy

*) The protasis of the sentence, when introduced by ilj, although

it has not a verb actually expressed, includes a verbal idea, viz. that of the

verb^. .
I. The Slates or Tenses. 7

Lord had chosen, he would have made (all) mankind one

people; S+&. viJULgJ ^i. 3^, had it not been for 'Ah, 'Omar
would have perished; LiaalJ ly&lj I U>et ^Viul J* I ^1 p:
\jby&\* U^Jl ^ >&*? f>g.. j ffW^ if the people of those
towns had believed and feared (God), ?ve would have bestowed
upon than blessings from heaven and earth; /hJ&il
*-$aJ-c l^iLi*. \j\juo SJy^ *$** \J* yyj' y (jT?tU'' fly"*

fe/ Mo? fear (God), who, if they should leave (or were to
leave) behind them helpless children, would have fears for
them (or would be afraid on their account). b) Occasion
ally rj6 is placed between J and (he perfect in the protasis
of the sentence, and sometimes r& is repeated before the
perfect in the apodosis. If this be the case, the signification
of the verb in both clauses is always and necessarily that of
the pluperfect; as: ^XiJ 2U<> wl*Ux !&jS "^, if I had

known this, I would have beaten you; Lj J lJ*ivfc Ijj^p

tXsOt i_>J \y3Jo, if they had known this, they ivould not
have crucified the Lord of glory. c) If the verb of the
protasis be an imperfect, and that of the apodosis a perfect,
both must be translated by the imperfect subjunctive or po-
tential; as: i^j^jjo *$>\xLo\ iLij J, if we wished it, we
ivould punish them for their sins.

Rem. Compare the use of the Hebrew perfect, Gesenius' Gn

. 124, 5, a and b.

5. After \'o\, when, as often as (Vol. I. . 367, 2), the

perfect takes ihe meaning of the imperfect, the future act being
8 Pari Third. Syntax.

represented as having- alreaily taken place; e. g.

iJC^ \+l fS^*& fo' J^*-7^3 *4J> respond to Cod and

to the apostle, when he calls you to that which can give
you life. - Consequently, if Hie particle tit he followed by
two correlative clauses, the first of which extends its conver-
sive influence to the verh of (he second, the verbs have in
both clauses either a present or a future signification. For
example: LiLsJ li^ li&. iCa-bH 6JLl *Li lit, when the pro
mised term of the future life comes (or is come, or shall
have come), we will collect you together. In such cases the
Latin and German require the future-perfect in the first clause,
and the future in the second. The imperfect is sometimes
used instead of the perfect in the protasis; as: JJb lit:
1\ IJli' Ui'Ljt IajXs., and when our verses are read to
them, they say, $~c. If a clause dependent on lit is in
troduced by such a perfect as -M or jLs, or stands in the
middle of a narrative of past events, the verb governed in
the perfect by til is likewise a historical perfect; e. g. ".
JL| iJLXj ti'> when he sjioke, he sjmke eloquently.

Rem. a. What has been said of lit, applies equally to Li lit,

as often as, when; as: xj Iaa*I 3 Lc 1^1 *5| , will you
(only) then believe it, when it (the punishment) wie fupon yow) ?

Rem. b. When til or Lo 131 is immediately preceded by the

particle ._., until, and followed by two correlative clauses, the verbs
of which are in the perfect, these perfects take the sense of historical
past tenses, expressing a stale that closes the action of a previous per
1. The Slates or Tenses. 9

feet. For instance: lit _Xa. ^ic-i J^? v'^?' 1*^*^ l-JLsij
Juu licutX^.| t*J*l L*J It^a-vi. W opened for them the doors
to everything (opened to them the road to everything-, permitted them
to obtain and enjoy everything), until, when they rejoiced over what
they had obtained, tve swept them away suddenly.

6. a) After the conditional particle ,%l, if (Vol. I. .

367, 5), and after many words which imply the conditional
meaning of ^\ (LlJjf ^jue or ^f je), the perfect takes
a future sense, the condition being represented as already
fulfilled; but it may be rendered in English by the present.
Such words, for instance, are: ^| and /\jc, who, whoever,
^j^j! whosoever, Li what, j| whatever, \'%\'* whatever,
UJLY as often as, eJLa- where, Uila. fvherever, J& when,
LcLo, whenever, ~_>| where, dj| wherever, . ^V //o?^
L^ilj' however, ^\ in whatever way, r\J\ and Li ;7}L>I, <w
often as, whenever, Lijt whenever. Examples: olX.| _jl
|VAke *')i C>)<X& ^ l^uol ^t, I fear, if I rebel (lit.
/?<? rebelled)' against my Lord, the punishment of a great
(i. e. terrible) day ; IgyjtAgS 4^ |**jLxi'l> *&y ^**" *Ar-
;er y0 /&/ M<?z (lit. ito<? found them); \^il\ *XjLc ys
ixl^ /'<? is sM yow wherever you are. The same remark
applies to the perfects before and after 1|, or, in such phra
ses as: \*J^*> *\ '*jL& %\ZL, it is all the same whether
they are absent or present ; \'yu(i l\ .j ^ LX^c oLLiLfl *Jl,
,v/w;p honour to a guest, whether he be rich or poor.
b) If the words ,j I, ^1, ,^o, &c, be followed by two clauses,
v.n. 2
10 Part Third. Synlax.

the first of which expresses the condition, and the second the
result depending upon it, then the verb in both clauses is
put in the perfect, both (he condition and the result being
represented as having already taken place. For example:
oJJjo *iJLJ(i oJLii J, if you do this, you will perish, lit.
if you shall have done this, you have perished or will per
ish (. 1, e); n3\lo pu slw Izf (jjo, he who (= if one)
keeps (has kept) his own secret, attains his object; LjCJJ
Ucj.i.t Lff<>.&.^ Ul>! \,$*yA\ *JLa, wisdom is the strayed
camel of the believer ; wherever he finds it (= if he shall
have found it anywhere), he lays hold of it (will lay hold
it). c) If the perfect after ^t, ^|, ^je, &c, is to retain
its original meaning, then ^ or one of the ~St> otywl, the
sisters of the verb kana (such as *Ls to become, JJs to be
by day, viLi to be by night, j*o\ to be in the morning,
"*\ to be in the evening), must be inserted between those
words and the perfect in the protasis, and the apodosis must
be indicated by the particle o. For example: juia+s ^ ,jf
oLsjL^i JuJ>* ,%* tXi', ifhis shirt is (has been) torn in front,
she has spoken the truth; \JSyi *^*i ^W rUXal jUJa ,jl,
if ye have believed in God, place your trust in him; <X&*

ouu .1 owoa.1 oaJ ^! ^.xlwi .! mXjlM, accept my ex

cuse or (at least) be indulgent, if I have committed a crime
or a fault. d) But if the perfect after these words is to
have the historical sense (English past tense, . 1, a), the
verb ), or one of its "sisters", must be prefixed to the
correlative clauses; e. g. IAjLT L*JLT ,%! \S\6, if they
1. The S laics or Tenses. 11

everled themselves to attain an object, they attained it;

though it is also sufficient that the correlative clauses should
be dependent upon others that are historical; as: o*iTi>l Ot
xJJ t\.U oJLi o^$i LJLX3 tCiCj *I*^I / attained know
ledge only by praising (God)*, for, whenever I understood
{anything), I said, Praise be to God!
s* ,.
Rem. a. Where ^|, Jwo, and Li are inlerrogatives or simple
- <5* 0* fi* -* ^
relatives, ^uo, ^M> ^-sl, (jbl, and v_i*S\ interrogatives, and
>f a > a simple relative adverb, without any admixture of the condi
tional signification of ".I, perfects dependent upon them retain their
original sense.

Rem. b. On the Hebrew perfect after QN and other conditional

particles, see Gesenius' Gr. . 124, 5, c.

7- After the particle Lo, as long as, whilst (Vol. I. .

367, 13), the perfect takes the meaning of the imperfect
(present or future); as: L*3 1*aaj U *.**&? $, may you
never meet with injury (* 1, f) as long as you live! y-LlJ!
^liLc jbjTjjJI SjasU 3 \y!e\S to, men are careless, as
ong as they live in this world (lit. remain in the life of
this world). If this imperfect is to be historical, the rule
laid down in . 6, d, must be observed. The negative as
long as not is always expressed by Li Uo with the jussive
(see . 11).
8. The Imperfect Indicative {Lysl^i\ c^\S&J\)
does not in itself express any idea of time; it merely indi
cates a begun, incomplete, enduring existence, either in pre
sent, past or future time. Hence it signifies:
12 Part Third. Syntax.

a) Aii act that does not take place at any one parti
cular time, to the exclusion of any other time, but that
fakes place at all times, or rather, in speaking of which no
notice is taken of time, but only of duration (the indefinite
>w-* ' m * 9 "9 9 0 "
present); as: ,JJb xJUU jjjo (jU-j^l, man forms plans
and God directs them (man proposes, God disposes); ZJLj
J.\ 4\a*a*j, /<? //w man is enslaved by benefits (confer
red upon him).
b) An act which, though commenced at the time of
speaking, is not yet completed, which continues during
the present time (the definite present); as: Uj ISju kJU1
r. Juki, God knows what ye are doing.
c) An act that is to take place hereafter (the simple
future); as: xsGf pCs Jj ^Jf xl'T ^=Z ^SSl thus mill
God briny to life the dead, and show you his miracles;
S^aaJI *jj gJuo fX=t tJJ^i, but God will judge between
them on the day of the resurrection. To render the fu
turity of the act still more distinct, the adverb ^SyL (Vol. I.
. 364, 4), or its abbreviated form ^ (Vol. 1. . 361, 2),*
in the end, is prefixed to the verb; as: bUtXc 3JJ> JjLL ^jjo
!> If uJLaj \JyLl UJLiaj, if any one does this maliciously
and wickedly, we will burn him with hell-fire; **Jv****

&xso"Jo, we will explain it in its (proper) place ; \x {J>^>^

&j JS viJ.tX^, thou shall be protected (through Gods grace)

from every machination of thy enemy.

Very rare abbreviations are ++ and oL

1. The Stales or Tenses. 13

Rem. On corresponding uses of the Hebrew imperfect, see Ge-

senius' Gr. . 125, 1, 2.

d) An act which was future in relation to the past time

of which we speak. When this is the case, the imperfect is
simply appended to the preceding perfect without the inter
vention of any particle, and forms, along with its comple
ment,* a secondary, subordinate clause, expressing the state
(jLi!) in which the subject of the previous perfect found
himself, when he completed the act expressed by that per
fect; as: 8i>yu alJI *\a, he came to him to visit him;

uwiij eLo ^jjLt J! ^>'l, he came to a spring of water to

e) An act which continues during the past time. When
this is the case, the imperfect may be appended to the per
fect without the interposition of any connective particle, or it
may be joined to it by the particle :. In either case, it
forms, along with its complement, a secondary, subordinate
clause, indicating the state (JLi!) in which the subject of
the previous perfect found himself, when he did what that
perfect expresses; as: dLsvIdj JoC A-*, Zcid came laughing;
sIJlLc <\^~ Uxil, he returned, congratulating himself on
(lit. praising) his morning-walk ; xx'Ju Juti, he began to

scold him; tUJ| ^JJa +Jsi &cUi! oJLol, the pigeon

began tofly about in search ofwater ; *^a)T oJLl. Lc dQ LIS I

*) That is to say, any word or words governed by, or otherwise con

nected with, it.
14 Pari Third. Syntax...

1^.3 JaJf <XS (*)tX3> you seem to us to have come out to

day without exactly knowing how (lit. we think or see you,
you have come out today without knowing how was the
road). As the above examples show, the imperfect is in this
ease generally expressed in English by the infinitive or the

Rem. a. Compare, as regards Hebrew, Gesenius' Gr. . 139, 3, e.

Rem. b. After the negative particle S, the imperfect retains its

general idea of incompleteness and duration; as: Joub 51 ^J6, he mas
wont not to do (lit. he was not doing, non faciebat); *Jjtf 51 p-y^-
JO jTvjI* he went out, not knoming, or without knowing, mhere he
was; JutaBLJl *Vv II /.Jo 51, the liberal (man) does not re
spect the stingy. After the negative particle Lo it lakes the meaning
of the present ; as: 5f" v_,UXJI Jjs! ^ 1^-iJ ^tW' dyi Lo

*XjC ^ JLL ^jx |*X*Ifi JpJ ,jl (j-i5liLj!> '< w no/ rt<r
wish of those who are unbelievers, whether among those who possess a
(revealed) book or among the polytheists, that any good should be sent
down unto you from your Lord; jCij Lo '.j^JJo /TvJ<XM ,jl

^jlftS Lo &f,| 5UL5 LC3: kj &f^.y yL$f GK **^

wAo conceal the book that God lias revealed, and buy with it something
of small price, these swallow down into their bellies nothing but fire,
and God will not speak to them on the day ofjudgment.

9. To express the imperfect of the Greek and Latin

languages, ^ is frequently prefixed to the imperfect; as;
1. The Slates or Tenses. 15

"**>-^ it ** *-o * ** it y **
*L*iL)!: v*iJ! *ro jl he was fond of poetry and poets ;

ofay several times. If (his signification is to be attached to

several imperfects, it is sufficient to prefix ^ to the first
alone. If one or two perfects precede the imperfect, or if
the context clearly shows that the verb in the imperfect has
the sense of the Latin imperfect, r$ need not be prefixed
to it; as: ,UIJLL dU* J^ J^U-^' y& ^ 'j*+%
and they followed the doctrines which (lit. that which) the
evil spirits taught {mankind) in the reign of Solomon; JlS
JJj ^ xJU! *Llo! ^^J-*j" *-Ls. <SJay, W7>y then did ye
kill the prophets of God before? Here JuS and J-*i'
stand for ^JUs v^i and )jJUtfi' jUtf.

Rem. In this sense the Hebrew uses the simple imperf. ; Gese-
nius* Gr. . 125, 4, b.

10. To express the future-perfect, the imperfect of ^

LjJo) is frequently prefixed to the perfect, the particle ji
being sometimes interposed. For example: ULi'! ^UL-L-j

tyjuj UMyftlaJuJ J.i' ijyU *-^Jj 5~*A? i^j~ <>**^2 '15"*'

^/re some people to carry it to my house, and I shall be the

last of them {to depart), and there shall not have been left
{shall not be left) behind me anything to occupy my mind
with the doing or removing of it, and by the trifling pay
16 Part Third. Synlax.

/ give (hem, I shall have provided help for myself [so as) to
spare my own body all the labour.
11. The Subjunctive of the imperfect (^>yalj\ ry ^ > H)
has always a future sense after the adverb ^j, not (Vol. I.
. 362, 22), and the conjunctions ,!, that, 5 ^1 or ^1,
that not, ^S and ^J3, that, iklT and iklib, //'ff/ mo/1, <s^'

till, until, and J, that; as: j| |Syc ^ ^y> SM Iu2l J^-jJ ^

(C^UaJ, ww?tf s^ff// ?/*r Paradise except those who are
Aw* or Christians; iuil IJLi.tX> ,jl lUxy* +\> do ye
think that ye shall enter Paradise? See . 15.
9 9 v --0'* y *> yQ"
12. The Jussive of the imperfect (*.ys2L*JI cjLaJI),
when dependent upon the adverbs jj, <?/, and O, not yet
(Vol. I. . 362, 20 1), has invariably the meaning of the
perfect; or, to speak more accurately, it has that meaning
which the imperfect preceded by ~. would have (. 9), if
the proposition were an affirmative one. For example: li\
o**" * ' OB C if' J"" --*"' c* '0--
vjoj^l^ ol^4-JI JJLc &J JUI yj! SJju, hast thou not learned
(or </fl.tf //mb / &/f<w) ^//dtf God's is the sovereignly
over the heavens and the earth? IJLa.Jo ,! lx*^= J

Mff/ yc .v//fl// <v/fcr Paradise, before there shall have come

(lit. and there has not yet come) upon you what came upon
a* ,0 - ' i. -0 " -*
those who passed away before you? ^1 jjyi J^.*iJ! o\t
LDLs-jj Jjj' O LLbf*, or dejmrture is close at hand, save
that our camels have not yet moved off with our saddles (i. e.
we have all but slar(ed); w^jQje viAJj Jiij' J ,jl, if you do
1 . Tho Slates or Tenjscs. 17

not do this, you mil perish (. 6, b); -XzS\ wo J^Xj *J

tljjtiJf:, //<? #'< not fond of poetry and poets.
13. Afler ,jl and the various words that have the sense
of jf, the jussive has the same meaning as the perfect
(. 6); as: jJJ! xJLij s^JuJ ^1 pSjcX* L* yii ,t,
whether you conceal what is in your breasts, or disclose it,
God will know it; ZJ& QjCo "fcl dlxl^-l^ J^itf ^t
Iit, ;/) now that you have become a Muslim, you do a
good work, you will be re?i>arded for it; J! Lj> LiJLaii' ,jf
LJuJl uJil (j'jr*' '^ ^0M ^ M* justice, 0 family of Mtr-
w/f/t, we will draw near to you; ^JLij JLL ^jx I JLilS' Lo
jJUl, fvhatever good you do, God will know it; Lj JC> UIj!
yiJI |j3^Jo> wherever you are, death will overtake you;

,-j^ijju juoUJt -o! ^-xx, ^<? / /y aside my turban,

you recognise me.' When the first of two correlative
clauses contains a verb in the imperative, and the second in
the jussive, then the jussive has the same meaning as if the
first clause had contained a verb in the jussive preceded by
,j^ as: t^jo^i' i5;^ y '^y6 ^y^ V^' ^ie^ sa^' ^e~
come Jews or Christians, (and) you will be guided aright.
Here \yZyf is equivalent to Uj*Xj JjI, if you become Jews
or Christians, you will be Sfc.
14. The Energetic forms of the imperfect have al-
ways a future sense; as: ^ ^yCJ jjjo ^yt Ua=M ^
JkjyTLLIf, if thou deliverest us from this (danger), verily
'<? s^ff// fo 0/ (the number of) the grateful; ^y^S aJUU
18 i'arl Third. Synlax.

iiiife, by God! I will ait thy head off (lit. strike thy

2. The Moods.
15. The Subjunctive mood occurs only in subordw
nate clauses. It indicates an act which is dependent upon
that mentioned in the previous clause, and future to it rn
point of time; and hence it mostly corresponds to the Latin'
subjunctive after ut. It is governed by the following par
1) a. By j|, that, after verbs which express inclination
or disinclination, order or prohibition, duty, efTect, effort, fear,
necessity, permission, &c; bl ^ or Jf|, that not; and ^J (for
,",l 5f, i. e. .".,! ,.Ju 51, it will not be or happen that), cer
U " ' * .* . * J! *
tainly not, not at all. For example: jjjol ^1 o^=>-l. cjoJ
JUuil (J^>vk i-j-', / wished and desired to make plain to
them the path of learning; vJJbo ^1 .1*^ ^H*^' fe^Wtf
of n>//0 ca wnlfe, r</kw /o write; *^*ijl ^^aj ^1 (5*a*j
xJUt L2j |JlJI ^_*JUaj, # behoves the learner to strive
#y foi search for knowledge to please God; r% Jo jjl \i
vJw^UJ!, # wy #<? /#<? accusative; Ui Lgjuo JaA*U Jls
LjAi vaXx:; ,jl iD (j Jo, .#<? (God) ?/?, 6W M0 rfow M<?
/)#/ // (Paradise), for it is not allowed thee to behave with

pride in it; {J^S^. ^1 vJli.t {i\, I am afraid he will not

leave me, or, in accordance with a particular idiom of the
language, / am afraid he will leave me; Jijswj ill dLiLo Uc,
2. The Moods. 19

tvltal has prevented thee from worshipping {him)? VL^i ^jJ

15. jJtx LcLjI Sh j(JDl, (he fire {of hell) will certainly not
touch us save for (will certainly touch us only for) a cer-
Uiin number of days; }\ toys ^ ^ys 5H iLL* eM*^ ^
^TLaS, no one shall enter Paradise save those who are
Jews or Christians.
b) But if the verb to which r,! is subordinate, does not
indicate any wish, effect, expectation, or the like; and (he verb
whic h is governed by /j! has the meaning of the perfect or
present; in that case the indicative of the perfect or imper-
feet is used after \.\; as: JLs ^\ JLtf, / know that he has
said; ..Uls ^1 JLcl, / know that he is asleep. As ^1, quod,
on, is more usual in such clauses, the nalive grammarians
designate ^f, when it has (he same meaning as ^,1 and go-
veins the indicative, by the name of xJLiiil! r\x Sjbiia. *JI ^,1
the an (hat is lightened from the heavy form, or, more
shortly, xii^wl ,jt, //><? lightened an; but when it is equi-
valent to the Latin ut, they call it SLyoLDl ^1, ///t' an that

governs the subjunctive {^yaJ^iS cLiJ!). After verbs of

thinking, supposing, and doubting, when they refer to the
future, ^j! may govern the indicative of (he imperfect, as
xiftiEwJ!, or the subjunctive, as xlollil; e. g. lyy j| i^juis,
/ ////>// //<? ?'// get up.

