SPINORS
and
SPACE–TIME ANISOTROPY
—————————————————
c Sergiu Vacaru and Panyiotis Stavrinos
ii
...
iii

v
—
Contents
I Space–Time Anisotropy 1
1 Vector Bundles and N–Connections 3
1.1 Vector and Covector Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.1 Vector and tangent bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.2 Covector and cotangent bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.3 Higher order vector/covector bundles . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2 Nonlinear Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.1 N–connections in vector bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.2 N–connections in covector bundles: . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.3 N–connections in higher order bundles . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.4 Anholonomic frames and N–connections . . . . . . . . 13
1.3 Distinguished connections and metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.3.1 D–connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.3.2 Metric structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.3.3 Some remarkable d–connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.3.4 Amost Hermitian anisotropic spaces . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.4 Torsions and Curvatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.4.1 N–connection curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.4.2 d–Torsions in v and cv–bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.4.3 d–Curvatures in v and cv–bundles . . . . . . . . . . . 31
vii
viii CONTENTS
—
0.1. PREFACE xiii
0.1 Preface
0.1.1 Historical remarks on spinor theory
Spinors and Clifford algebras play a major role in contemporary physics
and mathematics. In their mathematical form spinors were discovered by
Èlie Cartan in 1913 in his researches on representation group theory [43]
where he showed that spinors furnish a linear representation of the groups of
rotations of a space of arbitrary dimensions. In 1927 Pauli [126] and Dirac [54]
(respectively, for the three–dimensional and four–dimensional space–time)
introduced spinors for the representation of the wave functions.
The spinors studied by mathematicians and physicists are connected with
the general theory of Clifford spaces introduced in 1876 [46].
In general relativity theory spinors and the Dirac equations on (pseudo)
Riemannian spaces were defined in 1929 by H. Weyl [209], V. Fock [60] and
E. Schrödinger [138]. The book by R. Penrose[127], and the R. Penrose and
W. Rindler monograph [128, 129] summarize the spinor and twistor methods
in space–time geometry (see additional references [65, 33, 119, 91, 154, 42]
on Clifford structures and spinor theory).
Spinor variables were introduced in Finsler geometries by Y. Takano in
1983 [152] where he dismissed anisotropic dependencies not only on vectors
on the tangent bundle but on some spinor variables in a spinor bundle on
a space–time manifold. That work was inspired by H. Yukawa’s quantum
theory of non–local fields [214]; it was suggested that non–localization may
be in Finslerlike space but on spinor variables. There was also a similarity
with supersymmetric models (see, for instance, references [207, 208]), where
spinor variables are also used. The approach of Y. Takano followed standard
concepts on Finsler geometries and was not concerned with topics related to
supersymmetries of interactions.
Generalized Finsler geometries, with spinor variables, were developed by
T. Ono and Y. Takano in a series of publications during 1990–1993 [121, 122,
123, 124]. The next steps were investigations of anisotropic and deformed
geometries with spinor and vector variables and applications in gauge and
gravity theories elaborated by P. Stavrinosand his students, S. Koutroubis, P.
Manouselis, and Professor V. Balan beginning 1994 [145, 147, 148, 142, 143].
In those works the authors assumed that some spinor variables may be intro
duced in a Finslerlike way, they did not relate the Finlser metric to a Clifford
structure and restricted the spinor–gauge Finsler constructions only for anti
symmetric spinor metrics on two–spinor fibers with possible generalizations
to four dimensional Dirac spinors.
Isotopic spinors, related with SU(2) internal structural groups, were con
xiv CONTENTS
roneous view that in Finsler like gravity theories the local Lorentz symmetry
is broken, a fact which is not compatible with the modern paradigms of par
ticle physics and gravity [211]. Nevertheless, it was proven that there are
no more conceptual problems with definition of local conservation laws than
in the usual theory of gravity on pseudo–Riemannian spaces if Finsler like
theories are formulated with respect to local frames adapted to the nonlinear
connection structure a variant of the definition of conservation laws for lo
cally anisotropic gravitational and matter field interactions was proposed by
using chains of nearly autoparallel maps generalizing conformal transforms
[164, 191, 193]. As to the violations of the local Lorentz symmetries, one
should mention that in fact some classes of such Finsler like metrics were
investigated with the aim of revising the special and general theories of rela
tivity (see, for instance, Refs. [18, 13, 37, 70]), but it is also possible to define
Finslerlike and other types of anisotropic structures, even in the framework
of general relativity theory. Such structures are described by exact solutions
of the Einstein equations if off–diagonal frames and anholonomic frames are
taken into consideration [176, 177, 179, 182, 183, 185]. We conclude that
there are different classes of generalized Finsler like metrics: some of them
posses broken Lorentz symmetries and others do not have such properties
and are compatible with the general relativity. Here, it should be empha
sized that the violation of Lorentz geometry is not already a subject not
allowed in modern physics, for instance, the effects induced by Lorentz viola
tions are analyzed in brane physics [52] and non–commutative field theories
[118, 40].
The third objection was based on the ”absence” of a mathematical theory
of stochastic processes and diffusion on spaces with generic local anisotropy.
But this problem was also solved in a series of papers. The first results
on diffusion processes on Finsler manifolds were announced in 1992 by P.
Antonelli and T. Zastavniak [10, 11]; their formalism was not yet adapted
to the nonlinear connection structure. In a communication at the Iaşi Aca
demic Days (1994, Romania) [159] S. Vacaru developed the theory of stochas
tic differential equations as in the Riemannian spaces but on vector bun
dles provided with nonlinear connection structures. As a result the the
ory of anisotropic processes was in parallel developed on vector bundles
by S. Vacaru [159, 160, 167] (see Chapter 5 in [172] for supersymmetric
anisotropic stochastic processes) and P. Antonelli, T. Zastavniak and D.
Hrimiuc [10, 11, 68, 69, 6] ( the last three authors provide a number of
applications in biology and biophysics) following a theory of stochastic dif
ferential equations formulated on bundles provided with anholnomic frames
and nonlinear connections. It was also possible to formulate a theory of
anisotropic kinetic processes and thermodynamics [175, 178, 179] with ap
0.1. PREFACE xvii
and
δ β = di , δ a = δuβ = di = dxi , δ a = δy a = dy a + Nka xj , y b dxk ,
called locally anisotropic bases (in brief, anisotropic bases) adapted to the
coefficients Nja . The n × n matrix gij defines the so–called horizontal metric
(in brief, h–metric) and the m × m matrix hab defines the vertical (v–metric)
0.1. PREFACE xix
field equations are determined generalizing previous results; also, the equiv
alence principle is shown to represent an extension for the corresponding one
from S (2) M.
In this chapter we study the spinor bundle of order two S̃ (2) (M), which
is a foliation of the structure of the spinor bundle presented in [140, 148]. In
the present approach the generalized tetrads and the spintetrads define, by
means of the relations (13.8), a generalized principle of equivalence in the
spinor bundle S̃ (2) (M). Also, employing the Miron  type connections, we
cover all the possibilities for the S  bundle connections, which represent the
gauge potential. These have, in the framework of our considerations, the
remarkable property of isotopic spin conservation. The introduction of the
internal deformed system (as a fibre) in S̃ (2) (M), is expected to produce as
a natural consequence the Higgs field, for a definite value κ,ϕα , where κ is a
constant and ϕα a scalar field.
In chapter 14 the Bianchi equations are determined for a deformed spinor
bundle S̃ (2) (M) = S (2) M × R. Also the YangMillsHiggs equations are
derived and a geometrical interpretation of the Higgs field is given [141].
We proceed as follows:
1. We study the Bianchi identities, choosing a Lagrangian density that
contains the component ϕ of a gvalued spinor gauge field of mass
m ∈ R. Also we derive the YangMillsHiggs equations on S̃ (2) M × R.
When m0 ∈ R the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken, a fact
connected to the Higgs field.
2. We introduce dconnections in the internal (spinor) structures on
S̃ (2) M–bundle, which provide the presentation of parallelism of the spin
component constraints, satisfied by the field strengths.
3. We interpret the metric G (relation (14.1) of the bundle S̃ (2) M, where
the term g αβ Dξα Dξβ∗ has a physical meaning since it expresses the
measure of the number of particles in the same point of the space.
4. The above mentioned approach can be combined with the phase trans
formations of the fibre U(1) on a bundle S (2) M × U(1) in the Higgs
mechanism. This will be the subject of our future study.
In the last part of our monograph, we establish the relation between
spinors of the SL(2, C) group and tensors in the framework of Lagrange
spaces. A geometrical extension to generalized metric tangent bundles is
developed by means of spinors. Also, the spinorial equation of casuality for
the unique solution of the nullcone in Finsler or Lagrange spaces is given
explicitly [149].
xxii CONTENTS
This book is organized in four Parts: the first three Parts consists of three
Chapters, the fourth Part consists of six Chapters.
Part I presents an introduction to the geometry of anisotropic spaces while
outlines original results on the geometry of anholonomic frames with asso
ciated nonlinear connections structures in (pseudo) Riemannian spaces. In
Chapter 1, we give the basic definitions from the theory of generalized Finsler,
Lagrange, Cartan and Hamilton spaces on vector and co–vector (tangent and
co–tangent spaces) and their generalizations for higher order vector–covector
bundles following the monographs [109, 113, 172]. The next two Chapters are
devoted to a discussion and explicit examples when anisotropic (Finsler like
and more general ones) structures can be modeled on pseudo–Riemannian
spacetimes and in gravitational theories. [They are based on results of works
ellaborated by S. Vacaru and co–authors [176, 177, 179, 182, 185, 194, 195,
200]]
Part II covers the algebra (Chapter 4) and geometry (Chapter 5) of Clif
ford and spinor structures in vector bundles provided with nonlinear con
nection structure. A spinor formulation of generalized Finsler gravity and
anisotropic matter field interactions is given in Chapter 6. [This Part origi
nates from S. Vacaru and co–authors [189, 190, 161, 162, 163, 165].]
Part III is a generalization of results on Clifford and spinor structures for
higher order vector bundles (Chapters 7–9 extend respectively the results of
Chapters 4–6), which are based on S. Vacaru’s papers [166, 173].
Part IV (Chapters 10–15) summarizes the basic results on various exten
sions of Finsler like geometries by considering spinor variables. [In the main,
this Part originates from papers of Y. Takano and T. Ono [152, 121, 122,
123, 124] and explicates the most important contributions by P. Stavrinos
and co–authors [140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150].
In summing up, this monograph we investigate anholonomic (anisotrop
ic) spinor structures in space–times with generic local anisotropy (i. e. in
generalized Finsler spaces) and in (pseudo) Riemannian spaces provided with
off–diagonal metrics and anholonomic frame bases. It is addressed primarily
to researches and other readers in theoretical and mathematical physics and
differential geometry, both at the graduate and more advanced levels. The
book was also communicated at some scientific Conferences [201, 199, 196]
with some chapters outlined as lectures in the preprint [202].
0.1. PREFACE xxiii
0.1.6 Acknowledgments
The authors also would like to express their graditude to the ViceRector
of the University of Athens Prof. Dr. Dermitzakis for his kindness to sup
port this monograph to publish it by the University of Athens. The second
author would like to express his gratitude to the emeritous Professor Y.
Takano, for the encouragement and the valuable discussions. It is also a
pleasure for the authors to give many thanks especially to Professors Dou
glas Singleton, Heinz Dehnen, J. P. S. Lemos, R. Miron, M. Anastasiei, Mi
hai Visinescu, Vladimir Balan and Bertfried Fauser for valuable disclussions,
collaboration and support of scientific investigations. The warmest thanks
are extended to Foivos Diakogiannis for the collaboration and help in the
text of the manuscript, to Evgenii Gaburov, Denis Gontsa, Nadejda Vicol,
Ovidiu Tintareanu–Mircea and Florian Catalin Popa for their collaboration
and help. We should like to express our deep gratitude to the publishers and
to the NATO/Portugal science officials.
The authors are grateful to their families for patience and understanding
enabled to write this book.
Physics Department,
California State University,
Fresno, CA 93740–8031, USA
and
Centro Multidisciplinar Department of Mathematics,
de Astrofisica – CENTRA, University of Athens,
Departamento de Fisica 15784 Panepistimiopolis,
Instituto Superior Tecnico, Athens, Greece
Av. Rovisco Pais 1, Lisboa,
1049–001, Portugal
Emails: E–mail:
vacaru@fisica.ist.utl.pt pstavrin@cc.uoa.gr
sergiu− vacaru@yahoo.com
xxiv CONTENTS
—
0.2. NOTATION xxv
0.2 Notation
The reader is advised to refer as and when necessary to the list below where
there are set out the conventions that will be followed in this book with regard
to the presentation of the various physical and mathematical expressions.
(1) Equations. For instance, equation (3.16) is the 16th equation in Chap
ter 3.
(2) Indices. It is impossible to satisfy everybody in matter of choice of
labels of geometrical objects and coordinates. In general, we shall use Greek
superscripts for labels on both vector bundles and superbundles. The reader
will have to consult the first sections in every Chapter in order to understand
the meaning of various types of boldface and/or underlined Greek or Latin
letters for operators, distinguished spinors and tensors.
(3) Differentiation. Ordinary partial differentiation with respect to a
coordinate xi will either be denoted by the operator ∂i or by subscript i fol
i
lowing a comma, for instance, ∂A ∂xj
≡ ∂j Ai ≡ Ai ,j . We shall use the denotation
δAi
δxj
≡ δj Ai for partial derivations locally adapted to a nonlinear connection
structure.
(4) Summation convention. We shall follow the Einstein summation rule
for spinor and tensor indices.
(5) References. In the bibliography we cite the scientific journals in
a generally accepted abbreviated form, give the volume, the year and the
first page of the authors’ articles; the monographs and collections of works
are cited completely. For the author’s works and communications, a part of
them been published in not enough accessible issues, or being under consid
eration, the extended form (with the titles of articles and communications)
is presented. We emphasize that the references are intended to give a sense
of the book’s scopes. We ask kindly the readers they do not feel offended by
any omissions.
(6) Introductions and Conclusions. If it is considered necessary a Chap
ter starts with an introduction into the subject and ends with concluding
remarks.
xxvi CONTENTS
Part I
Space–Time Anisotropy
1
Chapter 1
3
4 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR BUNDLES AND N–CONNECTIONS
In this part of the book we usually shall omit proofs which can be found in
the mentioned monographs [108, 109, 106, 107, 113, 172].
where
′ i′ ′ a′
xi = x (x i ), ya = K a (x
i
)y a (1.1)
′
and matrix K aa (x i ) ∈ GL (m, R) are functions of necessary smoothness
class.
A local coordinate parametrization of v–bundle E naturally defines a co
ordinate basis
∂ ∂ ∂
∂α = = ∂i = i , ∂a = a , (1.2)
∂uα ∂x ∂y
and the reciprocal to (1.2) coordinate basis
dα = duα = (di = dxi , da = dy a ) (1.3)
1.1. VECTOR AND COVECTOR BUNDLES 5
dα ◦ ∂β = δβα ,
where δβα is the Kronecher symbol and by ”◦” we denote the inner (scalar)
product in the tangent bundle T E.
A tangent bundle (in brief, t–bundle) (T M, π, M) to a manifold M
can be defined as a particular case of a v–bundle when the dimension of
the base and fiber spaces (the last one considered as the tangent subspace)
are identic, n = m. In this case both type of indices i, k, ... and a, b, ... take
the same values 1, 2, ...n. For t–bundles the matrices of fiber coordinates
′ ′
transforms from (1.1) can be written K ii = ∂xi /∂xi .
We shall distinguish the base and fiber indices and values which is neces
sary for our further geometric and physical applications.
which the typical fiber F ∗ (cofiber) is considered to be the dual vector space
(covector space) to the vector space F. The fiber coordinates pa of Ĕ are dual
to y a in E. The local coordinates on total space Ĕ are denoted ŭ = (x, p) =
(xi , pa ). The coordinate transform on Ĕ,
′
ŭ = (xi , pa ) → ŭ′ = (xi , pa′ ),
are written
′ i′
xi = x (x i ), pa′ = K a
a′ (xi )pa . (1.4)
and
˘α ˘ α i i
d = du = d = dx , d̆a = dpa . (1.6)
ỹ = (y(1) , y(2) , p(3) , ..., p(z−1) , y(z) ) = {y <αz > } = (y a1 , y a2 , pa3 , ..., paz−1 , y az ),
1.1. VECTOR AND COVECTOR BUNDLES 7
and
d˜α = du
˜ α (1.9)
= di = dxi , da1 = dy a1 , da2 = dy a2 , d˘a3 = dpa3 , ..., daz = dy az .
We end this subsection with two examples of higher order tangent / co
tangent bundles (when the dimensions of fibers/cofibers coincide with the
dimension of bundle space, see Refs. [106, 107, 110, 113]).
Osculator bundle
The k–osculator bundle is identified with the k–tangent bundle
T k M, p(k) , M of a n–dimensional manifold M. We denote the local coordi
nates
ũα = xi , y(1)
i i
, ..., y(k) ,
i
where we have identified y(1) ≃ y a1 , ..., y(k)
i
≃ y ak , k = z, in order to to have
similarity with denotations from [113]. The coordinate transforms
′ ′
ũα → ũα (ũα )
preserving the structure of such higher order vector bundles are parametrized
i′
i′ i′ i
∂x
x = x x , det 6= 0,
∂xi
′
i′ ∂xi i
y(1) = y ,
∂xi (1)
i′ i′
i′
∂y(1) i
∂y(1) i
2y(2) = y + 2 i y(2) ,
∂xi (1) ∂y
...................
i′ i′
i′
∂y(1) i
∂y(k−1) i
ky(k) = i
y(1) + ... + k i y(k) ,
∂x ∂y(k−1)
1.1. VECTOR AND COVECTOR BUNDLES 9
i
hold for s = 0, ..., k − 2 and y(0) = xi .
The natural coordinate frame on T ∗k M, p∗(k) , M is defined
!
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂˜α = , i , ..., i ,
∂xi ∂y(1) ∂y(k−1) ∂pi
{N : Eu → Hu E, Tu E = Hu E ⊕ Vu E}
T E = HE ⊕ V E. (1.10)
N = Ni a (u)di ⊗ ∂a .
T Ĕ = H Ĕ ⊕ V Ĕ. (1.11)
N̆ : Ĕ → N̆u ∈ Tu∗ E˘
˜
Ẽ = E[v(1), v(2), cv(3), ..., cv(z − 1), v(z)]
0 → V E˜ → T Ẽ → T Ẽ/V Ẽ → 0 (1.12)
which are given with respect to the components of bases (1.8) and (1.9) .
We end this subsection with two exemples of N–connections in higher
order vector/covector bundles:
1.2. NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS 13
Let us consider the second order of osculator bundle (see subsection (1.1.3))
T 2 M = Osc2 M. A N–connection Ñ in Osc2 M is associated to a Whitney
summ
T T 2 M = NT 2 M ⊕ V T 2 M
Tu T 2 M = N0 (ũ) ⊕ N1 (ũ) ⊕ V T 2 M.
Nia1 , Nia2 ,
(1.14)
0, Naa12 .
In a similar fashion we can take the bundle (T ∗2 M, p∗2 , M) being dual bundle
to the Osc2M (see subsection (1.1.3)). We have
T ∗2 M = T M ⊗ T ∗ M.
Ni a1 , Nia2 ,
(1.15)
0, Na1 a2 .
where pd : HE ⊕ V E → E.
1.2. NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS 15
p r
An element t ∈ Tqspr , d–tensor field of type , can be written in
q s
local form as
i ...i a ...a
t = tj11 ...jpq b11 ...brr (u) δi1 ⊗ ... ⊗ δip ⊗ ∂a1 ⊗ ... ⊗ ∂ar
⊗dj1 ⊗ ... ⊗ djq ⊗ δ b1 ... ⊗ δ br .
We note that for the signes of Ň–elongations are inverse to those for
N–elongations.
α
The anholonomic coefficients, w̆ = {w̆βγ (ŭ)}, of Ň–frames are de
fined by the relations
h i
α
δ̆α , δ̆β = δ̆α δ̆β − δ̆β δ̆α = w̆βγ (ŭ) δ̆α . (1.21)
The algebra of tensorial distinguished fields DT Ĕ (d–fields, d–
tensors, d–objects) on Ĕ is introduced as the tensor algebra T̆ = {T̆qspr } of
the cv–bundle
E˘(d) = H Ĕ ⊕ V E,
˘ p̆d , Ĕ ,
˘
where p̆d : H Ĕ ⊕ V Ĕ → E.
16 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR BUNDLES AND N–CONNECTIONS
p r
An element t̆ ∈ T̆qspr , d–tensor field of type , can be written in
q s
local form as
i ...i a ...a
t̆ = t̆j11 ...jpq b11 ...brr (ŭ) δ̆i1 ⊗ ... ⊗ δ̆ip ⊗ ∂˘a1 ⊗ ... ⊗ ∂˘ar
⊗d˘j1 ⊗ ... ⊗ d˘jq ⊗ δ̆ b1 ... ⊗ δ̆ br .
p ˘
We shall respectively use the denotations X Ĕ (or X (M)), Λ E or
(Λp (M)) and F Ĕ (or F (M)) for the module of d–vector fields on Ĕ (or
M), the exterior algebra of p–forms on E˘ (or M) and the set of real functions
on E˘ (or M).
δ̃
a3 az−1
δ̃α = α = δi , δa1 , δa2 , δ̆ , ..., δ̆ , ∂az ,
δũ
where
δa2 = ∂a2 + Na2 a3 ∂˘a3 − ... + Na2 az−1 ∂˘az−1 − Na2az ∂az ,
δ̆ a3 = ∂˜a3 − N a3 a4 ∂a − ... + N a3 ∂˘az−1 − N a3 az ∂az ,
4 az−1
.................
δ̆ az−1 = ∂˜az−1 − N az−1 az
∂az ,
∂az = ∂/∂y az .
b
δ̃• = N(u) × ∂˜• (1.22)
1.2. NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS 17
where
δi ∂i
δa1 ∂a1
δa2 ∂a2
δ̃• =
δ̆ a3 ,
∂˜• =
∂˜a3 ,
(1.23)
... ...
δ̆ az−1 ∂˜az−1
∂az ∂az
and
1 −Ni a1 −Ni a2 Nia3 −Ni a4 ... Niaz−1 −Ni az
0 1 −Na1a2 Na1 a3 −Na1a4 ... Na1 az−1 −Na1az
0 0 1 Na2 a3 −Na2a4 ... Na2 az−1 −Na2az
b =
N 0 0 0 1 −N a3 a4 ... N aa3z−1 −N a3 az .
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 0 0 ... 1 −N az−1 az
0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 1
The adapted differentials (anholonomic N–coframes, or N–cobases) in Ẽ
are introduced in the symplest form by using matrix formalism: The respec
tive dual matrices to (1.23)
δ̃ • = {δ̃ α } = di δ a1 δ a2 δ̆a3 ... δ̆az−1 δ az ,
d˜• = {∂˜α } = di da1 da2 da3 ... daz−1 daz
are related via a matrix relation
δ̃ • = d˜• M
c (1.24)
c from
which defines the formulas for anholonomic N–coframes. The matrix M
b i. e. satisfies the condition
(1.24) is the inverse to N,
c×N
M b = I. (1.25)
The anholonomic coefficients, w e = {w α
eβγ u)}, on hcv–bundle E˜ are
(e
expressed via coefficients of the matrix N b and their partial derivatives fol
lowing the relations
h i
δeα , δeβ = δeα δeβ − δeβ δeα = w
eα (eu) δeα .
βγ (1.26)
We omit the explicit formulas on shells.
A d–tensor formalism can be also developed on the space Ẽ. In this case
the indices have to be stipulated for every shell separately, like for v–bunles
or cv–bundles.
Let us consider some examples for particular cases of hcv–bundles:
18 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR BUNDLES AND N–CONNECTIONS
where
δ ∂ j ∂ j ∂
i
= − N(1)i i
− N(2)i i
,
δx ∂xi ∂y(1) ∂y(2)
δ ∂ j ∂
i
= i
− N(2)i j ,
δy(1) ∂y(1) ∂y(2)
and
δ̃ α = dxi , δy(1)
i i
, δy(2) , (1.27)
where
i i i
δy(1) = dy(1) + M(1)j dxj ,
i i i j i
δy(2) = dy(2) + M(1)j dy(1) + M(2)j dxj ,
i i
with the dual coefficients M(1)j and M(2)j (see (1.25)) expressed via primary
i i
coefficients N(1)j and N(2)j as
i i i
M(1)j = N(1)j , M(2)j = N(2)ji + N(1)mi N(1)jm .
where
δ ∂ j ∂ ∂
i
= − N(1)i i
+ N(2)ij ,
δx ∂xi ∂y(1) ∂p(2) j
δ ∂ ∂
i
= i
+ N(2)ij ,
δy(1) ∂y(1) ∂p(2)j
1.3. DISTINGUISHED CONNECTIONS AND METRICS 19
and
δ̃ α = dxi , δy(1)
i
, δp(2)i , (1.28)
where
i i i
δy(1) = dy(1) + N(1)j dxj ,
δp(2)i = dp(2)i − N(2)ij dxj ,
i i
with the dual coefficients M(1)j and M(2)j (see (1.25)) were expressed via
i i
N(1)j and N(2)j like in Ref. [113].
1.3.1 D–connections
D–connections in v–bundles (cv–bundles)
A N–connection in a v–bundle E (cv–bundle E) ˘ induces a corresponding
decomposition of d–tensors into sums of horizontal
and vertical parts, for
example, for every d–vector X ∈ X (E) (X̆ ∈ X Ĕ ) and 1–form A ∈ Λ1 (E)
(Ă ∈ Λ1 E˘ ) we have respectively
where
(h) (v)
DX f = (hX)f and DX f = (vX)f, X, Y ∈X (E), f ∈ F (M)
(h) (v)
(D̆X̆ f = (hX̆)f and D̆X̆ f = (v X̆)f, X̆, Y̆ ∈X E˘ , f ∈ F (M)).
