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rGefttuQ&m/ Arm tuQ&m? xdkif;tuQ&m/ crmtuQ&m/ eef@ vmtdk tuQ&m&dk@wGifvnf;
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ykHo¾mef wdvnf;[dyga&? toHxGuf&mrSmvnf; wlnDa& toHxGufeef@ rwlnDa& toH
xGufvnf;[dyga&? Oyrm xdkif;pmudk p&GD;a&cg vuf&GD;vSatmifvdk@ 'kwfacsmif; acsudk
rwfatmif/ rwfatmif t&GD;avhusifh &yga&? avhusifh+yD;cgrS “aum(xdkif;) &cdkifu (u}uD;)
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toHxGufvnf;rwl? crmpmrSm (aum) udk acgif;txufrSm yef;yefyD;&yga&?
tajccHwlauvnf; &GD;[ef rwl/ xGufpGmrwl ,if;pGma& bmomaA' enf;pepf.
toGifvuQ%mwckjzpfyga&?

t*FvdyftuQ&m (A. B. C) &dk@. t&GD;tom;eef@ tar&duef (A.B.C) &dk@.


t&GD;tom;rSm xyfwl xyfr#jzpfyga&? ,auavh tuQ&m. aemufqHk; jzpfaw (Zuf
Z)udkrl t*Fvdyf&dk@u (Zuf-Z)vdk@toH xGufyem/ tar&duef&dk@u (ZI ZD)D vdk@
toHxGuf&yga&? (Zuf Z)udk &DG;&mrSm xyfwljzpfauav; toHxGuf rwlpGmudk
wGd&yga&? xdkif;pmrSm “e*&”vdk@ac:a& ygVd pum;udk xdkif;tuQ&meef@ “e*&”vdk@ &GD;pGma&
Armbmomeef@ e*& vdk@&GD;pGmeef@ xyfwljzpfyga&? &ckdiftuQ&m e*& eef@vnf;
xyfwljzpfyga&? Armeef@ &cdkif &dk@u“e*&” [k toHxGufauav; xdkif;&dk@u“eacgif”f”vdk@&m
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aemufom"u wck jy&zdk@qdkau &cdkif&dk@u yxr udk yxrvdk@ &GD;yem yxr vdk@
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xdkif;&dk@url yxrudk yxrvdk@ &GD;yem yxHk vdk@&m toHxGuf yga&? a'om"wdudk
axmufjcif;tm;jzifh rl&if;t&GD;tom; wlauav; toHxGuf rwla=umif;udk xif&Sm;yga&?

&cdkiftuQ&m u}uD;qdkpGmrSm u}uD;eef@ “t”udkaygif;xm;pGmjzpfyga&? wenf;tm;jzifh


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,if;[ma=umifh &ckdif ausmufpm rl&if;twdkif; 0gqdkudk/ “0gqdk0f”? tvdkudk “tvdk0f” eHywf
udk;udk “udk0f;”[k tu|ef&dk@ &ckdifwdtm;vHk; jyefyem &GD;om;oifhyga&? &cdkif&dk@. tajccH
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ArmpmwGifrlum; (&DG;au trSef zwfautoH) rl0g'a=umifh t*Fvdyfydkif &DG;a& tcgrSmav;
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t*Fvdyfydkif (sara) vdk@&DG;&ygzdk@? ArmwdrSm q&m[k trSef &GD;xm; auav; xGufawtcg
q,m vdk@&m toHxGufyga&? t*Fvdyfydkif &GD;om;&mrSm (saya) vkd@&m&GD;yga&?
&cdkif&dk@a& q&mudk (sara) eef@&m &DG;&ygzdk@? odk@r[kwf =qm vdk@&GD;&ygzdk@? &ckdifpmyD
rl0g'eef@ udkufnDyga&? a'enf;Oya't& q&mudk q&mvdk@ &GD;oifhyga&?

&cdkifpmyDeef@ ywfoufyem okawoejyKvkyfI wifjyvdkyga&? &ckdifpmyD


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vrf;a=umif;jzpfyga&? a'vrf;a=umif;pGm Oa&myEdkifiHordkif;rSm topfwzef jyefyem
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tu|ef&dk@ &ckdifwdrSmav; ,if;ydkifao#mif jyefyem xGef;um;zdk@ twGuf OD;wnfcsufjzpfyga&?
,if;vrf;a=umif; xJrSm &ckdif&dk@u“&” udkyDyDjyifjyif xGufyga&? oa0xdk; &aumuf
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&ckdiftrsm;pku a=[;vdk@toHxGuf auav; tcsKd@tcsKd@&dk@u a,S;vdk@ &m
toHxGufyga&/ ,if;a=umif; &ckdifrleef@ udkufnDatmif tqdkjyKpGmjzpfyga&? &ckdif
&dk@a& &aumuf[ xdk;iowfudk (=[if)[k&m toHxGufaw? Armwdu (,Sif)vdk@&m
toHxGufyga&/ a,eef@ &SifjyKqdka& toHk;Eef;a& &ckdifrl0g't& [&&pf iowf
(=[if)vdk@ toHxGufaw? &ckdif&dk@. &GD;au trSefxGufautrSef rlt& &ckdif&dk@&DG;a&
&aumuf[xdk;iowf &SifjyKvdk@ t&DG; tom;a& &cdkifrl0g't& o#if[k toH vHk;0
rxGuf? odk@jzpfI &GD;cgwrsKd; xGufwrsKd;a& &ckdifrl ppfppfr[kwf? ArmpmyDrl&mjzpfaw?
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[kom trSeftuef&GD;oifhyga&?