2) By J, that, in order thai (originally a preposition,

Vol. I. . 356, 3); [/, Ji3, and "Ji, id.; & iOS, and
"$uJ, (hut not, in order (hat not; particles which indicate the
20 Part third. Sfnlax.

intention of the agent and the object of the act For example:

7 behoves the Muslim to ask God (may he be exalted!} to

keep him in health, that he preserve him from misfortunes ;
fa,-0 -.^ of. - ^ a-* > o ?.., |*0' - ", - .' , i
^ .Ac
w ^JuJI
& O^jui
./ ,p
o JUxi
" Uuco oJajia.
- lolft , //wv?

yaw ^w learned anything, ivrite it down, so that you may

constantly refer to it; J>lxJpl J^Ja/^uTviJU j S^ J^iai J,
we /<#e not occupied ourselves with giving an account of
this, in order that the book might not become too long;
jjltlb u&dauumj 5LJ \i!J(> JU Uil , he said this only in or
der that learning might not be disparaged.
3) a. By ^lL (also originally a preposition, Vol. 1.
. 358, 2), until, until that, that, in order that, when it
expresses the intention of the agent and the object of the
act, or the result of the act, as taking place not without the
will of the agent or, at least, according to his expectation.
For example: Ll^o ^^Jo ^JiL (.J^JOl J+S ^Uff ^a Ju^,
we must meditate before we speak, in order that our words
may be appropriate; xia&S {JL^. JuJiUl JUJu 51 ,jl ^J^M
i^iiJI ,jft, he must not weaken the spirit so that it is hin
dered from acting ; sju ^taiuJj JLsuJi *Ui ,j! J I^Jji

^jjk*iu .! k+ajI ,*&.> ^ ^^ '/" ^ chooses, to sit down

and give me his hand, that I may force him to rise or he
force me to sit down. b. But if <ji^. expresses only a
simple temporal limit, or the mere effect or result of an act,
without any implied design or expectation on the part of the
agent, it is followed by the perfect or the indicative of (he
2. The Moods. 21

imperfect. For example: Jl^lM oouLk JL^ 'j;'"**" ^ey

journeyed till the sun was up; Juu! Jia u^j, </ so
//<? /7<?rf rtff ta yo/ </ ^raar/ may off; t^J^S *$ ^Ji^. \j&Jo,
he is so ill that they have no hope of his living ; iJUjJi
S^aaJI |^j J| |!igt*..t ^^ ^gia. wiDI^ |V-U-U tyi?j> rf *'
Mis account they were enabled by Gods help to acquire and
diffuse knowledge to such an extent, that their name will
maintain itself till the day of the resurrection.

Re'm. With i^. compare the Latin donee.

i) By vj; when this particle introduces a clause that

expresses the result or effect of a preceding clause. The
preceding clause must donlain an imperative (affirmative or
negative), or words equivalent in meaning to an imperative;
or else it must express a wish of hope1, or ask a question;
or, finally, be a negative clause. The signification of vj in
all these cases is equivalent to that of ^eX*. For example":
iUsLf Ji>.i>Li Z>\ Lj J lie I, pardon me, 0 my Lord} so that

I may enter Paradise; >JLLttU ^jj^.\^ if, do not pUnish

me, so that (or lest) I perish; \l*jd\ J| ULuCf it Z^S\

*A^dxi ^LDl J I il: \ "- ; *j 0 God, hand us not over to
ourselves, lest we be too feeble {for the charge), nor to
(pther) men, lest we perish ; w ^JuajU ilLo J oJLl, #>0w/<!/
M<7^ / /<</ money, that I might give part of it away in
alms; juJ! ,-*iA>Li tjj| Ju\ Jje, is Ztf / //offa?, that I
can go to him ( = tell me whether Z. is at home, so that
22 Pari Third. Synlax.

&c.)? d^d^ &s Uc 'ya yja $\ rtydf ^TG, Oson

of the noble, will thou not dram near, that thou mayest see
what they have told thee? Sp^l falSJ ^.^ $, sentence
is notpassed upon them, so that they die; UjJ.sv.Xi lioli li,
thou dost not come to us to tell us something; xDt IjLsS-
aiaAiBuo, ya up to him that he may sod it.
5) By y when the governed verb expresses an act
subordinate to, but simultaneous with, the act expressed by
the previous clause; as: .iii* ^3li: (jli J^ iXS $, fo
o/ restrain (others) from any habit, whilst you yourself
practise one like it; ^jj\ CyLij &^Ll? dS\j J*, <fo ye*
/ /&A ff//rf dr/>/ / / the same time? The Arab gram
marians call 'y thus used, I*i3f j5 or ^1^, <* warn

of simuttaneousness, and explain it by ,1 IT.

6) By yf when it is equivalent either to J, I ill, -

few tfrf, or to ^f jf or ^ti, */// iforf; as: IjKJ? AjjSS
I*-Lj y, / wia certainly kill the unbeliever, unless he be
comes a Muslim; ^ iS^LS '*\ 3&3% I will stick
to you till you give me my due; if JJLll? ^]ULju3
j^iJl dj<>f, / aw7/ fow/ everything difficult easy, until I at
om my wishes. In the former case, the preceding act is to
be conceived as taking place but once and as momentary;
in the latter, as repeated and continued.

") By (jM or \'<s\, in that case, well then, when this

particle commences a clause expressing the result or effect of
a previous statement, provided thai (he verb in the subordinate
2. The Moods. 23

clause refers lo a really future time, and (hat it is in imme

diate juxtaposition to ^at, or, at least, separated from it only
by the negative if or by an asseveration. For example, one
may say : !t\ *iJLijl bf, / will come to you tomorrow, and
the reply may be: dlo^l ^b\, well then, I will treat you

fPtVA respect, or, dCe^l xIJI: ^ot, v?ff to, by God, I

# <$-c, or vJHa^I S ^j3I, well then, I will not insult you.
If the particle : be prefixed to J.<M, (he verb may be put
in the indicative as well as the subjunctive, e. g. iLc^l J,5t;.
but if any of the other conditions specified above be
violated, the indicative alone can be used: e. g. dlLa.1, /
am fond of you, Ls\>L^> dilsl {jj\, well, 1 think you speak
the truth (where the verb refers to present, and not to fu
ture, lime); or I JJC *A\, I shall visit Z'eid, ile'Jo Jo) J>iSt

well then, Z'eid will treat you teith respect (where Joi se
parates ^$1 from the verb).
Rem. Owing to the Hebrew having lost the final vowels of the
imperfect, the form which it employs after such particles as >3, ~;tJfi< ,
tt/'C'T, ~\Z'H |J/,i jC, 4c, can no longer be distinguished from that
which expresses the indicative. Sec Gesenius' Gr. . 125, 3, a. The
same remark applies to the Syriac; but the Elhiopic makes a distinc
tion, using, for example, the form JiilQ'. yenager (root HZ, '. nagara,
lo speak) for the indicative, and JJ'J'SC: yenger for the subjunctive.
See Dillmann's Gr. . 90.

16. Since, in Arabic, the subjunctive is governed only

by the conjunction ^1, that, and other conjunctions thai have
4 Pari Third. Syntax.

the meaning of \\, the indicative must be used in all other

subordinate clauses, whether they be dependent upon a con
junctive or relative word, or simply annexed to an undefined
substantive; as: JlTI U ^jUatl, he gave me what I was to

eat; C*ffjo :\->! <<)Ju il, he does not know where heis to go;

gardens, to dwelt in them for ever. In such sentences the

Arabic language does not distinguish the intention from the
effect. Hence the first example may also be translated: he
gave me what I ate {at that time), or what I am (now) eat
ing, or what I shall (hereafter) eat; the second: where he
is going or will go ; the third : in which they shall dwell
for ever.
17. The Jussive, connected with the imperative
both in form and signification, implies an order. It is
1) With the particle J prefixed (which is very rarely
omitted, except perhaps in poetry), instead of the imperative;
as: ajcI yb c3J^' I** the possessor of wealth lay out (mo-

ney)> (jj*^Jl fcSll, let those that fear God, arise. If the
particle j or J be prefixed to J, as is often the case, then
J loses its vowel; as: lZAxJ'^ *uJi wixila. ^ ii>J^ J^l
I Jk5" 4ju" J^c, if anything happens to me, let it be sold
and (the proceeds) divided in such and such a way ; t>!>! jjjc
iLJI kiTuili ilLL liX \lj^ ii)l> ^\, tvhoever wishes
to give up (the study of) this science of ours for a time,
2. The Moods. 25

let him do so now. II is the third person of the jussive that

is most used in this way.
2) After the particle $, not, in connection with which
it expresses a prohibition or a wish that something may not
be done; as: [Six aJJI ^ J,C^ S, be not grieved, for God
trith us; jJLw JJii Lo ydiiju SI, r/o o/ r<?tf& through
what Sad has done.
3) In the protasis and apodosis of correlative conditional
clauses, that depend upon ^1 or any particle having the sense
of J.\ (. 6). It stands in the protasis, when the verb is
neither a perfect, nor an imperfect preceded by r&, but a
simple imperfect; and in the apodosis, when the verb is like
wise a simple imperfect, and not separated from the protasis
by the conjunction o (for if this latter be the case, the in
dicative must be used). For example: I5^Jui ^ Li \Jl J,l
aJUf &*Juu s.JuJ .1, whether you conceal what is in your
breasts, or disclose it, God will know it; jjS*. "^ |JLxaS Li
xJUl a+Xiu , whatever good you do, God will know it; ULl
*zjllJ\ ivXJ^Jo VM*"*' WMerever yu are> death will over-
lake you; iSLi (^J***i xJ>li IJIilaS ^1, if ye do it, it is a
trespass (against Gods law) of which ye make yourselves
guilty ; xjjX j, xJ ix5 V?-5M 61 Ju~> ^ {jS, who
soever chooses the tillage of the life to come, to him will
we give an ample increase in his tillage; I ,** JJii lV*j ,j'
JlaS* \jo jJ, if he steals, (why,) a brother of his has stolen
before; ULsi oli $3 sjLj }*+?. (jSo> whosoever believes
in his Lord, will dread no evil. The jussive also stands
v. ii 4
26 Part Third. Syntax.

in the apodosis, when (he protasis contains a verb in the

imperative; as: UQJo ^ji' bus J^a, live contented and you

will be a king ; ^tXJpu o^l iS'iX^Ju l*sjl, ^ faithful to

your engagement, and I will be faithful to mine. The
jussive is used in a protasis that is dependent upon Jjl,
&c., because, when anything is supposed or assumed, an
order is, as it were, made that it be given or take place.
That this is the correct account of the matter, is evident
from the fact of the jussive being employed in the apodosis
as well of an imperative as of a conditional protasis. The
use of the jussive in the apodosis, again, has for its reason,
that, when a thing takes place or is assumed, whatever de
pends upon it takes place or is assumed at the same time;
and, consequently, when the one thing is ordered, the other
too seems to be ordered at the same time.
Rem. The Hebrew cannot, owing to the loss of the final vowels,
distinguish in every case the jussive from the indicative and subjunc
tive ; but the shortened form of the imperfect, wherever it exists, is the
proper one to be used in all the above cases. See Gesenius' Gr. .
126, 2. It has, however, no particle corresponditig to J, and uses ?K
in certain cases instead of fcO (Si); see Gesenius' Gr. . 125, 3, c.
The Ethiopic employs the shorter form of the imperfect, JBllCi yenger,
to express the jussive as well as the subjunctive (sec . 15, rem.), and
often prefixes to it the particle A : la = J. See Dillmann's Gr. .
90, . 169, 7, and . 197, (the second paragraph).

18. The jussive is also used after the particles l, not,

and U, not yet (compounded of Li and the &/wJJI Lo,
2. The Moods. 27

7); e. g. JjSfy *A^lf\ jjj, 'J ijj? ^f p& fi,

dost thou not know, that God's is the sovereignty over the
heavens and the earth? olj^c I J. Jo LJ, they have not
yet tasted my punishment; &tl^ ^j+JJ 06% Cjl I jjc|, is
this so, and we have not yet been (or ere we have been)
parted an hour? The verb after f and lJ has, however,
only the form, not (he signification, of the jussive, and their
efTect upon the following imperfect seems to be similar to
that which the Hebrew waw consecutivum (.1) exercises upon
the imperfect annexed to it.
Rem. If Ihe parlicle Ij be followed by iwo or more imperfecls,
of which the second depends upon the firsl, the third upon the second,
and so on, then, of course, Ihe firsl alone is put in Ihe jussive ; e. g.
aj.mO oju il)-J i*J> '(t' d*d Kot know (how) to swim. See . 12
and . 8, e.

19. The Energetic of the imperfect is used:

1) With the particle J , truly, surely, prefixed to it, both
in simple asseverations and in those that are strengthened
by an oath; as: ClCI, l^Sc^JJ Uui I^Jucla. (TjJtX-M,
those who have /ought in our (holy) cause, we will surely
guide in our paths; 1+Sl jjj^ they shall surely sec hell-

fire; /jjyoG ^ssuuLJ JuJLf Uc, verily within a short time

they shall repent it; i_ji>^l ItXff **i *XX>Oj5l JU!j, by

God! I will leach you manners di/Jereiu' from these;
C)tl1^\ LQiijky db'yxji, then, by thy glory, I will surely
lead them all astray.
28 Part Third. Syntax.

2) In commands or prohibitions wishes and questions;

as: (j^Luuo |UiU S\ ^y^ Sf, do not die before you have
become (or without having become) Muslims; _lia*lS AjjJ,
O' c. 6
wrf //tf yo wow/rf om back! JUyiS ill, % <#rf yow
#0/ >/ down?
3) In the apodosis of correlative conditional clauses, in
which case J is prefixed to the protasis as well as to the
apodosis; as: ^u^ u^i^'j c;!^*-*J! (3JI&. ,jjc *^jU ^j^}
aJUl ^Py^iy r^'5 j*fci*wJl, </ if thou askesl them, Who
created the heavens and the earth and obliged the sun and
moon to serve him? verily they will say, God; xG p ^1)
jLyaUJb LjlLIoJ, verily, if he does not refrain, me will seize
and dray him by the forelock.
4) In the protasis of a sentence after Lof (= Lo ,jl)
>/ ; as: /^*i ^t^ ,5*2 i**-*^.^? wLi !**=> I g*j" IJaAff!

I^lJLc vjli. SLi i^tiX*0 (iv^' ^ y rfo/0 from it (Para

dise), <7# of you ; and if there shall (hereafter) come unto
you a direction from me, then whosoever shall follow my
direction, on them no fear shall come ; v_>^i.| ; ^iisi-< \J>\S
^iiC Cr lay ol&J, and if you capture them in battle,
put to flight, by (making an example of) them, those who
are behind them.

Rem. On corresponding1 uses of the Hebrew energetic or cohor-

talive, see Gesenius' Gr. . 126.

20. No negative particle can be placed before the im

perative, and, consequently, when a prohibition is uttered,
3. The Government of the Verb. 29

the jussive must be used; as: & Jcoju ^ O-Zrfr* o-*l

X*jbH J,! o^JLi.N|, remain two months, and be not in a
/mfe / run from one 'imam to another. The energetic
forms of the imperative serve to increase its force; as:
jjj^ol xJUU, strike, by God! wojuLs yi-oiJ! Jj.fe ^1 {j^xl,
learn that length of life is a punishment or torment
(^_*j Juu in rhyme lor v_^ Juu); aLo^-oiff J jus Uj J ib~JUI
(Sj'U I giTf-^vyj t glory belongs to God {alone), as an attribute
peculiar to him; therefore leap thyself afar from it, andfear him.
Rem. The same remarks apply to the imperative and its length
ened form in Hebrew.

3. The Government of the Verb.

21. The verb may govern either a) the accusative of

a noun, or b) a preposition with the genitive of a noun,
which takes the place of the accusative and gives greater
precision and accuracy to the expression. This govern
ment is not restricted to (he finite lenses of the verb, but
extends to the nomen verbi or actionis, the nomina agentis
and patientis, and other verbal substantives and adjectives,
whenever and in so far as these different kinds of nouns
contain somewhat of the conception or nature of the verb.
The verb, too, need not necessarily be expressed; it may
be understood, or it may lie concealed, as it were, in a par
ticle that has a verbal force.
30 Pari Third. Syntax.

a. The Accusative.
22. The verb governs the accusative of the noun -
which we may call the determinative case of the verb or the
adverbial case (see Vol. I. . 364) either
1) as an objective complement (determinans), i. e. as that
which, by assigning its object, limits and restricts the act; or
2) as an adverbial complement in a stricter sense, in
dicating various limitations of the verb, which are expressed
in non-Shemilic languages by adverbs, prepositions with
their respective cases, conjunctive clauses, or (as in the Sla
vonic languages) by the instrumental' case.
23. Most transitive verbs take the objective complement
in the accusative, though a considerable number of them are
connected with the object by means of a preposition. Not
a few are construed in both ways with a variety of signi
fication, and different prepositions may sometimes be joined
to the same verb with a difference of meaning; e. g. sit 5,
he called him; Ijdo tJ [13 , he prayed that he might re-*
ceive something as a blessing; juic Le5, he cursed him.
In other cases a transitive verb may be construed indiffe
rently with the accusative or with a preposition and the ge
nitive, the former being the older and more vigorous, the
latter the younger and feebler construction; e. g. J^le, to
adhere to, to attach oneself to, and \^si, to adhere to,
to overtake, are construed indifferently with the accusative
of the person or with i_> and the genitive. More rarely the
converse is the case, the accusative being the later and less
correct construction; e. g. 6~^i, to have finished, to be done
3. The Government of ihe Verb. 31

with, is construed with yo, and LUL^I, to have need of,

to be in want of, with \\, whereas in modern Arabic both
take the accusative.
Rem. a. Transitive verbs are called by the Arab grammarians
lbjJtJI JLai^Hi and they designate by this name not only
those verbs that govern their object in the accusative, but also those
that connect themselves with it by means of a preposition. The for-
-- ttl^t '" m --.-J6"0 ' ^O^"'
mer are distinguished as Lg*ji3u JbtXxJuJI JLiibll, the verbs
that pass on (to an object) through themselves (and not by help of a
preposition), and Ihe latter as UCwAJu SjJutXt H Jixi^, the verbs
that pass on (to an object) through something else than themselves (viz.
L>. O-i , through a preposition). For example, ijG , to reach, to
arrive (of a message, &c), is a x-^iij AxXjo <yxi, because we say
jiiM iiJLs > the news reached me ; but Jo, to have power, to
/<( able , is a jJb JjtjJo Jjts, because it is construed with ^e.

and we say e ^i, Jk Jkj' , he was able to do something.

Rem. b. Only careful study and the use of the dictionary can
teach the learner whether a verb is construed with the accusative, or
with a preposition, or with both ; and, if more than one conslruclion
be admissible, what are the different meanings that the verb assumes.
Here we merely remark that verbs signifying to come, which are con
strued in Latin and English with prepositions, admit in Arabic also the
accusative; as: ycLfc Lit Li, Amir came to us; oil.!, r. LjwiJl .jt

yejill jLki'l ^yc ^ojj'Lj IwJC'I, strangers and the sons of

noblemen come to me from (all) quarters of the earth (compare in He
brew K2 with the accusative; e. g Ps. 100, 4; Prov. 2, 19; Lament.
32 Part Third. Syntax.

1, 10). Hence these verbs have in Arabic a personal passive, so tiial

we may say g ^o -i't , lit. he was come to with a thing, i. e. it
O ' J. -*
was brought to lum, the active construction being g ,ij sLi'l .
came to him with a thing, i. e. he brought it to him.