The components Γαβγ ( Γ̆αβγ )of a d–connection D̆α = (δ̆α ◦ D), locally
adapted to the N—connection structure with respect to the frames (1.16)
and (1.17) ((1.19) and (1.20)), are defined by the equations
and
i
Cjc = (Dc δj ) ◦ di , Cbc
a
= (Dc ∂b ) ◦ δ a (1.33)
(C̆ ijc = D̆ c δ̆j ◦ di , C̆abc = D̆ c ∂˘b ◦ δ̆a ).
1.3. DISTINGUISHED CONNECTIONS AND METRICS 21
t = tia j
jb δi ⊗ ∂a ⊗ d ⊗ δ ,
b
tia ia i ha a ic h ia c ia
jbk = δk tjb + Lhk tjb + Lck tjb − Ljk thb − Lbk tjc
(t̆ib ib i hb b ic h ib b ic
jak = δ̆k t̆ja + L̆hk t̆ja + L̆ck t̆ja − L̆jk t̆ha − L̆ck t̆ja )
tia ia i ha a id h ia
jb⊥c = ∂c tjb + Chc tjb + Cdc tjb − Cjc thb − Cbc tjd
d ia
(1.34)
(t̆ib⊥c = ∂˘c t̆ib + C̆ i c t̆hb + C̆ dc t̆ib − C̆ i c t̆ib − C̆ bc t̆id ).
ja ja j ja a jd j ha d ja (1.35)
For a scalar function f ∈ F (E) ( f ∈ F E˘ ) we have
(h) δf ∂f ∂f ∂f
Dk = k
= k − Nka a and Dc(v) f = c
δx ∂x ∂y ∂y
(h) δ̆f ∂f ∂f ∂f
(D̆k = k
= k + Nka and D̆ (v)c f = ).
δx ∂x ∂pa ∂pc
D–connections in hvc–bundles
The theory of connections in higher order anisotropic vector superbundles
and vector bundles was elaborated in Refs. [171, 173, 172]. Here we re–
formulate that formalism for the case when some shells of higher order
anisotropy could be covector spaces by stating the general rules of covari
ant derivation compatible with the N–connection structure in hvc–bundle Ẽ
and omit details and combersome formulas.
22 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR BUNDLES AND N–CONNECTIONS
For a hvc–bundle of type E˜ = Ẽ[v(1), v(2), cv(3), ..., cv(z − 1), v(z)] a d–
connection Γ̃γαβ has the next shell decomposition of components (on induction
being on the pth shell, considered as the base space, which in this case a
hvc–bundle, we introduce in a usual manner, like a vector or covector fibre,
the (p + 1)th shell)
written with respect to N–elongated bases (1.16) and (1.17). From the last
expression we obtain
h i
PbX (u) = (DX − D b X )δα (u) δ α (u) ,
24 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR BUNDLES AND N–CONNECTIONS
therefore
b X Z +PbX Z.
DX Z = D (1.40)
DX G = 0, ∀X∈X (E).
Dα gβγ = 0, (1.41)
• On cv–bundle E˘ we write
• On hvc–bundle E˜ we write
∂Nia
Nbia = a
and Nbc (x, y) = 0. (1.46)
∂y b
For some Y (u) = Y i (u) ∂i + Y a (u) ∂a and B (u) = B a (u) ∂a one intro
duces a covariant derivation as
a a
(Ne) i ∂B a b b ∂B ∂
DY B = Y i
+ Nbi B + Y .
∂x ∂y ∂y a
b
26 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR BUNDLES AND N–CONNECTIONS
˘
2. The d–connection of Berwald type [32] on v–bundle E (cv–bundle E)
(B)α i ∂Nka a
Γβγ = Ljk , , 0, Cbc , (1.47)
∂y b
!
(B)α i ∂ N̆ka
(Γ̆βγ = L̆jk , − , 0, C̆abc )
∂pb
where
1 ir δgjk δgkr δgjk
Li.jk (x, y) = g + − r , (1.48)
2 δxk δxj δx
a 1 ad ∂hbd ∂hcd ∂hbc
C.bc (x, y) = h + −
2 ∂y c ∂y b ∂y d
!
1 ir δ̆ğjk δ̆ğkr δ̆ğjk
(L̆i.jk (x, p) = ğ + j − r ,
2 δxk δx δx
!
1 ∂ h̆bd ∂ h̆cd ∂ h̆bc
C̆abc (x, p) = h̆ad + − ),
2 ∂pc ∂pb ∂pd
(B)
which is hv—metric, i.e. there are satisfied the conditions Dk gij = 0
(B) (B)
and Dc hab = 0 (D̆k ğij = 0 and D̆ (B)c h̆ab = 0).
or, in general,
eα + P α ,
Γαβγ = Γ βγ βγ
(B)α (c)α α
where Pβγ , Pβγ and Pβγ are respectively the deformation dtensors of d–
connections (1.47), (1.49) or of a general one. Similar deformation d–tensors
can be introduced for d–connections on cv–bundles and hvc–bundles. We
omit explicit formulas.
where the index (t) denotes that we have geometrical object defined on tan
gent space.
An almost complex structure Jαβ is compatible with a d–metric of type
(1.52) and a d–connection D on tangent bundle T M if the conditions
are satisfied.
The pair (G(t) , J) is an almost Hermitian structure on T M.
One can introduce an almost sympletic 2–form associated to the almost
Hermitian structure (G(t) , J),
1 ^
Ω = Ωaij di dj ⊗ ∂a ,
2
where
One holds the next properties for the h and v–decompositions of curvature:
From (1.62) and the equation R (X, Y) = −R (Y, X) we get that the
curvature of a d–connection D in E is completely determined by the following
six d–tensor fields:
.i
Rh.jk = di · R (δk , δj ) δh , Rb.jk
.a
= δ a · R (δk , δj ) ∂b , (1.63)
.i i .a
Pj.kc = d · R (∂c , ∂k ) δj , Pb.kc = δ a · R (∂c , ∂k ) ∂b ,
.i
Sj.bc = di · R (∂c , ∂b ) δj , .a
Sb.cd = δ a · R (∂d , ∂c ) ∂b .
.i
Rh.jk = δh Li.hj − δj Li.hk + Lm i m i i
.hj Lmk − L.hk Lmj + C.ha R.jk ,
a
(1.64)
.a a a c a c a a c
Rb.jk = δk L.bj − δj L.bk + L.bj L.ck − L.bk L.cj + C.bc R.jk ,
.i
Pj.ka = ∂a Li.jk − δk C.jai
+ Li.lk C.ja
l
− Ll.jk C.la
i
− Lc.ak C.jc
i i
+ C.jb b
P.ka ,
.c c c c d d c d c
c d
Pb.ka = ∂a L.bk − δk C.ba + L.dk C.ba − L.bk C.da − L.ak C.bd + C.bd P.ka ,
.i i i h i h i
Sj.bc = ∂c C.jb − ∂b C.jc + C.jb C.hc − C.jc Chb ,
.a a a e a e a
Sb.cd = ∂d C.bc − ∂c C.bd + C.bc C.ed − C.bd C.ec .
.i
Řh.jk = di · R (δk , δj ) δh , Řba.jk = δ̌a · R (δk , δj ) ∂ˇb , (1.65)
.i c
P̌j.k = di · R ∂ˇc , ∂k δj , P̌ b a.k c
= δ̌a · R ∂ˇc , ∂k ∂ˇb ,
Šj..ibc = di · R ∂ˇc , ∂ˇb δj , Š.a
b.cd
= δ̌a · R ∂ˇd , ∂ˇc ∂ˇb .
32 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR BUNDLES AND N–CONNECTIONS
and
.i
Řh.jk = δ̌h Li.hj − δ̌j Li.hk + Lm i m i i a
.hj Lmk − L.hk Lmj + C.h Ř.ajk , (1.66)
b. b
Ř.ajk = δ̌k Ľa.j − δ̌j Ľab k + Ľcjb Ľ.ak
c
− Ľbck Ľa.j
c
+ Čabc Řc.jk ,
.i a
P̌j.k = ∂ˇa Li.jk − δ̌k Č.ji a + Li.lk Č.jl a − Ll.jk Č.li a − Ľcka Č.ji c + Č.ji b P̌bk a
,
P̌ b a = ∂ˇa Ľ b − (δ̌k Č ba + Ľbd Č ba − Ľ b Č ad ),
ck c.k c. c.k d d.k c.
a bd bd a
−Ľdk Čc. ) + Čc. P̌d.k ,
Šj..ibc = ∂ˇc Č.ji b − ∂ˇb Č.ji c + Č.jh b Č.h
i c
− Č.jh c Čhi b ,
Š ba.cd = ∂ˇd Ča.bc − ∂ˇc Ča.bd + Če.bc Ča.ed − Če.bd Č.aec .
The formulas for curvature can be also generalized for hvc–bundles (on
every shell we must write (1.59) or (1.60) in dependence of the type of shell,
vector or covector one, we are dealing).
(F ) 1 ∂2F 2
gij (x, y) = (1.67)
2 ∂y i ∂y j
is positively defined on Tg
M.
1.5. GENERALIZATIONS OF FINSLER SPACES 33
The function F (x, y) and gij (x, y) are called respectively the fundamental
function and the fundamental (or metric) tensor of the Finsler space F.
One considers ”anisotropic” (depending on directions y i) Christoffel sym
(F )
bols, for simplicity we write gij = gij ,
1 ∂grk ∂gjr ∂gjk
i
γ jk (x, y) = g ir + − ,
2 ∂xj ∂xk ∂xr
i 1 ∂ i
N(c) j = j
γ nk (x, y)y ny k . (1.68)
2 ∂y
Definition 1.9. A generalized Lagrange space is a pair GLn = (M, gij (x, y))
where gij (x, y) is a covariant, symmetric d–tensor field, of rank n and of
constant signature on Tg M.
Definition 1.10. A Cartan space is a pair C n = (M, K(x, p)) such that
K : T ∗ M → R is a scalar function which satisfy the following conditions:
ij 1 ∂2K 2
ǧ(K) (x, p) = (1.72)
2 ∂pi ∂pj
is positively defined on T]
∗ M.
The function K(x, y) and ǧ ij (x, p) are called respectively the fundamental
function and the fundamental (or metric) tensor of the Cartan space C n . We
use symbols like ”ǧ” as to emphasize that the geometrical objects are defined
on a dual space.
36 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR BUNDLES AND N–CONNECTIONS
i 1 ir
Ȟ(k) jk = ǧ δ̌j ǧrk + δ̌k ǧjr − δ̌r ǧjk ,
2
Č(k) jki = ǧis ∂˘s ǧ jk ,
The d–connection D Γ̌ Ň(k) has the unique property that it is torsionless
and satisfies the metricity conditions both for the horizontal and vertical
components, i. e. Ďα ǧβγ = 0.
The d–curvatures
.α .i .i
Ř(k)β.γδ = {R(k)h.jk , P(k)j.km , Šj..ikl}
The value ǧ ij (x, p) is called the fundamental (or metric) tensor of the
space GH n . One can define such values for every paracompact manifold M.
In general, a N–connection on GH n is not determined by ǧ ij . Therefore we
can consider arbitrary coefficients Ňij (x, p) and define on T ∗ M a d–metric
like (1.42)
This N–coefficients Ňij (x, p) and d–metric structure (1.75) allow to define an
almost Kähler model of generalized Hamilton spaces and to define canonical
d–connections, d–torsions and dcurvatures (see respectively the formulas
(1.48), (1.49), (1.61) and (1.64) with the fiber coefficients redefined for the
cotangent bundle T ∗ M ).
A generalized Hamilton space GH n = (M, ǧ ij (x, p)) is called reducible to
a Hamilton one if there exists a Hamilton function H (x, p) on T ∗ M such
that
1 ∂2H
ǧ ij (x, p) = . (1.76)
2 ∂pi ∂pj
Definition 1.12. A Hamilton space is a pair H n = (M, H(x, p)) such that
H : T ∗ M → R is a scalar function which satisfy the following conditions:
i 1 is
Ȟ(c) jk = ǧ δ̌j ǧsk + δ̌k ǧjs − δ̌s ǧjk ,
2
1
Č(c) jk
i = − ǧis ∂ˇj ǧ sk .
2
In result we can compute the d–torsions and d–curvatures like on cv–bundle
or on Cartan spaces. On Hamilton spaces all such objects are defined by the
Hamilton function H(x, p) and indeces have to be reconsidered for co–fibers
of the cotangent bundle.
We point out that because, in general, 1 Pai 6= 2 Pia the Ricci dtensor is non
symmetric.
Having defined a dmetric of type in E we can introduce the scalar cur
vature of d–connection D:
←
−
R = Gαβ Rαβ = R + S, (1.78)
(we note that in this section we shall follow conventions of Miron and Anas
tasiei [108, 109] on dtensors; we can obtain corresponding Penrose and
Rindler abstract index formulas [128, 129] just for a trivial Nconnection
structure and by changing denotations for components of torsion and curva
γ
ture in this manner: T.αβ → Tαβ γ and R.δγ.αβ → Rαβγ δ ).
Here we also note that torsion and curvature of a dconnection on E
satisfy generalized for locally anisotropic spaces Ricci and Bianchi identities
[108, 109] which in terms of components (1.79) are written respectively as
δ
R.δ[γ.αβ] + ▽[α T.βγ] ν
+ T.[αβ δ
T.γ]ν =0 (1.80)
and
·σ δ ·σ
▽[αRνβγ] + T·[αβ Rν.γ]δ = 0. (1.81)
Identities (1.80) and (1.81) can be proved similarly as in [128] by taking into
account that indices play a distinguished character.
We can also consider a lageneralization of the socalled conformal Weyl
tensor (see, for instance, [128]) which can be written as a dtensor in this
form:
4 [γ δ]
C γδ αβ = Rγδ αβ − R [α δ β] (1.82)
n+m−2
2 ←
− [γ δ]
+ R δ [α δ β] .
(n + m − 1)(n + m − 2)
This object is conformally invariant on locally anisotropic spaces provided
with dconnection generated by dmetric structures.
The Einstein equations and conservation laws on vbundles provided with
Nconnection structures are studied in detail in [108, 109, 2, 3]. In Ref. [186]
40 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR BUNDLES AND N–CONNECTIONS
2.1 Introduction
The search for exact solutions with generic local anisotropy in general rela
tivity, gauge gravity and non–Riemannian extensions has its motivation from
low energy limits in modern string and Kaluza–Klein theories. Such classes
of solutions constructed by using moving anholonomic frame fields (tetrads,
or vierbeins; we shall use the term frames for higher dimensions) reflect a new
type of constrained dynamics and locally anisotropic interactions of gravita
tional and matter fields [177].
What are the requirements of such constructions and their physical treat
ment? We believe that such solutions should have the properties: (i) they
satisfy the Einstein equations in general relativity and are locally anisotropic
generalizations of some known solutions in isotropic limits with a well posed
Cauchy problem; (ii) the corresponding geometrical and physical values are
defined, as a rule, with respect to an anholonomic system of reference which
reflects the imposed constraints and supposed symmetry of locally anisotropic
interactions; the reformulation of results for a coordinate frame is also pos
sible; (iii) by applying the method of moving frames of reference, we can
41
42 CHAPTER 2. ANHOLONOMIC EINSTEIN AND GAUGE GRAVITY
ds2 = e
gαβ duα ⊗ duβ
2.2. ANHOLONOMIC FRAMES 43
and
δ β = di , δ a = δuβ = di = dxi , δ a = δy a = dy a + Nka xj , y b dxk , (2.4)
called the locally anisotropic bases (in brief, la–bases) adapted to the coef
ficients Nja . The n × n matrix gij defines the so–called horizontal metric (in
brief, h–metric) and the m × m matrix hab defines the vertical (v–metric)
with respect to the associated nonlinear connection (N–connection) struc
ture given by its coefficients Nja (uα ) from (2.3) and (2.4). The geometry
of N–connections is studied in detail in [25, 109]; here we shall consider its
applications with respect to anholonomic frames in general relativity and its
locally isotropic generalizations.
A frame structure δα (2.3) on V (n+m) is characterized by its anholonomy
relations
δα δβ − δβ δα = w γαβ δγ . (2.5)
T (δγ , δβ ) = T αβγ δα ,
T αβγ = Γαβγ − Γαγβ + w αβγ
We note that for symmetric linear connections the d–torsions are induced as
a pure anholonomic effect. They vanish with respect to a coordinate frame
of reference.
In a similar manner, putting non–vanishing coefficients (2.6) into the
formula for curvature,
R (δτ , δγ ) δβ = Rβαγτ δα ,
Rβαγτ = δτ Γαβγ − δγ Γαβδ + Γϕβγ Γαϕτ − Γϕβτ Γαϕγ + Γαβϕ w ϕγτ ,
.a
Rb.jk = δk La.bj − δj La.bk + Lc.bj La.ck − Lc.bk La.cj − C.bc
a
Ωc.jk ,
.i
Pj.ka = ∂k Li.jk + C.jb
i b
T.ka i
− (δk C.ja + Li.lk C.ja
l
− Ll.jk C.la
i
− Lc.ak C.jc
i
),
.c
Pb.ka c
= ∂a Lc.bk + C.bd d
T.ka c
− (δk C.ba d
+ Lc.dk C.ba c
− Ld.bk C.da c
− Ld.ak C.bd ),
.i i i h i h i
Sj.bc = ∂c C.jb − ∂b C.jc + C.jbC.hc − C.jcChb ,
.a a a e a e a
Sb.cd = ∂d C.bc − ∂c C.bd + C.bc C.ed − C.bd C.ec .
Rβγ = Rβαγα
We point out that because, in general, 1 Pai 6= 2 Pia , the Ricci d–tensor is non
symmetric.
Having defined a dmetric of type (2.7) in V (n+m) we can compute the
scalar curvature
←−
R = g βγ Rβγ
of a dconnection D,
←
− b
R =R + S, (2.11)
where Rb = g ij Rij and S = hab Sab .
Now, by introducing the values (2.10) and (2.11) into the Einstein’s equa
tions
1 ← −
Rβγ − gβγ R = kΥβγ ,
2
we can write down the system of field equations for locally anisotropic gravity
with anholonomic (N–connection) structure:
1 b
Rij − R + S gij = kΥij , (2.12)
2
1 b
Sab − R + S hab = kΥab ,
2
1
Pai = kΥai ,
2
Pia = −kΥia ,
where Υij , Υab , Υai and Υia are the components of the energy–momentum
d–tensor field Υβγ (which includes possible cosmological constants, contri
butions of anholonomy d–torsions (2.9) and matter) and k is the coupling
constant.
The h v decomposition of gravitational field equations (2.12) was in
troduced by Miron and Anastasiei [109] in their N–connection approach to
generalized Finsler and Lagrange spaces. It holds true as well on (pseudo)
Riemannian spaces, in general gravity; in this case we obtain the usual form
of Einstein equations if we transfer considerations with respect to coordinate
frames. If the N–coefficients are prescribed by fixing the anholonomic frame
of reference, different classes of solutions are to be constructed by finding the
h– and v–components, gij and hab , of metric (2.1), or its equivalent (2.2). A
more general approach is to consider the N–connection as ’free’ but subjected
to the condition that its coefficients along with the d–metric components are
chosen to solve the Einsten equations in the form (2.12) for some suggested
symmetries, configurations of horizons and type of singularities and well de
fined Cauchy problem. This way one can construct new classes of metrics
with generic local anisotropy (see [177]).
48 CHAPTER 2. ANHOLONOMIC EINSTEIN AND GAUGE GRAVITY
when
∂αp = ∂/uαp = ∂/xi , ∂/y a1 , ..., ∂/y ap
and
dαp = duαp = dxi , dy a1 , ..., dy ap
ds2 = e
gαβ duα ⊗ duβ
n + m form
gij (u) 0 ... 0
0 ha1 b1 ... 0
gαβ =
...
(2.14)
... ··· ...
0 0 . . . haz bz
where ap = (a1 , a2 , ..., ap ) , are called the locally anisotropic bases (in brief
la–bases) adapted respectively to the N–coefficients
n o
a
Nαap−1
p
= Ni p , Naa1p , ..., Naap−2
p
, Naap−1
p
and M–coefficients
n o
ap
Mαap−1
p ap ap ap
= Mi , Ma1 , ..., Map−2 , Map−1 ;
a
p p a
the coefficients Mαp−1 are related via some algebraic relations with Nαp−1 in
order to be satisfied the locally anisotropic basis duality conditions
δαp ⊗ δ βp = δαβpp ,
β
where δαpp is the Kronecker symbol, for every shell.
The geometric structure of N– and M–coefficients of a higher order non
linear connection becomes more explicit if we write the relations (2.15) and
(2.16) in matrix form, respectively,
b (u) × ∂•
δ• = N
2.3. HIGHER ORDER ANISOTROPIC STRUCTURES 51
and
δ • = d• × M (u) ,
where
δi δ/∂xi ∂i ∂/∂xi
δa1 δ/∂y a1 ∂a1 ∂/∂y a1
δ• = δα =
δa2 =
δ/∂y a2 , ∂• = ∂α =
∂a2 =
∂/∂y a2 ,
··· ··· ··· ···
δaz δ/∂y az ∂az ∂/∂y az
δ• = dxi δy a1 δy a2 . . . δy az , d• = dxi dy a1 dy a2 . . . dy az ,
and
1 −Nia1 −Nia2 . . . −Niaz
0 1 −Naa12 . . . −Naa1z
b =
N 0 0 1 . . . −Naa2z ,
... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 ... 1
1 Mia1 Mia2 . . . Miaz
0 1 Maa12 . . . Maa1z
M =
0 0 1 . . . Maa2z .
... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 ... 1
The n × n matrix gij defines the horizontal metric (in brief, h–metric)
and the mp × mp matrices hap bp defines the vertical, vp –metrics with respect
to the associated nonlinear connection (N–connection) structure given by its
ap
coefficients Nαp−1 from (2.15). The geometry of N–connections on higher
order tangent bundles is studied in detail in [110, 106, 107], for vector (su
per)bundles there it was proposed the approach from [171, 172]; the approach
and denotations elaborated in this work is adapted to further applications in
higher dimension Einstein gravity and its non–Riemannian locally anisotropic
extensions.
A ha–basis δα (2.4) on V (n) is characterized by its anholonomy relations
δα δβ − δβ δα = w γαβ δγ . (2.17)
52 CHAPTER 2. ANHOLONOMIC EINSTEIN AND GAUGE GRAVITY
where
a a a b a b a
Ωijp = ∂i Nj p − ∂j Ni p + Ni p δbp Nj p − Nj p δbp Ni p , (2.18)
a a a b
Ωαpf βs = ∂αf Nβsp − ∂βs Nαafp + Nαbpf δbp Nβsp − Nβps δbp Nαafp ,
local form as
(1) (1) (p) (p) (z) (z)
i1 ...ip a1 ...ar1 ...a1 ...arp ...a1 ...arz
t = t (1) (1) (p) (p) (z) (z) (u) δi1 ⊗ ... ⊗ δip ⊗ dj1 ⊗ ... ⊗ djq ⊗
j1 ...jq b1 ...br1 ...b1 ...brp ...b1 ...brz
(1) (1)
δa(1) ⊗ ... ⊗ δa(1)
r
⊗ δ b1 ... ⊗ δ bs1 ⊗ ... ⊗ δa(p) ⊗ ... ⊗ δar(p) ⊗ ... ⊗
1 1 1 p
(p) (p) (z) (z)
b1 bsp b1 bsz
δ ... ⊗ δ ⊗ δa(z) ⊗ ... ⊗ δa(z)
rz
⊗δ ... ⊗ δ .
1
T δγ , δβ = T αβγ δα ,
α
Tβγ = Γαβγ − Γαγβ + w αβγ
i i
T.jk = −T.kj = Lijk − Likj , i
Tja i
= −Taj i
= C.ja ,
i a a a a
T.ab = 0, T.bc = S.bc = Cbc − Ccb , (2.22)
a
T.ij = −Ωaij , T.bia
= −T.bi a
= δb Nia − La.bj ,
a a a a
T.bff cf = −T.cff bf = K.bff cf − K.cff bf ,
a a a a
T.afp bs = 0, T.bff ap = −T.afp bf = Q.bff ap ,
a a a a a
T.apf bf = −Ω.apf bf , T.bspaf = −T.apf bs = δbs Naafp − K.bps af .
R (δτ , δγ ) δβ = Rβαγτ δα ,
Rβαγτ = δτ Γαβγ − δγ Γαβδ + Γϕβγ Γαϕτ − Γϕβτ Γαϕγ + Γαβϕ w ϕγτ ,
.i
Rh.jk = δk Li.hj − δj Li.hk + Lm i m i i a
.hj Lmk − L.hk Lmj − C.ha Ω.jk , (2.23)
.a
Rb.jk = δk La.bj − δj La.bk + Lc.bj La.ck − Lc.bk La.cj − C.bc
a
Ωc.jk ,
.i
Pj.ka = ∂k Li.jk + C.jb
i b
T.ka i
− (δk C.ja + Li.lk C.ja
l
− Ll.jk C.la
i
− Lc.ak C.jc
i
),
.c
Pb.ka = δa Lc.bk + C.bd
c d
T.ka c
− (δk C.ba + Lc.dk C.ba
d
− Ld.bk C.da
c
− Ld.ak C.bd
c
),
.i i i h i h i
Sj.bc = δc C.jb − δb C.jc + C.jb C.hc − C.jc Chb ,
.a a a e a e a
Sb.cd = δd C.bc − δc C.bd + C.bc C.ed − C.bd C.ec ,
2.3. HIGHER ORDER ANISOTROPIC STRUCTURES 55
.a a a h a
Wbf .cf f ef = δef K.bff cf − δcf K.bff ef + K.bff cf Khff ef
h a a
−K.bff ef Khff cf − Q.bff ap Ωa.cpf ef ,
.a a a c
Wbs .cp f ef = δef K.bps cf − δcf K.bps ef + K.bps cf K.capp ef
c a
−K.bps ef La.cpp cf − K.bps cp Ωc.cpf ef ,
.a a a
Zbf f.cf ef = ∂ep K.bff cf + Q.bff bp T.cbpf ep
a a h h a a
−(δcf Q.bff ep + K.hff cf Q.bff cp − K.bff cf Q.hff ep − K.ecpp cf C.bff cp ),
d
Zb.crs.cf ep = δep K.bcsr cf + K.bcsr df T.cff ep
d
−(δcf C.bcsr ep + K.dcsf cf C.bfr ep − K.bdtr cf C.dcst ep − K.edtp cf C.bcsr dt ),
.a a a d a d a
Ybf .cf p ep = δep Q.bff cp − δcp Q.bff ep + Q.bff cp Q.dff ep − Q.bff ep Qdff cp .
where f < p, s, r, t.
