Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

SCIENCES

ASSIGNMENT # 2
OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

SUBMITTED TO:

Dr. NAWAR KHAN

SUBMITTED BY:

MAHAM AHSAN

CMS # MSEM-19146

DATED; 10th OCT,2017


WHAT IS PROCESS FLOW CHART ?

Process flowchart is also known as the system flow diagram. A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic
representation of a process. Each step in the process is represented by a different symbol and contains a
short description of the process step. The flow chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the
process flow direction. The main reason of using process flowchart is to show the relation between major
parts of the system. It does not include minor parts or components of the system like piping ratings or
piping systems.

In many organizations, users term process flow diagrams as flow sheet. They are used primarily in process
engineering and chemical industry where there is a requirement of depicting the relationship between
major components only. These process engineering and chemical industry are least concerned about the
minor components involved in the system. Process flow diagrams for single unit or multiple units differ in
their structure and implementation. Process flow diagrams for multiple units do not include detailed
information and are known as the schematic flow diagrams or block flow diagrams.

Involves creating a flow model that illustrates and analyzes the overall flow of activities in producing a
product or service. Sometimes called: Process diagram, process flowchart, process flow diagram, process
flow map or process map, process flow document or process flow documentation, process flow model or
process design model, process flow analysis chart or process flow analysis map model, process document
or process documentation.

IMPORTANCE OF PROCES S FLOW CHART

To develop understanding of how a process is done.


To study a process for improvement.
To communicate to others how a process is done.
When better communication is needed between people involved with the same process.
To document a process.
When planning a project.

ADVANTAGES

The processes flow chart provides a visual representation of the steps in a process. Flow charts are also
referred to as process mapping or flow diagrams. Constructing a flow chart is often one of the first
activities of a process improvement effort, because of the following benefits:

Maham Ahsan 19146 2


Make process flowcharts
Give everyone a clear understanding of the process
Help to identify non-value-added operations
Facilitate teamwork and communication
Keep everyone on the same page
Design a flow charts
Flowchart construction etc.

COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS:

SYMBOL NAME DESCRIPTION

Square This symbolizes a process step


where there is actual work being
done, or value add activities to raw
materials or work in progress.
Process steps should be split up into
tasks and not be too general as
there is the possibility of missing
important sub steps or waiting/idle
times which are a form of waste.
Inverted triangle This symbolizes an inventory hold,
warehouse or work in progress
inventory bin/warehouse. This is
where material accumulates before
being put through the next process
step. It is important to identify
these stores as they contribute to
working capital requirements,
inventory costs and can highlight
other problems in the system.
Square with one rounded side This symbol represents a delay in
the system, downtime or waiting
period where items have to wait on
a process to finish or a certain
waiting period required as part of
the process. These waiting periods
must be carefully measured and
recorded.
Diamond This symbol represents a decision
point in the process, where there is
a check, outcome or decision that
has to be made like a quality check.
Arrow An arrow indicates process,
material or work in progress flow
through the process.

Maham Ahsan 19146 3


EXAMPLE CHARTS

Planning process flow chart

VALUE MAPPING

Value stream mapping is a flowchart method to illustrate, analyze and improve the steps required to
deliver a product or service. A key part of lean methodology, VSM reviews the flow of process steps and
information from origin to delivery to the customer. As with other types of flowcharts, it uses a system of
symbols to depict various work activities and information flows. VSM is especially useful to find and
eliminate waste. Items are mapped as adding value or not adding value from the customers standpoint,
with the purpose of rooting out items that dont add value. Value stream mapping is a paper and pencil
tool that helps you to see and understand the flow of material and information as a product or service
makes its way through the value stream.

Maham Ahsan 19146 4


Value stream mapping is typically used in Lean; it differs from the process mapping in four ways:

1) It gathers and displays a far broader range of information than a typical process map.

2) It tends to be at a higher level (5-10 boxes) than many process maps.

3) It tends to be used at a broader level, i.e. from receiving of raw material to delivery of finished goods.

4) It tends to be used to identify where to focus future projects, subprojects, and/or kaizen events.

Its important to keep in mind that customers, whether external or internal, care about the value of the
product or service to them, not the efforts it took to produce it, or the value that may flow to other
customers. Value stream mapping maintains that focus. A typical process is to draw a current state VSM
and then model a better way with a future state and/or ideal state VSM. You can start off sketching by
hand and then move to VSM software for better communication, analysis and collaboration.

PURPOSE OF VALUE MAPPING

Value stream mapping is a powerful method to ferret out waste in any process, not just manufacturing.
Thats its core purpose. You detail each significant process step and evaluate how its adding valueor
not adding valuefrom the customers standpoint. That focus on value keeps the analysis targeted to
what really matters, allowing the company to compete most effectively in the market. Foreseeing or facing
any competitive threat, lean practitioners can make good use of VSM to produce the most value for the
customer in the most efficient way possible. It can and should be used on an ongoing basis for continuous
improvement, bringing better and better process steps on line. VSM allows you to see not only the waste,
but the source or cause of the waste. Although its typical purpose is eliminating waste, VSM can also be
seen from the perspective of adding value. After all, thats what the customer cares about. Eliminating
waste is the means to an end of creating value, such as a lower price and/or better-quality product or
service. Value is something a customer is willing to pay for.

SYMBOLS USED FOR VALUE MAPPING

Symbol Name Description

Customer/Supplier Represents customer in upper right or supplier in upper left.

Maham Ahsan 19146 5


Dedicated Process A fixed activity flow within a department.
Flow

Shared Process A process shared by other parts of the value stream.

Data Box Data about the process step, such as cycle time, change over
time and uptime.

Work cell Indicates that multiple processes are being integrated in a


manufacturing work cell.

Electronic Info Such as EDI (electronic data interchange), the internet, WANs
(wide area network), LANs (local area network) or intranets.

Inventory Inventory between two processes.

Maham Ahsan 19146 6


EXAMPLE

Maham Ahsan 19146 7