24. Many verbs take two objective complements in the

accusative, either both of the person, or both of the thing,
or the one of the person and the other of the thing.
These verbs form two classes, according to the relation of
their objects to one another; the first class consisting of
those whose objects are different from, and in no way con
nected with, one another, the second of those whose objects
stand to one another in the relation of subject and predi
cate. d) To the first class belong all causatives of the
second and fourth verbal forms (Vol. I. . 41 and 45), whose
ground-form is transitive and governs an accusative, as also
verbs that signify to fill or satisfy, give, deprive, forbid, ask,
entreat, and the like, the most of which have likewise a
causative meaning. For example: ys)b\ {uXa\, he informed
me of the thing (lit. he made me know it); IJLc x*jLc
iGLgJl, he taught him the science of astronomy ; |Ju o^.j
*>.\ SjoI, I gave Z'cid my brother's daughter in marriage;
tLe JjJI iLo, he filled the bucket with water; L*i
he let him eat as much bread as he could (lyxi*. ^i he
ale as much bread as he could); \JlLmJ\ &+xic\, he let him
taste the sword (ran him through with it); I~J> ljuv IpH
Zjoy+jjjo, they gave Zeid poisoned wine to drink ; sllat!
oLiXJI, he gave him the book; yjjjj JJl *3\y, God gave
3. The Governmenl or Ihe Verb. 33

him his life; /TvU-" s^j* he ffave him m1^' In abundance;

lyui ^jjuiif, he recited a poem to me; iy*M JU| L><Xe:
jojoill, 6W has promised us everlasting life; aLU! ajoli.
*Jjl!I fo, God has deprived him of the blessing of learning;

Cl'I *_>!j^c. Hi', preserve us from the punishment of hell-fire

(,j imperative of ^, Vol. I. . 178); ybL'l iif! ^!t,
<w pardon of God. b) To the second class belong 1)
verbs that mean to make, appoint, call, name, and (lie like;
and 2) (hose verbs which are called by (he Arab gram-
marians ^iJut Jliil, verbs of the heart, i. e. which signify
an act (hat takes place in the mind, or viULMr ^j-uui! JL*if,

twfo 0/ certainty and doubt (such as ^L , to think, lie ,

to know , Ju>, to /??, to perceive, (cTS, to know; Jli.,
to think, to imagine, ^Jc , to think , to believe, C*.*^, to
M///, to reckon, lev, to //</, to </m, J^t, to count,
to reckon, and Ci, to ///////:, to imagine). For example:
Lilyi ij6)^! *XJ Juto., /; ^ff/// 7r/<? Mr <w//< a bed for you;
l,\il /TwJoJI "i't^j I have made the clay into a jug ;
iLJ^. f*?j-?' aJUl iXiif, Corf co.yt' Abraham for a friend;

ijC^s? xj'lti, / fff&v/ Awi Mohammed ; IaJju ^l^ o^I*-

JGuJ! ^3-?v^ *JliJi, I named my book, The Instruction
0/ //< Learner in the Path of Learning ; ^bcls.. IJo\ o-JLc,

/ know Zcid is 'a fool; Jbu-M ^jj. (J^il (3^-1 col. ,

/ think the duty we owe to a teacher the greatest of
duties; bL<! aJU| <^ua IjAaS ^- JJI l^*-*=^ ^> <to not deem
V. H. 5
34 Part Third. Syntax.

those dead who have been slain in the path of God (i. e.
for the sake of their religion); UjtliCsu-i xOidS?.!, Tfound

him a mild for gentle) old man; X^SLi &iLJ! ^t\ Lo,
/ do not think that the hour (ofjudgment) is at hand.

Rem. a. Of the two objective complements, that which is the

subject is called J.^M J^jlo+JI , the first object, and the other,
or predicate, .-iUL't J **+.'(, the second object.

Rem. 6. When verbs like^U and Jkl=i are mere fZ>jL\ Jlxil
or tvrfo of sense, i. e. express nothing but acts of the external
organs of sense, they may still be connected with two
accusatives , but the second accusative is no longer a
^L-j JyiJut or second object, but a JI&. or circumstantial
accusative, i. c. an accusative expressing a stale or condition of
the object in actual connection with those acts; e. g.
Ul-Li JUolj, /.saw yow sleeping; LxLswC *j'jc=.. / found him
sick (in a slate of sleep, of sickness). The learner will
observe that, in these and similar phrases, ,gL and <_V=- may often
be translated by (he very same words, whclher they are
>_JLiiJI Jl*i! or (Juil jlisl; but, in the laller case, the
object is merely the individual, apart from any predicate , whereas,
in the former, it is Ihe logical proposition you were asleep,
he was sick, thai is lo say, the individual as the possessor of
this quality.

Rem. c. The fourth form of Ihe s_>JUiJl Jliil governs

three accusatives; e. g. Kaaa.V *Xl'Uxf Joj, he will

3. The Govcrnmenl of the Verb. 35

make you think your actions bad , or he will show you that your
actions are bad.

Rem. d. The (_^jLftJl Jutsl niay also be construed so as

lo exercise no grammatical influence upon the clause that is imme
diately dependent upon them. This happens 1) when the verb
is inserted parenthetically, as: J\o> ouUJa Jo\, Zeid is, I think
(or as I think) , a fool; 2) when it is placed at the beginning of the
sentence, but the dependent clause is either negative, or interro
gative, or else an affirmative clause introduced by the parlicle
J, truly; a. g. yesjM 3 JujUaJ U*^ Lo ,vA, ye Atuw we

are o< eowie <o work evil on the earth ; % L> * ,? 'I e/-Xc Lo',

rfo you not know which of them has come? ^s ^Sa .J I Ij,

1 did not know when he would come ; *jLi* Jo>J oJLQb ,

/ fAtnA Z?i'</ is standing up. In the last example ^SLi Joy is
virtually in the accusative, for if another object be added, without
the particle J being prefixed lo it , it is put in the accusative;
e. g. I 'iXiaJuO I-, 1 f -~ iv^L: Jo J oCm-Ss. I think Zeid is
standing up and Amr going away. In modern Arabic the parlicle
^t is interposed between the v_^JLftJI JJii and a dependent in-

terrogalivc clause ; as : *L&. *_j! nil 04-Lc Lo; ,-iio j( *\ *j

l~k; po Lo ^Sl <!,! Sty j^Io ,j! Jo y, it must be first

explained rvhat the noun is.

Rem. e. In reference to the first class of the verbs thai govern two
accusatives , see Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 136 ,1,2 (in connection
with . 135 , in particular, paragraph 3) ; and in reference to the
36 Part Third. Syntax.

first division of the second class, . 136, 2, the second


25. If (he verbs of (he (wo classes mentioned in . 24.

are put in the passive voice, one of (he two accusatives
becomes (he nominative. In the case of (he first class,
it is (he accusative of (he person ; e. g. jL-xgJj *-l? *A* ,

//<? ?/v7s taught the science of astronomy ; oLuUl *xisl, A

* /</<? to ta.v& the sword (was slabbed with it) ;
Lc+^Jc ^Ci tJ)^-'I ic*^ poisoned water was given to (he
// & drink; j+x}\ .jv, , ///l' ?w granted him; ^Juiof
Sylii lC*4 a poem by another (author) was recited to me;
|JLJ! loo [>=>. * '** deprived of the blessing of know
ledge. Should it happen that both accusatives are accu
satives of (he person, (hat which is next to (he verb
becomes (lie nominative; as: *.! ju| jo\ _.\, my brother's
daughter ?vas given in marriage to Zcid. If both are accu
satives of the (hing, thai one becomes (he nominative which
designates the thing that is affected by, or receives or passes
into the other, or the reverse; as: *U> JjJl \^*Xxi,
the bucket was filled nilh water. In the case of the second
class, that accusative which is the subject of the other be
comes the nominative; e. g. 13-0 \j*yi\ Jd oJt*., the
earth has been made a bed for you; UuJIt ^w^iaJl j*^o> the
& * ** 9 9
clay has been made into a jug; lif.jc| L*^s> , they are
deemed dead.
Rem. a. As the verb ^>|, to come, is construed with the
3. The Government or the Verb. 37

accusative of the person (. 23, rem. b), its fourth form ( Jj\)
becomes doubly transitive, and takes an accusative both of the
person and of the thing; e. g. J>l3cM Juoll*J (5^J ^Jvy* ,3't>
Moses brought the {holy) book to the children of Israel (lit. made
it come to them). Now, as this accusative of the thing is the
nearer object of Ji\, we should expect it to become the nomi-
native when the verb passes into the passive ( li'.l); but the
reverse is the case, because the person is of greater importance than
the tiling. We say therefore <->ujO) JkAj|~wt y<i ^'.1 ,
the (holy) book was brought to the children of Israel, and not

Rem. b. If the verb should happen to govern three accu

satives in the active voice (. 24, rem. c), that which is next
to the verb becomes the nominative to the passive; c. g.
iLa->wc . '.I^xJLj jyJ iwiumj, / ra* informed (that) Leila is

sick in el- Irak ; \JuS ^aja*.| lit, when thou art told (that)
I am sick.

Rem. c. On the Hebrew construction , see Gcscnius' Gr.

. 140, 1.

26. AH verbs, whether transitive or intransitive, active

or passive, may take their own abstract nouns (nomina
verbi, vol. I. . 195), as also the Yleverbal nouns of the
classes nomina vicis and nomina speciei (vol. I. . 193,
219, 220), as objective complements in the accusative.
This may be the case either when they have no other ob
jective complement or complements, or when they have
38 Pari Third. Synlax.

one or more; and the verbal noun may either stand alone,
or it may be connected with an adjective or demonstrative
pronoun, a noun in the genitive , or a descriptive or relative
clause. For example: Ll<3 ow , lit- he struck a striking;
Lcyi 1U, he slept a sleep; \^L TL1 , he journeyed a journey ;
GLi u*i, lit. he was struck (with) a striking , or, im
personally, there was struck a striking; Ll*i ^Jjye, lit.
I was struck (with) a striking ; (JLl Cw, lit. there was jour
neyed a journey; ^jIxSLS (5Jbl^ juw5 -*j^, /
struck him one stroke and he struck me two (^jjol^j ^>y&
would mean he struck me on two different occasions , without
specifying the number of blows he gave); >L& *uL>S6,
sJjlIc ,_JUjlJjj, I gave him a particular sort of stroke and he
gave me a particular kind of thrust; ZyA 'CJU ljuv <S>'y*
lit. he struck Zeid (as to) his head (with) a striking;
ljuiXi Ljjli *>ye, or, omitting (he nomen verbi,
(jo<X sjjLa, I gave him a violent beating;*

iLUa ^-f (5<*"0> he walked (with) a graceful gait;

Vr"*-' fjje i^y6' ne beat me in this manner, lit.

(////) //ms beating; v^>!J| ^La *u^ , he beat him to death;

^jllil sSyL*. vjLL., he feared as a coward fears; ^ty*

*) The undetermined object in such phrases as Ijojui Jo^i

may , hojvever , where Ihc sense allows or requires it, assume a more dc-
finilc meaning, and be viewed as an accusative oltime; e. u. iL)Jb l.>L
* ~ * -''-
may be translated (foy travelled a long time , scil. ikj^b uLc \.
3. The Governmenl of the Verb. 39

;?-C.I \->yj&, he beat me so as to hurt vie much, lit. he beat

?<? beating thatpained me; eJJLJLc- ^giis; il -5t)Jf ^-iJf^-Jo-^,
^<? ^r<7 me a good beating , as you know well, lit. he beat me
the beating which is not concealed from you. This objective
complement, which is called by the Arab grammarians
(jjlU,H JJijLJ!, w* absolute object* or jLaJl (see Vol. I.
. 195, rem.), is used in the two following ways.

1) When it stands alone and undefined, it is used

tXjJucU, for strengthening, or *jb\%l\$, for magnifying,

i. e. to add greater force to the verb; e. g. SHCJv \j>yb\ o*J>J) 131 ,

when the earth shall tremble a trembling (but what a tremb-
ling!), i. e. shall tremble violently; LL u;^l '*) '3'
Luj jUil ounuj, >/</? /ta ^ffrM *///7// fo? shaken with a
shaking (i. e. shaken violently) , and the mountains shattered
awM a shattering (i. e. shattered to atoms); Li, jucULe yd,,
fo crushed his bones with a crushing (i. e. cruslied them to
pieces). This signification lies in the indefinileness of the
verbal noun, which leaves the verbal idea quite unlimited in
its force and effect

2) When it is connected with an adjective or demon

strative pronoun, a genitive, or a descriptive or relative
clause (see the examples given above), it defines and limits
the verbal idea by an addition which is expressed in our

*) Because it does not , like the object in a narrower sense , depend

only upon a verb that governs one, two, or three accusatives in the active
voice, or one or two accusatives in the passive.
40 Part Third. Syntax.

family of languages by means of an adverb or a relative

If the (jJLW! JyuiJ! be a nomen vicis, it is used
olJjLiJU, for enumeration<; and if it be a nomen speciei, or
liave an adjective, &c, connected with it, it is used
clljj, to indicate the kind, for specification, or y^jcJJ,
for distinction.
Rem. a. Instead of the nomen verbi of the same finite verb,
that of another verb of the same meaning, or else a concrete sub-
, > -
slanlive, is sometimes employed; as: li>.w_? ,uJL>., lit. he sat a
sitting; tJLtjJi, i+iC& 'vV^'> they fled a shameful flight.
Rem. b. The accusative of the nomen verbi remains, as we have
seen, unchanged, when the active voice, on which it depends,
passes into the passive. It may, however, be changed into the no-
8 o - -
minalive, when there is no oilier subject, as ijj-o u*i a
striking was struck, a form of expression that corresponds to the im
personal passive of our languages. When the accusative is
employed, the verb is impersonal; when the nominative, it is

Rem. c. Compare the uses of the Hebrew infinitives 7lt2p and

^bp as explained in Gcscnius' Gr. . 128, 129, and see also
. 135 , 1 , rem. 1.
27. It has been mentioned above (. 21), that the
nomina verbi derived from verbs that govern an objective
complement in the accusative, may be construed in the
same way as the finite verbs themselves. We shall here
enter into some further details on this point.
3. The Government of the Verb. 41

1) If only Hie objective complement of the act, (and

not likewise its subject,) be expressed, it is put after the
nomen actionis in the genitive*; unless it be separated from
the nomen actionis by one or more words, in which case it
is put in the accusative, because the genitive can never be
parted from the word that governs it. For example:
xJUl *lci> Jj^ ^jLIjSI ALS S, let a human being never
get tired of calling upon (or praying to) God; ^ JJtJst
Uaaj' sjJuJjo <5;> ->, to give an orphan food in time of
famine; ..Li" J^i> o^uJIj v-r^?j by cutting off with swords
the heads of some people. In like manner, the object is put
in the accusative, when the nomen actionis is defined by
the article, because a noun, when so defined, cannot take
a genitive after it; as: s^LV-cl jolXul \J+x*6, feeble in

harming his enemies ; \jiJLa uJitl ^e. JJol *J , I did not

desist from striking Mismd .
Rem. On the Hebrew construction, see Gesenius' Gr. . 130,
1, along with the note f.
2) If both the subject and the objective complement of
the act be expressed, three constructions are permitted.
a) The subject may be put in the genitive, and the objec-
tive complement in the accusative; as: lytto. *JuJ.\ Jui" ^\S
&LJI a jus , in this year the chalifput Gafar to death (lit.
the chalifs killing G. was in this year) ; JfSdS aJUl IjjJOl
*5*ul , think on God as ye think on your fathers, b) The

*) This is called the objective genitive, to distinguish it from

the subjective genitive or that which designates the subject of the act.
v. II. 6
4$ Part Third. Syntax.

objective complement may be put in the genitive and the

subject in the nominative; asrjjCoZ/l ^1X1 fill!! L.^ I4HL
.yj'tXJt Juj, the wind of annihilation swept them away, as
the hand of the west wind sweeps away the sands; UcljJ kVi

feet scatter the gravel every midday, as the money-changers

scatter the dirhems whilst selecting them; &J\ J*LJ| *Ii
uJuuLj tXa.| x*IbLs? ^jjo, /' gave orders to the entire
people against any one's addressing him by the title of our
Lord' (cl nuestro Cid). c) The subject may be put in the
nominative and the objective complement in the accusative;
as: |jJL JuC J^CM (JjyUajT ^yiiJo, / have heard that Zeid
has today divorced Hind; slil J^laff' JkJLfiJf .-iiJo , / &M><*
heard that Mahmud has murdered his brother; Xia2i\ jV^I
|t^i tvct jtf ***i! |1j , / ' surprised at Mohammed's ex

pecting 'Amr on Friday. The first of these three constructions

is the most usual. The second is pretty common , especially
when the objective complement is a pronoun. The third,
in which the nomen aclionis may be accompanied by the
article, or by a specification of the time or place of the
act in the genitive, is of comparatively rare occurrence.
Rem. a. If both the subject and the objective complement
be pronouns, they may both be suffixed to the nomen aclionis; e. g.
.! ~.jjj{ -A^JLt a; ~~ , my love of him has taught me to be reli
gious. Here the suffix of the first person is the subject, and that of
the third person the accusative.*
2 - s * > 1>
*) ,_^&. is, strictly speaking1, an .Joa^o **!, and not an actual
3. The Government of the Verb. 43

Rem. b. Nol only the nomina actionis, but also those nouns
that are of similar force and signification, and which consequently
can supply the place of the former, may be construed with the genitive
of the subject and the accusative of the object. For example:
rt a :* lVh>" IwC'I db'^uou, through thy associating with the
noble, thou art reckoned one of them (Sj** = Swiuuo); .j.*
f _o l| &a^V> J^ Jl &JLo, ablution is (rendered neeessary)

fy/ a mans kissing his wife (&JCo:=:JkJuj) ; iuLJt dLjliai. jJui

LcU'JI, anrf after thy giving the hundred grazing (camels)
(%\ Ur=glCrl: LftLilJf in rhyme for cQlj|j.

Rem. c. What has been said of the nomina actionis of singly

transitive verbs, applies equally to those of doubly transitive verbs.
The only difference is, that the latter take an accusative after the ob
jective genitive, or even add a second accusative to the first. For
example: aJulaJI ioj-Js amTSi H aa^w'i <** instruction of the

learner in the path of learning; JLaLJI .JjuJI ^.IhY

*^ a"* * a " a
rt | b pi ^SjJs, the teacher's instructing the learner Sfc; ,wLu| .jf
I ", , i Lv L t (V t-& .1 f I- 1 IjjfiwS , (At' people have con

demned Mohammed's giving Anir poisoned bread to eat.

Rem. d. The complement in the genitive may also be express

ed, when it represents the subject of the act, by J*.*; when it re
presents the object, by J (see . 29); and when it indicates time

or place, by ; e. g. ju^a. , in rem. a, by *J ^ix (J^Gll) v_**l,

.JJojo (see . 26); but it is used, instead of v_>li-Lt, as the

; a -* a . ' ' *
masdar of v_*^l (W- of ._ -^ ), to love. See rem. J.
44 Pari Third. Syntax.

**? -- 8
the love (that accrues) from me to him ; *jjj| Jo JLoZJt ZaL,

. in . 27, 2, by JjJZXi rfdJS Jo"^ QuJl, and JL%iJ

juui! -jj, ibid.,by Xiiif -^j^ .LtiAJ^I.

Rem. e. On the corresponding- constructions in Hebrew, see

Gesenius' Gr. . 130.

28. In the case of verbs that govern llieir objective

complement by means of a preposition, the nomen actionis
retains that preposition; e. g. Al'o _Jlc 8% Jo* ,1 Le, I have

no power to do this , from l Ji iLjji. The same thing

holds good in the case of mixed government, the nearer
object or accusative being converted into the genitive, and
the more remote retaining its preposition; e. g. i&^'Ji
SxUaJU ,jUo!ii|, man's being helped {by God) to obey {him).
Occasionally, however, the closer connection by means of
the genitive is substituted for the looser construction with
a preposition; e. g. *5Ll,5ft Juye, inclination {of the mind)

towards el- islam, for -SkliM It AUf.

29. The nomen actionis often takes its objective com

plement not in the accusative but in the genitive with J,
in which case this preposition is used as an outward expo
nent of the relation that subsists between the nomen verbi
and its object. Hence the Arab grammarians rightly call it
j\jcIju| Juy&J. *SLf|, the lam that strengthens the regent (the
nomen actionis or the verbal power that it possesses); for,
since the verbal force lliat dwells in the nomen aclionis
3. The Government of the Verb. 45

is less than that in the finite verb, the language helps the
former to exercise its influence upon its object by annexing
to it a preposition expressing the direction of the action to
wards the object. This construction with J is used in the
following cases.
a) When the nomen actionis immediately precedes the
object and is undefined (see . 27, 1); as: JJeU Si. {j*
kjI^oj jjSUfeL, without considering what was false and what
true in it, instead of kTlIi: *Uai.. This is especially the
case when the nomen actionis is in the adverbial accusative
(see . 44); as: ^b\5JL% C*l3 *J iJl, / stand up in his
presence to shew respect to my teacher, instead of Ua%*5
^ilill; ^CclJHdLto J IS" Uil, he said this only to do him

honour, instead of sLt Letjft.

b) When the nomen actionis immediately precedes the
object, and is defined by the article (see . 27, 1); as:
U-liJU xllUaJ! djj' , the giving up ofpersecuting the people.
c) When the genitive of the subject is interposed be
tween the nomen actionis and the object (see . 27, 2);
as: ji*L&l Jul^T ^y Ui u?;^4 ir+^JI &&*> J;'l5*^>
it results, therefore, that the sun warms the earth in no other
way than by his light (lit. that the sun's warming (lie earth
is only by the way of his light), for Ji&j^l; J ^3liXtl xplkj,

because of my enemies' persecuting me, for ^LI;jJj &&>.,

his seeing God; d&c J I iU ^^iUls, my enabling you to
attain your wishes.
46 Pari Third. Synlax.