Rβγ = Rβαγα
R = g βγ Rβγ .
of a dconnection D,
b + S,
R=R (2.25)
U, V ⊂ V (n) , U ∩ V =
6 ∅, fU p 6= fVp , even p ∈ U ∩ V.
Θ = ϕ∗ θ + Ad ϕ−1 (π ∗ ω) (2.27)
and a basis of local sections ei : U → πE−1 (U) , ei (u) = s (u) ξi . Every section
ς : V (n) → Ξ can be written locally as ς = ς i ei , ς i ∈ C ∞ (U) . To every
vector field X on V (n) and YangMills field ω ba on P we associate operators
of covariant derivations:
h i
▽X ζ = ei Xζ i + B (X)ji ζ j , B (X) = (ρ′ X)ba ω ba (X) . (2.30)
The transform (2.29) and operators (2.30) are inter–related by these transi
tion transforms for values ei , ζ i, and Bµ :
j j
eVi (u) = [ρgU V (u)]i eUi , ζUi (u) = [ρgU V (u)]i ζVi , (2.31)
BµV (u) = [ρgU V (u)]−1 δµ [ρgU V (u)] + [ρgU V (u)]−1 BµU (u) [ρgU V (u)] ,
So, we can conclude that the Yang–Mills connection in the vector bundle
πΞ : Ξ → V (n) is not a general one, but is induced from the principal bundle
π : P → V (n) with structural group Gr.
The curvature K of connection Θ from (2.27) is defined as
b ◦d
K = DΘ, D = H (2.32)
2.4. GAUGE FIELDS ON HA–SPACES 59
K = Ad ϕ−1 ∗
U (π KU ) (2.33)
where
1
KU = dωU + [ωU , ωU ] . (2.34)
2
The exterior product of Gvalued form (2.34) is defined as
h i ^ b
b
∆ba ⊗ λba , ∆bb ⊗ ξ b = ∆ba , ∆bb ⊗ λba ξ b ,
V b b b
where the anti–symmetric tensorial product is denoted λba ξ b = λba ξ b −ξ b λba .
Introducing structural coefficients fbbbc ba of G satisfying
∆bb , ∆bc = fbbbc ba ∆ba
^
a
b
KU = ∆ba ⊗ Kµν δuµ δuν (2.35)
where
δωνba δωµba 1
b
a b
a bb b
c bb b
c
Kµν = µ − ν + fbbbc ωµ ων − ων ωµ .
∂u ∂u 2
This subsection ends by considering the problem of reduction of the lo
cal anisotropic gauge symmetries and gauge fields to isotropic ones. For
local trivial considerations we can consider that with respect to holonomic
frames the higher order anisotropic YangMills fields reduce to usual ones on
(pseudo) Riemannian spaces.
60 CHAPTER 2. ANHOLONOMIC EINSTEIN AND GAUGE GRAVITY
^ ^
1 2 ... r r + 1 ... n
sign eν 1 ... eν n−r .
µ1 µ2 . . . µr ν1 . . . ν n−r
Next, we define the operator
r(n−r)
∗−1
G = η (1) ...η (n) (−1) ∗G
and introduce the scalar product on forms β1 , β2 , ... ⊂ Λr V (n) with compact
carrier:
Z ^
(β1 , β2 ) = η (1) ...η (nE ) β1 ∗G β2 .
The operator δbG is defined as the adjoint to d associated to the scalar product
for forms, specified for rforms as
δbG = (−1)r ∗−1
G ◦d ◦ ∗G . (2.38)
2.4. GAUGE FIELDS ON HA–SPACES 61
δb ∆ba ⊗ ϕba = ∆ba ⊗ (δϕ
b ba ).
λ = Ad ϕ−1 ∗
U (π λ) , λU = SU∗ λ,
Now, we can define the field equations for curvature (2.33) and connection
(2.27):
∆K = 0, (2.39)
▽K = 0, (2.40)
∆K =Ad ϕ−1 ∗
U π (∆K)U .
and, as a consequence,
b = Ad ϕ−1 {δbH π ∗ KU + ∗−1 [π ∗ ωU , ∗H π ∗ KU ]} − ∗−1 Θ, Ad ϕ−1 ∗H (π ∗ K) .
δK U H H U
(2.41)
∗−1 ∗ ∗ ∗ −1
H [π ωU , ∗H (π KU )] = π {∗G [ωU , ∗G KU ]}.
Taking into account (2.43) and (2.38), we prove that projection on the
base of equations (2.39) and (2.40) can be expressed respectively as
∗−1 −1
G ◦ d ◦ ∗G KU + ∗G [ωU , ∗G KU ] = 0. (2.44)
dKU + [ωU , KU ] = 0.
which are equivalent to ”pure” geometric equations (2.45) (or (2.44)) due to
nondegeneration of the Killing form Krbbb for semisimple groups.
To take into account gauge interactions with matter fields (sections of
vector bundle Ξ on V (n) ) we have to introduce a source 1–form J in equations
(2.39) and to write them
∆K = J (2.47)
is the standard distinguished basis in the Lie algebra of matrices Gln (R)
with (∆bibk )jl = δij δkl and ∆bap bcp bp dp = δap bp δcp dp defining the standard bases
in Gl (Rn ) . We have denoted the curvature of connection (2.48), considered
in (2.49), as
(Γ)
^
RU = ∆αb αb 1 ⊗ Rαb αb 1νµ X ν X µ,
For a fixed locally adapted basis on U ⊂ V (n) we can identify components T baµν
of torsion (2.51) with components of torsion (2.22) on V (n) , i.e. T αbµν = T αµν .
By straightforward calculation we obtain
where
h i
(Rτ )U = δbG TU + ∗−1
(Γ)
G [ΩU , ∗G TU ] , (Ri)U = ∗−1
G χU , ∗ G RU .
for the induced Cartan connection Θ (see (2.48) and (2.50)) in the bundle of
(n)
locally adapted affine frames Aa V with the source J U constructed locally
by using the same formulas (2.52) for ∆R , but where Rαβ is changed by
the matter source Eαβ − 12 gαβ E with Eαβ = kΥαβ − λgαβ .
We note that this theorem is an extension for higher order anisotropic
spacetimes of the Popov and Daikhin result [133] with respect to a possible
gauge like treatment of the Einstein gravity. Similar theorems have been
proved for locally anisotropic gauge gravity [186] and in the framework of
some variants of locally (and higher order) anisotropic supergravity [172].
space of the bundle of locally adapted affine frames. A variational gauge grav
itational theory can be formulated by using a minimal extension of the affine
structural group Af n (R) to the de Sitter gauge group Sn = SO (n) acting
on distinguished Rn+1 space.
[MAB , MCD ] = ηAC MBD − ηBC MAD − ηAD MBC + ηBD MAC . (2.54)
Decomposing indices A, B, ... as A = (b b n + 1 , ..., the
α, n + 1) , B = β,
metric ηAB as ηAB = ηαb βb, η(n+1)(n+1) , and operators MAB as Mαb βb = Fαb βb
and Pαb = l−1 Mn+1,bα , we can write (2.54) as
h i
Fαb βb, Fγbδb = ηαb γb Fβbδb − ηβb
bγ Fα
b δb + ηβbδbFα
bγb − ηα
b δbFβb
bγ ,
h i h i
Pαb , Pβb = −l−2 Fαb βb, Pαb , Fβb
bγ = ηα b − ηα
b βb Pγ bγb Pβb ,
B = bBL , (2.55)
68 CHAPTER 2. ANHOLONOMIC EINSTEIN AND GAUGE GRAVITY
where
L 0
BL = ,
0 1
L ∈ L(η) is the de Sitter bust matrix transforming the vector (0, 0, ..., ρ) ∈
Rn+1 into the point (v 1 , v 2 , ..., v n+1 ) ∈ Σnρ ⊂ Rn+1 for which
vA v A = −ρ2 , v A = tA ρ.
where ω αb βb
∈ so(n)(η) , θ̆αb ∈ Rn , θ̆βb ∈ ηβbαb θ̆αb .
Because S(η) transforms mix ω αb βb and θ̆αb fields in (2.56) (the introduced
parametrization is invariant on action on SO(η) (n) group we cannot identify
ω αb βb and θ̆αb , respectively, with the connection Γαβγ and the fundamental
form χα in V (n) (as we have for (2.48) and (2.50)). To avoid this difficulty
we consider [153, 131] a nonlinear gauge realization of the de Sitter group
S(η) by introducing the nonlinear gauge field
!
α
b α
b
Γ βb
θ
Θ = b−1 Θ̆b + b−1 db = , (2.57)
θβb 0
where
Γαb βb
= ω αb βb
− tαb
Dtβb − tβb Dtαb
/ 1 + tn+1 ,
θαb = tn+1 θ̆αb + Dtαb − tαb dtn+1 + θ̆γb tγb / 1 + tn+1 ,
b
Dtαb = dtαb + ω αb βbtβ .
2.6. NONLINEAR DE SITTER GAUGE HA–GRAVITY 69
where
Γαbβb = Γαbβµ µ
b δu ,
βb
Γαb b
βµ
= χαb α
α χ β Γ βγ + χαb α
α δµ χ βb ,
βb
χαb = χαb µ δuµ , and gαβ = χαb α χ β ηα
b βb , and ηαb βb is parametrized as
ηij 0 ... 0
0 ηa1 b1 ... 0
ηαb βb =
...
,
... ... ...
0 0 ... ηaz bz
ηij = (1, −1, ..., −1) , ...ηij = (±1, ±1, ..., ±1)V, ..., l0 is a dimensional constant.
The curvature of (2.58), R(Γ) = dΓ + Γ Γ, can be written as
−1 α −1 α
!
αb b b
R b + l0 π b l0 T
R(Γ) = β
b
β
, (2.59)
l0−1 T β 0
where
^ 1 ^
πβαbb = χαb χβb, Rαb βb
= Rαb b δu
βµν
µ
δuν ,
2
70 CHAPTER 2. ANHOLONOMIC EINSTEIN AND GAUGE GRAVITY
and
β
Rαb b
βµν
= χβb χα α
b α
Rβ.µν
L = L(G) + L(m)
1 µν 1 βb µν 1 ←
−
L(G) = 2 T αb µν Tα
b + Rαb b R
βµν α
b − 2 R (Γ) − 2λ1 , (2.60)
2l 8λ l
T αb µν = χαb α T α µν (the gravitational constant l2 in (2.60) satisfies the rela
tions l2 = 2l02 λ, λ1 = −3/l0 ], T r denotes the trace on α b, βb indices, and the
matter field Lagrangian is defined as
1 ^
L(m) = T r Γ ∗G I = L(m) g1/2 δ n u,
2
1 βb µ
L(m) = Γαb b S
βµ α − tµ bl
α
α
b
µ. (2.61)
2
The matter field source I is obtained as a variational derivation of L(m) on
Γ and is parametrized as
!
S αb βb −l0 tαb
I= (2.62)
−l0 tβb 0
^ ^
b ∗R(Γ) + 2λ D
D b (∗π) + χ ∗T T
− (∗T ) χT = −λ (∗S) , (2.64)
l2
^ 2λ ^ l2 1
b (∗T ) − ∗R(Γ)
D χ − 2 (∗π) χ = ∗t + ∗ τ , (2.65)
l 2 λ
where
b b 1 b ^
T t = {Tαb = ηαb βbT β , T β = T β µν δu
µ
δuν },
2
b b b
χT = {χαb = ηαb βbχβ , χβ = χβ µ
}, b =d+Γ
D b
µ δu
b acts as Γαb
(Γ b ... and as Γα
b on indices γ
βµ
b, δ, βµ
on indices γ, δ, ...). In (2.65),
τ defines the energy–momentum tensor of the S(η) –gauge gravitational field
b:
Γ
1 1
b α
τµν Γ = T r Rµα R ν − Rαβ R gµν . αβ
(2.66)
2 4
Equations (2.63) (or, equivalently, (2.64) and (2.65)) make up the com
plete system of variational field equations for nonlinear de Sitter gauge grav
ity with higher order anisotropy. They can be interpreted as a variant of
gauge like equations for ha–gravity [186] when the (pseudo) Riemannian base
frames and torsions are considered to be induced by an anholonomic frame
structure with associated N–connection
A. Tseytlin [153] presented a quantum analysis of the isotropic version
of equations (2.64) and (2.65). Of course, the problem of quantizing gravi
tational interactions is unsolved for both variants of locally anisotropic and
isotropic gauge de Sitter gravitational theories, but we think that the general
ized Lagrange version of S(η) gravity is more adequate for studying quantum
radiational and statistical gravitational processes. This is a matter for further
investigations.
72 CHAPTER 2. ANHOLONOMIC EINSTEIN AND GAUGE GRAVITY
ȧ = ∂a/∂x1 , a′ = ∂a/∂x2 ,
a∗ = ∂a/∂z ȧ′ = ∂ 2 a/∂x1 ∂x2 ,
a∗∗ = ∂ 2 a/∂z∂z.
The non–trivial components of the Ricci d–tensor (2.10), for the men
tioned type of d–metrics depending on three variables, are
2.7. AN ANSATZ FOR 4D D–METRICS 73
1 ′′ 1 1
R11 = R22 = [−(g1 + g̈2 ) + ġ22 + g1′ g2′ + g1′ 2 + ġ1 ġ2(2.68)
];
2g1 g2 2g2 2g1
1 1 1 ∗ ∗
S33 = S44 = [−h∗∗
4 + (h∗4 )2 + h h ];
h3 h4 2h4 2h3 3 4
2
q1 h∗3 h∗∗ h∗ h∗ h∗
P31 = [ − 3 + 42 − 3 4 ]
2 h3 h3 2h4 2h3 h4
1 ḣ4 ∗ ḣ3 ∗
+ [ h4 − ḣ∗4 + h ], (2.69)
2h4 2h4 2h3 4
2
q2 h∗3 h∗∗ h∗ h∗ h∗
P32 = [ − 3 + 42 − 3 4 ]
2 h3 h3 2h4 2h3 h4
′ ′
1 h4 ∗ h
+ [ h4 − h′4 ∗ + 3 h∗4 ];
2h4 2h4 2h3
h4 ∗∗ 1 h4 ∗
P41 = − n + ( h − 3h∗4 )n∗1 , (2.70)
2h3 1 4h3 h3 3
h4 ∗∗ 1 h4 ∗
P42 =− n + ( h3 − 3h∗4 )n∗2 .
2h3 2 4h3 h3
←−
The curvature scalar R (2.11) is defined by the sum of two nontrivial
components Rb = 2R1 and S = 2S 3 .
1 3
The system of Einstein equations (2.12) transforms into
R11 = −κΥ33 = −κΥ44 , (2.71)
S33 = −κΥ11 = −κΥ22 , (2.72)
P3i = κΥ3i , (2.73)
P4i = κΥ4i , (2.74)
where the values of R11 , S33 , Pai , are taken respectively from (2.68), (2.68),
(2.69), (2.70).
By using the equations (2.73) and (2.74) we can define the N–coefficients
(2.67), qi (xk , z) and ni (xk , z), if the functions gi(xk ) and hi (xk , z) are known
as respective solutions of the equations (2.71) and (2.72). Let consider an
ansatz for a 4D d–metric of type
δs2 = g1 (xk )(dx1 )2 + (dx2 )2 + h3 (xi , t)(δt)2 + h4 (xi , t)(δy 4)2 , (2.75)
where the z–parameter is considered to be the time like coordinate and the
energy momentum d–tensor is taken
Υβα = [p1 , p2 , −ε, p4 = p].
74 CHAPTER 2. ANHOLONOMIC EINSTEIN AND GAUGE GRAVITY
The aim of this section is to analyze the system of partial differential equa
tions following from the Einsteni field equations for these d–metric and
energy–momentum d–tensor.
where by ’prime’ in this Section is considered the partial derivative ∂/χ2 , the
equation (2.76) transforms into
q2
q′ + + 2ǫ = 0, (2.78)
2
where the vacuum case should be parametrized for ǫ = 0 with χi = xi and
ǫ = −1 for a matter state with ε = −p.
The integral curve of (2.78), intersecting a point χ2(0) , q(0) , considered
as a differential equation on χ2 is defined by the functions [82]
q
q = (0) , ǫ = 0; (2.79)
q 2 − χ2
1 + (0)2
χ (0)
2 2
q(0) − 2 tan χ − χ(0)
q = , ǫ < 0. (2.80)
q 2 − χ2
1 + (0)2
tan χ (0)
for q(0) (χ1 ) = 0, where g1(0) (χ1 ), χ2(0) (χ1 ) and q(0) (χ1 ) are some functions
of necessary smoothness class on variable χ1 . For simplicity, in our further
considerations we shall apply the solution (2.81).
(here we write down the partial derivatives on t in explicit form) which relates
some first and second order partial on z derivatives of diagonal components
ha (xi , t) of a v–metric with a source
∗ 1 2 βh∗3
β + β − − 2κΥ1 h3 = 0 (2.82)
2 2h3
which relates two functions β (xi , t) and h3 (xi , t) . There are two possibilities:
1) to define β (i. e. h4 ) when κΥ1 and h3 are prescribed and, inversely 2) to
find h3 for given κΥ1 and h4 (i. e. β); in both cases one considers only ”*”
derivatives on t–variable with coordinates xi treated as parameters.
h∗3 1
s∗ + s − = 0. (2.83)
2h3 2
qi ∂h3 2 ∂ 2 h3
P5i = [( ) − ] = 0, (2.85)
2h3 ∂t ∂t2
and
h4 ∂ni ∂h3 h4 ∂ 2 ni
P6i = − = 0. (2.86)
4(h3 )2 ∂t ∂t 2h3 ∂t2
2.8. ANISOTROPIC COSMOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS 77
(0) (0)
where li (xk ) and ni (xk ) are arbitrary functions on xk which have to be
defined by some boundary conditions.
x2 + y 2 z 2
+ 2 = ρ2 , (2.88)
σ2 − 1 σ
where σ ≥ 1, x, y, z are Cartezian coordinates and ρ is similar to the radial
coordinate in the spherical symmetric case. The 3D special coordinate system
is defined
x2 + y 2 z 2
+ 2 = ρ2 ,
1 + σ2 σ
where σ ≥ 0 and σ = sinh u. The proper for ellipsoid 3D space coordinate
system is defined
ρ2 ρ2 sin2 σ
gσσ = gαα = , g ϕϕ = . (2.94)
(cosh α − cos σ)2 (cosh α − cos σ)2
80 CHAPTER 2. ANHOLONOMIC EINSTEIN AND GAUGE GRAVITY
Multiplying (2.95) on
ρ2 (τ )
,
(cosh α − cos σ)2
where the space part is just the torus hypersurface metric (2.94). So, the
set of coefficients (2.96) and (2.97), for the d–metric (2.95, and of qi = 0
and ni being solutions of (2.87), for the N–connection, defines a cosmological
solution of the Einstein equations (2.12) with the torus symmetry, when
the explicit form of the function ρ(τ ) is to be defined by considering some
additional equations for the matter state (for instance, with a scalar field
defining the torus inflation).
with respect to anholonomic frames (2.3) and (2.4), here we write down only
the ’elongated’ differentials
The aim of this chapter is to outline the theory of gravity on vector bundles
provided with nonlinear connection structures [108, 109] and to proof that
anholonomic frames with associated nonlinear connection structures can be
introduced in general relativity and in low dimensional and extra dimension
models of gravity on (pseudo) Riemannian space–times [177, 179].
85
86 CHAPTER 3. ANISOTROPIC TAUB NUT – DIRAC SPACES
rations and for anisotropic generalizations of the Taub NUT metric [194]; all
such solutions being, in general, with generic local anisotropy. The method
was elaborated following the geometry of anholonomic frame (super) bundles
and associated nonlinear connections (in brief, N–connection) [180] which
has a number of applications in generalized Finsler and Lagrange geometry,
anholonomic spinor geometry, (super) gravity and strings with anisotropic
(anholonomic) frame structures.
In this chapter we restrict our considerations for the 5D Einstein grav
ity. In this case the N–connection coefficients are defined by some partic
ular parametrizations of funfbein, or pentadic, coefficients defining a frame
structure on (pseudo) Riemannian spacetime and describing a gravitational
and matter field dynamics with mixed holonomic (unconstrained) and an
holonomic (constrained) variables. We emphasize that the Einstein gravity
theory in arbitrary dimensions can be equivalently formulated with respect
to both holonomic (coordinate) and anholonomic frames. In the anholonomic
cases the rules of partial and covariant derivation are modified by some pen
tad transforms. The point is to find such values of the anholonomic frame
(and associated N–connection) coefficients when the metric is diagonalized
and the Einstein equations are written in a simplified form admitting exact
solutions.
The class of new exact solutions of vacuum Einstein equations describing
anisotropic Taub NUT like spacetimes [200] is defined by off–diagonal metrics
if they are given with respect to usual coordinate bases. Such metrics can be
anholonomically transformed into diagonal ones with coefficients being very
similar to the coefficients of the isotropic Taub NUT solution but having
additional dependencies on the 5th coordinate and angular parameters.
We shall use the term locally anisotropic (spacetime) space (in brief,
anisotropic space) for a (pseudo) Riemannian space provided with an an
holonomic frame structure induced by a procedure of anholonomic diagonal
ization of a off–diagonal metric.
The Hawking’s [62] suggestion that the Euclidean Taub–NUT metric
might give rise to the gravitational analogue of the Yang–Mills instanton
holds true on anisotropic spaces but in this case both the metric and instan
ton have some anisotropically renormalized parameters being of higher di
mension gravitational vacuum polarization origin. The anisotropic Euclidean
TaubNUT metric also satisfies the vacuum Einstein’s equations with zero
cosmological constant when the spherical symmetry is deformed, for instance,
into ellipsoidal or even toroidal configuration. Such anisotropic TaubNUT
metrics can be used for generation of deformations of the space part of the line
element defining an anisotropic modification of the KaluzaKlein monopole
solutions proposed by Gross and Perry [76] and Sorkin [139].
3.1. N–CONNECTIONS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY 87
Both the inverse matrix (metric) as well the metric (3.2) is off–diagonal with
respect to the coordinate basis
∂ ∂ ∂
∂α ≡ α
= (∂i = i , ∂a = a ) (3.4)
du dx dy
and, its dual basis,
if instead the coordinate bases (3.4) and (3.5) we introduce the anholonomic
frames (anisotropic bases)
δ ∂
δα ≡ α
= (δi = ∂i − Nib (u) ∂b , ∂a = a ) (3.7)
du dy
and
N0a = 0, N1,2
3 4
= w1,2 and N1,2 = n1,2
The metric (3.1) with coefficients (3.2) (equivalently, the d–metric (3.6)) is
assumed to solve the 5D Einstein equations
1
Rαβ − gαβ R = κΥαβ , (3.9)
2
where κ and Υαβ are respectively the coupling constant and the energy–
momentum tensor.
The nontrivial components of the Ricci tensor for the metric (3.1) with
90 CHAPTER 3. ANISOTROPIC TAUB NUT – DIRAC SPACES
In result of the obtained equalities for some Ricci and Einstein tensor
components, we conclude that for the metric ansatz (3.2) the Einstein equa
tions with matter sources are compatible if the coefficients of the energy–
momentum d–tensor give with respect to anholonomic bases satisfy the con
ditions
where bi = 1, 2 and the left parts are given by the components of the Ricci
tensor (3.10)(3.13).
3.1. N–CONNECTIONS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY 91
were by γ α (u) we denote the curved spacetime gamma matrices and by b γ β (u)
we denote the gamma matrices adapted to the N–connection structure.
The covariant derivation of Dirac spinor field Ψ (u) , ▽α Ψ, can be defined
with respect to a pentad decomposition of the off–diagonal metric (3.2)
1 α β γ
▽α Ψ = ∂α + Cαβγ (u) eα (u) γ γ Ψ, (3.30)
4
are called the rotation Ricci coefficients; the covariant derivative Dγ is defined
by the usual Christoffel symbols for the off–diagonal metric.
We can also define an equivalent covariant derivation of the Dirac spinor
−
→
field, ▽ α Ψ, by using pentad decompositions of the diagonalized d–metric
(1.39),
−
→ 1 [δ] α β γ
▽ α Ψ = δα + Cαβγ (u) fα (u) γ γ Ψ, (3.31)
4
where there are introduced N–elongated partial derivatives and the coeffi
cients
[δ]
Cαβγ (u) = Dγ[δ] fαα fβα fγγ
are transformed into rotation Ricci d–coefficients which together with the
[δ]
d–covariant derivative Dγ are defined by anholonomic pentads and anholo
nomic transforms of the Christoffel symbols.