Txufyg &ckdifrl0g'twdkif; &aumuf[xkd;powfvdk@ &GD;au =[powf toHxGufyem/


&ckdifrleef@vHk;0rudkufnD/ &Spfaomif;bk&m;udk &ckdif&dk@rl0g'eef@tnD o,yif[xdk;powf
(o#pf)eef@ aygif;&ygzdk@? &ckdiftuQ&m oHk;q,fig;vHk;rSm yg0ifa& yo# qdkpGmrSm y-tuQ&mudk
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o#pfvdk@toH xGufaw? ,if;a=umifh o#pfaomif; bk&m;udk &cdkif&dk@u enf;
ESpfrsKd;eef@&DG;Edkifyga&? yxrenf;u o,yif;[xdk;powf(o#pf)/ 'kwd, enf;rSm yo#
powfjzifh (o#pf)vdk@ ESpfprsKd;vHk;eef@ &GD;Edkifyga&? ,if;ydkif tpOftvmtm;jzifh &Srf;jynfudk
&GD;&mrSm (&aumuf [xdk;rowf)vdk@ &ckdif Arm &dk@u&DG; avh[duwfyga&? Armpm rl0g'rSm
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toHxGufyga&? o#rf;vdk@toHxGufp&m ta=umif;r[d? a,eef@ &ckdifpmyDrlt&
&Srf;jynfudk o,yif;[xdk;rowfa&S;u ESpfvHk;aygufeef@&m trSeftuef &GD;oifh
yga&? &cdkifpmvHk;taygif;eef@ ArmpvHk; aygif;rwla=umif; xif&Sm; eDyga&?

o,yifh[xdk;rowf 0pPESpfvHk; aygufeef@ r&GD;csifau yo#udk rowfyem


&GD;au ESpfcsufzGwf tm;jzifhav; o#rf;vdk@ toHxGufyga&? &DG;enf;ESpfrsKd;pvHk;
rSefyga&? a'Oya'otwdkif; &ckdif 8-%ef; udkav; &aumuf[xdk;powfeef@ aygif;pGm
a& Armrl0gtwdkif;jzpfyga&? &ckdifrl0g'eef@ vHk;0rudkufyg? &ckdif&dk@u & aumuf[xdk;
powf (&Spf)udk/ [&&pfpowf(=[pf)vdk@ toHxGufyga&? a,eef@ &ckdiftoHxGufeef@
nDnGwfatmif &aumuf[xdk;powf&Spfvdk@ &GD;zdk@tpm; o,yifh[xdk;powf o#pf
vdk@&m &DG;oifhyga&? y-o# eef@&GD;au yo#udk powfvdkufpGmeef@ o,yif;[xdk;
powfeef@ twlwl toHxGufyg a&? yo#udk powf eef@ &GD;Edkifyga&? o#pfaomif bk&m;udk
&GD;enf;twdkif;jzpfyem ESpfrsKd;vHk;rSefyga&? txufuenf;pepft& &ckdif&dk@ &GD;a& oa0;xdk;
&aumuf[xdk; a,csuowf (a&Smuf)vdk@xGufaw toHudk a=[mufoD;udk &GD;pGmrSm
toHk;jyKEdkifyga&? oa0xdk; &aumuf[xdk; a,;cs uowf(a&Smuf) oD;vdk@ &GD;pGmrSm
oa0;xdk; [&&pfa,; csuowf (a=[muf)oD;vdk@av; &GD;Edkifyga&? ,if;ydkif&GD;pGmrSm &ckdif&dk@a&
toHtwkdif; yD;yDjyifjyifxGufEdkifyga&? ,if;ydkif &GD;a& enf;ESpfenf;rSm tu|efu oa0 xdk;
[&&pfa,;csuowf (a=[muf) vdk@ &GD;pGmudk ydkyemoabm usyga&? a=[muf
vdk@&GD;xm;pGmudk a=[mufvdk@&m toHxGufzdk@ vrf;[dyga&? tjcm;enf;eef@ xGufzkd@
enf;vrf;r[dEdkifyg? ,if;twGufeef@ a=[mufoD;udk a=[muf eef@&GD;zdk@ wdkufwGef;
yga&?

bmomwdkif;rSm toHxGufvdk@ r&a& pum;vHk;wdav; [dyga&? Tum;


bmomaA'rSm wGd[d&a& oauFw wckjzpfyga&? ArmtoHrSm [&&pf0qGJ
vHk;}uD;wifqifcwf “&$D”qdka& toHr[d? xdkif;pmyDrSm “AGD”toHr[da&ydkif/ w&kwf
pmyDrSmav; tm&foHr[dyg? &cdkiftajccH rljzpfaw &GD;au trSef/ xGufautrSef/
rl0g't& “o#pfaomif;bk&m;/ 8-*%ef; o#ifjyK/ ig;&Sifv$wf/ o#rf;jynf/ a=[mufoD;/
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