In such clauses the choice between (he older and

closer construction with the accusative, and the later and
looser with the preposition, is left in most cases to the taste
and judgment of the writer.

Rem. a. In more modern Arabic .11 is often used SjJ&J

JuoLjlH instead of J;' as: juj! ,c\fek>l, "J bearing Aim in mind;
' ' " ,/ "

Vwjl^it jt (i>) , my returning an answer.

Rem. b. This use of J to designate the ebjeclive complement

of the verb is common in Chaldee and Syriac, rare in Hebrew (see
Gesenius' Gr. . 151, 3, e) and Acthiopic (see Dillmann's Gr. . 179).
See .31, rem.

30. The nomina agentis, which hold a middle posi

tion between the verb and the noun, and partake of the
force of both, may, like the nomina verbi, follow the
government either of the verb or the noun, or" of
both. The following rules are to be observed regarding
1) If the nonien agentis has but one objective com
plement, this may be put either in the accusative or in the ge
nitive; as: iLdLl! ^Tj-cJoKlj \lft\t) iUa. Jl \y&XL , hasten
to a garden (Paradise) that is prepared for those who re
strain (their) ivrath; yliJ| XJulo yujd Js', every soul is a
taster of death (tastes or shall taste death); *la. 3jl \jSl
gJjJI, our Lord! thou shall be an assembler of (s/ialt assemble)
mankind; *^j% ysiLc *$>\ &ji& (j^<V> ^'^ think that
they shall be mcelers of (shall meet) their Lord. The no
3. The Government of Ihe Verb. 47

mina agentis of directly transitive verbs admit of being con

strued, in so far as they have verbal power, either with
the accusative or with the genitive, provided they have the
meaning of the c.L^JI or imperfect (historical imperfect,
present, future). As the genitive connexion is in this case
jUiLJiil o, improper or representative (see . 75, rem.),
the governing word may be defined by the article; as:
fi- r ^ ,, s *c O ^ j ^
tjjjj\ Jjli or (^LJI JoU, one who kills people; JoLill
g - . fi- .. " * t , o^ m*
U-UjI or yJjJ\ Jo'ulM, he who kills people, = JjJb ^jJI.
When, on the contrary, the nomina agentis of directly
transitive verbs have the meaning of the perfect (perfect, plu
perfect, aorist, and future perfect), they approach more near
ly to the nature of the noun that originates from them
(as t-AJ'li', writing, a writer), and hence are construed, like this
latter, with the genitive only. Further, since this genitive
connection is sIaaa^. or proper (see . 75, rem.), the go-
verning word cannot be defined by the article; as: Job'
u-UJ! (and not ^-UJt JoUul or yX*}\ JoUdl), one who
killed, has killed, hai killed, or shall have killedpeople , =
Jis ^4XJ' or <M* ij^ (5i^" or <J^* ctf*^ i54r"- The
same remarks naturally apply, when the genitive is a pro
nominal suffix instead of a separate substantive; as:_j^
= ig***^. (X^-Uone who reproaches me, and lS^J^ki\~
, *^ fi^
^uejJL> i<Xl\, he who reproaches me; but he who re-
* Si" <w^>
proached or ^<w reproached me, ^*$ ^JJl, is ^9,
not ^jiUI. If the nomen agentis be undefined, it go
48 Part Third. Syntax.

verns the accusative only in the following cases, a) When

it is the attribute or the predicate of a (usually preceding)
subject, or stands in the accusative to express a state or
condition of that subject (see . 40); e. g. sol oUa Ju\
J Li.1, Zi-id's fa/her (lit. Zeid, his father) is beating (or
will beat) a brother of nunc; x*j| \\J i_^JLJo (wjUu ^yf>
J passed by a horseman {who was) seeking revenge for
the murder of his father ; L/iM UJL^.^i^j*La.,'^;- came
to me seeking instruction, b) After an interrogative or ne
gative particle, when it is the attribute of a preceding or
(less usually) following subject; e. g. |ju\ oo! * JCo Jjc ,

will thou treat Zeid with respect? Z^sSJ* a?Ucj ou! li,

//? fo.v/ not follow their labia; a2U^I ^<Xe <X&.| v*^Lc,
<? <w<? ^Y\y protection to the enemy of his friends,
c) After the interjection G , as the predicate of a suppressed
subject; e. g. }LL^ laAis Lf, 0 Mow that art climbing
a hill!
Rem. a. The nomen a _ en lis in the singular number, when follow
ed by a substantive in the genitive, can take the article only when
that substantive is itself defined by the article or governs another
substantive that is so defined; e. g. <X\*J| i^jvLiM, he mho beats

the slave; jjjut iwuK t_>5LciJl , he who beats the slave an the head
(lit. beats die head of the slave); but we cannot say Julc. <jLiJI,
* * i c r b"- * ' i * iT -" * i e r
nor Ju\ L_>,uaJ|, nor even Jos cUjc. i_5LflJI or scUa i_>LaJ|.
The reason of this seems to be that a certain equipoise may
be preserved between the v_jLi*JI, or governing word, and the
3. The Government of the Verb. 49

juu! oL^+Jl, or governed word. On the other hand , the ar-

tide may be prefixed to the dual or to the pluralis sanus masc,
even when the following' genitive is not defined in either of the
above ways; because, after the rejection of the terminations ^ and

'. (vol. I. . 315, 2, 3), the jLd^Jf and the alJt oUliJi
become more closely connected , and grow, as it were, into one word,
just like the nomen agentis when defined by the article and followed
by a pronominal suffix. Hence we may say Julc Lj>LoJ!,

<XjC ^LdJl, JuC tXlc ysAJkiU (X*x ^LUt, as well as

I Jklc ^GyJkJl,ti>I>j (jju^LdJI, Jj\ JuLe ^j* LiLM, jjjOpLdJl

s JULC.There is even a third form of expression admissible, arising out
of a combination of these two, viz. |Jux UrLaJl, IJo\ JvLaJI,
Juv jiji jjLaJt, sjs-lc -J.UiJI; in which examples the
rejection of the terminations ^ and ~. serves only to indicate the

close logical connection, as in IhephraseftXi^' !._=.( ^jUlH wye^H,

the emir whose two brothers killedMohammed, in which another noun
(sljJa.!) is actually inserted between the nomen agentis in the dual
(ikoUDl) and its accusative (f Jl*s?). When a pronoun is an
nexed as object to the dual or pluralis sanus masc. of a nomen agen
tis that is defined by the article , three forms of expression are like
wise admissible; viz. 1) sG.LUl , so.ULH ; 2) sbl ^jLjLUl

or xj ijLsLlJI, 5U> yj,LoJ! or jj ,jO.LdJ!; and

3) &jG.L2l!|, x3j SJkl\. In the last case the pronoun , though

apparently a nominal suffix in the genitive, is in reality a verbal suffix
in the accusative; and even in the first case, the Arabs regard the

V.1I. 7
50 Part Third. Syntax.

pronominal object as an accusative, and not as a genitive, using j in-

stead of for the 1st pers. sing.; e. g. c<Ui|yiJ| , he who comes
tit ^ o i
to me ; Jjuuuj \m * ' , he is not a too heavy burden for me

jlj JL_cLftJ! >AiLt '*->oiM |f, rt <foy who order what is

right, and who do it themselves.
R em. b. When the nomen agentis is followed by two or more
objects connected by . , it not rarely happens that the first alone is
put in the genitive, and the others in the accusative, the nominal
force of the nomen agentis being converted , because of the distance
of the complements, into the verbal ; as : yd^j {\ja jILc. sLa. _Ax*x,
a seeker after rank and wealth is he who rises up (to travel);
LilLLa. j**}\) (jL*&J!j HCL lJjJL1' $&\JL,hewho appoints
the night for rest, and the sun and moon for the reckoning (of time):
IsojJx.. \<\ nS\ xjLJI v^fctflpl^ of him who gives a hundred
fine white (camels) and their attendant (either UcJyLe.or U&JulC.)-
Rem. c. On the government of the participle in Hebrew, see
Gesenius' Gr. . 132.
2) If the nomen agentis be derived from a verb that
governs two objective complements (. 24), it takes the
second in the accusative, and the first either in the accu
sative (which is by far the more usual) or in the genitive;
e. g. \tsXi C13 ljo\ (j-r/lil, / will dress Zeid in a splen-
did robe; SUlr |J_i ^Uaouljjo, or ibU jJt ^Ib,
fo.s7 thou think 'Amr intelligent?
Rem. a. If (he objective complements of the nomen agentis of a
doubly transitive verb be pronouns , both may be appended to it as
suffixes; e. g. kJCJjjuo , * who gives it to you ; I g'.;,U , A<; who

gives me it to eat.
3. The Government of the Verb. 51

Rem. b. The second of the two complements of a nomen agen-

tis, or that wliich is in the accusative, is very rarely inserted be
tween the nomen agentis and the first complement , or that in the
genitive; e. g. _ U^WI iuLai jLo d !**> whilst others than
you withhold their benefits from the needy; JU! ..jjUmj^ il
xJL. 5iXt oLlisr , <fo no' fAmfc Ma< Corf deceives his apostles
by withholding what he has promised. In the former of these examples,
which is a half-verse of poetry, this construction has been followed in
order to bring the word _UlslJ| into the rhyme; in the latter, which
is taken from the Koran, ch. 14, v. 48, the preferable reading is

31. What has been said in . 29 regarding the use

of the preposition J after nomina verbi is equally applicable
to nomina agentis. a) J is used when the nomen agenlis
immediately precedes the object and is undefined; as:
JU v_*Ajo> making thee wonder; &J aJjls? .l^i. whilst
she avoided him (in which example the undefined nomen
agentis is the predicate of a juili. aUUa. or circumstantial

clause); (jij ll!ll> S USoi p^l ^ 131 ^j^* &4f$,

<?rf artifice is not allowable (in argument), except when
llie opponent is a dogmatical sophist, and not one who seeks
after the truth. This is especially the case when the nomen
agentis is in the adverbial accusative; as: tU?.Xj\ J*& Jyi
LgJ !lsLaf , he halted before the city to besiege it; sjdb JiSi

(^i'liJLJ l%b5 Ll*'^ |*^*-" ' '^* sweetness of knowledge is

a sufficient inducement and enticement to the intelligent.
52 Part ThinJ. Syntax.

b) J is also used when the nomen agentis immediately

precedes the object, and is delined by the article; as:
uyLoill 5c\-$J ^j^ULjl, the expounders of these verses;

*-JajLiJLj S JL^JI &els o)yJU *^Q-' vjli^' (5^'' ^ Per~

form ones devotions properly with reverence is the surest
OT<?ff/w ofprocuring ones daily bread; s^JI JLJ3 JCsaj (JL>^
J^-caJ > C^i'lj , rf fo continued meditating about that thing
which governs the body, c) Finally, J is used when a
genitive is interposed between the nomen agentis and (he
accusative; as: J 1 g t ta * > A ?#/? ^w<? // /o ? to */.
Rem. J must be used instead of the accusalive, when the ob
ject of (he nomen agentis is rhetorically transposed and placed before
it; as: /TvjJoUs Lu t*jl> and tne!/ worshipped us; Qj Co

JwJaiLi. %m*jjJJ, te did not keep the secret; -j.U.I J. gj Li I ,

err% me mitt take care of him; ,*jCe dJ 8;J' *J Lo l^J\,

a man, as long as you do not deprive him of any thing (by asking
for it), treats you with respect. So also with the finite verb:
* ><i^ . *%. . fu\, ... , . , . . ,, ,
-;.., iffV U.JU IXiS ?.\\, if ye can explain the vision. If the

transposed object be a pronominal suffix , Gl (vol. I. . 188, 189)

may be employed instead of J; as: ,.juU*mJ <i)Gl Juljij oGl,
ftatf w<? worship and to thee me cry for help (compare . 29, rem. b,
and vol. I. . 189 , 2).
32. If the verb, from which a nomen patientis is de
rived, governs two accusatives in the active voice, its no
men patientis retains one of them, the other having passed
into the nominative; as: C*jp ijJi -* Ju\, Zeids
3. The Government of Ihe Verb. 53-

servani (lit. Zeid, his servant) is presented with a dirhem.

See . 25.
33. Verbal adjectives of those forms that differ in mean
ing from the nomina agentis only in being intensive,
may govern, like the nomina agentis, either the accusative
or the preposition J. Since, however, their verbal force is
very slight, the latter construction is by far the more usual,
the former being chiefly poetic. This rule applies principally
to the forms Jlii and JJti (vol. I. . 232 and rem. c,
. 233) ; more rarely to other forms, such as JuulJ (. 232),
Juj (id.), and Jul* (. 233, rem c). Examples with the
accusative: LgJSl*. Igllt iLCJ iS^sLl L^.!, inured to (lit
a brother of) warfare, constantly wearing the garments
suited for it; CjliM aJ \J^\^L ypJI J[ CoJJw,
rushing upon death, wading in search of it through the
ranks (CoUdbf in rhyme for ^\j&\)\ uLullI jJal> ^->*y>
^|La.3l ii>Lob , smiting with the edge of the sword (he heads

ofmen;S^kJ> 't^tjJLi 1 jLgjLc Lo! ^JJiXjii , two maidens , (one)

/* ///<?w resembling a new moon (in beauty); .**< xJLJI ^t
Lc5 JiJo *Lc>, 6W tars the prayer of him who calk
upon him; jjyai bl C^c! jjii, taking precautions against
things that cannot injure (him); ,-aJjx ,j*J>y> defaming

(lit. tearing in pieces) my character; \^q&\1j *\^J *j!,ta

w a slaughterer of the fat ones among them (the she-camels).
Examples with J: oJ^JU (jJM v^A-' Oj* '"*"*'' bearers
of falsehood, eaters of what is unlawful; vIlsJ Al<
54 Pari Third. Syntax.

constantly striving to hinder good; v^JjCU Kx-Ua., a great

collector of books; Sfc.

34. Verbal adjectives of tlie form JJiil, correspond

ing to our comparative and superlative (vol. I. . 234),
when derived from transitive verbs, generally take their ob
ject in the genitive with ^, very rarely in the accusative;
e. g. IJCLo (%JLaJLJ x^JUol J, he seeks after knowledge more

than you do; *~Ju ^ *1J v_*s>.! ^yiy^\,thebelieverlovesGod

/flr M# himself; Pv^J l^i&otj |JL*JU ,i>t tVxtj ^llll J-$a.l,

/// was/ ignorant of men, and the most ojtposcd among
them to learning, and the most inimical among them to
the law.

R e m. a. Verbal adjeclives of the form JuLsl, derived from verbs

signifying love or hatred, lake Ihe object with J when they are used
in an active sense, as in the second and third of the above exam
ples; but when they have a passive sense*, they lake the subject

with ^\, as: Syxc Jt-c JLM (Jt y^l ^jjo yj\, the believer is more

loved of God than any one else; Lgi* J, I (jdijf 18 , he is more hate
ful to me than she.

Rem. b. Verbal adjectives of the form Juii I, derived from in

transitive verbs, require Ihe same preposition after them as the verbs

*) As there is only one form for the comparative and superlative, it

may be derived from verbal adjeclives of either active or passive signifi-
& -* S o -
cation; e. g. ,_r-^| from ,_*^> , loving, or from v_fcju^, beloved, dear.
3. The Government of the Verb. 55

from which they are derived. For example : Lu Jul A jJ&'J Iff

cWil ^t ^fiv^lj *jjI ^j^t <JUL?'5 r**' o' Pj^'y ao~

*{/.< m<wr /row worldly pleasures , and is more zealous for good,
and keeps farther front (clearer of) crime, and is more eager after
the praise (of God). They often, however, take their signification from
one of the derived forms of the verb (generally the second or fourth);
e. g. SoLaJLJL) fJs\ fj^j, this confirms the evidence morefhom

-U'l , IV. of lis, to stand); JLJ ^j-sjJJ e~JI J^S..

humility on the part of a man preserves his religion more (than pride)
(from JL, or JLJ , IL and IV. of .JL* , to be safe) ; JLa. JJt jXB.
IXjuLc i*j^|- f7i<rr if another besides the anti-Christ that fills
me with still greater fear on your account than he does (from
O.^. or oLi.', II. and IV. of oLi to be afraid) ; ~&,\ J&
juJ! _i>o ,11, A* has more need of me than I have of him (from
- i -"
LJCa.1, VIII. of the radical ys*-> to be in need of).

35. The accusative not unfrequently depends upon a

verb that is understood. This happens:
1) In forms of praise, salutation, and the like, in
which we must supply the verb from which the noun in
the accusative is derived, and to which it serves as the
(jJLkJI Jjjtftj! (. 26). For example: &JUI (jLssJL*, the
glory of God! or xjLsxLl, His glory! scil. aI*"'> 1 praise

(which is an Sm\ or statement of fact), or ^x* , j-su. , &c,

praise thou, &c. (which is an ?Li!il, command or /<,

lit. production or creation); a^Uo! I i',,, , hearing and
56 Pari Third. Synlax.

obeying, to hear is to obey , i. e. isXie Lxic\l\*lL ZL\; siJl 61**.

Godforbid! i. e. xJUl 3l**i>.xl, I seek refuge with God.

2) In various other cases, in all of which the verb

to be supplied is not that from which the noun in the
accusative is derived, but may be easily guessed from the
manner in which that noun is uttered and the circumstances
of the speaker. Such are:

a) Forms of salutation and the like; as: ikjel: LkLIx

^V) sc*'- **5' thou art come (0 guest) to a roomy
(convenient) place, and to friendly people, and to a smooth
(comfortable) place ; dL Ia^wo, i. e. siL i-*&.^j LSbCe oJol, thou
art come to a place where there is plenty of room for thee,
to a comfortable place ; SLfrwjoj sli\ vib L*^.li , scil. JlJuL
or some similar word , God has given thee a roomy
and smooth place; all phrases equivalent to welcome!
I jjjo L_aaP, scil. "^f, (clT, &c., (eat) ivith easy diges
tion, may it agree with you, Germ, wohl bekomm' es.

b) Phrases in which an individual is called upon to

guard himself, or a part of his person, against some one or
some thing LjJlssJI); or in which one or more individuals
are urged to begin something or attack some object (il^jtSl).
In the former case the speaker may mention a) either the
person who is to be on his guard, or 0) the person or thing
he is to guard against, repeating the word or not, at his
pleasure, or lastly ;') both together, connecting them by the
conjunction :. In the latter case he mentions only the
3. The Government of the Verb. 57

object to be attacked , repeating the word or not, as he pleases.

Examples: JQ , tflTl, &c, or JGl dt, &c, soil. jj,

keepoff! ox\<\*.\, guard thyself! take care ! dll,C or dLHTiLlK'

My A<?d/ scil. ij, fo// aside; viLoCc!, before thee! scil.

Jdj|, Z00A7 Jl5H or ju5M Ju3M, ^b /w/ scil. <<\a.l,

guard against, take care of; SloliuJli ib', guard
thyself against enmity ; loLajJsvJt: liJlsl, <?<?p r&ar 0/"

innovations; Jjcil Ijcjj JJU&3 ^1^ Jbl, take care not to

meddle with this sort of contention (where /Ji|, followed
by the imperfect subjunctive, is put instead of the ac-
cusative of a noun); JajLtU tdH,K, My ta</ ffW the
wall! scil. L5Q.I ^jCa.t^ dUX ^j; ^Jutll ^JuJL the foe!