For diagonal d–metrics the funfbein coefficients can be taken in their turn
in diagonal form and the corresponding gamma matrix b γ α (u) for anisotropic
curved spaces are proportional to the usual gamma matrix in flat spaces
γ γ . The Dirac equations for locally anisotropic spacetimes are written in the
simplest form with respect to anholonomic frames,
−→
γ α (u) ▽α − µ)Ψ = 0,
(ib (3.32)
94 CHAPTER 3. ANISOTROPIC TAUB NUT – DIRAC SPACES
where µ is the mass constant of the Dirac field. The Dirac equations are the
Euler equations for the Lagrangian
p −→
L(1/2) (u) = g{[Ψ+ (u) b γ α (u) ▽α Ψ (u) (3.33)
−→ +
−(▽α Ψ (u))b γ α (u) Ψ (u)] − µΨ+ (u) Ψ (u)},
[δ] −→
Cαβγ (u) = 0 and ▽α Ψ = δα Ψ,
γ α (u) δα − µ)Ψ = 0.
(ib (3.35)
with the condition that k0 is identified with the positive energy and ϕ0 (k)
and χ0 (k) are constant bispinors. To satisfy the Klein–Gordon equation we
must have
k 2 = k02 − k12 − k22 = µ2 .
The Dirac equations implies
(σ i ki − µ)ϕ0 (k) and (σ i ki + µ)χ0 (k),
where σ i (i = 0, 1, 2) are Pauli matrices corresponding to a realization of
gamma matrices as to a form of splitting to usual Pauli equations for the
bispinors ϕ0 (k) and χ0 (k).
In the rest frame for the horizontal plane parametrized by coordinates
ζ = {t, ζ 1, ζ 2} there are four independent solutions of the Dirac equations,
1 0
0
ϕ0(1) (µ, 0) = 0 1
0 , ϕ(2) (µ, 0) = 0 ,
0 0
0 0
0 0
χ0(1) (µ, 0) = , χ0(2) (µ, 0) =
1
.
0
0 1
96 CHAPTER 3. ANISOTROPIC TAUB NUT – DIRAC SPACES
when the coefficients b(p, [α]) define a current (the group velocity)
X Z d3 p µ p2
2 2
J = p b(p, [α]) p
2π 3 µ2 + (k 2 )2 µ2 + (k 2 )2
[α]=1,2,3
p2
≡< p >
µ2 + (k 2 )2
with p2  ∼ µ and the energy–momentum d–tensor (3.34) has the next non
trivial coefficients
Υ00 = 2Υ(ζ 1, ζ 2 ) = k0 Ψ+ γ0 Ψ,
Υ11 = −k1 Ψ+ γ1 Ψ, Υ22 = −k2 Ψ+ γ2 Ψ (3.39)
where
m0
V −1 = 1 + , m0 = const.
r
The functions Ai are static ones associated to the electromagnetic potential,
Ar = 0, Aθ = 0, Aϕ = 4m0 (1 − cos θ)
when
∂ξ ∂ξ
= 4m0 (1 − cos θ)µ, = −4m0 (1 − cos θ)µ,
∂θ ∂ϕ
Aθ = 4m0 (1 − cos θ) .
ds2(4D) → db
s2(4D) = V ds2(4D)
ds2(5D) = dt2 + db
s2(4D) ; (3.44)
s2(4D)
db 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
= −(dr + r dθ ) − r sin θdϕ − V (dζ + Aθ dθ) , 2
(not being an exact solution of the Einstein equations) which will transform
into some exact solutions after corresponding anholonomic transforms.
Here, we emphasize that we chose the variant of transformation of a lo
cally isotropic non–Einsteinian metrics into an anisotropic one solving the
vacuum Einstein equations in order to illustrate a more simple procedure
of construction of 5D vacuum metrics with generic local anisotropy. As a
metter of principle we could remove vacuum isotropic solutions into vacuum
anisotropic ones, but the formula in this case would became very comber
some.. The fact of selection as an isotropic 4D Riemannian background just
s2(4D) can be treated as a conformal trans
the metric from the linear interval db
formation of an instanton solution which is anisotropically deformed and put
trivially (by extension to the time like coordinate) into a 5D metric as to
generate a locally isotropic vacuum gravitational field.
3.2. ANISOTROPIC TAUB NUT SOLUTIONS 99
where the values η42 (θ, ϕ) (we use non–negative values η42 not changing the
signature of metrics) and n2 (θ, ϕ) must be found as to satisfy the vacuum
Einstein equations in the form (3.19)–(3.22). We can verify that the data
x0 = t, x1 = r, x2 = θ, y 3 = s = ϕ, y 4 = ς, (3.45)
g0 = 1, g1 = −1, g2 = −r 2 , h3 = −r 2 sin2 θ,
h4 = V 2 (r) η(ϕ)
2 2
, η(ϕ) = [1 + ̟(r, θ)ϕ]2 , wi = 0;
n0,1 = 0; n2 = n2[0] (r, θ) + n2[1] (r, θ) /[1 + ̟(r, θ)ϕ]2 .
In the locally isotropic limit of the solution for n2 (r, θ, ϕ), when ̟ϕ → 0,
we could obtain the particular magnetic configuration contained in the metric
(3.44) if we impose the condition that
which defines only one function from two unknown values n2[0] (r, θ) and
n2[1] (r, θ) . This could have a corresponding physical motivation. From the
usual Kaluza–Klein procedure we induce the 4D gravitational field (met
ric) and 4D electro–magnetic field (potentials Ai ), which satisfy the Maxwell
equations in 4D pseudo–Riemannian space–time. For the case of spherical, lo
cally isotropic, symmetries the Maxwell equations can be written for vacuum
magnetic fields without any polarizations. When we introduce into considera
tion anholonomic constraints and locally anisotropic gravitational configura
tions the effective magnetic field could be effectively renormalized by higher
dimension gravitational field. This effect, for some classes of anisotropies,
can be modeled by considering that the constant m0 is polarized,
m0 → m (r, θ, ϕ) = m0 ηm (r, θ, ϕ)
for the electro–magnetic potential and resulting magnetic field. For ”pure”
angular anisotropies we write that
n2 (θ, ϕ) = n2[0] (θ) + n2[1] (θ) /[1 + ̟(θ)ϕ]2
= 4m0 ηm (θ, ϕ) (1 − cos θ) ,
for
2 2 2
η(ϕ) (θ, ϕ) = η(ϕ)[0] (θ) + η(ϕ)[1] (θ) /[1 + ̟(θ)ϕ]2 .
This could result in a constant angular renormalization even ̟(θ)ϕ → 0.
where the function η(ς) = η(ς) (r, θ, ς) is an arbitrary one as follow for the case
h∗4 = 0, for angular polarizations we state, for simplicity, that η(ς) does not
depend on r, i. e. η(ς) = η(ς) (θ, ς). We chose the coefficient
for a Dirac wave packet satisfying the conditions (3.39) and (3.40).
h4 = V 2 (r)η(ϕ)
2
(r, θ, ϕ)
where C1,2 (r, θ) are some functions to be defined from some boundary con
ditions. The first solution (3.48), for negative densities of energy should be
excluded as unphysical, the second solution (3.49) is just that from (3.45)
for the vacuum case. A new interesting physical situation is described by
the solution (3.50) when we obtain a Taub NUT anisotropic metric with pe
riodic anisotropic dependencies on the angle ϕ where the periodicity could
variate on coordinates (r, θ) as it is defined by the energy density Υ (r, θ) . For
simplicity, we can consider a package of spinor waves with constant value of
Υ = Υ0 and fix some boundary and coordinate conditions when C1,2 = C1,2[0]
are constant. This type of anisotropic Taub NUT solutions are described by
a d–metric coefficient
p
h4 = V 2 (r)C1[0]
2
cos2 [ϕr sin θ Υ0 + C2[0] ]. (3.51)
Putting this value into the formulas (3.23), (3.24) and (3.25) for coefficients
in equations (3.21) we can express α1,2 = α1,2 [h3 , h4 , Υ0 ] and β = β[h3 , h4 , Υ0 ]
(we omit these rather simple but cumbersome formulas) and in consequence
we can define the values w1,2 by solving linear algebraic equations:
were
p
κ̃ = ϕr sin θ Υ0 + C2[0] ,
x0 = t, x1 = r, x2 = θ, y 3 = s = ϕ, y 4 = ς, (3.53)
g0 = 1, g1 = −1, g2 = −r 2 , h3 = −r 2 sin2 θ,
h4 = V 2 (r) η(ϕ)
2
, η(ϕ) = C1 (r, θ) cos κ̃(r, θ, ϕ),
wi = 0, n0,1 = 0, n2 = n2 (r, θ, κ̃(r, θ, ϕ)) see (3.52),
Ψ = Ψ(+) ζ 1,2(x1 , x2 ) see (3.38),
Υ = Υ ζ 1,2(x1 , x2 ) see (3.39).
λ∗∗ + Iλ = 0, (3.55)
where
∗
1 h∗3 1 h∗3
I = h3 Υ − + .
16 h3 4 h3
From the equations (3.22), after two integrations on variable ς one obtains
the values of n1,2 (r, θ, ς) . Two integrations of equations (3.22) define
Z ς Z z
ni (r, θ, ς) = ni[0] (r, θ) dz dsP (r, θ, s) + ni[1] (r, θ),
0 0
where
1 h∗ h∗
P ≡ ( 3 − 3 4)
2 h3 h4
and the functions ni[0] (r, θ) and ni[1] (r, θ) on (r, θ) have to be defined by solv
ing the Cauchy problem. The boundary conditions of both type of coefficients
w1,2 and n1,2 should be expressed in some forms transforming into correspond
ing values for the data (3.46) if the source Υ → 0. We omit explicit formulas
for exact Einstein–Dirac solutions with ς–polarizations because their forms
depend very strongly on the type of polarizations and vacuum solutions.
also induce solutions for h3 (r, θ, s) following from the Bernoulli equation
h4
h∗3 + κE(r, θ) ∗
(h3 )2 + F (r, θ, s) h3 = 0, h∗4 6= 0,
h4
where
h∗4 2 h ′′ i
F (r, θ, s) = + ∗ h4 − ḧ4 − sin(h4 ) .
h4 h4
Anisotropic Spinors
109
111
113
114 CHAPTER 4. ANISOTROPIC CLIFFORD STRUCTURES
Proof: (We adapt for dalgebras that of Ref. [83], p. 127.) For a
universal problem the uniqueness is obvious if we prove the existence of solu
tion C (G) . To do this we use tensor algebra L(F ) = ⊕Lpr ∞ i
qs (F ) =⊕i=0 T (F ) ,
0 i i
where T (F ) = k and T (F ) = k and T (F ) = F ⊗...⊗F for i > 0. Let I (G)
be the bilateral ideal generated by elements of form ǫ (u) = u ⊗ u − G (u) · 1
where u ∈ F and 1 is the unity P element of algebra L (F ) . Every element
from I (G) can be written as i λi ǫ (ui) µi , where λi , µi ∈ L(F ) and ui ∈ F .
Let C (G) =L(F )/I (G) and define j : F → C (G) as the composition of
monomorphism i : F → L1 (F ) ⊂ L(F ) and projection p : L (F ) → C (G) .
In this case pair (C (G) , j) is the solution of our problem. From the general
properties of tensor algebras the homomorphism ϕ : F → A can be extended
to L(F ) , i.e., the diagram 2 is commutative, where ρ is a monomorphism
F  L(F )
Q i
Q
ϕ QQ ρ
s
Q +
A
C (f ) : C (G) → C (G′ )
δ : C (hF , g) → C (hF ⊕ vF , g + h) ,
δ ′ : C (vF , h) → C (hF ⊕ vF , g + h) .
116 CHAPTER 4. ANISOTROPIC CLIFFORD STRUCTURES
υζ = IdC(hF ,g)⊗C(vF
b ,h) , ζυ = IdC(hF ,g)⊗C(vF
b ,h) . (4.1)
where Ms (A) denotes the ring of quadratic matrices of order s with coeffi
cients in ring A. Here we write the simplest isomorphisms C 1,0 ≃ C, C 0,1 ≃
R ⊕ R, and C 2,0 = H, where by H is denoted the body of quaternions. We
4.1. DISTINGUISHED CLIFFORD ALGEBRAS 117
One of the most important properties of real algebras C 0,p (C 0,a ) and
C p,0 (C a,0 ) is eightfold periodicity of p(a).
Now, we emphasize that H 2n spaces admit locally a structure of Clifford
algebra on complex vector spaces. Really, by using almost Hermitian struc
ture Jα β and considering complex space C n with nondegenarate quadratic
form
n
X
za 2 , za ∈ C 2
a=1
←− ←−
where C 1 = C⊗R C = C ⊕ C or in consequence, C n ≃ C n,0 ⊗R C ≈ C 0,n ⊗R C.
←
−
Explicit
calculations
lead to isomorphisms C 2 = C 0,2 ⊗R C ≈ M2 (R)⊗R C ≈
←− ←−
M2 C n , C 2p ≈ M2p (C) and C 2p+1 ≈ M2p (C) ⊕ M2p (C) , which show that
complex Clifford algebras, defined locally for H 2n spaces, have periodicity 2
on p.
Considerations presented in the proof of theorem 4.2 show that map j :
F → C (F ) is monomorphic, so we can identify space F with its image in
C (F , G) , denoted as u → u, if u ∈ C (0) (F , G) u ∈ C (1) (F , G) ; then
u = u ( respectively, u = −u).
Definition 4.1. The set of elements u ∈ C (G)∗ , where C (G)∗ denotes the
multiplicative group of invertible elements of C (F , G) satisfying uF u−1 ∈ F ,
e (F ) .
is called the twisted Clifford dgroup, denoted as Γ
e (F ) → GL (F ) be the homorphism given by u → ρe
Let ρe : Γ u, where
e (F ) .
ρeu (w) = uwu−1 . We can verify that ker ρe = R∗ is a subgroup in Γ
118 CHAPTER 4. ANISOTROPIC CLIFFORD STRUCTURES
We conclude this section by emphasizing that the spinor norm was defined
with respect to a quadratic form induced by a metric in vbundle ξd (or by
an H 2n metric in the case of generalized Lagrange spaces). This approach
differs from those presented in Refs. [19] and [124].
is the dclass of ξ.
The above definition of spinor structures can be reformulated in terms of
principal bundles. Let ξd be a real vector bundle of rank n+m on a compact
base ξ. If there is a principal bundle Pd with structural group SO (n + m) [
or Spin (n + m)], this bundle ξd can be provided with orientation (or spinor)
structure. The bundle Pd is associated with element αd ∈ H 1 (ξ, SO(n + m))
[or βd ∈ H 1 (ξ, Spin (n + m)) .
We remark that a real bundle is oriented if and only if its first Stiefel
Whitney dclass vanishes,
where H 1 (ξ, Z/2) is the first group of Chech cohomology with coefficients
in Z/2, Considering the second StiefelWhitney class w2 (ξd ) ∈ H 21 (ξ, Z/2)
it is well known that vector bundle ξd admits the spinor structure if and
only if w2 (ξd ) = 0. Finally, in this subsection, we emphasize that taking into
account that base space ξ is also a vbundle, p : E → M, we have to make
explicit calculations in order to express cohomologies H s (ξ, GLn+m ) and
H s (ξ, SO (n + m)) through cohomologies H s (M, GLn ) , H s (M, SO (m)) ,
which depends on global topological structures of spaces M and ξ. For general
bundle and base spaces this requires a cumbersome cohomological calculus.
R : SpinG → SO (G) ,
is defined.
In the case when the base space variety is oriented, there is a natural
bijection between tangent spinor structures with a common base. For special
dsstructures we can define, as for any spinor structure, the concepts of spin
tensors, spinor connections, and spinor covariant derivations (see Refs. [162,
189, 165]).
where
x=x(z,z)
z a = xa + iy a , z a = xa − iy a , Hab (z, z) = gab (x, y) y=y(z,z) ,
and define almost complex spinor structures. For given metric (4.2) on
H 2n space there is always a principal bundle P U with unitary structural
group U(n) which allows us to transform H 2n space into vbundle ξ U ≈
P U ×U (n) R2n . This statement will be proved after we introduce complex
spinor structures on oriented real vector bundles [83].
U(n)  SO(2n)
Q i 3
Q c
Q
σ Q ρ
s c
Q
Spin (2n)
? ?
O(n) × O(n ) ′  O(n + n′ )
EC0,2n (M 2n )  E λc ⊕λc (M n )
c C
Q ǫ
Qc
ε̃ QQ H
s
Q +
ECW (M n )
SO(n)  SO(2n)
127
128 CHAPTER 5. SPINORS AND ANISOTROPIC SPACES
where the frame dvectors and constant metric matrices are distinguished as
!
b
lααb (u) = ljj (u) 0 , Gαb βb
gbibj 0
, (5.2)
b
a 0 hbabb
0 la (u)
gbibj and hbabb are diagonal matrices with gbibi = hbaba = ±1.
To generate Clifford d–algebras we start with matrix equations
where I is the identity matrix, matrices σαb (σobjects) act on a dvector space
F = hF ⊕ vF and theirs components are distinguished as
( !)
·k
·γ (σ )
bi j 0
σαb = (σαb )β = , (5.4)
0 (σba )·c
b
indices β,γ,... refer to spin spaces of type S = S(h) ⊕ S(v) and underlined
Latin indices j,k, ... and b, c, ... refer respectively to a hspin space S(h) and
a vspin space S(v) , which are correspondingly associated to a h and v
decomposition of a vbundle E(d) . The irreducible algebra of matrices σαb
of minimal dimension N × N, where N = N(n) + N(m) , dim S(h) =N(n) and
dim S(v) =N(m) , has these dimensions
(n−1)/2
2 , n = 2k + 1
N(n) = n/2
2 , n = 2k;
(m−1)/2
2 , m = 2k + 1
N(m) = m/2
2 , m = 2k,
where k = 1, 2, ... .
The Clifford dalgebra is generated by sums on n + 1 elements of form
b bb bbb
A1 I + B i σbi + C ij σbibj + D ij k σbibj bk + ...
5.1. ANISOTROPIC SPINORS AND TWISTORS 129
ij j 2 b .j 22 bb .j 23 bbb .j
(±)
Ekm = δki δm + (σbi ).ik (σ i )m + (σbibj )k.i (σ ij )m + (σbibj bk )k.i (σ ij k )m + ...
1! 2! 3!
(5.5)
and
(+) ij ij
Ekm = 2N(n) ǫkm ǫij , (−)
Ekm = 0 for n = 3(mod4), (5.7)
(+) ij (−) ij
Ekm = 0, Ekm = 2N(n) ǫkm ǫij for n = 1(mod4).
Antisymmetry of σbibj bk... and the construction of the objects (5.5),(5.6) and
(5.7) define the properties of ǫobjects (±) ǫkm and ǫkm which have an eightfold
periodicity on n (see details in [129] and, with respect to locally anisotropic
spaces, [163]).
For even values of n it is possible the decomposition of every hspin space
S(h) into irreducible hspin spaces S(h) and S′(h) (one considers splitting of h
indices, for instance, l= L ⊕ L′ , m = M ⊕ M ′ , ...; for vindices we shall write
a = A ⊕ A′ , b = B ⊕ B ′ , ...) and defines new ǫobjects
1 1
ǫlm = (+) lm
ǫ +(−) ǫlm and e
ǫlm = (+) lm
ǫ −(−) ǫlm . (5.8)
2 2
We shall omit similar formulas for ǫobjects with lower indices.
130 CHAPTER 5. SPINORS AND ANISOTROPIC SPACES
(−)
S(v) (8k ′ ) = S◦ ⊕ S′◦ , S(v) (8k + 1) = S◦ , ... (5.11)
and
(2.65)
132 CHAPTER 5. SPINORS AND ANISOTROPIC SPACES
S(◦◦,  ◦◦ ′ e e ′ ◦◦◦
) = S◦ ⊕ S◦ ⊕ S◦ ⊕ S◦ ,S(◦  ) = S◦ ⊕ S◦ ⊕ S◦ ⊕ S e ′ e e′ ,
◦
...............................................
(+) (+) (+) (+)
S(△ ,△ ) = S△ ⊕ S△ , S(△ ,△ ) = S△ ⊕ Se△ , (5.14)
................................
′ ′
S(△  ,♦ ) = S△ ⊕ Se◦ ⊕ S♦ , S(△ ◦ ,♦ ) = S△ ⊕ Se◦ ⊕ Se♦ ,
◦
................................
Considering the operation of dualisation of prime components in (5.14) we
can generate different isomorphic variants of distinguished (n,m)–spinor spa
ces.
We define a d–spinor space S(n,m) as a direct sum of a horizontal and a
vertical spinor spaces of type (5.14), for instance,
(−)
S(8k,8k′ ) = S◦ ⊕ S′◦ ⊕ S◦ ⊕ S′◦ , S(8k,8k′ +1) = S◦ ⊕ S′◦ ⊕ S◦ , ...,
(−)
S(8k+4,8k′ +5) = S△ ⊕ S′△ ⊕ S△ , ...
The scalar product on a S(n,m) is induced by (corresponding to fixed values
of n and m ) ǫobjects (5.9) considered for h and vcomponents.
Having introduced dspinors for dimensions (n, m) we can write out the
generalization for locally anisotropic spaces of twistor equations [128] by
using the distinguished σobjects (5.4):
..γ δω β 1 ..γ δω β
(σ(bα )β b
= Gαb βb (σbǫ )β ,
(5.15)
δuβ) n+m δubǫ
where β denotes that we do not consider symmetrization on this index. The
general solution of (5.15) on the dvector space F looks like as
..β
ω β = Ωβ + uαb (σαb )ǫ Πǫ , (5.16)
where Ωβ and Πǫ are constant dspinors. For fixed values of dimensions n and
m we mast analyze the reduced and irreducible components of h and vparts
of equations (5.15) and their solutions (5.16) in order to find the symmetry
properties of a dtwistor Zα defined as a pair of d–spinors
Zα = (ω α, πβ′ ),
(0)
where πβ ′ = πβ ′ ∈ Se(n,m) is a constant dual dspinor. The problem of
definition of spinors and twistors on locally anisotropic spaces was firstly
considered in [189] (see also [156]) in connection with the possibility to extend
the equations (5.15) and their solutions (5.16), by using nearly autoparallel
maps, on curved, locally isotropic or anisotropic, spaces.
5.2. MUTUAL TRANSFORMS OF TENSORS AND SPINORS 133
·γ ′ b
(σαb )β , (σ αb )βγ , (σ αb )βγ , ..., (σba )bc , ..., (σbi )jk , ..., (σba )AA , ..., (σ i )II ′ , .... (5.17)
δν b bb b
b γ) ,
(σαb β...b (σbab...bc)de , ..., (σ ij...k )II ′ , ... (5.18)
can be used for sets of such indices into pairs of dspinor indices. Let us enu
merate some properties of σobjects of type (5.18) (for simplicity we consider
only hcomponents having q indices bi, b j, b
k, ... taking values from 1 to n; the
properties of vcomponents can be written in a similar manner with respect
a, bb, b
to indices b c... taking values from 1 to m):
kl symmetric on k, l for n − 2q ≡ 1, 7 (mod 8);
(σbi...bj ) is (5.19)
antisymmetric on k, l for n − 2q ≡ 3, 5 (mod 8)
134 CHAPTER 5. SPINORS AND ANISOTROPIC SPACES
symmetric on I, J (I ′ , J ′ ) for n − 2q ≡ 0 (mod 8);
is (5.20)
antisymmetric on I, J (I ′ , J ′ ) for n − 2q ≡ 4 (mod 8)
or
′ ′ n + 2q ≡ 6(mod8);
(σbi...bj )IJ = ±(σbi...bj )J I { (5.21)
n + 2q ≡ 2(mod8),
with vanishing of the rest of reduced components of the dtensor (σbi...bj )kl with
prime/unprime sets of indices.
or
b b ′ ′ b b
ξ I ξ J (σ i...j )IJ or ξ I ξ J (σ i...j )I ′ J ′ (n is even) (5.23)
If all expressions (5.22) and/or (5.23) are zero for all values of q with the
exception of one or two ones defined by the condition (5.25) (or (5.26)), the
b ′
value ξ i (or ξ I (ξ I )) is called a fundamental hspinor. Defining in a similar
manner the fundamental vspinors we can introduce fundamental dspinors
as pairs of fundamental h and vspinors. Here we remark that a h(v)spinor
b
ξ i (ξ ba ) (we can also consider reduced components) is always a fundamental
one for n(m) < 7, which is a consequence of (5.24)).
Finally, in this section, we note that the geometry of fundamental h and
vspinors is similar to that of usual fundamental spinors (see Appendix to the
monograph [129]). We omit such details in this work, but emphasize that
constructions with fundamental dspinors, for a locally anisotropic space,
must be adapted to the corresponding global splitting by Nconnection of
the space.
as a map
β β
▽α1 α2 : σ β → σα = σα1 α2
satisfying conditions
▽α (ξ β + η β ) = ▽α ξ β + ▽α η β ,
and
▽α (f ξ β ) = f ▽α ξ β + ξ β ▽α f
5.4. DCOVARIANT DERIVATION 137
(▽α ζβ )η β = ▽α (ζβ η β ) − ζβ ▽α η β
▽α ψαβγ... = ▽α (ψ αβγ... ).
▽(1)
α f = ▽α f, (5.31)
(▽(1) β
α − ▽α )(ωβ ξ ) = 0.
γ γ
In consequence we conclude that there is an element Θα1 α2 β ∈ σα1 α2 β for
which
γ
▽(1) γ γ
α1 α2 ξ = ▽α1 α2 ξ + Θα1 α2 β ξ
β
(5.32)
and
γ
▽(1)
α1 α2 ωβ = ▽α1 α2 ωβ − Θα1 α2 β ωγ .