M* /b/ scil. l^tXi., m&, attack; aill ^LLs-iflj JL.|,

fo always kind to your brother, scil. 1'Jl, adhere to;

viJUbL? dL>Ui, <fo * yow &fo tttf/A yoar camels, scil.

e) Phrases in which a pronoun generally of the

first, rarely of the second person is followed by the
noun to which it refers in the accusative, without any verb
intervening. The object of this construction named by the
Arab grammarians uoLaX.'$\, the special relation (of the pro
noun to some person or thing) is to show that
*) If a single accusative be uttered only once, the verb may be add
ed ; but if the accusative be repealed, or if there be two accusatives con
nected by I , the verb is never expressed.
V. II. 8
58 Part Third. Syntax.

this accusative is the noun which the pronoun repre

sents and to which the statement made refers. Being
especially used in forms of praise and blame, it is also
called *jj| _jLJI v_*a3, the accusative of praise and blame.
It is to be explained by an ellipsis of ^^.\ , I mean, oryajj,

I specify. Examples: J jo ^ =1 v_>jju| ^jji, wtf Arabs lit.

we, (/ ?<?#) M^ Arabs, are the most liberal among the
generous; s*j**J! J^x LL ii'Us it dLJlxAoJ! ^^i, w, themisera-
bly poor, have not the ability to be generous as becomes
/^; e>^^ L*AJill rwuw ,jji, #>tf, the band of prophets,
have no heirs (among men); ^JL~ ^b JLs Jile^bl,
we, the Ben'u Minkar, are a people of high worth;

Zurara, the father of Mdbed, is one of us, the Ben'u

Darim? (<Xuw in rhyme for Sjju>).
Rem. In such phrases as[^J\, there it isforyou! ,<Ju vJli.
there's my handfor you.'the accusative is used, because dCJtand ijltf
(vol. 1. . 368, rem. c) are in point of sense equivalent to j^*. , take
(LitXS. or JLJI LbiX-i. . i<;tXJ Jls). Similarly , in the phrases

Ijoj JouLt, IJO) dJULc, IJo; dj.O, *<* Zeid! &>,&

, T<- ," ' ' J ' ,t/ *
5^Jok>, seize him! the accusative does not depend upon JlU' Ji I
(that thou shouldest seize), to be supplied after the preposition , but
upon an imperative, such as <xk. or *yj|, implied in the prepo
sition itself. The literal meaning is: seize Zeid, mho is in front of,
beside or close by you. So also in f Ju\ tXjjv or> ^M t^le e~
nitive, Jov Ju^/ *>"^rt 2a gently/ where Ju.j is explained by
3. The Government of the Verb. 59

the grammarians as equivalent to J*4joI , grant him respite. In the

first case, the fetha of JoI is a gLxj or indeclinable ending (as in

"wj|, where?); in the second, it is the termination of the construct
So' s >
accusative of Ju, the diminutive of O.j. slow and gentle motion.
We may also say ijjul. , softly ! and IJuj *2JdHil\, gently with
Zeid! -iJlXj.) , gently with me! the agent (til) being in the

36. The adverb ".!, truly, certainly, and the conjunc-

a * .
tion ^|, that, as likewise (he conjunctions compounded
a ! s J *-
with these two words, such as ,jjO or (jXI, but, yet, ^J6,
s //", <w though, and ^V, because (see vol. I. . 362, 6, and
. 367, 6, 10), take a following substantive or pronoun
(which, according to our idiom, ought to be in the nomi
native, as the subject of a nominal or verbal proposi
tion) in the accusative, because the force of the verb to
see ((A) is embodied in these particles.*) This lakes
place both when the subject immediately follows ^t, &c,
and when it is separated from them by a portion of the
predicate of ,jt, &c, consisting of an adverb of time or
place, or a preposition with its complement. In the former
case, the affirmative particle J may be prefixed to the
predicate of jjt; in the latter, to its subject. If, however,
the predicate be negative, or consist of a verb in the per
fect, not preceded by Jki, the particle J ought not to be
prefixed to it. Examples: li&s *,"_- S^J-^ JUf ^1 , God

*) Compare en and ecce in Latin, as en eum, ecce cum or eccum.

60 Pari Third. Syntax.

is mighty over all (lit see God, he is mighty over all);

1.&2 9 siltXXi ^t, youth does not last (lit. see youth,
it does not last); ^Jb.LCJ ^j-u^J! ^ ls-i ,2,1^, whilst
>- ^-
a part of the believers were reluctant; /j.J^&jJ *xLjI
1*3*1 SLgJ! jJLJ! i ^\, do ye testify that there are other gods
along with the (true) God? iLail *X1, ^.^ ^ jj| ^JLiJl? (j[,
? /i^ ravine that is below Seld (there lies) a murdered man ;
i *
.UojSfl J.if 'iJ**5 d)i> 3 Jj^ in this there is an example (or warn-
ing) to those possessed of insight'; La.iLkJ ^sjyiJt L$j! vdULxji ^ ^t
^j^LwmJJi in putting thee to death, old man, there is a benefit
to the Muslims; S^.^ xJ^jJLgJI JJU ^ KJCo ^\lL,itisnar-
rtf^rf /rW 0/^ ofthe kings of India had a wife ; ^ co Jeil
iUli o*Ui! ^1 ^ aJU! Jy-> Jli' 5L>., ffrtrf ?' $<? /<</?/"
or collection of traditions (we read) that a man said,
0 apostle of God! my mother has died suddenly ; |jo\ ^
&*J, as if Zeid were a lion; ^ t-ye>ji\l ,.j JUJI ^M jje:,
rf ffo did) this because knowledge is a light and the
ablution (before prayer) is a light; JLfl. Ilv>^* <j&j t^ <3u>

Zeid is standing up, but Mohammed is sitting ; J^XDi

(j^jub 51 ^j^?^*-"' ^ ^ hypocrites do not under

Rem. a. These particles, along' with those mentioned in rem. d,

are named by the grammarians I v|. ^1' .(, mna rf its sisters.
fl S^ BE * J O
The word governed by ^| and ^| is called the ^1 |VAU| , the
noun of inna and anna, and the predicate is called the .! , ^ ,
the predicate of inna and anna.
3. The Government of Ihe Verb. 61

a i*
Rem. b. If Ihe predicate is placed between ^1 or ^f and its
noun, the logical accent lies upon the noun ; whereas, if the predicate
stands after the noun , it receives the logical accent itself. For ex
ample; sdl=*\So >JLju! JJ means: your friend is with you; but

JLjuo dU^Ls .. %\, your friend is with you.

Rem. c. When L* is appended to A, M, and ^%S3, their

governing power does not extend beyond it, and consequently their
s0 ...
, m\ or noun is no longer put in the accusative, but in the nomina-
I" - _ >s , 0.0
live. Hence the word Uo is called in this case SiKJI Lo> the
hindering ma , because it hinders the government of these particles.

Rem. d. The words ouJ, utinam , would that / and

Ji or Jju, perhaps, are construed in Ihe same way as ^f, &c;
e. g. i_*Tj *\ M iXJ <c**?J vi^"^-? ^^ ^' ^ '*a/ 'A<T<r ""r*
between thee and me as great a distance as there is between east and
wm</ y_>j._i' SiUUl J^-xJ >i^)tXj Lii - <"rf w,l"t lets tie"
know (whetlier) perchance the hour (of the resurrection) is near?
If Li be added (see rem. c), the government of Ji or JoJ is
hindered ; but the noun of Uill may be put either in Ihe nominative
or in the accusative. These words seem, as has been already remark
ed in vol. I. . 364, rem. ft, to be verbs; and if so, they govern the
accusative by their own force and not by that of an omitted or im

plied verb.

Rem. e. The corresponding Hebrew particle to ^,1, viz. ~3T\

also governs the accusative, as appears from the forms \J$n and ^H.
ecce me.
62 Part Third. Synlax.

37. If the conjunction : connects two nouns in such

a way that the second is subordinate to, and not coor
dinate with, the first, it governs the second in the accusative;
as: tjoCj ibUi Li, or Ijuv: & Lo, what have you to do
with Zeid? 'Jo); > I wen* along with Zeid; iiU Li
J^ JkA. jJJUJIi, what have you to do with loitering
<w/ Negd? Z^S^yzl i^y0' K j * > agree on what
you are to do along with your associates. This : is called
by the grammarians jU^Uxjl !., the w'aw of association or
concomitance , and also, like the : that governs the subjunc-
live (. 15, 5), 1LkxJ\ .1. or ,*4-l J^, <* " of simul-
Rem. This use of 1 also occurs, though bul rarely, in Hebrew;
e. g. Esther, IV. 16, |3 Cli'N ">r)'~lJ7Jl 'JN'CJ , Hoo, along with my
maidens, mill fast so.

38. The person or thing called, ^olliJl, is generally

preceded by one or other of the e!jLplojj^,orjjl3LCj!ojja.,

interjections. The principal of these are: I, Lj>, LjI, ^1,

I ; L^j! (fern. L$x>l), to which G mayalso be prefixed ; and !.
1) Of the first five of these particles the most common
are I, b, and LI. They, require after them a noun not
defined by the article, which is put sometimes in the no
minative, sometimes in the accusative.
a) The nominative in the singular always with
*) Quite correctly too, for ihc subjunctive of the verb corresponds
both in signification and in fonn to the accusative of the noun. The one
shows that a person or thing depends upon an act, the other that one act
depends upon, or is affected or governed by, another acl.
3. The Government of the Verb. 63

out the tenwTn is used when the person or thing called

is present, or imagined to be present, to the speaker, and
no explanatory term of any description is appended to it;
as: [Vi** G, 0 Mohammed (nom. tXirff); jU^el, 0 Ammar
(nom. ^L*); ^lle G, 0 'Amr (nom. *C+&, vol. I. . 8,
rem. b): {S**e G, 0 man of the tribe of Dabba (i*-a);
JuLl G, 0 sir; jjJlc G, 0 <?y; viA^l' ^ *1.)^* W,
#>A<atf lis your name, girl? (j^a-j G , ho you two men ;
^**3 G, 0 prophets ; IJjd b, sjj8 G, tiye G, yo ///*ty/

) The accusative is used a) when the person or thing

called is absent; ff) when it is present to the speaker,
but has an explanatory term appended to it, namely,
either a genitive, or an objective complement, or a pre
position with its complement, or a determinative or limiting
term. Examples: GVfj Gt, 0 rider; Jlu ^^-U G
iulb 8>G-, , 0 traveller that wishesl to visit Taiba
{el-Medina); jJUl Jklc G, 0 Abdu-llah ; ji^'pl JuC2 G, 0
lord of the wild beasts ; >/^J.| b| b , 0 father of the little
^* - *
fortress (an epithet of the fox): UJLa.ll, 0 brethren of
0rs; Jlil UJUb G, 0 thou that art ascending the hill;
JL&. Jj jBm G, 0 MK //?/ <av7 gifted vM wy yoorf M/y ;
oGjlJG Uui^ G, 0 thou that art kind towards men ; Lxi. G

jJC ^jjc , 0 thou that art better than Zeid; g-^; U-lTrv G,
0 Mom M/ r/ handsome in face; _la.Go G, 0 y^ *W'fl
companions of mine ; JuulLj liSQ,0 children of Israel.

The simple ^i>UuJl, when the accusative is used,

64 Pari Third. Syntax.

is properly an exclamation of joy, sorrow, astonishment, &c,

regarding one who is absent (which may be expressed in
German, for example, by 0 ilber den und den!); but when
the nominative is used, it is a real address, ! U ~- , to
one who is present or supposed to be so. In the com-
pound i^LCjl no such distinction is made, and even in
a real address the accusative is used, as being the case
that depends on a verb, and to which, therefore, other
nominal and verbal dependencies can be more readily attached;
in contradistinction to the nominative, which is independent
and closes the construction. The reason of the omission of
the tenwln in the nominative singular seems to lie in the
energy with which the word is uttered, whereby its termination
is shortened, as in the imperative and jussive of the verb
(see also rem. a).
Rem. a. When no inlerjeclion is expressed, the same rules apply-
as above ; e. <r. ,jIa* > 0 ' Itban ; LuAil oLL=k I , beloved of our
souls! UjcI_=>.! 0 friends of ours! With pronouns this omission is
very rare; as: ?-t)l 13, you there, refrain (front folly), for
l<iL> orljjelj; y^j ^y> I^J <L>y*J> $ ^x, 0 thou that
diest not, have mercy on him who is dying.

Rem.*. The suffix of the first person singular j_ , is general

ly shortened in (he vocative into kisra, _ (see above, at the end of
the section); as: <_ or (.j. G, 0 my lord; ,uJ^Kj,0 my soul ;
fc}Li.|, my friends! Jo L> , 0 my dear son. Other forms,
8 v - - e-
however, are admissible, such as, from Jux , a slave, ,eju*c>
Ijux or ^(Xxe, Jux, and in pause autX^c or s!Jj-&
3. The Government of the Verb. 65

* .
Accordingly we read *( ~o| in the Koran, ch. 7, v. 149, and
^iJb: b in ch. 25, v. 30 , and find in Mss. j b , ^ ,T>jb ,
instead of ^o and *. The words ol, father, and a|, mother,
admit of the peculiar forms ^>j| b and ouet b , wilh either felha
or kesra.

Rem. c. On the principle alluded to at the end of the section,

as well as in rem. a, several classes of words admit of being- shortened
in the vocative by the rejection of one or more of their final letters.
Namely : 1) All substantives, whether proper or common, masculine
or feminine, that end in a ; as: iCjL^I forXj.l^f, ig*** b for

UdU b (names of men); *ax!I for i*jyoll ^<mJ for ><(

(names of women); JtiLftt for XJolil 0 ffow (woman) that re-
proachest (me), *\ v"._i b for y 1 1 w * b, 0 Muslim woman;
vo.j| Li Ls , stand still, sheep! lor s'Li. b. 2) Simple proper
names, not ending in &_, that contain at least /our letters; as:
^Lc' for joLci, JLc! for dUUol , ULw b for j>li* b (name
of a woman). If the word consists of more than four letters, and the
penult is servile and quiescent, it disappears along with the last letter ;
as: aJlc b, ijaJue b, -ib*** b, for ^jU^c , ju&U, j-iw.
Words not ending in i_ may also be inflected without regard to
the portion dropped ; as : . Is. b , <_p^ b , *^ b , instead of
vU. _.h~- and . t'< (for s^>>L^, uui> , and Oy+i); and the

same thing is admissible when the termination JL_ is not of the fern.
gender, as: Jw^i b , instead of *Kw if , for ft4_W (a man's name).
Proper names compounded with a genitive (as ,, ,o >." iV^r)
y .*
, or

s - -a*.,
forming a complete proposition (as |-j& iajb"), do not admit of any
V. II. " 9
66 Part Third. Syntax.

2 o^ o -
abbreviation; but if they belong to the class called ,-=-yo wOye (vol.
I. . 264), they are shortened by the rejection of the second word ;
as: igjuuo L> for >->*-> icJuuc. 3) To these two classes may
be added the common noun _LoG, 0 companion . for ,_*-* La ,

and the pronoun Jj , for .jiki , <<'/, as in Jj u =: S**\ W.-

This abbreviation is called by the grammarians tA>yXl|, the soft

ening of the voice (compare vol. I. . 283).

Rem. d. We have said above that the noun which follows these
interjections does not admit the article. One exception is the name
of Gorf, xJUli from which we may say aJJI U or, irregularly
> *
retaining the hemza, jJUl Lj.*) Another is produced by the inser-
, i
lion of the pronoun I <jj6 between the interjection and the vocative;
as: J^J! I<X b instead of Jl&.. L.

Rem. e. A noun in apposition to a vocative expressed by the

nominative, may be put either in the nominative or the accusative ;
as: aXM t>t <? L> or <*JJ\> 0 Mohammed the prophet; unless
it has a genitive after it, when it must be in the accusative; as:
xJUt J, r, A \ Aj^yjt b, 0 Abraham, the friend of God;
^li.1 S'S Juv IT, 0 Zeid, the crafty; ^\ ^1 J^j (J, 0
ZMf, y brottter's son. If the word ^j| stands between the names
of son and father, it loses its prosthetic | (vol. 1. . 21, 2), and
the person addressed may be put either in the nominative or the

*) The more usual form, however, is * a 1 1| , without any inter-

jeclion prefixed, though we find occasionally in verse * o HI L. The
origin of the termination (%_ is uncertain.
3. The Government of the Verb. 67

O 9 U~
accusative; as: ,j^ "}? <3u) lj or )*+* <J"^ <3o) b> "

Rem. /! An adjective in connection with a vocative expressed

by the nominative, may likewise be put either in the nominative or
the accusative; as: JolkJI Jov L> or Jj'liJI , 0 Zeid, the intel-
%e<; 0il| pi J0| Ju\ b or *_,^| *J jCII , 0 ZA'rf, Whose
father it noble.

Rem. g. In Hebrew, we must look upon the governing noun

in such phrases as J>1 ^y'CI pM OB'n 'ID (Micha, ch. 2, v. l),or
- B r
(Ps. 1, v. 1), as being in the construct accusative; whilst
PU3 in C'Cn? TJ? nJ3 'in (Habak., ch. 2, v. 12) is in the simple
accusative, governing -pj; as its objective complement. See above,
b, ft. In brm ]Pbn JJtfirV NJ-J>Ca;' (Zachar., 3, 8) , the con
struction is the same as in rem. e.

2) LjjI and Lgj I G (or Igjl?) require after them

a noun defined by the article in the nominative case; as :
glllJI Ifcjl, 0 people; hXJ\ L^jtlj, Oking; (^jjl L4SI IS
IjJ'Juii, 0 thou that hast done so and so. The demon-
slrative |j is also admissible; as: JloI 16 L$j! [4, t/ou there,
come forward!

3) !;, which is used to express sorrow or pain, and

hence called ijbjaJloli, the particle of lamentation, fol
lows the same rules as L>; e. g. tX+s? !:, /.? Moham-
*rf/ xJUl tXlc I:, a/<w Abdu-Uah! More generally, how
ever, the termination IL, in pause C_, is added, which
effaces the final vowels; as: lju) U or sljuC !, alas Zeid!
68 Pari Third. Syntax.

If a genitive follows, this termination is annexed to it, and

not to the governing word; as: slloxu^Jl lx;l I., alas for
the commander of the faithful!

Rem. a. Words ending: in the elif maksura ((_) usually re

ject that termination before adding s|_; as: sUL^c !, from _Iuye,
Moses. The suffix pronoun ol the first person singular may be
either retained or rejected; as: LiiX*~C- I. or IjJLt \l, from .eju^e,
my servant.

Rem. b. In verse, the form 5 1 is occasionally used; as:

8 \1?> G , you fellow ! *) t

39. 1) When the negative ^ is immediately followed

by an indefinite object, of which it absolutely denies the
existence, it governs that object in the accusative; and
as the whole weight of the sentence falls upon the nega
tive particle, the substantive is abbreviated, when possible,
by the loss of the tenwln If there be a predicate expressed,
it must be likewise indefinite, but in the nominative case.
For example: JJJI ^j Ju^, 51, there is no man in the
house; aJUl 511 jjl % there is no god but God; *5lji J^< 51,
there is no man standing ; ^JL^Jf 51, there are not tmo Gods ;
LX JL^n 51, there are no men here; xJCj<xiJ| j /\a*X*1o S, there

are no Muslims in the city; Ijjuifc ii>CJLl>e 5) , there are

no Muslim women in our possession. But if the negative

*) See the Dfwan of Imru'u 'l-Kais, ed. de Slane , p. pf, 1. 11

(where the word is misprinted sUJS).
3. The Government of the Verb. G9

be separated from its object, it is put in the nominative; as:

jit lg-' 51, in which (viz. (he wine) there is no inju
rious force.

!2) If a genitive be attached to the substantive after 5f

the accusative must of course be used in its con
struct form, as: w^la. Jes-J like 51, there is no slave of
any man present; but if the substantive be followed by
an explanatory term of the nature of an objective comple
ment, a preposition with its complement, or a determinative
or limiting term, the tenwln must be retained (compare . 38,
1, b, 0); as: jells SU&. lidlfe 5f, there is no one ascending
a hill visible; UjLi*. jJiC (j<* C*^ 5J, there is no better (man)
than Zeid in our opinion; ..y>juo tSxi LLla. 5), fl 0tf
w^wtf tffc^afr ?y? ^<W /.v blame-worthy.

3) If an adjective be immediately annexed to the ac

cusative after if, it may either lake the same form without
the lenwln, or it may retain the lenwin, or, lastly,
it may be put in the nominative with the tenwin; as':
uuJi jJL"j 51 , or \ju_Jb JeLj 51, or tjujo JoT 51, there
is no witty man. But if the adjective be separated in any
way from the substantive, the first of these three construc
tions is no longer admissible; as: oL>Ji L$aj Jo^ 5lorUL>wfcj,
there is no witty man in if (the house), but not oLsJs.