β1 β2 β β
(▽(1)
α − ▽α )v = Θαγ 1 v γβ 2 + Θαγ 2 v β1 γ
β β2 β β1
= (Θαγ 1 1 δγ 2 + Θαγ 1 2 δγ 2 )v γ 1 γ 2 = Qβαγ v γ ,
where
β1 β2 β β2 β β1
Qβαγ = Q α1 α2 γ 1 γ 2 = Θαγ 1 1 δγ 2 + Θαγ 1 2 δγ 2 . (5.33)
138 CHAPTER 5. SPINORS AND ANISOTROPIC SPACES
The dcommutator ▽[α ▽β] defines the d–torsion. So, applying operators
(1) (1)
▽[α ▽β] and ▽[α▽β] on f = ωβ ξ β we can write
(1)γ
T αβ − T γαβ = Qγβα − Qγαβ
A dspinor κα ∈ σ α
has components κα = κα δα α
. Taking into account that
α β
δα δβ ▽αβ = ▽αβ ,
α β γ γ γ
δα δβ δγ ▽αβ κγ = δǫ τ
δτ ▽αβ κǫ + κǫ δǫ ▽αβ δǫ ǫ
γ
= ▽αβ κγ + κǫ γ αβǫ , (5.34)
γ
where the coordinate components of the dspinor connection γ αβǫ are defined
as
γ . γ
γ αβǫ = δτ ▽αβ δǫ τ . (5.35)
We call the Infeld  van der Waerden dsymbols a set of σobjects (σα )αβ
parametrized with respect to a coordinate dspinor basis. Defining
introducing denotations
.
γ γ ατ = γ γ αβτ (σα )αβ
5.5. INFELD  VAN DER WAERDEN COEFFICIENTS 139
and
β δ
lαα δβ ▽ α µβ = ▽ α µβ − µδ γ αβ (5.37)
µ 1 µβ
γ γα = (Γ γ αβ − (σαβ )β ▽γ (σβ )µβ ), (5.38)
N(n) + N(m)
where
µβ
Γ γ αβ = (σα )µβ (σαβ )β Γαγβ . (5.39)
We also note here that, for instance, for the canonical and Berwald con
nections, Christoffel dsymbols we can express dspinor connection (5.39)
through corresponding locally adapted derivations of components of metric
and Nconnection by introducing respectively the coefficients of the Barwald,
canonical or another type d–connections.
140 CHAPTER 5. SPINORS AND ANISOTROPIC SPACES
and
δ
2αβ µγ = Xγ αβ µδ .
and
δ δ
The dspinor components Rγ γ 1 2 αβ of the curvature dtensor Rγ δ αβ
1 2
can be computed by using the relations (5.39), (5.40) and (5.42) as to satisfy
the equations (the dspinor analogous of equations (1.79) )
γ1γ2 δ1 δ 2 δ1 δ 2 γ1γ2
(2αβ − T αβ ▽γ 1 γ 2 )V = Rγ γ αβ V , (5.43)
1 2
δ1δ2 δ1 τ 1τ 2
Rγ γ αβ = Xγ +T αβαβ γ τ 1 τ 2 γ δγ δ2 δ1
(5.44)
1
1 2
1
2
δ2 τ 1τ 2
+ Xγ αβ + T αβ γ δ2 τ 1 τ 2 γ δγ δ1 .
2 2 1
Putting (2.96) and (2.97) into (2.43) and, correspondingly, (2.41) we find
the dspinor components of the Einstein and Φαβ dtensors:
←
− ←
− δ1 τ 1τ 2
G γα = G γ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 = Xγ α1 α2 δ1 γ 2 +T α1 α2 δ 1 γ 2 γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2γ (5.47)
1 1
δ2 τ 1τ 2
+Xγ α1 α2 δ 1 γ 2 +T α1 α2 γ 1 δ 2 γ δ2 τ 1τ 2 γ
2 2
1 β µ β τ τ β β µ
− εγ 1 α1 εγ 2 α2 [X 1 1 β 2 µ β + T 1 2 1 β µ 2 γ 1 τ 1 τ 2 β
2 1 1 2 2 1 1
β 2 µ2 ν 1 τ 1τ 2 β2 β1 δ2
+X β µ ν1 + T β δ2 γ τ 1 τ 2β ]
2 2 1 2
142 CHAPTER 5. SPINORS AND ANISOTROPIC SPACES
and
1 β µ β
Φγα = Φγ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 = εγ 1 α1 εγ 2 α2 [X 1 1 β 2 µ1 β 2 (5.48)
2(n + m) 1
τ 1 τ 2β1 β2 µ1 β 2 µ2 ν 1 τ 1τ 2 β2β1 δ2
+T β 2 µ1 γ τ 1 τ 2 β1 +X β 2 µ2 ν 1 +T β1 δ2 γ τ 1τ 2 β2 ]
1 δ τ τ
− [Xγ α11 α2 δ1 γ + T 1 2 α1 α2 δ1 γ γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2 γ
2 1 2 2 1
δ2 τ 1τ 2 δ2
+Xγ α1 α2 δ1 γ + T α1 α2 γ δ 2 γ τ 1 τ 2 γ ].
2 2 1 2
n+m−2 ← −
(2 + R + µ2 )ϕ (u) = 0. (6.1)
4(n + m − 1)
143
144 CHAPTER 6. ANISOTROPIC SPINORS AND FIELD EQUATIONS
(0,can) 1
Eαβ (u) = δα ϕ (u) δβ ϕ (u) + δβ ϕ (u) δα ϕ (u) − p gαβ L(0) (u) , (6.3)
g
Dα ϕα (u) = 0. (6.7)
Putting (6.7) into (6.6) we obtain second order field equations with re
spect to ϕα :
The energymomentum dtensor and dvector current following from the (6.8)
can be written as
(1) gαβ
Eαβ (u) = −g ετ f βτ fαε + f αε fβτ + µ2 ϕα ϕβ + ϕβ ϕα − p L(1) (u) .
g
and
Jα(1) (u) = i f αβ (u) ϕβ (u) − ϕβ (u) fαβ (u) .
For µ = 0 the dtensor fαβ and the Lagrangian (6.5) are invariant with
respect to locally anisotropic gauge transforms of type
(1/2) i + −→ −→
Eαβ (u) = [ψ (u) σα (u) ▽β ψ (u) + ψ + (u) σβ (u) ▽α ψ (u)
4
−→ −→
−(▽α ψ + (u))σβ (u) ψ (u) − (▽β ψ + (u))σα (u) ψ (u)]
δα → δα + ie⋆ Bα , (6.14)
1 Φ
F = ▽[α Bβ]ΞΦ − iB[αΛ
Φ
Bβ]ΞΛ , (6.15)
2 αβΞ
where the locally anisotropic space indices commute with capital Greek in
dices. The gauge transforms are written in the form:
b b b
BαΘΦ 7→ BαΘb Φ = BαΘ Φ sΦ Φ
qΘb Θ
+ isΘ Φ ▽α qΘb Θ
,
Φ b
Φ Φ b
Φ Ξ
FαβΞ 7→ Fαβ Ξb = FαβΞ sΦ qΞb ,
b
where matrices sΦ Φ and qΞb Ξ are mutually inverse (Hermitian conjugated in
the unitary case). The YangMills equations on torsionless locally anisotropic
spaces [186] (see details in the next Chapter) are written in this form:
▽α FαβΘ Ψ
= Jβ Θ
Ψ
, (6.16)
Ξ
▽[α Fβγ]Θ = 0. (6.17)
←
−
G γ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 + λεγ1 α1 εγ 2 α2 = κEγ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 ,
←
−
with G γ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 from (5.47), or, by using the dtensor (5.48),
←
−
R λ κ
Φγ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 +( − )εγ 1 α1 εγ 2 α2 = − Eγ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 ,
4 2 2
which are the dspinor equivalent of the equations (1.86). These equations
must be completed by the algebraic equations (1.87) for the dtorsion and d
spin density with dtensor indices changed into corresponding dspinor ones.
Part III
149
151
Clifford Ha–Structures
153
154 CHAPTER 7. CLIFFORD HA–STRUCTURES
for higher order anisotropies a similar proof presented in the Part II). For a
universal problem the uniqueness is obvious if we prove the existence of solu
tion C (G) . To do this we use tensor algebra L(F ) = ⊕Lpr ∞ i
qs (F ) =⊕i=0 T (F ) ,
where T 0 (F ) = k and T i (F ) = k and T i (F ) = F ⊗...⊗F for i > 0. Let I (G)
be the bilateral ideal generated by elements of form ǫ (u) = u ⊗ u − G (u) · 1
where u ∈ F and 1 is the unity P element of algebra L (F ) . Every element
from I (G) can be written as i λi ǫ (ui) µi , where λi , µi ∈ L(F ) and ui ∈ F .
Let C (G) =L(F )/I (G) and define j : F → C (G) as the composition of
monomorphism i : F → L1 (F ) ⊂ L(F ) and projection p : L (F ) → C (G) .
In this case pair (C (G) , j) is the solution of our problem. From the general
properties of tensor algebras the homomorphism ϕ : F → A can be extended
to L(F ) , i.e., the diagram 2 is commutative, where ρ is a monomorphism
of algebras. Because (ϕ (u))2 = G (u) · 1, then ρ vanishes on ideal I (G) and
in this case the necessary homomorphism τ is defined. As a consequence of
uniqueness of ρ, the homomorphism τ is unique.
Tensor d–algebra L(F ) can P be considered as a Z/2 graded P∞algebra. Re
(0) ∞ 2i (1) 2i+1
ally, let us introduce L (F ) = i=1 T (F ) and L (F ) = i=1 T (F ) .
Setting I (α) (G) = I (G) ∩ L(α) (F ). Define C (α) (G) as p L(α) (F ) , where p :
L (F ) → C (G) is the canonical projection. Then C (G) = C (0) (G)⊕C (1) (G)
and in consequence we obtain that the Clifford d–algebra is Z/2 graded.
It is obvious that Clifford dalgebra functorially depends on pair (F , G) .
If f : F → F ′ is a homomorphism of kvector spaces, such that G′ (f (u)) =
G (u) , where G and G′ are, respectively, metrics on F and F ′ , then f induces
an homomorphism of dalgebras
C (f ) : C (G) → C (G′ )
with identities C (ϕ · f ) = C (ϕ) C (f ) and C (IdF ) = IdC(F ) .
If Aα and Bβ are Z/2–graded d–algebras, then their graded tensorial
product Aα ⊗ Bβ is defined as a dalgebra for kvector dspace Aα ⊗ Bβ with
the graded product induced as (a ⊗ b) (c ⊗ d) = (−1)αβ ac ⊗bd, where b ∈ Bα
and c ∈ Aα (α, β = 0, 1) .
Now we re–formulate for d–algebras the Chevalley theorem [45]:
Theorem 7.2. The Clifford dalgebra
C (hF ⊕ v1 F ⊕ ... ⊕ vz F , g + h1 + ... + hz )
is naturally isomorphic to C(g) ⊗ C (h1 ) ⊗ ... ⊗ C (hz ) .
Proof. Let n : hF → C (g) and n′(p) : v(p) F → C h(p) be canonical
maps and map
m : hF ⊕ v1 F ⊕ ... ⊕ vz F → C(g) ⊗ C (h1 ) ⊗ ... ⊗ C (hz )
7.1. DISTINGUISHED CLIFFORD ALGEBRAS 155
is defined as
υζ = IdC(hF ,g)⊗C
b (v1 F ,h(1) )⊗...
b ⊗C b (vz F ,h(z) ) , (7.1)
ζυ = IdC(hF ,g)⊗C
b (v1 F ,h(1) )⊗...
b ⊗C b (vz F ,h(z) ) .
Really, dalgebra C hF ⊕ v1 F ⊕ ... ⊕ vz F , g + h(1) + ... + h(z) is generated
by elements of type m(x, y(1) , ...y(z) ). Calculating
υζ m x, y(1) , ...y(z) = υ(n (x) ⊗ 1 ⊗ ... ⊗ 1 + 1 ⊗ n′(1) y(1) ⊗ ... ⊗ 1
+... + 1 ⊗ .... ⊗ n′(z) y(z) ) = δ (n (x)) δ n′(1) y(1) ...δ n′(z) y(z)
= m (x, 0, ..., 0) + m(0, y(1) , ..., 0) + ... + m(0, 0, ..., y(z))
= m x, y(1) , ..., y(z) ,
156 CHAPTER 7. CLIFFORD HA–STRUCTURES
(ei )2 = −1 (1 ≤ i ≤ p) , (ej )2 = −1 (1 ≤ j ≤ a) ,
(ek )2 = 1 (p + 1 ≤ k ≤ p + q),
(ej )2 = 1 (n + 1 ≤ s ≤ a + b), ei ej = −ej ei , i 6= j.
where Ms (A) denotes the ring of quadratic matrices of order s with coeffi
cients in ring A. Here we write the simplest isomorphisms C 1,0 ≃ C, C 0,1 ≃
R ⊕ R and C 2,0 = H, where by H is denoted the body of quaternions.
Now, we emphasize that higher order Lagrange and Finsler spaces, de
noted H 2n –spaces, admit locally a structure of Clifford algebra on complex
β
vector spaces. Really, by using almost Hermitian structure JP α and consid
ering complex space C with nondegenarate quadratic form a=1 za 2 , za ∈
n n
←
− ←− ←
− ←
−
xa + iya ) we define Clifford algebra C n = C 1 ⊗ {z
... ⊗ C }1 , where C 1 =
n
←−
C⊗R C = C ⊕ C or in consequence, C n ≃ C n,0 ⊗R C ≈ C 0,n ⊗R C. Explicit
calculations lead to isomorphisms
←− ←
−
C 2 = C 0,2 ⊗R C ≈ M2 (R) ⊗R C ≈ M2 C n , C 2p ≈ M2p (C)
and
←
−
C 2p+1 ≈ M2p (C) ⊕ M2p (C) ,
which show that complex Clifford algebras, defined locally for H 2n spaces,
have periodicity 2 on p.
Considerations presented in the proof of theorem 2.2 show that map j :
F → C (F ) is monomorphic, so we can identify space F with its image in
C (F , G) , denoted as u → u, if u ∈ C (0) (F , G) u ∈ C (1) (F , G) ; then
u = u ( respectively, u = −u).
Definition 7.1. The set of elements u ∈ C (G)∗ , where C (G)∗ denotes the
multiplicative group of invertible elements of C (F , G) satisfying uF u−1 ∈ F ,
e (F ) .
is called the twisted Clifford dgroup, denoted as Γ
e (F ) → GL (F ) be the homorphism given by u → ρe
Let ρe : Γ u, where
−1 ∗ e
ρeu (w) = uwu . We can verify that ker ρe = R is a subgroup in Γ (F ) .
The canonical map j : F → C (F ) can be interpreted as the linear map
F → C (F )0 satisfying the universal property of Clifford dalgebras. This
leads to a homomorphism of algebras, C (F ) → C (F )t , considered by an
antiinvolution of C (F ) and denoted as u → t u. More exactly, if u1 ...un ∈ F ,
then tu = un ...u1 and t u = t u = (−1)n un ...u1 .
Definition 7.2. The spinor norm of arbitrary u ∈ C (F ) is defined as
S (u) = t u · u ∈ C (F ) .
It is obvious that if u, u′, u′′ ∈ Γ e (F ) , then S(u, u′) = S (u) S (u′ ) and
S (uu′u′′ ) = S (u) S (u′ ) S (u′′ ) . For u, u′ ∈ F S (u) = −G (u) and S (u, u′) =
S (u) S (u′ ) = S (uu′ ) .
Let us introduce the orthogonal group O (G) ⊂ GL (G) defined by metric
G on F and denote sets
e (F ) , S (u) = 1}
SO (G) = {u ∈ O (G) , det u = 1}, P in (G) = {u ∈ Γ
We conclude this subsection by emphasizing that the spinor norm was defined
with respect to a quadratic form induced by a metric in dvbundle E <z> . This
approach differs from those presented in Refs. [19] and [124].
Recall that by F we denote the typical fiber of such bundles. For ξ <z> we
obtain a bundle of algebras, denoted as C (ξ <z> ) , such that C (ξ <z> )u =
C (Fu ) . Multiplication in every fibre defines a continuous map
where H 1 (E <z> , Z/2) is the first group of Chech cohomology with coef
ficients in Z/2, Considering the second Stiefel–Whitney class w2 (ξ <z> ) ∈
H 2 (E <z> , Z/2) it is well known that vector bundle ξ <z> admits the spinor
structure if and only if w2 (ξ <z>) = 0. Finally, we emphasize that tak
ing into account that base space E <z> is also a vbundle, p : E <z> →
M, we have to make explicit calculations in order to express cohomologies
H s (E <z> , GLn+m ) and H s (E <z> , SO (n + m)) through cohomologies
where
x=x(z,z)
z a = xa + iy a , z a = xa − iy a , Hab (z, z) = gab (x, y) y=y(z,z) ,
and define almost complex spinor structures. For given metric (7.2) on
H 2n space there is always a principal bundle P U with unitary structural
group U(n) which allows us to transform H 2n space into vbundle ξ U ≈
P U ×U (n) R2n . This statement will be proved after we introduce complex
spinor structures on oriented real vector bundles [83].
Let us consider momentarily k = C and introduce into consideration
[instead of the group Spin(n)] the group Spinc ×Z/2 U (1) being the factor
group of the product Spin(n) × U (1) with the respect to equivalence
(y, z) ∼ (−y, −a) , y ∈ Spin(m).
This way we define the short exact sequence
Sc
1 → U (1) → Spinc (n) → SO (n) → 1, (7.3)
where ρc (y, a) = ρc (y) . If λ is oriented , real, and rank n, γbundle π :
Eλ → M n , with base M n , the complex spinor structure, spin structure, on
λ is given by the principal bundle P with structural group Spinc (m) and
isomorphism λ ≈ P ×Spinc (n) Rn (see (7.3)). For such bundles the categorial
equivalence can be defined as
ǫc : ECT (M n ) → ECλ (M n ) , (7.4)
where ǫc (E c ) = P △Spinc (n) E c is the category of trivial complex bundles
on M n , ECλ (M n ) is the category of complex vbundles on M n with action of
Clifford bundle C (λ) , P △Spinc(n) and E c is the factor space of the bundle
product P ×M E c with respect to the equivalence (p, e) ∼ (pb g −1, b
g e) , p ∈
c c
P, e ∈ E , where b g ∈ Spin (n) acts on E by via the imbedding Spin (n) ⊂
C 0,n and the natural action U (1) ⊂ C on complex vbundle ξ c , E c = totξ c ,
for bundle π c : E c → M n .
Now we return to the bundle ξ = E <1> . A real vbundle (not being a
spinor bundle) admits a complex spinor structure if and only if there exist a
homomorphism σ : U (n) → Spinc (2n) making the diagram 3 commutative.
The explicit construction of σ for arbitrary γbundle is given in Refs. [83]
and [21]. For H 2n spaces it is obvious that a diagram similar to (7.4) can be
defined for the tangent bundle T M n , which directly points to the possibility
of defining the c Spinstructure on H 2n –spaces.
Let λ be a complex, rank n, spinor bundle with
τ : Spinc (n) ×Z/2 U (1) → U (1) (7.5)
7.3. ALMOST COMPLEX SPINOR STRUCTURES 163
(pt, z) ∼ p, l (t)−1 z ,
Spinc (2n) on the equivalence relation (p, t, h) ∼ p, µ (t)−1 h . In this case
the categorial equivalence (7.4) can be rewritten as
with properties
(pt, e) ⊗ (pt, δ) → (pt, δe) = p, µc (t)−1 δe ,
p, µc (t)−1 e ⊗ p, l (t)−1 e → p, µc (t) r (t)−1 δe
pointing to the fact that we have defined the isomorphism correctly and that
it is an isomorphism on every fiber. 2
Chapter 8
165
166 CHAPTER 8. SPINORS AND HA–SPACES
where the frame dvectors and constant metric matrices are distinguished as
b
ljj (u) 0 ... 0
0 b
a1
la1 (u) ... 0
<b
α>
l<α> (u) =
...
,
... ... ...
0 0 .. labazz (u)
gbibj 0 ... 0
0 h b ... 0
G<bα><β>
b =
...
b
a1 b1 ,
... ... ...
0 0 0 hbazbbz
gbibj and hba1bb1 , ..., hbazbbz are diagonal matrices with gbibi = hba1 ba1 = ... = hbazbbz =
±1.
To generate Clifford dalgebras we start with matrix equations
σ<bα> σ<β>
b + σ<β> α> = −G<b
b σ<b b I,
α><β> (8.1)
where I is the identity matrix, matrices σ<bα> (σobjects) act on a dvector
space F = hF ⊕ v1 F ⊕ ... ⊕ vz F and theirs components are distinguished as
·k
(σ )
bi j 0 ... 0
·c1
·γ 0 (σba1 )b1 ... 0
σ<bα> = (σ<bα> )β = , (8.2)
... ... ... ...
... (σbaz )bzz
·c
0 0
indices β,γ,... refer to spin spaces of type S = S(h) ⊕ S(v1 ) ⊕ ... ⊕ S(vz )
and underlined Latin indices j,k, ... and b1 , c1 , ..., bz , cz ... refer respectively
to hspin space S(h) and vp spin space S(vp ) , (p = 1, 2, ..., z) which are cor
respondingly associated to a h and vp decomposition of a dvbundle E <z> .
The irreducible algebra of matrices σ<bα> of minimal dimension N ×N, where
N = N(n) + N(m1 ) + ... + N(mz ) , dim S(h) =N(n) and dim S(vp ) =N(mp ) , has these
dimensions
(n−1)/2
2 , n = 2k + 1
N(n) = n/2 ,
2 , n = 2k;
(m −1)/2
2 p , mp = 2kp + 1
N(mp ) = ,
2mp , mp = 2kp
8.1. D–SPINOR TECHNIQUES 167
and matrices
σbibj = σ[bi σbj] , σbapbbp = σ[bap σbbp ] , σbibj bk = σ[bi σbj σbk] , ....
n+1 bibj bibj b
Really, we have 2 coefficients A1 , C , D , ... and 2mp +1 coefficients
k
b b
(A2(p) , C bap bp , Dbap bp bcp , ...) of the Clifford algebra on F .
For simplicity, we shall present the necessary geometric constructions only
for hspin spaces S(h) of dimension N(n) . Considerations for a vspin space
S(v) are similar but with proper characteristics for a dimension N(m) .
In order to define the scalar (spinor) product on S(h) we introduce into
consideration this finite sum (because of a finite number of elements σ[bibj...bk] ):
ij j 2 b .j 22 bb .j
(±)
Ekm = δki δm + (σbi ).ik(σ i )m + (σbibj )k.i (σ ij )m
1! 2!
23 .i bbb .j
+ (σbibj bk )k (σ ij k )m + ... (8.4)
3!
which can be factorized as
(±) ij (±) (±) ij
Ekm = N(n) ǫkm ǫ for n = 2k (8.5)
and
(+) ij ij
Ekm = 2N(n) ǫkm ǫij , (−)
Ekm = 0 for n = 3(mod4), (8.6)
(+) ij (−) ij
Ekm = 0, Ekm = 2N(n) ǫkm ǫij for n = 1(mod4).
1 1
ǫlm = (+) lm
ǫ ǫlm =
+(−) ǫlm and e (+) lm
ǫ −(−) ǫlm (8.7)
2 2
We shall omit similar formulas for ǫobjects with lower indices.
In general, the spinor ǫobjects should be defined for every shell of an
isotropy according the formulas (5.9) where instead of dimension n we shall
consider the dimensions mp , 1 ≤ p ≤ z, of shells.
We define a dspinor space S(n,m1 ) as a direct sum of a horizontal and a
vertical spinor spaces of type (5.4), for instance,
(−)
S(8k,8k′ ) = S◦ ⊕ S′◦ ⊕ S◦ ⊕ S′◦ , S(8k,8k′ +1) = S◦ ⊕ S′◦ ⊕ S◦ , ...,
(−)
S(8k+4,8k′ +5) = S△ ⊕ S′△ ⊕ S△ , ...
..γ δω β 1 b
ǫ ..γ δω β
(σ(<bα> )β b
= G<bα><β>
b (σ )β , (8.8)
δu<β>) n + m1 + ... + mz δubǫ
where β denotes that we do not consider symmetrization on this index. The
general solution of (8.8) on the dvector space F looks like as
..β
ω β = Ωβ + u<bα> (σ<bα> )ǫ Πǫ , (8.9)
of h and vp parts of equations (8.8) and their solutions (8.9) in order to find
the symmetry properties of a dtwistor Zα defined as a pair of dspinors
Zα = (ω α , πβ′ ),
(0)
where πβ ′ = πβ ′ ∈ Se(n,m1 ,...,mz ) is a constant dual dspinor. The problem of
definition of spinors and twistors on haspaces was firstly considered in [189]
(see also [156]) in connection with the possibility to extend the equations (8.9)
and theirs solutions (8.10), by using nearly autoparallel maps, on curved,
locally isotropic or anisotropic, spaces. We note that the definition of twistors
have been extended to higher order anisotropic spaces with trivial N– and
d–connections.
·γ
(σ<bα> )β , (σ <bα> )βγ , (σ <bα> )βγ , ..., (σ<ba> )bc , ..., (8.10)
AA′ b
(σbi )jk , ..., (σ<ba> ) , ..., (σ i )II ′ , ....
It is obvious that contracting with corresponding σobjects (8.10) we can
introduce instead of dtensors indices the dspinor ones, for instance,
b
ω βγ = (σ <bα> )βγ ω<bα> , ωAB′ = (σ <ba> )AB′ ω<ba> , ..., ζ·ji = (σ k )i·j ζbk , ....