4) If another substantive be connected with Ibis accu

sative by the conjunction ;, the particle 9 may be repeat
ed or not. a) If 51 be repealed, the first substantive may
70 Part Third. Synlax.

be put in the accusative without the tenwin, and the second

either in the accusative, with or without the tenwin, or in
the nominative; as: sJLtL ill (sJ, Li) 8.3 Si Jla. $,
there is no power and no strength save in God; or the
first substantive may be put in the nominative, and the
second either in the accusative without the tenwin or in the
nominative; as: JjJ! ^ (s'Lxl) sLjoI yz J^ 51, M<r<? is
neither man nor woman in the house, b) If 9 be not re
peated, the first substantive is put in the accusative without
the tenwin, and the second either in the nominative or in
the accusative with the tenwin; as: (sL-cl:) Hlycl: J^. bl
;lUT i-
Rem. a. The particle if, when thus used, is called by the
grammarians (j*JLit iuiLi bl . or ^m^&.| ^IU 51 the Id that
denies the whole genus. The substantive in the accusative is called
51 *4l> $* '" ofld, and the predicate, 51 yx^, ^<? predicate
of la.

Rem*. The rule regarding the retention of the terminations

and ~, in the dual and plural may seem to be contradicted by such
examples as: j^iJaJLj <iJU ^Jo 51, <Aow can** do no wrong flil.
.- ,.?*-
*Aom A<wf o< /wo /irfs /br wrong); LaJ j^j 51, sAc has no ears;
*J t<" 5l fja_^ , , a sAi'rt without sleeves; >*JLJ (gjux 5), yot
toe not 0O< two slaves; but in these cases the Arab grammarians
say that the preposition J is j4*\iii , inserted without necessity,

and that the preceding noun is in reality in the construct stale, in

the same way too they explain the phrase JU G| j, lit. thou
3. The Governnienl of Ihe Verb. 71

hast no father , which is generally used instead of the regular

40. Having thus treated of the accusative as the ob

jective complement, we now proceed to speak of it as the
adverbial complement in a stricter sense (see . 22, 2).
This depends

I. On the idea of being or existence, when expressed

a) by the substantive verb ^, or b) by other verbs, the
signification of which includes that of ~SJs. The general
idea of existence is in this case limited and determined by
the accusative.

41. The verb ^, to be, to exist, when it supplies

the place of the logical copula, requires the predicate, to
which the being or existence of the subject refers, to be
put in the accusative; as: ^LiS .1 iSyc \y>S, be (lit.
exist as) Jews or Christians ;%SCh ^ &lu?-a t;J^ i%^\ Zj6fj\,
if the calamity is decreed (or fated), it trill befal him with-
out doubt; *UuL!| ^Ljjjt ^gi^u U?l* -ol ^^Jo (jl^M^
fcLgiftJI {ja, whoever wishes his son to be learned, must pro
vide for the poor among the learned; jjJLJixx s'U*'; *# ^
ouUaJG, he and his brother were teachers in ct-Ta'if.
But if rX has only a subject connected with it, to which
the idea of existence inherent in . the verb is attributed, that
subject is put, like every other, in the nominative; as:
&JLS (jjjj xJ ^jlf: j\3 ^, there was (or lived) a mer
chant, and he had (lit there were to him) three sons
72 Pari Third. Syntax.

((^\JrJ^ would mean he mas a merchant); J ~J( ^L

u JLo, /;/ /^ who has (lit. /o //>/<w// there is) much
property. In (lie former ease, the substantive verb is called
by the grammarians iLojLUt ^IS", M<" incomplete or </<?-
fect'we, relative k'ana, because it requires an attribute to
complete the sense; in the latter, SxuJ! rJ6, the complete,
absolute kana , because it contains the attribute in itself
and does not require any other.

Rem. The verb r.bf, Aelhiop. HM'. kona, does not occur in
Hebrew in the sense of to be, exist, happen, though it is so used in
Syriae (rare) and Phoenician. The construction of the Aelhiopic
verb is the same as that of the Arabic; in the other Shemilic lan
guages, which have lost the final flexional vowels, Iheease of the pre
dicate cannot be observed, but doubtless it was the accusative. In
Hebrew the radical v\Z retains its original signification of to stand
(compare Fr. etrc, older form estre, and Span, estar, from Lai. stare),
and the place of ~M is supplied by rvD or niH, Aram. Sin, I001,
to fall (i5jJ6), happen, be (compare j>, to fall, happen, Lai. accidit,
Eng. it fell out), of which the predicate must also be looked upon as
in the accusative.

42. The same construction appertains to certain verbs,

called by the grammarians 'M ^\y~\, the sisters of kana.
These are either 1) similar, in signification to ^bf, as '^So,
to become; or 2) they add some circumstantial or modify
ing idea to' the simple one of existence. This may be:
a) the idea of duration or continuity, as in 1\S, lo continue, to
3. The Government of the Verb. 73

last, construed with the ^o^jjJlCo (vol. I. , 367, 13),

JK, _wj, ^^ii, vtJujf, to cease, construed with a negative
particle; or b) the idea of repetition, as in 3lc and ^1, to
return, do again, take place again ; or c) the idea of time, as
in Jia, to be or do during the whole day, cAj, during
<!fc tMo/*? w^///, wiw!, / daybreak, &juc\, in the morning,
^p\,in the forenoon, J*T, ?' tffo evening, all of which
verbs are often used as simple synonyms of ". K and TUa ,
without any regard to the secondary idea of time; or,
lastly, d) the idea of negation, by which that of exis
tence itself is absolutely denied, as in J^*i, not to be.
Examples: U ouoj.^LicvJlj KUk ol^ls sl_3l tfo ^b^, #</ A
/fa* beholding the water becoming vapour , and the vapour be
coming water; dllic \jJ}S Jj^ki\ l\SCe u*.llll ^ >iAUtS jJiS' ^,
fo //#/ count thyself among men, as long as anger has the
mastery over thee ; liJLllI LuJtf sJLfl JlCj ^ , may God never
cease being beneficent to you ; y.*Jl S\b J3^9 never cease
bearing death in mind; &SZt ijJle ^Sji- ou>**i J*S' JL3t, ^o
A*/ fei sold and hast become a slave in Mekka;
Li Li* J xJJ! jjU**J |iiaiol, through the grace of God ye
fiave become brethren; (JbLLo I x*i n,' tf ^Il^f,
yew >is/< fr> become a scholar skilled in controversy;
*U*j* ouU (.5LLM *X*il ^1 J^J tjJyij y, do not say to
any one who gives you a salutation , Thou art not a
Rem. a. The verbs J|C, l.*J, ^Xi, d&il, and the like,
V. II. 10
li Pari Third. Syntax.

musl always be accompanied by a negative, expressed (as in the

above examples with Jk)or implied, as: ^Ji jU! -Io! Lo_. -?l
|JolS \ pfciXrt," xJUl (\+^i, and I shall not cease, as long as God
preserves my tribe, through God's grace to wear a girdle and ride
9 ^o* 9 --e* r* *> 9 * 9
anoble steed( y\ for _*j! 3 , and IJul^1 in rhyme for IJotS")-

*. 9
Rem. b. The verb JkA..,to be found, be extant, exist, is often
reckoned one of the J.K'icyLs.l, but erroneously; for it is either =
xJol_j| /Tjfe', and has no predicate, or it is the passive of (X >
which governs two accusatives , and so naturally retains the second
. SJ f. 9 "-".X .* ' . - > - > -
object (^UJI J^xijf); as: Li^o fc^ Lg-L* tX=^J jl, no<
one o/" them is found pure (in a pure state), where Ls-o is a JL>.
or circumstantial accusative , or me (Fr. on, Germ, man) find that not
one of them is pure, where Li^o is the second object.

Rem. c. The negative particles Li and if, when used, as the

grammarians say, JjJ ~jJlJ; t '^ signification of leisa, are also
construed with the accusative of the predicate , provided 1) that the
predicate is placed after the subject, 2) that the exceptive parlicle
ill is not interposed between them, 3) that the corroborative particle
.J is not added to Lo, and 4) that the subject of if is an undefined

common noun; e. g. |. &j |J*J6 Lo, <A is not a human being,

i g vi 7*| .yo Lo, ffoy art' not <Ar mothers; ijO.ill JLc 2 _-iibl

Lls'L), there is nothing on earth enduring; ^1 - il ol wL>\_*oj

JoLa- v** I aided you when you had no companion that was not
faithless. If Lo has a second predicale, connected with the first by
an adversative particle, such as Jo or JpCJ, then the second must be
3. The Government of the Verb. 75

put in the nominative; but, in any other case, the accusative is pre-
9 ,- ?- i,rr- so,.-
ferable to the nominative; as: <XcLs Jo UjLs Jov Uo, Zeidis not
o f
standing, but sitting, i. e. JlcLs J8 Jo- This government of Le
and il is peculiar to the dialect of cl-Higaz, and hence they are called
j\lis! Li and juvLit 51. The same conslruction is also ex-
tended to ySf (vol. I. . 182, rem. ft) and to SxiLDl ...I or Me
' Jlc
negative 'in; as: Jo>l r * .*,->
LkJ^JLmX -jJO> , Ae
"J, . m
, over

nobody; <jo\jjt Twl* j^ there was no time for escape;

-jJLie JLtLw \zj$ , it is not an hour for repentance. The govern-
ment of y5f seems to be restricted to nouns denoting time , and ei
ther its subject or predicate must be omitted, usually the former
_ , , <j-o , -
(jjoLLc (^J.*^ yil = (j*Llx ^f*s* \$*r?\ y^)-

43. The adverbial accusative depends

II. On any verbal idea that determines or limits in

any way the subject, verb, or predicate of a sentence,
or the whole sentence. In this case it supplies the place
of a preposition with the genitive, or of a conjunctive
clause, and amply makes up for the want of adverbs
in Arabic.

44. By the adverbial accusative is designated:

1. The time in or during which an act lakes place;
as: juJULj L<4j> 1*j UjJL4.| ills, the chaUf saw him one

day washing his feet; JiLgJI *^j omj UUj ^xtXJj S, heknows

not how he shall die on his dying day; Jl *L&. ,j*je5M *o\ iJ
-jjJI J I L^ift, / rf/rf / #o; whether he came here yes
76 Pari Third. Syntax.

terday or today; lxl_>l ^'jki\ joju ljXJ, he stopped a

/<?> fc//s hi fl village; KL$jj ^iy **; *^H <X***-I> implore

God night and day to protect you from it; I Jet v'-**-" -4,U^!^

Ar v# ^/W yo //<? *0<? tomorrow ; XvXik! j, ^ s g 4 jjels

(iULuiM, reflect two months upon the choice of a teacher;

iLL* ^.*jJ lt'tV' J^ *- i*1' "c did not pass the

w^/</ o forf /or /or/?/ years; SjuoUI lLJJI &lii\
/ killed him last year; 1&! &*1* J^ ^c ***'' "^ the
time of his meeting him (or when he met him); ' ^^
v_^ucJo /jLi., at the time when old age is drawing /war;

liLua-l w)&M J^^ &{Xs,hestood up at times whilst lecturing;

jCftj'l ^wCJ! j^ joojj wJS^ , and I continued reflecting

for a considerable time.
Rem. On the same construction in Hebrew, see Gesenius'
Gr.. 116,2.
2. The local extension of an act, and, if general
and indefinite, the place in which it is performed; as:
,,* * , _ * - ,
JCyel **jJ l^" ^*y travelled four miles; Lu*j Jal

(ilU*ii) UU*j, he looked right and left ; lo .JuL'l J*c ci!

I jfj, Atf conquered the enemy by land and sea; IL*I,

Jjo, before; *!.:, wiJLi*., behind; Jaj, M* middle;
Jla., around; ,$*, above; ^st, under; kc.
Rem. a. When the place of the act is definitely specified, the
nomen loci (vol. I. 221) is used with the preposition .i; as:
3. The Government of the Verb. 77

<*jJ\ tX^uo oyyLo , I prayed in the mosque of the prophet ;

kAi Axai i M.. t'j , 7 stopped at the place where Hosem

was killed; not Jc^Co oulL* arul J^& mSI- Excepted is

the case when a general noun of place, such as .jOwo <>r ..ULc,
is construed with a verb conveying the idea ofsloppintr or remaining , as :
Jo', "i&c ouwJl^ > ^ "' '/own i Ze/rf's place; and also the ease
when a noun of place is construed with the verb from which it is derived,
.^w 9 it
as: JoC JuLLo v^Juu- ^ s< down in Zeid's seat. The nouns
s .'- o o o- o .- .,' S" - -J
s_>jL*., toi . "g-^ ''''% -;<-> outside, J^lt>> 0>> *'j

require , as: JJJI _vLL. ,j oi-J , J *&?>' outside the house;

but in later Arabic we often find the accusatives v_ajL^- _vti>--

and Jki^lo, as also ^Ji, near, for ^>Ji i, and the like.

Rem. b. On the corresponding accusative of place in Hebrew,

see Gesenius' Gr. . 116, 1.

Rem. c. The accusative of time and place is called by the

grammarians .i.hll. the vessel (see vol. 1, . 221, rem a), or

au* JJlLJ! , rtflf M which the act is done.

3. The state or condition of (he subject or object of

an act, whilst (he act is taking place; as: ^X* J<& oii'j
jj ikiLS' alii. IU iuUuJI, ^ v/'worf at the entrance of
//? cave, saluting him (and) saying to him : olpl !^Li.o!
|J^, enter the gateway prostrating yourselves; ^tX.1'
(SJti; L^lli'jJjl Jjjj^Joj mn0 ctt God to mind standing up
and sitting down :*&!& L^Li ^UailJI c*ul, 1 found the sul-
78 Part Third. Syntax.

. # g "J ;
tan weeping in his house; bjd oJJ! vjUJifb *.JL>, apiece
of wood can be made straight with the plane while it
is soft; Ka%. xj cjLio iJ^Xs*, a habit with which I grew
up as a young man; Ca\\ {.\sZl}\ oJtf, / was in the
garden whilst it was in bloom.

Rem. The same construction is found in Hebrew; e.g. Gen.

33, 18. CDB' TJJ C^IP' 3J3JP Ki'1, and Jacob came safe for in safety)
to the city ofShechem; Amos 2, 16. NinPTOl*? DW CHy, naforf
s# Ae /Ttr on rtf <%; Job 31, 26. TjVn Ip) ITV1 , and the moon
walking in splendour; where the adjectives D^B*, DllJ? and "igi
are to be regarded as in the accus.

4. The cause or motive and object of the act; as:

los>lf ^aj! v^j^&,I beat my son for correction's sake;

vy? before him to show respect to my teacher ; \^o ,jlljt ,\jei

xJUt ^Us^o *U?t .w&i ^r*^' and among men there are some
who sell their souls (give up their lives) to win the favour of
si j \*- '\ \t vf i- .'.'>' .?.-? "'-Ti"it

U0; UAj JJ! JyM Uj 'jt**- ^j' i*4**J' w l^yuii U**aj,

ife is the price for which they have sold their souls,
that they should not believe in what God has sent down
{revealed) out o/envy ;(jxI^1jT &x ffj'STi U*j\So\ {j^*=i
^.<_JI j-s>. , M<?y put their fingers in their ears on account
of the claps of thunder, through fear of death.
3 * O ~
Rem. a. This accusative, which must always be a . Juai
or nomen verbi , is called by the grammarians J JjuLJI or
xJUL-^} JyxLJ\ , that on account of which sometMng is done.
3. The Government of the Verb. 79

Rem, b. Similarly in Hebrew, Isaiah 7, 25. nB? KlarTtfr

TT "VCt^
T flN""!1
~ I . thou wilt not go. thither for fear of thorns
and thistles.

5. Various other determinations and limitations of the

predicate; as: sTjii l*ia *JUt, God is great in might;
llm3 lVaT jf ^-& ^*i^ hut they (your hearts) are like stones
or #* harder (lit. stronger as to hardness); b J i> Jl ^_>Ls,
/^ rose is charming in colour; U'lc Juj ^JLiaJ' , ^/rf streamed
?vith perspiration ; &1: e. Je"*Sll l^Wv fl"^ w #?<& the earth
#rai! /w*M into springs; ifLo wist: ifyjo J^ilool, thou art
higher in station and richer in wealth; LI .XT^U (jil,
fow o^/<? is /< ^f;Xrr a* father I
Rem. a. This sorl of adverbial accusative, which is always
undefined, is called by Ihe grammarians v.ia+JLII> the specification.

It is equally common in Hebrew; e. g. Gen. 41, 40. TUN ND3H p"]

~BC,f respect of thcthrone alone will 1 be greater than thou; 1 Kings,
15, 23. 1'^TilN n'jn, he was diseased in his feet. Sec Gesenius'
T : - T T

Gr. .116, 3, and . 136, rem.

Rem. b. The accusative after the cardinal numbers from 11 to

99, after the interrogative nouns of number li' and ^(^ ((%j&',
ltol^, sK", -*$0> *<"" much? how many? after the indefinite

ItXS' or Ijkiu | ji^ so nrf so wrA or many, and after nouns that

denote measure, belongs also to this class; as: r^.y^s/i ?-1
LicLe , one and twenty years ; jLu JwuUj ,j-?I> eighty years old
(lit. a *oh o/" 80 years); J>JL*S' U^O IS', Ao many dirhems ttave
yod <yo<? I^JLxi" i^>\ ijjK'' ^ow ""W'y " ">cre killed! oJCJLo
80 Part Third. Syntax.

.&> 9
I i"Si> Ijj^ \dS> I have got so and so many dirhems; |o , a aj>,

a bushel of wheat ; \jj\ .j^Lfe), two pounds of olive oil; .lif.J>

Qs.jjfc, two ells of cloth. Compare Gesenius' Hebrew Gr., . 118
(particularly 2, rem., and 4, rem. 2) and . 116, 3.

6. An act expressed by a nonien verbi, with which

another act, expressed by a finite tense, is compared; as:
\y+L j&[J>.\ &Xi\ JJis sJui', ^y /#?</ /> />* the same way
as his son had killed their brother Amr ; xojuLi' Ijuv otXc
Jo\ kjl Ju4l**J, /'^ tortured Zeid just as Ismail, Zeids
father, had tortured him ; ^U&jclt lij! ^-CLU xl)\ jJ&jp
JkilLj, //' 6W should cause evil to come with haste upon
men, as they wish yood to come with haste unto them.
For this accusative may be substituted J with tbe genitive
of the nomen verbi, or UT with a finite tense of the verb ;
e. g., in the first example, aull ^xM or kill Jai" L
45. If an entire clause, consisting of a subject and
a predicate, be annexed to another clause, to define or
limit either the subject or object of the latter, then the
predicate of the former is placed before its subject and
put in the accusative, the subject being left in the nomi-
native. For example: s-a.1^1 L^cJoo^ kAjI^I !^JCc viliL^jj;,
Timur-lenk (Tamerlane) turned his back, after his van had
A* broken and his rear struck with panic; Lio! ^jJI Jo
* Ilk l * I' " '"'it 'i''ii I ' ' "' '"' l" ' - Is'
aJi I LftJJLS' P)j-'j J^^N cuLuJ^ytjo v^vx. yyLw.jw isU,

// # is M'/w has produced yardens with trellises for vines

and without (hem, and the palmtrces and the grain, with
3. The Government of ihe Verb. The Prepositions. 81

9 f tjt * ^0 9 * -& J 9 '' 9 #--

their various edible fruits (Jol LaJUitf= UJuitf tJS\ Lois');

/ ;w# wipe away my disgrace with the sword, let Gods decree
^;V^ upon me what it may (*JUI tLls J^& LJLi = vJJL&. jjt :
aJUl iLii' Jkx. ; CJLa- in rhyme for LJLi).

B. The Prepositions.
46. The prepositions all originally designate rela
tions of place {local relations), but are transferred, first, to
relations of time {temporal relations), and next, to various
sorts of ideal relations, conceived under the figure of the local
relations to which they correspond.
47. The prepositions are divided into simple and com
pound, The simple prepositions are again divisible into
three classes, indicating respectively motion proceeding from
or away from a place, motion to or towards it, and rest
in it
48. The prepositions that indicate motion proceeding
from or away from a place are two in number ; viz.
^ytj ex, out of, from, and ^., ad, away from.
Rem. In Hebrew, the simple preposition ]C supplies the plnce
both of \x and JwC. Compare, in general, Gesenius'Gr. . 151, 3, c.

49. ^jx (with pronominal suffixes ^x , Alt, \lx)

v. II. 11
82 Pari Third. Syntax.