For dtensors containing groups of antisymmetric indices there is a more
simple procedure of theirs transforming into dspinors because the objects
δν b bb b
b γ) ,
(σαb β...b (σbab...bc)de , ..., (σ ij...k )II ′ , ... (8.11)
170 CHAPTER 8. SPINORS AND HA–SPACES
can be used for sets of such indices into pairs of dspinor indices. Let us enu
merate some properties of σobjects of type (8.11) (for simplicity we consider
only hcomponents having q indices bi, b j, b
k, ... taking values from 1 to n; the
properties of vp components can be written in a similar manner with respect
to indices b ap , bbp , b
cp ... taking values from 1 to m):
kl symmetric on k, l for n − 2q ≡ 1, 7 (mod 8);
(σbi...bj ) is (8.12)
antisymmetric on k, l for n − 2q ≡ 3, 5 (mod 8)
for odd values of n, and an object
′ ′
(σbi...bj )IJ (σbi...bj )I J
symmetric on I, J (I ′ , J ′ ) for n − 2q ≡ 0 (mod 8);
is (8.13)
antisymmetric on I, J (I ′ , J ′ ) for n − 2q ≡ 4 (mod 8)
or
′ ′ n + 2q ≡ 6(mod8);
(σbi...bj )IJ = ±(σbi...bj )J I { (8.14)
n + 2q ≡ 2(mod8),
with vanishing of the rest of reduced components of the dtensor (σbi...bj )kl with
prime/ unprime sets of indices.
and
ζ αp = (ζ ip , ζ ap ) ∈ σ αp = (σ ip , σ ap )
where
(σ<α> (u))νγ = l<α>
<b
α>
(u)(σ<bα> )<ν><γ> , (8.21)
which is a consequence of formulas (8.1)–(8.7). In brief we can write (8.20)
as
g<α><β> = ǫα1 α2 ǫβ 1 β 2 (8.22)
if the σobjects are considered as a fixed structure, whereas ǫobjects are
treated as caring the metric ”dynamics ” , on higher order anisotropic space.
This variant is used, for instance, in the socalled 2spinor geometry [128, 129]
and should be preferred if we have to make explicit the algebraic symmetry
properties of dspinor objects by using metric decomposition (8.22). An
alternative way is to consider as fixed the algebraic structure of ǫobjects
and to use variable components of σobjects of type (8.21) for developing a
variational dspinor approach to gravitational and matter field interactions on
haspaces ( the spinor Ashtekar variables [20] are introduced in this manner).
We note that a d–spinor metric
ǫij 0 ... 0
0 ǫa b ... 0
ǫντ = 1 1
... ... ... ...
0 0 ... ǫaz bz
on the dspinor space S = (S(h) , S(v1 ) , ..., S(vz ) ) can have symmetric or anti
symmetric h (vp ) components ǫij (ǫap bp ) , see ǫobjects (5.9). For simplicity,
in order to avoid cumbersome calculations connected with eightfold period
icity on dimensions n and mp of a haspace E <z> , we shall develop a general
dspinor formalism only by using irreduced spinor spaces S(h) and S(vp ) .
as maps
β β
▽α1 α2 : σ β → σ<α> = σα1 α2 =
β β β β β β β β
σi = σi1 i2 , σ(1)a1 = σ(1)α , ..., σ(p)ap = σ(p)α , ..., σ(z)az = σ(z)α
1 α2 1 α2 1 α2
satisfying conditions
and
and that ▽<α> is a real operator, i.e. it commuters with the operation of
complex conjugation:
(1) β β
(▽<α> − ▽<α> )v β1 β 2 = Θ<α>γ
1
v γβ 2 + Θ<α>γ
2
vβ1 γ
β β2 β β1
= (Θ<α>γ
1
δγ 2 + Θ<α>γ
2
δγ 2 )v γ 1 γ 2
1 1
= Q<β>
<α><γ> v
<γ>
,
where
β1β2 β β2 β β1
Q<β>
<α><γ> = Q α1 α2 γ 1 γ 2 = Θ<α>γ
1
δγ 2 + Θ<α>γ
2
δγ 2 . (8.25)
1 1
The dcommutator ▽[<α> ▽<β>] defines the dtorsion. So, applying operators
(1) (1)
▽[<α> ▽<β>] and ▽[<α> ▽<β>] on f = ωβ ξ β we can write
(1)<γ>
T <α><β> − T <γ> <γ> <γ>
<α><β> = Q <β><α> − Q <α><β>
with Q<γ>
<α><β> from (8.25).
(1) β β ...
The action of operator ▽<α> on dspinor tensors of type χα1 α2 α3 ... 1 2
must be constructed by using formula (8.24) for every upper index β 1 β 2 ...
and formula (8.25) for every lower index α1 α2 α3 ... .
A dspinor κα ∈ σ α
has components κα = κα δα α
. Taking into account that
α β
δα δβ ▽αβ = ▽αβ ,
α β γ γ γ
δα δβ δγ ▽αβ κγ = δǫ τ
δτ ▽αβ κǫ + κǫ δǫ ▽αβ δǫ ǫ
γ
= ▽αβ κγ + κǫ γ αβǫ , (8.26)
8.2. DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF HA–SPINORS 175
γ
where the coordinate components of the d–spinor connection γ αβǫ are defined
as
γ . γ
γ αβǫ = δτ ▽αβ δǫ τ . (8.27)
We call the Infeld  van der Waerden dsymbols a set of σobjects (σα )αβ
parametrized with respect to a coordinate dspinor basis. Defining
introducing denotations
.
γ γ <α>τ = γ γ αβτ (σ<α> )αβ
µ 1 µβ
γ <γ>α = (Γ <γ> αβ (8.29)
N(n) + N(m1 ) + ... + N(mz )
<β>
−(σαβ ) ▽<γ> (σ<β> )µβ ),
where
µβ
Γ <γ> αβ = (σ<α> )µβ (σαβ )β Γ<α>
<γ><β> . (8.30)
We also note here that, for instance, for the canonical and Berwald connec
tions and Christoffel dsymbols we can express dspinor connection (8.30)
through corresponding locally adapted derivations of components of met
ric and Nconnection by introducing corresponding coefficients instead of
Γ<α>
<γ><β> in (8.30) and than in (8.29).
γ δ
2αβ π γ = Xδ αβ π
δ
and 2αβ µγ = Xγ αβ µδ . (8.32)
γ
We note that dspinor tensors Xδ αβ and Ψαβγδ are transformed into similar
2spinor objects on locally isotropic spaces [128, 129] if we consider vanishing
of the Nconnection structure and a limit to a locally isotropic space.
γ
Putting δγ instead of µγ in (8.32) and using (8.33) we can express
respectively the curvature and gravitational dspinors as
δ1δ2 δ1 τ τ
Rγ γ αβ = Xγ αβ + T 1 2 αβ γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2 γ δγ δ2 (8.34)
1
1 2
1 2
δ2 τ 1τ 2
+ Xγ αβ + T αβ
δ2
γ τ 1 τ 2 γ δγ δ1 .
2 2 1
Putting (8.35) and (8.36) into (1.78) and, correspondingly, (9.14) we find
the d–spinor components of the Einstein and Φ<α><β> d–tensors:
←
− ←
− δ1 τ 1τ 2
G <γ><α> = G γ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 = Xγ α1 α2 δ 1 γ 2 +T α1 α2 δ 1 γ 2 γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2γ
1 1
δ2 τ 1τ 2 δ2
+Xγ α1 α2 δ1 γ 2 +T α1 α2 γ 1 δ 2 γ τ 1τ 2γ 2 −
2
1 β µ β τ τ β β µ
εγ 1 α1 εγ 2 α2 [X 1 1 β 2 µ β + T 1 2 1 β µ 2 γ 1 τ 1 τ 2 β +
2 1 1 2 2 1 1
β 2 µ2 ν 1 τ 1τ 2 β2β1 δ2
X β µ ν1 + T β δ2 γ τ 1 τ 2β ] (8.37)
2 2 1 2
and
1 β µ β
Φ<γ><α> = Φγ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 = εγ 1 α1 εγ 2 α2 [X 1 1 β 2 µ1 β 2 +
2(n + m1 + ... + mz ) 1
τ 1 τ 2β1 β2 µ1 β 2 µ2 ν 1 τ 1τ 2 β2 β1 δ2
T β 2 µ1 γ τ 1 τ 2β1 +X β 2 µ2 ν 1 +T β1 δ2 γ τ 1τ 2 β2 ] −
1 δ τ τ
[Xγ α11 α2 δ1 γ + T 1 2 α1 α2 δ1 γ γ δ1 τ 1 τ 2 γ +
2 1 2 2 1
δ2 τ 1τ 2 δ2
Xγ α1 α2 δ1 γ + T α1 α2 γ δ 2 γ τ 1 τ 2 γ ]. (8.38)
2 2 1 2
nE − 2 ← −
(2 + R + µ2 )ϕ (u) = 0, (9.1)
4(nE − 1)
179
180 CHAPTER 9. HASPINORS AND FIELD INTERACTIONS
where f<α><β> = D<α> ϕ<β> − D<β> ϕ<α> , one follows the Proca equations
on higher order anisotropic spaces
Equations (9.6) are a first type constraints for β = 0. Acting with D<α> on
(9.6), for µ 6= 0 we obtain second type constraints
Putting (9.7) into (9.6) we obtain second order field equations with re
spect to ϕ<α> :
The energymomentum dtensor and dvector current following from the (9.8)
can be written as
(1)
E<α><β> (u) = −g <ε><τ > f <β><τ > f<α><ε> + f <α><ε> f<β><τ >
g<α><β> (1)
+µ2 ϕ<α> ϕ<β> + ϕ<β> ϕ<α> − p L (u)
g
and
(1)
J<α> (u) = i f <α><β> (u) ϕ<β> (u) − ϕ<β> (u) f<α><β> (u) .
For µ = 0 the dtensor f<α><β> and the Lagrangian (9.5) are invariant
with respect to locally anisotropic gauge transforms of type
δα → δα + ie⋆ Bα ,
1 Φ Φ Φ Λ
F = ▽[<α> B<β>]Ξ − iB[<α>Λ B<β>]Ξ , (9.11)
2 <α><β>Ξ
where the locally anisotropic space indices commute with capital Greek in
dices. The gauge transforms are written in the form:
Φ Φ bΦ b
Φ Θ b
B<α>Θ 7→ B<α> b = B<α>Θ sΦ
Θ
qΘb + isΘ Φ ▽<α> qΘb Θ
,
Φ Φ b Φ b
Φ Ξ
F<α><β>Ξ 7→ F<α><β> b = F<α><β>Ξ sΦ
Ξ
qΞb ,
b
where matrices sΦ Φ and qΞb Ξ are mutually inverse (Hermitian conjugated in
the unitary case). The YangMills equations on torsionless locally anisotropic
spaces [186] (see details in the next Section) are written in this form:
▽<α> F<α><β>Θ
Ψ
= J<β> Ψ
Θ, (9.12)
Ξ
▽[<α> F<β><γ>]Θ = 0.
184 CHAPTER 9. HASPINORS AND FIELD INTERACTIONS
. 1 ←
−
−2Φ<α><β> = R<α><β> − R g<α><β>
n + m1 + ... + mz
which is the torsionless part of the Ricci tensor for locally isotropic spaces
<α> .
[128, 129], i.e. Φ<α> = 0. The Einstein equations on higher order anisotrop
ic spaces
←
−
G <α><β> + λg<α><β> = κE<α><β> , (9.13)
where
←
− 1←−
G <α><β> = R<α><β> − R g<α><β>
2
is the Einstein d–tensor, λ and κ are correspondingly the cosmological and
gravitational constants and by E<α><β> is denoted the locally anisotropic
energy–momentum d–tensor, can be rewritten in equivalent form:
κ 1
Φ<α><β> = − (E<α><β> − E <τ > g<α><β> ). (9.14)
2 n + m1 + ... + mz <τ >
9.5. D–SPINOR EINSTEIN–CARTAN THEORY 185
From (9.15) one follows the conservation law of higher order anisotropic spin
matter:
←
−
G γ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 + λεγ 1 α1 εγ 2 α2 = κEγ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 ,
←
−
with G γ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 from (8.37), or, by using the dtensor (8.38),
←
−
R λ κ
Φγ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 + ( − )εγ1 α1 εγ 2 α2 = − Eγ 1 γ 2 α1 α2 ,
4 2 2
which are the dspinor equivalent of the equations (9.14). These equations
must be completed by the algebraic equations (9.15) for the dtorsion and d
spin density with dtensor indices changed into corresponding d–spinor ones.
D<α> h<α>
<β> (u) = 0, h (u) ≡ h<α>
<β> (u) = 0,
186 CHAPTER 9. HASPINORS AND FIELD INTERACTIONS
187
Chapter 10
189
190 CHAPTER 10. METRICS DEPENDING ON SPINOR VARIABLES
′ ∂ [∗] Λβα
a) Nαλ = Nβλ Λβα + ξβ , (10.5)
∂xλ
′α β −1α ∂ [∗] Λ−1α
β β
a′ ) N λ = N λΛ β + λ
ξ .
∂x
In the above mentioned (10.5) a), a’) the relation ∂ [∗] /∂xλ = ∂ [∗]′ /∂xλ was
used for [∗]–differential operators. For the calculation of the transformation
character of nonlinear connection coefficients nαλ , neαλ , n
e0α eβα
λ ,n
0 β
0 , nβα , n0α are
used the relations
∂ [∗] ∂ [∗]′ ∂ [∗] ∂ [∗]′ ∂ [∗] ∂ [∗]′
= Λαβ , = Λ−1α
β , = .
∂ξα ∂ξβ ∂ξα ∂ξ α ∂y λ ∂y ′λ
Also by means of (2.23) b), c), d) of [123] and (10.3) we obtain
∂ [∗] Λγβ
b) n′βλ = Λαβ nαλ
+ ξγ ,
∂y λ
∂ [∗] Λ−1β
γ γ
e′β
b′ ) nλ
−1β α
= Λα n eλ + λ
ξ ,
∂y
∂ [∗] Λγδ
eδ′0β
c) n −1β
= Λα ε 0β
Λ δn
eε + ξγ ,
∂ξα
!
∂ [∗] Λ−1δ
γ γ
e′δβ
c′ ) n0 = Λ−1β
α Λ−1δ
ε n
e εα
0 + ξ ,
∂ξα
!
[∗] γ
∂ Λ β
d) n′0 δ
βα = Λ α Λγβ n0γα + δ
ξγ ,
∂ξ
!
[∗]
γ∂ Λ−1β
γ
d′ ) n′β δ
0α = Λ α nγ0δ Λ−1β
γ +ξ δ
.
∂ξ γ
10.1. LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION 191
∂ [∗] U ∂f ′ ′ ∂f
′
′α ∂f
′
(∗)κ ′τ ∂f
′
a) = + Nαλ + N λ ′α − Γ τλ y , (10.6)
∂xλ ∂xλ ∂ξα′ ∂ξ ∂y ′κ
∂ [∗] U ∂f ′ ′ ∂f
′
′α ∂f
′
(∗)κ ′τ ∂f
′
b) = + nαλ + n λ ′α − C τλ y ,
∂y λ ∂y ′λ ∂ξα′ ∂ξ ∂y ′κ
∂ [∗] U ∂f ′ ′0α ∂f
′
′βα ∂f
′
′(∗)κα ′τ ∂f
′
c) Λ−1β
α = + n
e β + n
e 0 − C τ y ,
∂ξβ ∂ξα′ ∂ξβ′ ∂ξ
′β ∂y ′κ
∂ [∗] U ∂f ′ ∂f ′ ′β ∂f
′
′(∗)κα ′τ ∂f
′
d) Λβα = ′α e′0
+nβα + n
e 0α − C τ y .
∂ξ
β
∂ξ ∂ξβ′ ∂ξ
β ∂y ′κ
then, the
[∗] ∂ [∗] hµa (∗)µ ν
ωabλ = + Γνλ ha hµb , (10.8)
∂xλ
[∗] ′µ
[∗]′ ∂ ha (∗)′ µ ′ν
ωabλ = + Γνλ ha h′µb ,
∂xλ
(∗)µ (∗)
Γνλ = Γνκλ g κµ
′µ b ′µ
also for the tetrads h′µ ′µ
a and hb valid the relation ha = La hb (4.1) of [121]),
then taking into account (10.8) we take the transformation formula of spin
192 CHAPTER 10. METRICS DEPENDING ON SPINOR VARIABLES
[∗]
connection coefficients ωabλ ,
(∗)µ (∗)′ µ
where the connection coefficients Γνλ , Γνλ are Lorentz–scalar and simi
lar procedures are considered for the transformed connection coefficients of
[∗] [∗]β [∗]
θabλ , θab , θabβ , using the relations (3.23) b),c), of [123].
Next, weshall derive the transformation character of the spin connection
(∗)κ (∗)κ ′(∗)κα ′(∗)κα
coefficients Γτ λ , Cτ λ , C τ , Cτ under Lorentz transformations. If
we take the relation (3.6) a) of [123],
(∗)κ
Nτ λ = Γτ λ ξκ (10.10)
and
(∗)′ κ
Nτ′ λ = Γτ λ ξκ′ , (10.11)
α
β , βα are transformed as follows
!
′ ′α ∂Λαβ β ∂Λ−1α
β
aλ = aλ + β ξβ + ξ βα′ ,
∂xλ ∂xλ
γ
!
∂Λ [∗] −1β
′ ′β β γ ∂ Λ γ
bλ = bλ + β ξγ + ξ ββ′ ,
∂y λ ∂y λ
γ [∗] −1γ
α ′γ α ′γ ∂Λ β ε ∂ Λε
β = β Λ γ +β ξε + ξ βγ′ ,
∂ξα ∂y λ
γ [∗] −1γ
−1γ ′ ′γ ∂Λ γ ε ∂ Λε
βα = Λ α βγ + β α ξε + ξ α βγ′ .
∂ξ ∂ξ
10.2 Curvature
In this section we shall present the form of the curvature of the above–
mentioned spaces. There must exist ten kinds of curvature tensors corre
α
sponding to four kind of covariant derivatives with respect to xi , y λ, ξα , ξ ,
(coordinates, vector variables, spinor variables).
If we denote with M, n the number of curvatures and the kind of covariant
derivatives, then we have generally, N = n(n + 1)/2. In our case N = 10, n =
4. Like in [121] (paragraph 5), here, they appear three different expressions
of the above–mentioned ten curvature tensors which are closely related to
µ
each other. The relation between ten curvature tensors TνXY and ten spin–
curvature tensors TabXY will be the following:
µ
TabXY = TνXY hνa hµb (10.13)
(∗)µ (∗)µ
µ ∂ [∗] Γνλ ∂ [∗] Γνκ (∗)τ (∗)τ (∗)µ
Rνλκ = κ
− λ
+ Γνλ Γτ(∗)µκ − Γνκ Γτ λ
∂x
∂x
[∗]µγ
[∗]
− Aγλκ C ν + A b[∗]γ C [∗]µ + Ă[∗]τ C [∗]µ ,
λκ νγ λκ ντ
194 CHAPTER 10. METRICS DEPENDING ON SPINOR VARIABLES
[∗]
Aγλκ = Aγλκ − Cγ0ξ Aξλκ − Âξλκ Cγξ0
− Ăξλκ Cγξ
0
,
b [∗]γ [∗]γ γξ ξ γ ξ 0
A λκ = Aλκ + C̃0 Aξλκ − Âλκ C0ξ + Ăλκ Cγξ ,
[∗]ρ
Ăλκ = Ăρλκ + C̄τρξ y τ Aξλκ + Âξλκ Cτρξ y τ ,
∂ [∗] Nγλ ∂ [∗] Nγκ
Aγλκ = − ,
∂xκ ∂xλ
∂ [∗] N̄λγ ∂ [∗] N̄κγ
Âγλκ = − ,
∂xκ ∂xλ
[∗]ρ ∂ [∗]
Ăλκ = κ
− Γρτλ + C̄τρα Nαλ + N̄λα Cτρα y τ
∂x
∂ [∗]
− λ − Γρτκ + C̄τρα Nακ + N̄κα Cτρα y τ .
∂x
µ µ
Similarly, the curvatures Pνλα and Wνλα can be defined as follows
(∗)µ (∗)µ
µ ∂ [∗] Γνλ ∂ [∗] Cνα (∗)τ (∗)µ (∗)τ
Pνλα = − + Γνλ Cτ(∗)µα − Γτ λ Cνα
∂ξ α ∂xλ
[∗]µγ
[∗]
− Eγλα C ν + E b[∗]γ C [∗]µ
νγ + Ě
[∗]τ [∗]µ
C ντ ,
λα λκ
(∗)µ (∗)µ
µ ∂ [∗] Cνλ ∂ [∗] Γνκ (∗)i (∗)µ (∗)µ (∗)i
Rνλκ = − + Γνλ Ciκ − Γiκ Cτ λ
∂xκ ∂y λ
[∗] b [∗]γ C [∗]µ + Ď [∗]τ C [∗]µ .
− Dγλκ Cν[∗]µγ + D λκ νγ λκ ντ
[∗] [∗]γ
b , Ě and D , D [∗]τ [∗] [∗]γ [∗]τ
b , Ď are defined respectively
The quantities Eγλα , E λα λκ γλκ λκ λκ
[∗] b[∗]γ [∗]τ
to Aγλκ , Aλκ , Ăλκ . A a matter of fact the expressions are too big to be
presented for all ten curvature tensors, we prefer to give an algorithm for the
general case, presenting the following the Table 10.1 of symbols for nonlinear
connection.
In general for each of the ten curvature tensors, we have
coordinate
connection
vector NγY N̂YX −N̄kX
coefficients
spinors
(∗)µ
xi Γνλ Nαλ N̄λα Γρτ λ + C̄τρα Nαλ + N̄λα Cτρα y τ
(∗)µ ρ ρα α ρ
τ
yλ Cνα nαλ n̄αλ Cτ λ + C̄τ nαλ + n̄λ Cτ α y
[∗]µγ
ξα Cν n0α
β n̄βα
0 C̄τρα + C̄τρα n0α βα ρ
β + n̄0 Cτ β y
τ
α
(∗)µ
ξ Cνλ n0βα nβ0α Cτρα + C̄τρβ n0βα + nβ0α Cτρβ y τ
(1)µ
The curvature tensors TνXY are expected to have the same transformation
(0)µ µ
character as TνXY and TνXY and are confirmed to transform as tensors or
spinors under general coordinate transformations and local Lorentz transfor
mations by formulae (10.3), (10.5) and (10.12). The arbitrary terms of spin
(1)µ
connection coefficients are contained only in the parts TνXY , the arbitrariness
(∗)µ [∗]µ [∗]µγ [∗]µ
disappear completely by virtue of the homogeneity of Γνκ , Cνγ , C ν , Cνα .
µ (1)µ
Therefore, TνXY as well as TνXY are defined unambiguously. The following
(0)µ (1)µ µ
conditions are imposed on TνXY and TνXY and, therefore, on TνXY .
X −Y µ
TνXY δ
TεXY TXY A[∗] b [∗]
A Ă[∗]
x−x R X ϕ A Â Ǎ
x−ξ P Ξ Ψ E Ê Ě
x − ξ¯ P Ξ Ψ F F̂ F̌
x−y W Ψ x D D̂ Ď
ξ−ξ Q O ρ B B̂ B̌
ξ − ξ¯ S K µ V V̂ V̌
ξ−y Ω Ue ν G Ĝ Ǧ
ξ¯ − ξ¯ Q O ρ J Jˆ Jˇ
ξ¯ − y Ω U ν Φ Φ̂ Φ̌
y−y Z Y υ H Ĥ Ȟ
µ
The above mentioned structures and properties of curvature tensors TνXY
are transformed to those of spin–curvature tensors TabXY through the rela
tions (10.13). Also, the integrability conditions of the partial differential
equations of Ricci formulae for a spinor field, led to another spin–curvature
δ
tensors TεXY which are related to TabXY by the relation of
δ 1 δ
TεXY = TabXY S ab ε
+ iTXY Iεδ ,
2
where Iεδ is the unit matrix, TεXY
δ
, TXY are defined by (10.17) and (10.18)
respectively, TabXY are given by (10.15) and S ab and (3.18) of [123].
coordinate
Spin connection Spin connection
vector coef. Xx
coefficients 1 coefficients 2
spinors
[∗] (∗)µ [∗]
xλ ωabλ Γνk aλ
[∗] (∗)µ [∗]
yλ θabλ Cνγ bλ
[∗]α (∗)µγ [∗]α
ξα θab Cν β
α [∗] (∗)µ [∗]
ξ θabλ Cνα βα
δ
Again, in order to present the spin–curvature tensors TεXY we are going
to use an algorithm along with appropriate columns in the Tables 10.2 and
10.3. The general formula is
δ ∂ [∗] sp.ConXεXδ
∂ [∗] sp.ConYεY δ
TεXY = − (10.17)
∂Y ∂X
j δ j δ
+sp.ConXεX sp.ConYjY − sp.ConYεY sp.ConXjX
[∗] b [∗]j C [∗]δj + Ă[∗]τ C [∗]δ ,
e[∗]δj + A
− AjXY C ε XY ε XY ετ
j
where sp.ConXεX represent the spin connection coefficients and A[∗] are
defined as before.
(∗)µ
The spin–curvature tensors TXY consisting of the arbitrary terms of Γνκ ,
[∗]µ [∗]µγ [∗]µ
Cνγ , C ν , Cνα are defined as follows
where the coef XX are defined in Table 10.3. If we want to write down all ten
spin–curvature tensors TXY we must use the corresponding column in Table
10.2. These objects are defined uniquely on account of the conditions (3.27)
(∗)µ [∗]µ [∗]µγ [∗]µ
or (3.28) of [123] and the homogeneity properties of Γνκ , Cνγ , C ν , Cνα .
There are imposed on TXY conditions similar to (10.16): that is contractions
of ξ, ξ, y λ with the spin–curvature TXY results
α
ξ Ψλα = 0. (10.19)
Now, from (10.13), (10.17) together with (10.16), (10.19), it is easily shown
µ δ
that the similar conditions to (10.14) on TνXY must be imposed on TεXY .