1) The local point of departure, departure from a place;

as : kJoo ,j.* ^-r^' ^e wei^ fot'lH from. Mekka ; \jbJo ^ iaJL*,
it fell from her hand. Hence it is connected with verbs
that convey the idea of separation, departure, holding one
self or another aloof from any person or thing, liberating,
preserving, fleeing, frightening away, forbidding, and the
like; as: J^iTjuiJI A*i ^x iss\jJ ,j^T J* > this (learn
ing) is the fortress 'that preserves (us) from all calamities ;
*iaJI ^jjo xJJ\j >y-\, / lake refuge with God {pray God
to preserve me) from covetousness ; J*.\ ~\a *I^5 IjoJL'I,
the world holds us back from good.
2) The temporal point of departure, the point at
which an act or state has commenced; as: juLLi ^ya &JUI &ls.,

/? served Godfrom his youth ; jJ^JI J_[ <XgUl ^x> JUaJI oJ>:,
/"//<? //w<? of learning extends from the cradle to the grave:
SUjlL*. -^j ,jLxi)t ^ (j7+^> ^y W chosen from the
times of the battle (lit. day) of Hal'tma.
R c in. The Arab grammarians say that Jjc, when used in the above
significations, is employed ^Uylj ^jKiJI ,3 &jUL!| *!<X_o5[.,
to denote the commencement of the limit attained in place and lime,
or simply elJjoiU, to denote the commencement.

3) The causal point of departure, the origin and source

of a thing: as: ^*l=>. Uj ^ wiJlJi, //'* iy in consequence
of information that reached me; L$JLe ,_f -ftsj oli'li, tfrf
//<? A'ftwrf admiring it (or wondering at it, his wonder proceed
ing from, or being caused by, it); Li-*!! pa'<\ *Sa l*x>,
3. The Government of the Verb. The Prepositions. 83

they were drowned because of their sins (the particle Li is

merely expletive and does not interfere with the government
of fc).
Rem. a.The grammarians say that \x is used in this case

^Jj^JLJ , to assign the reason.

Rem. b. In speaking of persons J^.|,t^o, on account of,\s

always used instead of \x , and often loo in other cases ; as :

LikJI <J^I ^ a.JI iULi ^U ,wj ^U -w ^L*i, <"

threefold disgrace for a man to be in misery on account of (for

want of) food; xS$J? &a\ {jx . because of what he said.

4) The distance from a place, person, or thing,

particularly after words that signify proximity, such as
or Q3, to be near, 1^?J,
near, &c. (compare:, o-f~
prope, ab
eo, Fr. pres de lui, rapproche de lui); e. g. yi^i' ^>Ji
LqLcthe army was near them; ^a 155, he was not far from
me (^t IS 5 would mean: he came up close to me);
ililV^ll^ JJM $ i,1 -JLJf ^JlkJ ^, it be
comes the student not to sit too near the teacher. Simi-
larly in the phrases: v_LJI ^ d^^> ^ c>"? frH*" '
#i/ in, or <?*? om/, through the door; ^y^. ^\ -$-= I*-?'
lalx iTXfr, /.? to-wro through which the water ascended.
Compare in Heb., Job 17, 12. 7J#n~QS0 ^~\pT^,the light
is drawing near the darkness.
5) The difference between two persons or things that
' > ,- ft16 o*
are compared with one another; as: J^Jcj _^i ^ vi-ol ^t
84 Pari Third. Syntax.

z~ik , what a difference there is between thee and Noah in

length of life (lit. where art thou front Noah and his length of
life?)! Hence (he use of \* after comparative adjectives;
as: ^uoJ^i!ye, he is more excellent than I.
Rem. a. If any object be compared with itself in a different re
spect, the appropriate pronominal suffix must be attached to the pre
position ja ; as : IajGLj *** |J_jLojj mu&\ fju\jJ\, people
are more like the time in which they are born than they are like their
fathers; ^Uj^J I^JL* ljJS! (\**yJ **JU iv iheH ore

nearer unbelief on that day than belief; (.jolJI .Ai *Xix Ul

iX*JLc i_jJlH ^yo <iuo o^t < / have more fears of injury
io the Arabs by you than I have of injury to you by the Arabs.
Sometimes, in a less careful style of speaking or wriling, the prepo
sition ltje is annexed to Ihe latter of the two objects, instead of to the
person or thing which is compared with him or itscK in respect of
these two objects; as: iLIJ!^ ,j.j'! UaiJL I^Jb'Ub %Lo,
he fought against them with the stick more sturdily than with the
weapons (for iLUls xax ^pO? ^i! |XJijo pJlkJ! jjl Ji
lifxh. l!j , because wrong proceeding from you is worse than
from others (for |!Xa (jjo ale ^J'l)-

Rem. ft. In the oilier Shemilic languages, which do not possess

a peculiar comparative form of the adjective, the comparison is like
wise expressed by means of the same preposition; Heb. jC,
Aram.^, Aelli.Ts*?3: or 2i<?i:: See Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 117.

6) The relation which subsists between the part and

the whole, the species and the genus, Ihe material and the
3. The Govcrnme.nl of the Verb. The Prepositions. 85

article made of it; as: oLl^l ^a ._*-*-< wia -M p-JLe ,

the science of medicine is one of the professions ; **ihk'i JUxl
i^jUXJI i>*b*3 *jL*JI, and respect for the book is a part
ofthe respect due to science ; JuJ*.: j*Jj ^ 4*-*r* (j^*"^^'

?</ ?i compounded of soul and body ; -\\. \'A I jjl ^K:

lyjj? J& ^x $t ^g-^.g.; jfzte $ oUiJf$, a 'id he
saw (hat the natures of animals and plants are compounded
of numerous elements : L5 u>^: <m^\ *JuJ audi ^juij
\^k ia ill. 5;Lsl J^.>c 5H ,%">> "rf /'/ was difficult for him,
because of the want of instruments, and because those
{that he had) were made only of stones and reeds;
s\Xjs.'j ^^aj \-* &JJI *_X!JLifc, 0*/ has created you out
of one soul.

Rem. a. When it precedes a definite plural, the preposition Jw*

often indicates an indefinite number, some; as: wolijJI ^yo iX=*f,

-~ !-* -
he look some of the dinars', aj'UI \x ,i5|t tXs, he has already
shown you some of his signs. Compare, in French, de with the arti
cle, as du tail, some milk"; and see Gesenius' Heb. Gr. . 151 , 3. c.

Rem. b. After negative particles, and after inlerrogalives put

in a ncgaiive sense, /\jo prefixed to an indefinite noun means
now <ir a//, or one ," as: Jl&.j Jwjo ^ieLa. L, or Jtil J%>x , no

one came to me', s-xi sblt Jw< 1S3 \Jo, you have no god but Him;
^j-j-olj J^* l^J \S>> theyhave no helpers (= ^J ^jy*>\j 51);

t^rjjxuljjl *$, there is no man in tlie house (=JjJI^ jj.r5f);

86 Part Third. Syntax.

J_^.r . ".y^o L&Juo , -J JjO , do you perceive any one of them

at all? g A "w yoifl Jw L-U JJb, have tve any portion at all
of that thing? Willi jJkl J_* compare the Hebrew TINO ,

Levit. 4, 2, Deuter. 15, 7-

Rem. r. When A^c indicates a part of a whole, it is said to be

used ndujuuJJ , to indicate a division into parts; when it indicates
the parts of which a whole is composed, ^^fSjiXi, to indicate

7) The definition or explanation of a general or uni

versal by a special or particular, the latter being one
of several objects that go to make up the former; as:

/?rf ?ira Me *we w<zy tf dre enjoined to take cognizance of

the different states of the heart, such as trust (in God), and
repentance, and fear (of Him) ; ^d\ ^LLa-SH mj+t* 2-SaZi

##</ Af examined alt the bodies that there are in this world
of existence and decay, both animals, plants, and minerals ;
JuoLs: JuuUe {jjo Jk both (of them), Abel as weU as Cain;

Lijitl .^5 jLU& LbLi*!, Mere brethren of ours, the

Ansar (or Helpers of the Prophet); JUJ! ^ ^Po^fliLo J-^-f. 5),
their object, namely learning, is not attained ; jULl)f L-uLli
.mLS.^I J**, therefore avoid the abomination of idols;'

cX-~,yi xjuo o*aj^, / encountered in him a lion; v-jj^Mj

3. The Government of llie Verb. The Prepositions. 87

Jjb. Jli ,V> jJuU! IjJc <J0^ , nd the Arabs omit this
verb k'ala yahulu. In this way \x is conslanlly used
after the indefinite pronoun Lx, what, whatever, which can-
not be construed with a genitive; as: JUJI ^x ^jej U,

the money that has been spent; iXlft 0I3 *** kjj*_ '**** ^*
whatever you lay out in charity, will be amply made up
to you.
Rem. In the language of the grammarians, \x is here used
..LyJL' or waaxXJJ , to make clear or explain.

50. ^jx. (with pronominal suffixes ,-le, dlle, Lie)

designates motion away from, departure from a place or
from beside a person; as: XJLJl jji Zilw , tofe yo//r efe-

parture from the town; *ul& ,jeLe^lj sSyS J _U=2 b) (JCa.,

M<z/ you may not be compelled to leave him and turn away
from him. Hence it is used:
1) After verbs denoting flight , avoidance, caution,
abstinence, self-defence, guarding and setting free, forbidding
and hindering, and, in general, to express the doing of
something (e. g. fighting or paying) for or in behalf of
another. For example: ,jXU ~ax. *i aJLff *Uis ^e. >->r-M'
it is impossible to /lee from the decree of God Almighty ;
a ^ 'I ^c xj", fftw'rf w^fl/ disgraceful; s_*aa=s! jl (-A*aj

I*aj L*x , /V is necessary that he should avoid what in

jures him; LL& s'juJfLx .jJaj ^1 ,-Aaaj > 'Vis necessary
tha the should patiently abstain from what his soul desires
88 Pari Third. Syntax.

(his passions desire); *-*3ilj J^t <u\yj3 , 1 am free from all

connexion with them {as client) ; 'ij^'SS ^_>ltXt ^s. JaJLiaLs, he
is savedfrom punishment in the next world ; JClJ! ,j^ j-^-'l.
M<? jnohibition of what is abominable; {xs. k_>JL>, ^
<ar/.y </# My deputy; sXs. Jj'UL, //tf /fj//*/.v for him; J^bs! ^
1^-lail ,jyLj^ .^jjJI^^i, do not contend for those who be
tray themselves (lit. </o not by contending try to keep off
punishment from those Src.) ; ULi j^S ^ JJ15 ^ysi %
one soul shall not make satisfaction for another in any
point; UJo IjJ^ \jSzll S-**-> he paid so and so many
dirhems in his stead.
2) Afler verbs denoting uncovering, laying bare, open
ing, revealing, informing, asking and answering; for in
lhe.se verbs (here lies the idea of the removal of a cover
ing, real or figurative. For example: llijlJt yu, ^ix. <.ao.$"I},
if the veils of this world were removed from me (from be
fore my eyes); ^*SU {jk 'Sk !JlL ^uti ^if ^,
if you want a witness who can inform you regarding what
is hidden; I g * , t ^ J^t ^JLlOLI, / will tell you about all
... > <" .- - ?- ~! * iT 'i '" ' * Tc- ' ?B * i ' '
of them; &*. ^_>L&.L *juLe *JUI Jj-~; *>- J-*** J'**- IJje,
//</ w ff question about which the apostle of God was ques-
- > 0 ^
Honed, and he gave an answer to it; J^_c *__sl3 I t"^K
Ojj .1 jJdix JLJ , */? laughs so as to show (teeth like)
strung pearls or hailstones (in whiteness).
3) Afler verbs denoting abandonment or neglect, and
the ability to dispense with ((ji) one thing because of the
3. The Government of the Verb. The Prepositions. 39

possession of another (i_,); because in them is implied the

notion of turning away {^' &Q. For example: * \ ; ^
,jx JuUlT ^ ,jl ,jLLj!^J, w w*/ / <? neglectful
of himself; l.glc "lit yo ' , //<? ato^s /// require it; v_>SLk> J
cjlIiUL'l elifc ,^x (_jLc 1JU5JI , //W /' the study ofscience that
which contents me so that I can dispense with the singing
of women; w\y~ {j- viLLdi? i5aaTI^ ^ly*. ^t^e *iU^a? ic**^''
satisfy me with what thou aUowest , so that I may be able
to dispense with what thou forbiddesi, and suffice me through
thy goodness, so that I may not have occasion for any other
/ M. Similarly: jui Nf 6^ ^ j>*&Ji ^ *iU<> *JUL,
this circumstance occupied him so that he could not think
of anything but it ; v_*jUJ| JJ' Jii v^ r*3^ ,<?> M<?re w *

itf inability to mention all the virtues; l\^c JfjL\ v-*^ o*aaa.!._j!
^ Jfo , / fowrrf <fo ^0orf (*>/" /Atf world) so as to neglect
all thought of my Lord; iuJ6 ^t. J^^u^ > h* ** so stingy
as to deny himself every thing.

4) After verbs signifying to leave one behind or to surpass

one; as: ^i*. s^Loit j, you do not surpass me in any-

thing. Hence the expression ,V_e !}L_*i_i, wo/ to mention,

much more or much less (according to the context); as:

<_^J| Ji' juuc -ift Li kjCil .131, <?? w<? clearly saw in
the smallest of existing things, not to mention (and much
more in) the largest of them , such traces of wisdom
V. II. 12
dO Part Third. Synlax.

as set him in the greatest astonishment ; *ULJ\ ^ iX^jJ ^

JuLo Jvx ^Lai Lij^L, # is not found in the entire of
Syria, not to mention {much less in) Safed. Hence too
the use of ^e. in comparisons (like J^, 49, 5); as:

JtiJ! ^l$L&J **Lil >JuJ! o*aJ! ,j^ ool ^1 , where

art thou '(where' are thy verses) in comparison with this
rare verse , that contains all the things with which the mouth
can be compared?
5) jjx also indicates the source from which something
proceeds; as: sle. ^o">, he was satisfied with him, ivas
gracious to him; dJli- Ai I jje Jjtij if, we will not do this
at your word, as it were, setting out from your word, moved
by your authority. Hence it shows a) the authority for
any statement, tradition, or the like; as: (_wL&Jt lj^. .ZC*.)

it is related on the authority of'c's-Safi"i; {J^, GjLxlf ^ji>*

^oLiiJI r\x &**m \&, and our teacher used to narrate on
fhc authority of a certain sheikh ; aJUl J^.^c ^s*ss e.-Jt\=.,

<7 authentic tradition of the Apostle of God; *j| J_l!f. ^ys.1

Jls, # tf /<?/</ of (he prophet that he said; and b) the
cause from which an efTcct proceeds as its source; as:
sis. +-ykl\, that which necessarily follows from it; dUbe Li
Sj~& ^t^c BjjoI, wo 0tf <wr perished through asking advice
(of others).

6) Lastly, \i. is used of time as equivalent to Jju,

after; as: LaaS' ^yCs ^owi" (ji, in a short time it will be
3. The Government of Ihe Verb. The Prepositions. 91

much; AxXS* Li, after a Ultlc while (where \j* is redun

dant, as in . 49, 3, last example).

Rem. a. Observe the phrases: SJu* 'wwl*j ,%x i>Le , he

died aged eighty; , ** -p t\-J i%x <yLo , fo died leaving a
young child.

Rem. b. Because of their being- related in meaning, \x and

Jwc are sometimes used indifferently; for example, after . : *.
to hinder, yjjub*} , to avoid , ^^j , /raj from, clear of, and the
like. Compare . 49, 5, with . 50, 4; as also the use of the Heb.
|C , Gesenius' Thesaur., p. 804, second column , a.

Rem. c. j. is sometimes used as an indeclinable noun, sig

nifying: side, which is its original meaning; e. g. kJuli > ,%X Jijo
k_H.>ivIj *" ^'s njjrA*1 nrf A left.

51. The prepositions that indicate motion to or towards

a place, are Jl, /o; Ji, up to; ^, to; yH, towards.

52. Jl (with pronominal suffixes J,t, viCJl, xl^l) is

opposed to ^ and J^t; as: jJSiJI J, I tX^iJ! ^^ />'<mb
> ^
the cradle to the grave; jot laij), he severed himself
/row him, abandoned his cause, but awJI j&itet, /< vsrs
devoted to his cause; _ii villi', *///rf 0// (see tlie end of
the section)! It signifies:
1) Motion to or towards a place; as: &jL_jJ>^Jf J I *L&.,
A </<; to the city.

2) Transferred to time, the point up to which some

92 Part Third. Syntax.

thing lasts or continues; as: ^^jdUs ^c| ^ **SUo Jlyi' ^

- ' *" - f -'1" "i-
jtixid! -j J! (J^i! J^e , a part of my people shall not cease
to hold fast the truth till the day of the resurrection. It
occurs in a somewhat different sense in the phrase :
Riflj'M **> J I iCu+aaJ, fo v7/ assemble you to the day
of the resurrection (for it).
3) Jt also shows that one thing is added to an
other, and hence we find it construed with 3l\, to increase,
augment; as: SjO\^\ ^1 uJ^\y*>\ I^Job 51, do o/ devour

M#'r substance in addition to your own; ajl^^ .J I xjCa. !*>l\,

they have added a knowledgeto the knowledge they possessed.
It is also construed with adjectives of the form JJlj! and
others, derived from verbs signifying love or hatred and
used in a passive sense, to indicate the subject of the feel
ing (see . 34, rem. ); for example: um, y^*'
dear; ^*A, dearer; yojukj, hated, hateful; \JaX>\, more
hateful. It is used too with yjj, near, and similar words,
in so far as they convey the idea of approach or approxi
mation, opposed to Jjx. Juuu , far from; e. g. oCSl ijli
vJkjuJl ^Jl, /or /&'* foz(?* nearer to reverence; whereas
in so far as they convey the idea of the measurement of
the distance of one place from another, they are construed
with >__*, . 49, 4. Finally, notice the phrases:
, i . - ~ -
viJUi JLi ^Jl, lit. on to others of this (kind), and s^.! _Jf
(contracted -IS), to the end of it, i. e. et caetera; viilff,
lit to thyself! and lJ!l vdlljl, fo thyself from me! i. e.
3 The Government of the Verb. The Prepositions. 93

stand off! let me alone! lH |<Xe, scil. JUvc or ^e^Xo,

this is committed or entrusted to him.

Rem. Compare, in general, the significations oflheHeb. pre

position ~JH or i?X , as exhibited in Gesenius' Thesaurus. Examples
of the third sense given above are Levit. 18, 18.fcO ~nr"!N~^X HtS'NI
npn, Lament. 3, 41. Q'CI2>3 b* " b D'53 ~bt< mzb Nfc'J.
The Hebrew uses "? in several cases in which the Arabic em
ploys Jl

53. Ji. differs from J| in indicating the motion to
wards and at the same time the arrival at an object,
whether this object be actually touched and included or
not; whereas ^t merely implies the motion towards an ob-
ject, whether this be arrived at or not; as: wseUJ! A-Lk* lJis>.,
till the dawn of morning. However, when ^ an(l <J[
are used in opposition to one another to designate the ter
minus a quo and terminus ad quern, ^11 necessarily in
cludes the idea of reaching the object. Further, when the
reaching of the object is distinctly expressed by the govern
ing verb or verbal noun itself, the meaning of J I is
naturally modified thereby; as: xlM o*1^aj!, / came up to
him; jjjl iL^jpSjl, the attaining of it. That ^zL does not
necessarily include the object reached or attained is evident
from its being used to indicate exceptions, like the German
his auf.
Rem. a. l_Xa. is scarcely ever used with pronominal suffixes.

Rem. b. The grammarians, when they wish to make a dis

94 Part Third. Syntax.

Unction, say that Jf is used eLLxj^U, to designate the limit of

M<; act, whilst Ji is employed juliJl *lixjil, to designate

the attainment of the extremity or utmost limit.
a ~ ' - ' o ..
Rem. . When _&. is a simple copulative particle (ukcup.,
or jUJoLc , or - nUii I) in (he sense of tffew, it exercises, like
the oilier copulatives, such as 1, v_j, and ^j, no independent in
fluence upon the following noun, which remains under the same
government as the preceding one; as: L&JI -e^- ^-L^' *tX,

fA* pilgrims have arrived, even those travelling on fool; v^JLTI

(L^wU ^Jl would mean exclusive of the head); jL-&j rJ6%

!i>juJ|, and the Apostle of God used to consult his companions on all
matters, even household affairs.
Rem. d. The corresponding word to v. in Hebrew (and
probably ctymologically connected with it) is 1JJ; in /Ethiopia
2ifl1n:on which sceDillmann's Gr. . 165, 6, and . 203, 2, *, ft.

54. J (with pronominal suffixes J__, viL_f , Lj)

is connected in its derivation with _Jf, and differs from
it only in this, that J! mostly expresses concrete relations,
local or temporal, whilst J generally indicates abstract
or ideal relations. The principal use of J is to show the
passing on of the action to a more distant object, and hence
it corresponds to the Latin or German dative; but it may
also express the relation of the action to a nearer object,
3. The Government of the Verb. The Prepositions. 95

and so stand in place of the accusative (compare . 29 34).

Hence ij indicates:
1) The simple relation of an act to the more distant
object; as: si sjS>1, he gave it to him; L$J Jli", he said
to her.
Rem. a. After the middle forms of the verb, J often expresses
the yielding oneself up to the action of another or to the effect of a
thing; as: iSj ^ai| Lx , i U4. t jj l.y^, pull his (the camel's)
leading-string as long as you can pull it; &_JULj I ' c <A ^ \ *
- . - o - -.
J L_c J^iM, if any one deceives us with God (i. c. with a pretence
of devoutness) , me let ourselves be deceived by him.

Rem. b. The grammarians say that the Ji| *il, or preposition

J , is used in this case s TLV n y II , <o express the passing on of
the action.

2) The dative a) of possession; as: ^U jJ ^jjo J^ Jf

)_>_5l o, /ft* ?ff is he who has a correct judgment;
xJU tX^rll, p?-aise belongs to God; sJJ bl, <? " Gods;
whence it is used to indicate the author of a proverb, poem,
&c. ; as: ^ImjII ^ iVt ^ ij J-usUi', </* has been said by

Mohammed ibn cl-Hasan; X % <a* *) tX&j|, /'* recited {a

/?) y o<? 0/ M/ (the poets); ^JJ j| Jyw^ yJUiol,

/?<?<? #>< recited to me, and I was told it was by AH;
b) of permission; as: iLJ3 hJlJ, then this is allowed him
(lit. is to him); c) of advantage, as opposed to JS., which
indicates injury; as: LgJU* bubble y^jiJ! Sij*x siiM,
96 Pari Third. Syntax.

learning is the soul's cognizance of what is for its good

and for its hurt.
Rem. a. The grammarians say that J, when it indicates pos-
O 0
session , is used A 1 t 1 ) , to indicate the right ofproperty, or
a -c
, joLoJC^^U^ to show that something is ascribed to one as his own.
Compare the Hebrew usage, "1]"6 ")bTO , a psalm composed by
David, Ac

Rem. b. As the Arabs have no verb corresponding to our have,

they are obliged to express it by the preposition J with the genitive

of the possessor; as: jJL_e UcjL_* JtJb\ ^JLA1JU ^J6, *^

Zukair had two hundred slaves; yjj v_>_=*U<3 JoLX* t>t JJUj J
s of .-. 6* . .-
A* had in Bagdad six hundred secret police ; ^j| jl v_,| J Lc,
/ have neither father nor son. So in Hebrew, Gen. 31, 1.
f :
*.* -t T

as also J? (Trl
or ^ tf\ /APf, ^ m,

J AtfVtf HO*.

Rem. . J is often used, instead of a simple pronominal suffix,

s* , - -^
in order to avoid rendering a noun definite; e. g. i.1 ^J ic>Le ,
* ,,
a brother of mine is dead; whereas ^^J v^joo would mean my
(it may be, only) brother is dead. So in Hebrew, Gen. 14, 18.
P,<'5p*?/' ]n*3 priest of the most high God, not the priest.

Rem. d. In pecuniary transactions J is used to indicate the

creditor, whilst J^i expresses the debtor; as: .?. O oiJl ^Q^>^ Jc
i/om 0v ro<? (lit, rtv or< to me upon you) a thousand dirhhus.

Rem. e. Observe the expressions of admiration: sjO aJU.

3. The Government of Ihe Verb. The Prepositions. 97

, _ ,* X
what a man he is! JJ>.) Xyo <i).t> aJJ , what a man you are!
(lit; such a man can emanate only from God. Compare Jonah 3, 3.
C'ribxb r6l"l3 TJ? nrpn Pip^JI* A6kw* w* very large city).
Remark also such phrases as: ufw&JI dJ Jjs, woW you

Uke some wine? (jijo \AjJH /jl A aXJ Jj6, A yow a wwA
to (to rtw? where we must supply the substantive Kit*,
desire , wish.

3) The purpose for which, and the reason why,

any thing is done (relation of the action to its purpose
and cause); as: r\-\ j t \ '\ y, he arose to help him;

JkiiJU ill |Jl*JI IJ, science (or theory) is only for the purpose
0/ i)?^ applied in practice; A,JI' v8^/ wl vJlk,
/# sought the dignity (or 0>^<re) /or //< purpose of or-
dering good; J^s ItX^Jj. ? /or WW reason it is said;
j^aij &ibf, because it does harm; aJjiJ cu^, / wondered
at {because of) what he said.
OS fi o
Rem. In this case J is said to be used JuJIjlaJU, or SJLkJU ,
to indicate the cause. Compare in Hebrew Gen. 4,23. t^'N '3
'JJSS1? TJ "In, for I have slain a man because of a wound given me.
4) After the verb J\j, it often indicates the object in
reference to which something is said ; as : JuL ^J l^y*2 ^5
cyllcl aJU! J^* vi > do not say in regard to those who are
killed in the path of God, they are dead {do not call those
who are killed fighting for God's cause, dead); ^_Jj_jul
ttx# Jff"! fXf-^sf Cj i3^4 d ne say f tne ^'^K after
it has come to you, Is this magic? Similarly: jL&lx JLS"
V.II. 13
98 Pari Third. Syntax.

oJL*i Jo JIj *Xsi\ , Meslema , the son of 'Abdu l-melik, said

one day to Nosaib, Did you compose a poem in praise of
so and so ? meaning one of his family ; he said, J did.
Rem. a. Both bii and 7 are so used in Hebrew. See Gesenius'
Thesaurus, p. 104, first col., 11, b, and p. 731, second col. 11.
Rem. b. After the interjection G, the preposition J is fre
quently prefixed to the name of a person called to aid, as well as
to the name of him against whom help is implored, in which case
it is said to be used '<l y ...Ml , to ask kelp. If there be only one
G . f 0 . ^^ c f
ii>UiA*wo or y ii^.l kXmJti i- e. person called to aid, the preposition
lakes the vowel fetha (just as with the pronominal suffixes, vol. I.. 356,
rem. b); as : Joy! U, help, Zeid! But if there be several, J is used with the
first alone, and J with the rest, unless the interjection be repeated before
each name, when J is retained throughout; as: .jLjJLU. Jj_iJLU L>,
help, old and young! j-jlJ J--V-' lj or <ii*^ L>j Joy lj<

A*^, Zeid and Amr! ^Cjj" JlJuoil Gi ^JLILj, A/j>, Omy

family and ye mho are like my family! If the name of the
' 1 ' 1 * - ' ^
person against whom aid is required, 1 ..t * v ... t If or

Jl=t j%jo ^LiJuLtJI , be expressed, it takes J (with kesra)

before it, as i^>3l5uU (uwLuJU L_>, help , people , against this
/lar.' In the case of the xt cjUUum-Mi the vocative termination
I (see . 38, 3) is sometimes used instead of J with the genitive ;
as: -jl) I Jjv G, help, Zeid, against 'Amr! These expressions
are also employed ._.-2vl I , fo express surprise, in which case the
&Juo _ A;,! I , or object that causes surprise, is treated in the same
3. The Government of the Verb. The Prepositions.^ 99

jl*?r' c^ <k^* <J4^! 5**^ (j'r*^ ^i , but 0 <A dw-

jfrrtc<* /" <Aos tpAo i^s/r < (learning) in order to obtain benefits from
men! In all these cases J seems to point out the person or thing,
in reference to which the exclamation is uttered, as being the origin
and cause of iL
55. lai (accusative of J, the nomen verbi of ti, to
turn towards) indicates i) towards a place; as: ~..jji**.'i *j

jojJLji vsJu lai, then they will set out towards Jerusalem;
2) according to; as: jjlS" li, according to his saying, as he
sags (compare the use of J in . 54, 3). .pi is also used
in all its cases, with a following genitive, as a substan
tive or adjective, to signify such as, like; e. g. Jov Ji S*-y

a ; such as Zeid; t^iaJU o^=Lf k' ^xkbll -jU. JJ JJ1,

and just so in regard to the other moral characteristics,
such as liberality and niggardliness; J^-js yai j JLX 3
(i. e. Juv Jlio 'Jk CJLXf jJLC')> ^ 3po<? like Zeid. As
a substantive it likewise means about (circa), in which case
it may be followed either by the genitive or by ^jx; as:
clT(> iljLo ..as: kLb, its length is about one hundred cubits;

J^-Co cU Ji JS , at (a distance of) about she marches ;

jkls yo Jsi j-jXIl 3 ^jd , t/ is about the size of Feid.

56. The preposition (with pronominal suffixes "_i,

viJLj, x*i), on the difference between which and v_> see
. 57, indicates:
100 Part Third. Syntax.

1) Both rest in a place or during a time and motion

into a place, in which latter case it corresponds to the Greek
elg or the Latin in with the accusative; as: oJu-M , in

<fa house; &LJI viJUb , / this year; ..JL^J! "_S'j ,

A /// /o the well; ioCxXjI . gk *: , fo wro/fe on the
< 0/ M<? letter; (3+jL_wIM 3 aJUt xasjj, God will cast
him into (make him dwell in) the villages. This signification
is then transferred to the relation subsisting between any
two things, the one of which is regarded as the place
in which the other is, or happens, or into which it goes or
is put; as: JLiJI (,11a. , in the state of pupilage; *'/'*

^J\jL\, he must obey his (the teacher's) orders in all that is not
contrary to the will of God, but not in those things which,
whilst they are in accordance with the will of the creature,
are against the will of the Creator ; JJil ~wx> **i Co, whatever
good there is in it; *JLijd! J^.i>, //^ commenced studying;

xJ^k. 3 xJJt *4^-<3s?' ^^ ;'y^ ^ ^'m efer */( to mercy.

2) is sometimes equivalent in meaning to _Je ,

with, or ^jJo, among; as: ill! ^ ^ ~ &_&.!*, A*
&tf oa/ >//// (lit. arc //< w'dW of) 50,000 men.

3) It indicates the subject of thought or conversation,

that in which these move; as: ililiM jCaLT /s g > J "if
reflect two months upon the choice of a teacher; j|
3. The Governmenl of the Verb. The Preposilions. 101

dUi ICftij , /< *m*/ meditate upon this; >Jl!<i ,j JUo.

fo */?<?<? fffow/ /l4w (whereas viJUJu lJUo would mean ^<?
s/wfo; //</s ok/, he gave utterance to this opinion). Hence
if is used in slating the. subject of a book or chapter; as:
i-5HLSlT ^ GU^" olLo , he composed a book on morals;

*JL*J! Su#U 3 Jc*ai , a chapter treating of the nature of sci

enceyslffUDl: Jke dy\* & s'jslJl-^sJl \^\j&, the book ofthe

shining stars, treating of the kings of Misr and el-Kahira.
4) ^ is used after verbs signifying desire, like
>J^j and iJe, in connection with the object desired; as:
.a* -0 . > >--,., . ">" f < ,.'.,,

why should he, who has experienced the sweetness of know

ledge and of the application of it in practice, desire any-
thing that men possess? ^UJt Jlyi! ik> }J ,jl ^jAaaj,
ta ??/*/ wo/ row/ people's property.
5) It is employed in the comparison of two objects,
governing the thing with which the other is compared;
as: eLLo SM y-^' ij U^iX" Sj**' ^> <&* */& * merely
a temporary usufruct, compared with the life to come;
lit when put into it, the smaller object being, as it were,
placed within the larger one for the purpose of comparing
the two.
6) Lastly is used to express proportion (e. g. length
and breadth) and multiplication; as: LtUi ^y-'t^ JtLJu

LJJa !*'; r**& (5^'> "k ^'^ ** fifty cubits, by twelve

102 Part Third. Synlax.

cubits in breadth (Germ, bei or auf, Fr. sur) ; iuJU*- i iii",

three into five or three times five, according to the phrase
liixk jj (S Jlc CSnjAe , he multiplied one number by another
(lit. struck the one into the other).

R e m. a. ^ is said by Ihe grammarians to be used JUj. \n \ I ,

<o indicate time and place (see vol. I. . 221, rem. a).

Rem. b. The Hebrew uses 3 in most of the above significations;

e. g. rv33 , K>nn rotfa , byv nntt'a Sci (Ps. 7 , 16) ;
c6l&'2{<~CJ7 D'"]B'(?2 ^PtVnN, Ahitophel is among those who are
conspiring with Absalom (2 Sam. 15, 31); 3 "13^1 ; 3 V?.n,
3 run ; &c.
57. ^_j (with pronominal suffixes _j, viL, ju) differs
from in this , that ^, like the Latin and German in,
shows that one thing is actually in the midst of another,
surrounded by it on all sides; whereas u merely indi
cates that the one is close by the other or in contact with
it, and corresponds therefore to the Latin prepositions prope,
juxta, apud, ad, and the German an or bei. For example:
'iySt>\i\ oLo joji' , a village close to (or hard by) the gate
of cl-Kdhii'a; J^a-o y3wo, I passed by a man; ju olL*,
//<? */ beside (or #y) />; .Juj xJUf jv-Twoj, 6W helped

yo / 5<?<i!r; jj>Ls jAJtXjb ^, there was at (or in,

Germ. z, Fr. ^ el-Medina a merchant; ya^i JuLs , a town

irc {belonging to) Egypt ; oLu* sJ^o. . '*VA sword in his
3. The Government of the Verb. The Prepositions. 103

Hence it is construed with verbs signifying, to adhere, attach,

or connect (e. g. (J>Jui, (jj^iJ, *-*ft seize, take, or begin
(e. g. jo>l, fJo), flee for refuge to, believe in, and swear by
(e. g. J>U, ^1, |v*-j"l). For example: ^uAj iuCebl p^j*;
l^J liUcl 5l, Mr heads adhere to their shoulders and they
//p<? o necks; >UilL> i^Ltfj j^jJl ,j5j, because the worms

srtc /o thefruit; ^a*JLj I Jo, ta fey &> study; jJUL) 6jjlT

U*g \jo, we take refuge with God from his wrath;

Jo>(J! JL!L) o*a*I, / believe in the one God; JUb o^sl,

/ s*rr % 6W; viLJo, ^-y /% /*<// Hence, too, it is
used after |<>l, /o/ */ introducing a person or thing that
*" * * > "c ** "
comes suddenly into view (g| &.l_i_*_J! 161 or \j\

iwSLsvjJI); as: e>J<V? 16^ r*^ y6 ^Jo, A*&/ ^<? was going
along, he suddenly perceived a cloud of dust : .-^ ..'< (^jj
a%c y*-flL u! lil. oi JJI, </ ff/7r / had got to the middle of
the passage, I all at once heard a great noise; vio Joi.| ^ .jj^j
v^LJ! J^ S+Aic. jtekj \i>\:, and whilst we were talking, agreat
clamour suddenly arose at the door; Juulil xJ JLaj jWIj l<M
jjl'l Jo 5Cj, behold there came forward a man called the seiyid
Beraka. Here we must supply the participle of lite verb
U^okl, to perceive, which is construed with ^_>, as, for in-
' s > ,*
stance, in the first of the above examples, IJU.^ Ql 131'
ph c \stl la >. The same remark applies to ^ in such

phrases as: ^_ti>Lii db ^S^", t/ seems to me that you

re trying to deceive me; iLoi" viJlj J&, methinks I see you

104 Pari Third. Syntax.

slain; i. e. viJL? JLs1 ^Il From the idea of contact

there arises, in the case of a superior and inferior or primary
and secondary object, that of companionship and connection ;
as: jJL^Lj 'XL, he set out with his household; &J-&\

sJC^i'XLL\, he bought the ass along with its bridle. Under

this idea are figuratively represented the following relations.
1) The relation between subject and predicate, especi-
ally in negative propositions; as: .jlib jJJI ,j! I.-J pij\
^Sy^y (e^sl ,j' J<* > do they not see that God is powerful
(enough) to bring the dead to life? JIju cLl), / do not know;

&X3L> oJ!J , / cannot read; "jjO*j*j $ Li , they are not be

2) The relation between the act and its object, a) This
is always the case after intransitive verbs, especially such
as indicate motion, e. g. *la., ^>|, to come, v^jeo, to go
away; ' !j, 'XL, to depart, set out, lis, Jd^i, to get
up, rise, \+L, to be high, &c. These verbs are construed
with v_> and the genitive of the thing, accompanied by,
or in connection with, which one performs the act they denote.
They must therefore be translated into English by transitive
verbs. For example: xlx ^x *)y~*l l-J'L, then bring (lit.

come with) a sura (chapter) like it; *&\%*i xJUl wJOO,

6-'orf took away (lit. .'?/ wy with) their light ; \JiX> U,
fo upheld the truth ; SJCJUJ! ^LxcLs od$j, ^ too /w?
foiw /#<? burden of the government; * ? I ,,L, ^ ///W
i/ up on high, b) The same construction is also employed
3. The Governmenl of the Verb. The Prepositions. 105

with transitive verbs, not only when they signify motion,

but in other cases too, and the verbs must then be used
absolutely: as: *> ^1 eJu, he sent them to me (lit he
performed the act of sending to me in connection with, or
by means of, them , using them as the objects through
which he realized that act). This happens in particular when
the transitive verb is used in a figurative sense, and the pre-
position is then called )Lss*J! ib, the figurative bi; as:
LfljtJl y*S , he has broken the stick, but .-aJju JLS, he
has broken my heart; Jail! jjjs., he has set the bone,
but .-JUo yj^>, he has comforted my heart; .jj XJl^f if

L^JUj |ji L$j ,*JaJu U* ^liillM stXgj *l jocST, and

there is no doubt that the using of these plants for food
is one of the reasons that prevents them (lit cuts them off)
from attaining their full growth. In this case i> indicates
the adhesion of the action to its object. The relation of the
acts of breaking, cutting, &c, to their objects in an impro
per spiritual sense, requires a prepositional exponent, as being
a less immediate relation than when they are used in their
proper material sense.
3) The relation between the act and the instrument
with which, the means by which, or the reason why, it is
performed; as: >_aJLDL xJUtS", he slew him with the sword;

xSUTi) xSyu 'jjLgJI xJUl **)*>> God will grant him patience
through the salutary power of prayer to Him; la-* s\ l^i
IffLiJ LgiULc, wherefore, because of their breaking their
covenant, we have cursed them (Li redundant, see 49, 3,
v. II. 14
106 Part Third. Syntax.

and 50, 6). Connected herewith is the use of ^ with

surnames, &c, after Cijk, to be known ; as also after (JS'.
to be enough, to suffice, with the person or thing that suf
fices or is enough for one; e. g. o.lSuJt iJLe ^j ^y^
^jLLyijiiJlj, Hasan bin 'Mi, known by the name of el-Mar-

g'man'i; ^yils <Jyii abtS', a village known by the name of

Bakwa; tjuifrw iJUL ,-*_ ^orf sufficeth as a witness ;

j\j'l*JU LicLj Ucl5 *JjlII s jJL _&f, rt* delight of learn

ing is a sufficient motive and incentive to the sensible man.
The price of any article is also expressed by the pre
position ^ after verbs signifying to buy, pay, &c, as being
the instrumental means with which the act is performed; as:
,UL>do UXi' ^5pL&|, he bought a reed -pen for a dinar;

^JcgJU iJiLiJt l^jjuil, they have purchased error at the

price of truth; r.yijjCi Li K" Uj ,*d! il>!<X& *-$-', they shall

suffer a painful punishment for having charged {others)
with being liars (LilS'Uj I^jlCf).
Rem. a. The preposition without is expressed in Arabic by
iL), JJJu, and more rarely ^ Juo and ^ Jo ; ikj can be used
only with an indefinite substantive, . Vft_ with one tlial is either defi

nite or indefinite; as: sLo Xj -, tf^JiSr V-; ,1 tn,t w, a refer wiVA

out justice is like a river without water; . .^ *aAj* without neces-

*<fy; i&it ai)i unjustly; vjikd. ^jlc Jijc, without controversy ;

ij^j^j.Jo, without (paying any) price. Compare in Hebrew N'Ja,
3. The Government of the Verb. The Prepositions. 107

Rem. b. In formulas such as ._*! oil ejlj> ^0!< rtr' as t^ear

Co me as father and mother, the preposition depends upon the word
S ^
i<\Le, ransomed, which is