Chapter 11
11.1 Introduction
The introduction of a metric gµν (x, ω) that depends on the position variables
x as well as on the spinor variables ω assigns a nonRiemannian structure
to the space and provides it with torsion. This procedure enables the con
struction of a nonlocalized (bi–local) gravitational field, identical to the one
proposed by Yukawa [214] that allows a more general description of elemen
tary particles. Further arguments have been developed by some other authors
[78, 121, 152]. In our context each point of the spacetime is characterized
by the influence of two fields: an external one which is the conventional field
in Einstein‘s sense, and an internal one due to the introduction of the spinor
variables. These fields are expected to play the role of a geometrical unifi
cation of the fields. If ω is represented by a vector y, then we work in the
Finslerian framework [14, 77, 109]. A more general case of the gauge ap
proach in the framework of Finsler and Lagrange geometry has been studied
e.g. in [15, 17, 28, 109, 112, 115].
In the following, we consider a spacetime and we denote its metric tensor
by
gµν (Z M ),
(here Z M = (xµ , ξα , ξ¯α ), xµ , ξα , ξ¯α represent the position and the 4spinor
variables ξ¯ denotes the Dirac conjugate of ξ) [152]. With the Greek letters
λ, µ, ν and α, β, γ we denote the spacetime indices and the spinor indices,
also Latin letters α, b, c are used for the Lorenz (flat) indices. The (*)
199
200 CHAPTER 11. FIELD EQUATIONS IN SPINOR VARIABLES
(∗)
differential operators ∂M are defined as
(∗) ∂ (∗) ∂ (∗) ∂ (∗) ∂ (∗)
∂M = = , , , (11.1)
∂Z M ∂xµ ∂ξα ∂ ξ¯α
with
∂ (∗) ∂ ∂ α ∂
λ
= λ
+ Nαλ α + N λ ¯α ,
∂x ∂x ∂ξ ∂ξ
(∗)
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= + η̃β0α + η̃0βα ¯β ,
∂ξα ∂ξα ∂ξα ∂ξ
∂ (∗) ∂ 0 ∂ β ∂
¯ = ¯ + ηβα + η0α ,
∂ξ α ∂ξ α ∂ξβ ∂ ξ¯β
α
˜ 0 , η 0 , η β are the nonlinear connections [121].
here Nαλ , N λ , η̃β0α , βα βα 0α
In our study, field equations are obtained from a Lagrangian density of
the form
(∗)
L(Ψ(A) , ∂M Ψ(A) ), (11.2)
1
Rµa − Rhaµ = 0 (a)
2
Dµ [h(hνa hµb − hνb hµa )] = 0 (b) (11.3)
Rµa is the determinant of the tetrad haµ and Dµ is the gauge covariant deriva
tive
X
Dµ = ∂µ + ωµ ,
So we choose a Lagrangian density of the form (11.2) from which four equa
tions are obtained. The analogous gauge covariant derivatives of Dµ appear
naturally as
X
a) Dµ(∗) = ∂µ(∗) + ωµ(∗) ,
X
b) Dα(∗) = ∂α(∗) + θα(∗) ,
X
c) D (∗)α = ∂ (∗)α + θ̄(∗)α . (11.4)
(∗) (∗)
Transformation laws of the connection coefficients ωabλ (x, ξ, ξ̄), θabα (x, ξ, ξ̄)
(∗)α ¯ under local Lorenz transformations are the expected trans
and θ̄ab (x, ξ, ξ)
formation laws for the gauge potentials [134]
The matrices L and Λ belong to the vector and spinor representations of the
Lorentz group, respectively.
But first we observe that the metric tensor gµν and the tetrad haµ are related
by (cf. [134])
¯ = ha hb ηab ,
a) gµν (x, ξ, ξ) µ ν
202 CHAPTER 11. FIELD EQUATIONS IN SPINOR VARIABLES
∂h 1 a
µ = − hhµ , (11.9)
∂ha 2
where g =det(gµν ).
Now we postulate the Lagrangian density in the form
bcα
R = hµa hνb Rµν
ab
, P = hµa hνb Pcµα
a
Pν , (11.11)
Q = Qabβα Q eabβα , S = S α S abβ .
abβ α
(∗)ab (∗)ab
ab ∂ (∗) ωλ ∂ (∗) θα
Pλα = − (11.12)
∂ ξ¯α ∂xλ
(∗)a (∗)cb β ab
+ωcλ θα(∗)cb − θcα
(∗)a
ωλ − (θ̄abβ Eβλα + Fλα θβ ),
11.2. DERIVATION OF THE FIELD EQUATIONS 203
(∗)ab
abα ∂ (∗) ωλ ∂ (∗) θ̄(∗)abα
Pλ = −
∂ξα ∂xλ
(∗)a (∗)cb
+ωcλ θ̄(∗)aαb − θ̄c(∗)aα ωλ − (θ̄abβ Feβλ
α eβα θab ),
+Eλ β
(∗)ab
∂ (∗) ωβ ∂ (∗) θ̄(∗)abα
Sβabα = −
∂ξα ∂ ξ¯β
(∗)a (∗)cb
+θcβ θ̄(∗)cαb − θ̄c(∗)aα θβ − (θγab Gαγβ + Hβγα θγab ),
(∗)ab (∗)ab
ab ∂ (∗) ωµ ∂ (∗) θν
Rµν = −
∂xν ∂xµ
β
+ωµ(∗)ac ωcν
(∗)b
− ων(∗)ac ωcµ
(∗)b
− (θ̄abβ Aβµν + Aµν θβab ),
(∗) (∗)β (∗)α
eβα = ∂ θ̄ab ∂ (∗) θ̄ab
Qab −
∂ξα ∂ξβ
(∗)ca (∗)cβ γ e βα
(∗)β
+θ̄ac θb (∗)α
− θ̄ac θ̄b − (θ̄ab Kγ + Jeγβα θabγ ),
(∗)ab (∗)ab
∂ (∗) θβ ∂ (∗) θα
Qab = −
βα
∂ ξ¯α ∂xλ
(∗)a (∗)c(∗)a (∗)cb γ ab
+θcβ θbα − θcα θβ − (θabγ Jγβα + Kβα θγ ),
The Lagrangian (11.10) is the only possible scalar that can be made
from the curvature tensors (11.12) and it must be the sum of the firstorder
quantity R and the second–order quantities P, Q and S. The mixing of the
quantities of different order is not impossible. It is known that the Einstein
204 CHAPTER 11. FIELD EQUATIONS IN SPINOR VARIABLES
Maxwell Lagrangian is the sum of the firstorder quantity R and the second
order quantity Fµν F µν . So, our Lagrangian (11.10) is physically acceptable.
The Euler–Lagrange equations for the objects
Ψ(A) = {hµ , ωµ(∗) , θα(∗) , θ̄(∗)α }
are of the form
(∗) ∂L ∂L
∂M (∗)
− = 0, (11.13)
∂(∂M Ψ(A) ) ∂Ψ(A)
(∗)
where ∂M was defined in (11.1). From the variation of L with respect to the
tetrad we have
∂L
= 0. (11.14)
∂hνb
Taking into account (11.8), and (11.9) we get the equation
1
Hνb − hbν = 0, (11.15)
2
where
bcα
Hνb = Rνb + Pνb = hµa Rµν
ab
+ hµa Pcµα
a
Pν , (11.16)
and
H = R + P. (11.17)
(∗)
From the variation of L with respect to ωµ we get
∂L ∂L
∂µ(∗) (∗) (∗)ab
+ ∂ (∗)α (∗)ab
+ (11.18)
∂(∂µ ων ) ∂(∂ (∗)α ων )
∂L ∂L
∂α(∗) (∗) (∗)ab
− (∗)ab
= 0.
∂(∂α ων ) ∂ων
(∗)ab
The spinconnection coefficients ων are contained in R and P :
bcα
h(R + P ) = hhµa hνb (Rµν
ab a
+ Pcµα P ν ).
From relation (11.18) we get the following variation of the term hR with
(∗)
respect to ωµ :
∂(hR) ∂(hR)
∂µ(∗) (∗) (∗)ab
+ ∂ (∗)α (∗)ab
+
∂(∂µ ων ) ∂(∂ (∗)α ων )
∂(hR) ∂(hR)
∂α(∗) (∗) (∗)ab
− (∗)ab
. (11.19)
∂(∂α ων ) ∂ων
11.2. DERIVATION OF THE FIELD EQUATIONS 205
We proceed in the same way as before. The contribution from the hP term
is
ca
−Dµ(∗) (hhµa hνc P bν ). (11.29)
2D (∗)β (hSabβ
α
). (11.31)
Finally, the variation with respect to θ(∗)α yields the equation ”conjugate”
to (11.32)
β (∗)
Dµ(∗) (hhµc hνa Pbνα
c
) − D (∗)β (2hQab[αβ] ) − 2Dβ (hSabα ) = 0. (11.33)
related to the coefficients (11.34) via the nonlinear connections (11.35) [121].
By imposing the postulates of the length preservation for the parallel
vector fields and symmetry of the derived coefficients
(∗) α
{Γνµλ , C νµ , Cνµα } (11.37)
where σ α = ∂σ/∂ξα , σ̄α = ∂σ/∂ ξ¯α , σλ∗ = ∂ ∗ σ/∂xλ are the derivation operators
of scalar fields involving the coefficients (11.35).
(b) The following relations hold:
α
Γµνλ = Γ∗µ µ α µ
νλ − δν σ Nαλ − δν σ̄α N λ ,
∗µα µα
Cν = C ν + δνµ σ β η̃β0α + δνµ σ̄β η̃0βα , (11.40)
∗µ µ β
Cνα = Cνα + δνµ σ β ηβα
0
+ δνµ η0α .
Expressing Dψ and D ψ̄ in terms of dxλ , Dξα , D ξ¯α, we are led to the spin
connection coefficients I:
{Γ∗β e∗βα ∗β
γλ , Cγ , Cγα } (11.42)
related to the coefficients (11.43) and (11.36) [121]. Similarly to the previous
work of Takano and Ono [121], we shall postulate the invariance of length of
the parallel Lorentz vector fields, and the vanishing of the absolute differen
tials and covariant derivatives of the tetrads hµα ,which involve the connection
coefficients (11.36) and (11.44).
In the GCFS, the tetrads are given by haµ (x, ξ, ξ) ¯ = eσ(x,ξ,ξ̄) δ a and lead to
µ
the dual entities hµa (x, ξ, ξ̄) = e−σ(x,ξ,ξ̄) δaµ . In general, the above postulates
produce the relations:
µ
∂ha µ ν
ωabλ = + Γνλ ha hµb ,
∂xλ
µ
α ∂ha µα ν
θ̄ab = + C ν ha hµb , (11.45)
∂ξα
µ
∂ha µ ν
θabα = + Cνα ha hµb ,
∂ ξ¯α
∗ µ
∗ ∂ ha ∗µ ν
ωabλ = + Γνλ ha hµb . (11.46)
∂xλ
For the GCFS case we are led to
Theorem 11.2. The spin–connection coefficients (II) and the coefficients
(11.43) are subject to
∗ β β
ωbaλ = ωbaλ + θba Nβλ + N λ θbaβ
Taking into account Theorems 11.1 and 11.2 we can express these tensors as
follows.
Theorem 11.3. In the GCFS spaces the spincurvature tensors are given by
∗ ∗
Rabλµ = ηλ(b σµa) + ηµ(a σλb) + ηµ(b σλ∗ σa)
∗
(11.51)
∗
+ηλ(a σµ∗ σb) + η(µa ηλ)b η cd σc∗ σd∗ ,
∗ α ∗α
Pabλα = ηλ(b σαa) , P abλ = ηλ(b σa) ,
α
Sabβ = 0, Qabβα = 0, eβα = 0,
Q (11.52)
ab
∗
where σxy = ∂ ∗2 σ/∂xx ∂xy ; ∗
x, y = {λ, α, a} and ηλ(b σµa) ∗α
= ηλb σµa ∗
− ηλa σµb .
Proof. Relations (11.52) are directly implied by (11.48) and (11.49). (11.39)
leads to (11.51) after a straightforward calculation. Also, using Theorem
11.2, we infer that
∗ ∗
Pabλα = ωabλ,α , P abλα = ωabλ,α , (11.53)
where
∗ ∂ ∗ ωabλ ∗ ∂ ∗ ωabλ
ωabλ,α = , ωabλ,α = .
∂ ξ¯α ∂ξα
Corollary 11.1. In the GCFS space (M, gµν ) the Ricci tensor fields have
the form
for these fields produce the field equations (11.15), (11.27), (11.32) and
(11.33).
We shall obtain their form for the GCFS as follows.
11.4. GEODESICS AND GEODESIC DEVIATION 211
δµd η ef (2σef
∗
− σe∗ σf∗ ) + 2η bd (σµb
∗
− σµ∗ σb∗ )
+3η ed σαµ
∗
σe∗α − 3η dc σαc
∗
σµ∗α = 0, (F 1)
∗ ν
σ(b δa) − 3σα∗ σ(b
∗α ν
δa) − 3δaν σαb
∗α
= 0, (F 2)
∗ ∗
2σa σaαβ = 0, (F 3)
2σµ∗ η µd ηαb σαd
∗
− 2σa∗ σαb
∗
+ η µd ηab σµαd
∗ ∗
− σaαb = 0, (F 4)
∗β
where we have put σαb = ∂ ∗3 σ/∂ξβ ∂ ξ¯α ∂xb .
Proof. By virtue of relations (11.15) and (11.16), and using Corollary 11.1
and Remark (1), we get (F1).
Considering Theorem 11.2 we infer that Dα∗ = ∂α∗ and D ∗α = ∂ ∗α . Also
(∗)
from ωαbλ = ωαbλ = −ωbaλ , we derive Dµ∗ = ∂µ∗ . Taking into account (11.27) ,
we obtain relation (F2) by a straightforward computation. Also, by means of
µα
Theorem 11.3 and noticing that P bµ = −3σb∗α , after substituting to (11.32),
we infer (F3). Finally, from (11.33) we derive (F4).
D ẋµ d2 xµ µα µ ¯α
≡ 2
+ ẋν (Γµνλx ẋλ + C ν ξα + Cνα ξ ) = 0, (a)
ds ds
D 2 ξα D
2
≡ [ξ˙α − ξγ (Γγαλ ẋλ + C eγβ ξ˙β + C γ ξ¯β )] = 0,
α αβ (b)
ds ds
D 2 ξ¯α D
2
≡ [ξ¯α + ξ¯γ (Γαγλ ẋλ + C eγαβ ξ˙β + Cγβ
α ¯β
ξ )] = 0, (c) (11.59)
ds ds
where ẋµ = dxµ /ds, ξ̇α = dξα /ds, ξ̄ α = dξ¯α/ds, and the coefficients Γµνλ , Γγαλ ,
µα
Cν , C eαβ , C µ , C γ satisfy the postulates imposed by Y. Takano and T. Ono
γ να αβ
[121].
212 CHAPTER 11. FIELD EQUATIONS IN SPINOR VARIABLES
µα µ
Proposition 11.1. (a) If C ν = 0 and Cνα = 0, then Γµνλ = Γµλν and relation
(11.59) becomes
d2 xµ µ ¯ dxν dxλ
+ Γνλ (x, ξ(x), ξ(x)) = 0. (11.60)
ds2 ds ds
(b) For the GCFS, equation (11.59) has the form
d2 xµ ˙ α + σ̄α ξ¯α ) = 0.
+ Γµνλ ẋν ẋλ + ẋµ (σ α xi (11.61)
ds2
µα µ
In this case C ν = 0, Cνα = 0 hold true iff σ α = σ̄α = 0, i.e., for σ depending
only on x.
Proof. Equations (11.60) and (11.61) are consequences of Definition (11.59)
(a) and relations (11.39) .
Remark (2): The spinor parts of equations (11.60) and (11.61) also write
as
ξ¨α − ξ˙γ Tαγ − ξγ Ṫαγ − (ξ˙γ − ξδ Tγδ )Tαγ = 0, (11.62)
γ α γ
ξ¯α + ξ¯α T + ξ¯γ T + (ξ¯γ + ξ¯δ T )T α = 0,
α γ δ γ
where
eγβ ξ˙β + C γ ξ¯β = T γ .
Tαγ ≡ Γγαλ ẋλ + C α αβ α
where hbλ = e−σ η bλ , haν = eσ δνa , we get the equation of geodesic deviation for
µα µ
the GCFS, with C ν = 0, Cνα = 0, in the form
D2ζ 2 λ ∗ ∗
+ (δ(µ σ̺)ν + ην(̺ σµ)b η bλ + δ(̺
λ ∗ ∗
σµ) σν +
ds2
∗ ∗ bλ λ cd ∗ ∗ dxµ dζ ν dx̺
+ ην(µ σ̺) σb h + ην(̺ δµ) η σc σd ) = 0.
ds ds ds
11.5 Conclusions
(a) We derived the gravitational field equations in spaces whose metric tensor
depends on spinor variables. Equations (11.15) and (11.27) are generaliza
tions of the conventional equations (11.3) a) and (11.3) b). They are reduced
to equations (11.3) a) and (11.3) b) when the coefficients
12.1 Introduction
The concept of the nonlocalized field theory has already been developed in
recent years by Japanese authors (see, for instance, [79]) in order to provide
a unified description of elementary particles. In this approach, the internal
variable is replaced by a spinor ω = (ξ, ξ̄) (ξ and its conjugate ξ¯ are considered
as independent variables).
The description of gravity through the introduction of variables ωµab (x)
as a gravitational potential (Lorentz connection coefficients) was proposed
originally by Utiyama [155, 38]. He considered the Lorentz group as a local
transformation group. The gravitational field is described by the tetrad haµ (x)
viewed as independent variables. With the help of these variables we may
pass from a general system of coordinates to a local Lorentz ones.
The Einstein equation were derived in the context of Utiyama’s approach,
but this was not satisfactory because of the arbitrariness of the elements
introduced. Later T. Kibble [64, 79, 87] introduced a gauge approach which
enables the introduction of all gravitational variables. To achieve this goal it
is important to use the Poincaré group (i.e. a group consisting of rotations,
boosts and translations).
This group first assigns an exact meaning to the terms: “momentum”,
“energy”, “mass” and “spin” used to determine characteristics of elementary
particles. On the other hand, it is a gauge acting locally in the spacetime.
Thus, we may perform Poincaré transformations for a physical approach.
Hence by treating the Poincaré group as a local group, we introduce the
fundamental 1form field ρµ taking in the Lie algebra of the Poincaré group.
215
216 CHAPTER 12. GAUGE GRAVITY OVER SPINOR BUNDLES
In our present study the basic idea is to consider a spinor bundle with a
base manifold M of a metric tensor gµν (x, ξ, ξ) ¯ that depends on the position
coordinates x and the spinor (Dirac) variables (ξα , ξ¯α ) ∈ C4 × C4 , where ξ¯α
k
where H, F (1) , F (2) represent the horizontal, vertical, and normal distribu
tion. In a local base, for the horizontal distribution H(S (2) M) we have:
1 ¯ a,
ρµ (x, ξ, ξ̄) = ωµ∗ab Jab + haµ (x, ξ, ξ)P
2
where Jab , Pa are the generators of the fourdimensional Poincaré group sat
isfying relations of the form:
[Jab , Jcd] = nbc Jad − nbd Jac + nad Jbc − nac Jbd ,
[Jab , Pc ] = nbc Pa − nac Pb , [Pa , Pb ] = 0, Jab + Jba = 0.
(∗)ab
The quantities ωµ represent the (Lorentz) spin connection coefficients
and are considered as given, nab is the metric for the local Lorentz spaces
12.2. CONNECTIONS 217
where hνa represents the tetrads. Similarly, for the vertical and normal distri
butions F (1) (S (2) M), F (2) (S (2) M) the fundamental 1forms ζα , ζ̄ α are given
by
1 (∗)ab
ζα = Θ Jab + Ψaα Pa ,
2 α
1 (∗)αab
ζ̄ α = Θ̄ Jab + Ψ̄αa Pa ,
2
(∗)ab
where ψ̄ αa , ψαa are the spin tetrad coefficients, and Θα , Θ̄(∗)αab are the
given spin connection coefficients which are determined in such a way that
the absolute differential and the covariant derivatives of the metric tensor
gµν (x, ξ, ξ̄) vanish identically.
We use the Greek letters λ, µ, ν . . . for spacetime indices, λ, β, γ for
spinors, and the Latin letters a, b, c, . . . for the Lorentz indices.
The general transformations of coordinates on S (2) (M) are:
x′µ = x′µ (xν ), ξα′ = ξα′ (ξβ , ξ¯γ ), ξ¯′α = ξ¯′α (ξ¯β , ξγ ). (12.1)
12.2 Connections
We define the following gauge covariant derivatives
δ 1 (∗)ab
Dµ(∗) = + ω Jab ,
δxµ 2 µ
δ 1
D (∗)α = + Θ̄(∗)αab Jab ,
δξα 2
δ 1
D (∗)α = α
+ Θα(∗)ab Jab ,
δξ 2
where
δ ∂ ∂ ∂
µ
= µ
+ Nαµ − N̄µα ¯ ,
δx ∂x ∂ξα ∂ ξα
δ ∂ ∂
= − Ñ0αβ ¯β .
δξα ∂ξα ∂ξ
Nαλ , N̄λα , Ñ0αβ are the nonlinear connections which we shall define below.
218 CHAPTER 12. GAUGE GRAVITY OVER SPINOR BUNDLES
The covariant derivatives of the metric tensor gµν are all zero:
The spacetime frame δ/δxµ and the local Lorentz frame δ/δxa are connected
with
δ δ
µ
= haµ a .
δx δx
Similarly, the spintetrad coefficients ψαa and adjoint ψ̄ αa connect the spin
frames, ∂/∂ξα , ∂/∂ ξ¯α with ∂/∂xa :
∂ ∂
= ψ̄ αa a ,
∂ξα ∂x
∂ a ∂
= ψ .
∂ ξ¯α α
∂xa
The absolute differential of an arbitrary contravariant vector X ν is given by
The metric in the second order tangent bundle is given by the relation
G = gµν (x, ξ, ξ̄)dxµ dxν + gαβ (x, ξ, ξ̄)D ξ¯α D ξ¯∗β + g αβ Dξα Dξβ∗ .
where the expressions Dξβ , D ξ¯β are given by (12.3). If we consider the con
nection coefficients ΓA
BC given in the general case, then in the total space
(2)
S (M) we have
(∗)γ
γα γα γ (∗)β
γ
ΓA (∗)µ µ µα
BC = {Γνρ , Cνα , C̄ν , Γ̄βλ , Cβ , C̃β , C̃αβ , Γαλ , Cαβ }.
δ (∗)µ δ δ µ δ
Dδ/δxρ = Γνρ , D∂/∂ ξ̄α ν = Cνα ,
δxν δx µ δx δxµ
δ δ δ (∗)γ δ
Dδ/δξα ν = C̄νµα µ , D∂/∂ ξ̄α ν = Γνα ,
δx δx δx δξ γ
δ (∗)β δ ∂ ∂
Dδ/δxα = Γ̄λγ , Dδ/δξα β = Cβγα γ ,
δxβ δξγ ∂ξ ∂ξ
∂ γ ∂ δ β δ
Dδ/δξα β = Cβα γ
, D∂/∂ ξ̄α = C̃αγ ,
∂ξ ∂ξ δξβ δξγ
δ δ
Dδ/δξα = C̃γβα .
δξβ δξγ
µ...
µ... δTν... (∗)µ κ... (∗)κ µ...
▽λ Tν... = + Γκλ Tν... + · · · − Γνλ Tκ... ,
δxλ
µ...
δTν...
▽α Tν...
µ...
= + C̄κ(∗)µα Tν...
κ...
+ · · · − C̄ν(∗)κα Tκ...
µ...
,
δξα
µ...
µ... ∂Tν... (∗)µ κ... (∗)κ µ...
▽α Tν... = + Cκα Tν... + · · · − Cνα Tκ... ,
∂ξ α
δΦα...
β... (∗)γ γ... (∗)α
▽λ Φα...
β... = − Γβλ Φα... γ... − · · · + Φβ... Γγλ + . . . ,
δxλ
δΦα...
β... (∗)γδ γ... (∗)αδ
▽δ Φα...
β... = − C̃β Φα... γ... − · · · + Φβ... C̃γ + ... ,
δξδ
∂Φα...
β... (∗)γ γ... (∗)α
▽δ Φα...
β... = δ
− Cβδ Φα... γ... − · · · + Φβ... Cγδ + . . . ,
∂ξ
α...
δVc... (∗)α b...
▽(∗) α...
µ Vc... = + ωµb Vc... + · · · − ωµc(∗)b α...
Vb... ,
δxµ
α...
δVc... (∗)aα b...
▽(∗)α Vc...
α...
= + Θ̄b Vc... + · · · − Θ̄c(∗)αb Vb...
α...
,
δξα
α...
∂Vc... (∗)a b...
▽(∗) α...
α Vc... = + Θαb Vc... + · · · − Θαc(∗)b α...
Vb... .
δξ α
12.2. CONNECTIONS 221
δLac b cd
ω ′(∗)ab
µ = L a b (∗)cd
L ω
c d µ + L n ,
µ d
δx
(∗)′ αab a b (∗)βcd δLac b cd −1α
Θ̄ = Lc Ld Θ̄ + L n Λβ ,
δξβ d
(∗)′ ab β a b (∗)cd ∂Lac b cd
Θα = Λα Lc Ld Θ̄β + β Ld n ,
∂ξ
1 (∗)ab 1 δLa
Ñβµ = ωµ Jab ξα Lαβ + ncd µc Lbd Jab Λαβ ξα
2 2 δx
a
1 δL
= Nαµ Λαβ + ncd µc Jab ′
Λαβ ξα ,
2 δx
where
1 cd δLac b ′ γ
Ñβ0α = Ñγ0δ Λγβ
+ n Ld Jab Λβ ξγ Λ−1α
δ ,
2 δξδ
0 δ 0 γ 1 cd ∂Lac b ′ γ
Ñαβ = Λα Nγδ Λβ + n L J Λ ξγ ,
2 ∂ξ δ d ab β
1 cd δLac b ′ ¯γ −1β
N̄µβ = Nµα Λ1−β
α − n L J ξ Λγ ,
2 δxµ d ab
1 cd δLac b ′ −1β −1α
Ñ0αβ = γδ −1β
Ñ0 Λγ − n L J Λ Λδ ,
2 δξδ d ab γ
β δ γ −β 1 cd ∂Lac b ′ γ ¯γ −1β
Ñ0α = Λα N0δ Λγ − n L J Λ ξ Λγ ,
2 ∂ξ δ d ab β
′
where Jab = Lcâ Ldb Jcd .
222 CHAPTER 12. GAUGE GRAVITY OVER SPINOR BUNDLES
(∗) (∗)
From the covariant derivatives Dµ , D (∗)α , Dα we get six curvatures and
torsions:
1 ab
a) Dµ(∗) , Dν(∗)
= Dµ(∗) Dν(∗) − Dν(∗) Dµ(∗) = Rµν a
Pa + Rµν Jab ,
2
a
δhaµ δhaν (∗)a (∗)a
Rµν = ν
− µ + ωµb hbν − ωνb hbµ ,
δx δx
(∗)ab (∗)ab
ab δωµ δων
Rµν = − + ωµ(∗)aρ ωνρ(∗)b
− ω ( ∗)ρaν ωµρ (∗)b
,
δxν δxµ
(∗) (∗) a 1 ab
b) Dµ , D α = Pµα Pa + Pµα Jab ,
2
(∗)ab (∗)ab
ab δθα ∂ωµ (∗)b (∗)a (∗)a (∗)cb
Pµα = − + Θαc ωµ − Θαc ωµ ,
δxν δ ξ¯α
a δψαa ∂haµ (∗)a c
Pµα = − + ωµc ψα − Θ( ∗)aαc hcµ ,
δxµ δ ξ¯α
(∗) (∗) 1
c) Dµ , D α = P̄µaα Pa + P̄µabα Jab ,
2
(∗)αab (∗)ab
abα δΘα δωµ
P̄µ = − + Θ̄c(∗)ab ωµ(∗)ac − Θ̄c(∗)αa ωµ(∗)cb ,
δxµ δξα
aα δ ψ̄ααa δhaµ (∗)a cα
P̄µα = − α + ωµc ψ̄ − Θ̄c(∗)αa hcµ ,
δxµ δξ
(∗) (∗)β 1
d) Dα , D = Sαβa Pa + Sαabβ Jab ,
2
βa a
δ ψ̄ δψ
Sαβa = − α
+ Θ̄(∗)βba ψab − Θα(∗)ab ψ̄bβ ,
δ ξ¯α δξβ
(∗)ab
∂ Θ̄βab ∂Θα
Sαabβ = − (∗)a (∗)βcb
+ Θαc Θ̄ − Θ( ∗)bac Θ̄βca ,
∂ξ α δξβ
h i 1
(∗)
e) Dα(∗) , Dβ = Qaα Pa + Qab Jab ,
2 αβ
∂ψβa ∂ψαa (∗)ba
Qaαβ = ¯α
− ¯β + Θβ ψab − Θα(∗)ab ψβb ,
∂ξ ∂ξ
(∗)ab (∗)ab
∂θα ∂θα (∗)a (∗)cb (∗)ca
Qab
αβ = − + Θαc Θβ − Θ( ∗)bαc Θβ ,
∂ ξ¯α ∂ ξ¯β
12.4. FIELD EQUATIONS 223
1
f) D (∗)α , D (∗)β = Q̃αβa Pa + Q̃abαβ Jab ,
2
δψβa δψαa
Q̃αβa = − + Θ̄(∗)βba ψ̄bα − Θ̄(∗)αba ψ̄bβ ,
δξα ∂ξβ
δ θ̄βab δ θ̄αab
Q̃abαβ = − + Θ̄(∗)βab Θ̄c(∗)αa − Θ̄c(∗)αb Θ̄βca ,
δξα ∂ξβ
or
where
ψ = A
haµ (x, ξ, ξ̄), ωµ(∗)ab (x, ξ, ξ), ¯ ψ̄ αa , Θ(∗)ab , Θ̄(∗)αab
¯ ψ a (x, ξ, ξ), ,
α (... ) α(... ) (... )
δ δ δ δ
δM = M = m
, , ¯α , z M = (xµ , ξα , ξ¯α ),
δz δx δξα δ ξ
δL ∂L ∂L
M
= − = 0.
δz ∂(δM ψ ) ∂ψ (A)
(A)
224 CHAPTER 12. GAUGE GRAVITY OVER SPINOR BUNDLES
From the relation (12.4), the variation of L with respect to hν b yields the
equations
1
(Rµa + Pµa + P̄µa ) − (R + P + P̄ )haµ = 0,
2
1
Hµa − Hhaµ = 0,
2
where
and
we get
Dµ(∗) [h(hνa hµb − hνb hµa )] + Dα(∗) [h(hνa ψ̄bα − hνa ψ̄aα )]
+D (∗)α [h(hνa ψαb − hνb ψαa )] = 0.
(∗)ab
The variations with respect to Θα , Θ̄(∗)αab yield the relation
δ ∂L δ ∂L δ ∂L ∂L
+ + − = 0,
δxµ
∂ δΩ µ
(∗) δξα ∂ δΩ(∗) δ ξ¯α ∂ δΩ(∗) ∂Ω(∗)
δx δξα δξ̄ α
with
Ω(∗) = Θα(∗)ab , Θ̄(∗)αab
β 1 abβ 1 ba µ
Qab
αβ ψ̄b + Sα ψβb + Pµα hb = 0,
2 2
1
Q̃aα − (S aα + P̄ aα ) = 0.
2
we get 18(3 × 6) relations of different types. For each relation we derive two
identities, namely 36 ones in total. Taking into account that
δ 1
Dµ(∗) = µ
+ ωµ(∗)ab Jab ,
δx 2
where
δ ∂ ∂ α ∂
= − N µα − N̄
δxµ ∂xµ ∂ξα µ
∂ ξ¯α
= hµ Pa − Nµα Ψ̄ Pa − N̄µα Ψaα Pa = Aaµ Pa ,
a αa
∂
Aaµ = haµ − Nµα ψ̄ αa − N̄µα , Pa = a ,
∂x
we can get
h i
(∗) 1 ab
Dµ , [Dκ , Dλ ] = Aµ Pc , Rκλ Jab + [Acµ Pc , Rκλ
(∗) (∗) c a
Pa ] (12.5)
2
1 1
+ ωµ(∗)ab Rκλ
cd
[Jab , Jcd] + ωµ(∗)ab Rκλ
c
[Jab , Pc ].
2 2
The first term of the right hand side of (12.5) by straightforward calcu
lations is written in the form
ab
c 1 ab 1 δRκλ a
Aµ Pc , Rκλ Jab = Jab + Rbκλ Abµ Pa .
2 2 δxµ
Similarly, the second, third, and fourth terms of (12.5) yield the relations
a a
δRκλ δRκλ
a
[Acµ Pc , Rκλ Pa ] = P a + Ac a
R
µ κλ [P c , P a ] = Pa ,
δxµ δxµ
226 CHAPTER 12. GAUGE GRAVITY OVER SPINOR BUNDLES
Dα Qab ab ab
βγ + Dβ Qγα + Dγ Qαβ = 0
and
where we put
1 ∂Qabβγ
Dα Qab
βγ = ¯α
+ Θα(∗)ac Qbcβγ ,
2 ∂ξ
∂Qaβγ (∗)a
Dα Qaβγ = ¯α
+ Qabβγ Ψbα + Qbβγ Θαb .
∂ξ
12.6. YANGMILLS FIELDS 227
where Fµν represent the internal quantities in the base manifold, Fαµ the field
in the tensor bundle and Fαβ the internal quantities in the internal space.
In order to derive the generalized YangMills equations we get the La
grangian
LY M (AX , DX AY ),
DX AY = {Dµ Aν , Dα Aν , D̄ α , Dα Aβ , D̄ α Aβ , Dµ Aα , Dµ Aα }.
Varying the action (12.10) and taking into account the EulerLagrange
equations
∂LY M ∂LY M
DX − = 0, (12.11)
∂(DX AY ) ∂AY
obtain the generalized YangMills equations in the following form:
we used the trace properties of the operators τα with the normalization con
dition
1
tr(τ α τ β ) = δ αβ .
2
φ : M (4) × C4 × C4 → G
φ(xµ , ξα , ξ¯α ∈ G.
The first of these relations, after taking into account (12.9), becomes
These equations defines a Poincare like gravity theory on spaces where the
metric tensor gµν (x, ω) depends on internal independent variables ω = ξ, ξ¯ .
230 CHAPTER 12. GAUGE GRAVITY OVER SPINOR BUNDLES
Chapter 13
13.1 Introduction
It was formulated [140, 148] the concept of a spinor bundle S (2) M and its
relation to the Poincarè group. This group, consisting of the set of rotations,
boosts and translations, gives an exact meaning to the terms: “momentum”,
“energy”, “mass”, and “spin” and is used to determine characteristics of the
elementary particles. Also, it is a gauge, acting locally in the spacetime.
Hence we may perform Poincarè transformations for a physical approach. In
that study we considered a base manifold (M, gµν (x, ξ, ξ̄)) where the metric
tensor depends on the position coordinates and the spinor (Dirac) variables
(ξα , ξ¯α ) ∈ C 4 × C 4 . A spinor bundle S (1) (M) can be constructed from one
of the principal fiber bundles with fiber F = C 4 . Each fiber is diffeomorphic
with one proper Lorentz group.
In our study we apply an analogous method as in the theory of deformed
bundles developed in [144], for the case of a spinor bundle S (2) M = M ×C 4·2
in connection with a deformed internal fiber R. Namely our space has the
form S (2) M × R. The consideration of Miron d  connections [109], which
preserve the h− and v−distributions is of vital importance in our approach,
as in the previous work. This standpoint enables us to use a more general
group G(2) , called the structural group of all rotations and translations, that is
isomorphic to the Poincarè Lie algebra. A spinor is an element of the spinor
bundle S (2) (M)×R where R represents the internal fiber of deformation.
The local variables are in this case
(xµ , ξα , ξ¯α, λ) ∈ S (2) (M) × R = S̃ (2) (M), λ ∈ R.
The nonlinear connection on S̃ (2) (M) is defined analogously, as for the
231
232 CHAPTER 13. SPINORS ON INTERNAL DEFORMED SYSTEMS
where H,F (1) ,F (2) ,R represent the horizontal, vertical, normal and deforma
tion distributions respectively.
The fundamental gauge 1form fields which take values from the Lie al
gebra of the Poincarè group will have the following form in the local bases
of their corresponding distributions
¯ λ) = 1 ∗ab
ρµ (x, ξ, ξ, ω Jab + haµ (x, ξ, ξ̄, λ)Pa (13.1)
2 µ
1 (∗)ab
ζα = θ Jab + ψαa Pa (13.2)
2 α
1 (∗)αab
ζ̄ α = θ̄ Jab + ψ̄ αa Pa (13.3)
2
1 ab
ρo = ω Jab + Lao Pa (13.4)
2 o
13.2 Connections
We define the following gauge covariant derivatives
δ 1 (∗)ab δ 1
(a) Dµ(∗) = + ω Jab (b) D (∗)α = + Θ̄(∗)αab Jab
δxµ 2 µ δξα 2
∂ 1
(c) Dα(∗) = ¯α
+ Θα(∗)ab Jab
∂ξ 2
∂
(d) Do(∗) = + ωoab Jab (13.6)
∂λ
13.2. CONNECTIONS 233
where,
δ ∂ ∂ α ∂ o ∂
= + N αµ − N̄ − N
δxµ ∂xµ ∂ξα µ
∂ ξ¯α µ
∂λ
δ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= − N̄oαβ ¯β , = Lµo µ . (13.7)
δξα ∂ξα ∂ ξ ∂λ ∂x
The nonlinear connection coefficients are defined further. The spacetime,
Lorentz, spin frames and the deformed frame are connected by the relations
δ a δ
(a) = hµ
δxµ δxa
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(b) = Ψ̄αa a (b′ ) ¯α = Ψaα a
∂ξ α ∂x ∂ξ ∂x
∂ ∂
(c) = Lµo µ . (13.8)
∂λ ∂x
The relation (13.8a) is a generalization of the well  known principle
of equivalence in the total space of the spinor bundle S (2) M. In addition,
the relations (13.8a, b, b′ , c) represent a generalized form of the equivalence
principle, since the considered deformed spinor bundle contains spinors as
internal variables.
The absolute differential of an arbitrary contravariant vector X ν in S̃ (2) M,
has the form
where
o
N = {Nαβ , Nβµ , Ñβoα , N̄µβ , Ñoβα , Noα
β
, Nκo, Ñoβ , Nαo}
The metrical structure in the deformed spinor bundle S̃ (2) M has the form
G = gµν (x, ξ, ξ,¯ λ)dxµ ⊗ dxν + gαβ (x, ξ, ξ̄, λ)D ξ¯α ⊗ D ξ¯∗β +
+g αβ (x, ξ, ξ̄, λ)Dξα ⊗ Dξβ∗ + goo (x, ξ, ξ̄, λ)Dλ ⊗ Dλ (13.12)
where ’*’ denotes Hermitean conjugation. The local adapted frame is given
by
δ δ δ ∂ ∂
= { , , , }
δζ A δxλ δξα ∂ ξ¯α ∂λ
and the associated dual frame
δζ A = {Dxκ ≡ dxκ , Dξβ , D ξ¯β , Do λ}, (13.13)
where the terms δxδλ , δξδα , Do λ, Dxκ , Dξβ , D ξ¯β , are provided by the relations
(13.7), (13.9), (13.10).
The considered connection in S̃ (2) (M) is a dconnection, having with re
spect to the adapted basis the coefficients
(∗)α
ΓA (∗)µ µ µα (∗)µ β βα (∗)β
BC = {Γνρ , Cνα , C̄ν , Γνo , Γ̄βλ , C̃αγ , C̃γ , Γ̄oγ ,
γ
(∗)β
Γαν , Cβα , Cβγα , Cβo
α (∗)o
, Γoµ , C̄ooα , Coα
o
, Looo } (13.14)
defined by the generic relations
δ δ δ δ δ ∂ ∂
D δ
B
= ΓA
BC , ∈ , , ¯α , . (13.15)
δz C δz δz A δz A µ
δx δξα ∂ ξ ∂λ
It preserves the distributions H,F (1) , F (2) ,R, and its coefficients are de
fined by
δ (∗)µ δ δ µ δ
D δρ ν = Γνρ , D ∂ = Cνα ,
δx δx δxµ ∂ ξ̄αδx ν δxµ
δ δ δ (∗)µ δ
D δ = C̄νµα µ , D ∂ ν = Γνo ,
δξα δxν δx ∂λ δx δxµ
δ (∗)α δ δ β δ
D δ = Γ̄βλ , D ∂ = C̃αγ ,
δxλ δξα δξβ ∂ ξ̄α δξ
β δξγ
δ δ δ (∗)β δ
D δ = C̃γβα , D∂ = Γ̄oγ ,
δξα δξ δξγ ∂λ δξ δξγ
β β
∂ (∗)β ∂ ∂ γ ∂
D δν ¯α = Γαν , D ∂α ¯β = Cβα ,
δx ∂ ξ ∂ ξ¯β ∂ ξ̄ ∂ ξ ∂ ξ¯γ
∂ ∂ ∂ α ∂
D δ ¯β = Cβγα ¯γ , D ∂ ¯β = Cβo ,
δξα ∂ ξ ∂ξ ∂λ ∂ ξ ∂ ξ¯α
∂ (∗)o ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ o ∂
D δµ = Γoµ , D δ = C̄ooα D ∂α = Coα ,
δx ∂λ ∂λ δξα ∂λ ∂λ ∂ ξ̄ ∂λ ∂λ
∂ ∂
D∂ = Looo .
∂λ ∂λ ∂λ
13.3. CURVATURES AND TORSIONS 235
∂Φα...
β... γ γ... α
▽δ Φα...
β... = ¯ δ
− Cβδ Φα...
γ... − . . . + Φβ... Cγδ
∂ξ
∂Φα...
β... (∗)γ γ... (∗)α
▽o Φα...
β... = − Γ̄oβ Φα...γ... − . . . + Φβ... Γoγ
∂λ
a...
δVc... (∗)a b...
▽(∗) a...
µ Vc... = µ
+ ωµb Vc... + . . . − ωµc(∗)b a...
Vb...
δx
a...
δVc... (∗)a b...
▽(∗)α Vc...
a...
= + . . . + θ̄αb Vc... + . . . − θαc(∗)b a...
Vb...
δξα
a...
∂Vc... (∗)a b...
▽(∗) a...
α Vc... = ¯ + θαb Vc... + . . . − θαc(∗)b a...
Vb...
∂ ξα
a...
∂Vc... (∗)a b...
▽(∗) a...
o Vc... = + ωob Vc... + . . . − ωoc(∗)b a...
Vb... .
∂λ
The covariant derivatives of the metric tensor gµν are postulated to be zero:
(∗)
Dµ(∗) gκλ = 0, D (∗)α gκλ = 0, Dα(∗) gκλ = 0, D(o) gκλ = 0. (13.17)
1 ab
[Dµ(∗) , Dα(∗) ] = Pµα
a
Pa + Pµα Jab (13.19)
2
(∗)ab (∗)ab
ab δθα ∂ωµ (∗)b (∗)ac (∗)a (∗)cb
Pµα = − ¯ + θαc ωµ − θαc ωµ ,
δxµ ∂ξ α
1 ab
[Do(∗) , Dµ(∗) ] = Roµ
a
Pa + Roµ Jab (13.24)
2
a
δLaµ δhao (∗)a (∗)a
Roµ = − µ
+ ωµb Lbo − ωbo hbµ ,
δλ δx
(∗)ab (∗)ab
ab δωµ δωo
Roµ = − + ωµ(∗)aρ ωoρ
(∗)b
− ωo(∗)ρa ωµρ
(∗)b
,
δλ δxµ
(∗)ab (∗)ab
ab δωµ δωo
Roµ = − + ωµ(∗)aρ ωoρ
(∗)b
− ωo(∗)ρa ωµρ
(∗)b
,
δλ δxµ
13.4. FIELD EQUATIONS 237
[Do(∗) , Do(∗) ] = 0, ab
Roo = 0, a
Roo = 0. (13.25)
1
[Do(∗) , D (∗)α ] = P̄oaα Pa + P̄oabα Jab (13.26)
2
∂ ψ̄ aα δLao
P̄oaα = − (∗)a αa
+ ωoc ψ̄ − θ̄c(∗)aα Lco ,
∂λ δξα
(∗)ab
∂ θ̄(∗)αab δωo
P̄oabα = − + θ̄c(∗)ab ωµ(∗)ac − θ̄c(∗)aα ωo(∗)ab ,
∂λ δξα
(∗)ab
∂ θ̄(∗)αab δωo
P̄oabα = − + θ̄c(∗)ab ωµ(∗)ac − θ̄c(∗)aα ωo(∗)ab ,
∂λ δξα
1 ab
[Do(∗) , Dα(∗) ] = Poα
a
Pa + Poα Jab , (13.27)
2
and
R = hµa hκc Rµκ
c
, P = hµ ψcα Pµα c
, P̄ = hµ ψ̄αc P̄µcα ,
α β
Q = Qabαβ ψ̄a ψ̄b , Q̃ = Q̃abαβ = ψαa ψβb , S = ψ̄aα ψβb Sαabβ ,
R = Loκ hµc hκa Roµac
, P̄o = Loκ hκa ψ̄αc P̄oacα , Po = Loκ hκa ψ̄cα Poαac
.
o
∂
where we denoted ∂o = ∂λ
. Finally, after some calculations we get,
1
H̃νb − hbν H̃ = 0, (13.32)
2
where we put,
H̃ = R + P + P̄ + Q + Q̃ + S + Ro + P̄o + Po ,
H̃νb = 2Rνb + Pνb + P̄νb + Roν
b b
+ P̄oν b
+ P(o)ν ,
b
R = hκc Rνκbc
, Pνb = ψ̄cα Pνα
bc
, b
Roν = Loκ hκ Roν
b
+ Loν hµc Roµ
bc
,
ν
P̄ b = ψαc P̄νbcα , P̄oν
b
= Loν ψ̄αc P̄obcα , Poν
b
= Loν ψ̄cα Poα
bc
ν
The equation (13.32) is the Einstein equation for empty space, in the
framework of our consideration. Also, the variation of L with respect to
(∗)ab
ωµ gives,
∂L ∂L ∂L ∂L
∂ν (∗)ab
+ ∂α (∗)ab
+ ∂α (∗)ab
− (∗)ab
= 0. (13.33)
∂(∂ν ωµ ) ∂(∂ α ωµ ) ∂(∂α ωµ ) ∂ωµ
From this relation we get the second field equation in the following form,
∂ν [h(hµa hνb − hµb hνa )] − ∂ α [hhµa ψαb ] − ∂α [hhµa ψ̄bα ] − ∂o [hLoa hµb ]−
13.4. FIELD EQUATIONS 239
(∗)c
+hµd (ψ̄bα θαa
(∗)d
+ ψαb θa(∗)αd ) − Loκ ωob hµ[c hκa] = 0, (13.34)
where the parantheses () and [] are used to denote symmetrization and anti
symmetrization respectively.
The variation of L with respect to ψαa provides the field equation
∂L ∂L ∂L ∂L ∂L
∂ν a
+ ∂β β a
+ ∂β a
+ ∂o − = 0, (13.35)
∂(∂ν ψα ) ∂(∂ ψα ) ∂(∂β ψα ) ∂(∂o ψα ) ∂ψαa
a
(13.37)
∂L ∂L ∂L ∂L
∂µ ( (⋆)
) + ∂β ( β (⋆)
) + ∂β ( (⋆)
) + ∂o ( )=0
∂(∂µ Ω ) ∂(∂ Ω ) ∂(∂β Ω ) ∂(∂o Ω(⋆) )
(13.39)
(∗)ab (∗)ab
with Ω(∗) ∈ {θα , θ̄(∗)αab , ω(o) }, which have the corresponding detailed
forms
α)
∂ν (hhνa ψbα ) + ∂β (hψa(β ψ̄b ) − ∂ β (hψ̄aα ψβb ) + ∂o (hLoκ hκa ψ̄bα )− (13.40)
(∗)d [γ α] (∗)d (∗)βd (∗)
−h[ωµb hµ(d ψa)
α
+ ψ̄d ψ̄(a θb)γ + θb α
ψ̄(a ψd)β + Loκ ωob hκ(d ψ̄a)
α
] = 0,
(∗)d [γ α] (∗)d (∗)βd (∗)
−h[ωµb hµ(d ψa)
α
+ ψ̄d ψ̄(a θb)γ + θb α
ψ̄(a ψd)β + Loκ ωob hκ(d ψ̄a)
α
] = 0
240 CHAPTER 13. SPINORS ON INTERNAL DEFORMED SYSTEMS
∂ν (hhνa ψ̄αb )+ ∂ β (hψa[β ψα]b )+ ∂β (hψ̄aβ ψαb )+
(∗)d (∗)d β
∂o (hLoκ hκa ψαb )− h[ωbµ hµ[d ψ̄a]α + θβa ψ̄[d ψb]α + (13.41)
2θ(∗)γd ψ ψ + Lo (hκ ψ̄ ω (∗)d − ψ̄ hκ ω (∗)d )] = 0
a γ[d b]α κ d αa ob αd b oa
(∗)d (∗)d (∗)c
hLoκ [hµa hκd ωµb − hµd hκb ωµa + hκa ψ̄cα θαb −
(∗)d (∗)αc (∗)αd
θαa ψ̄bα hκd + hκa ψ̄αc θ̄b − θ̄a ψ̄αb hκd ]+ (13.42)
∂ [hLo hν hκ ]+
ν κ b α ∂β [hLoκ hκa ψ̄bβ ]+ ∂ β [hLoκ hκa ψ̄βb ] = 0
Chapter 14
Bianchi Identities,
Gauge–Higgs Fields and
Deformed Bundles
14.1 Introduction
In the works [148],[143] the concepts of spinor bundle S (2) M as well as of
deformed spinor bundle S̃ (2) M of order two, were intorduced in the framework
of a geometrical generalization of the proper spinor bundles as they have been
studied from different authors e.g. [39],[204],[203].
The study of fundamental geometrical subjects as well as the gauge co
variant derivatives, connections field equations e.t.c. in a deformed spinor
bundle S̃ (2) M, has been developed in a sufficiently generalized approach.
[143] In these spaces the internal variables or the gauge variables of fibration
have been substituted by the internal (Dirac) variables ω = (ξ, ξ̄). In addi
tion, another central point of our consideration is that of the internal fibres
C 4.
The initial spinor bundle (S (2) M, π, F ), π : S (2) M → M was constructed
from the one of the principal fibre bundles with fibre F = C 4 (C 4 denotes the
complex space) and M the base manifold of spacetime events of signature
(+, −, −, −). A spinor in x ∈ M is an element of the spinor bundle S (2) M
[148],
241
242CHAPTER 14. BIANCHI IDENTITIES AND DEFORMED BUNDLES
S̃ (2) M = S̃ (2) M × R
where the terms δχδ λ , δξδα D0λ , DxK , Dξβ , D ξ¯β are provided by the relations
(6)(7) of [143].
The considered connection in S̃ (2) M is a dconnection [109] having with
respect to the adapted basis the coefficients(cf. [143] ).
(∗)µ (∗)α
ΓA (∗)µ µ µα β βα
BC = {Γνρ , Cνα , C̄ν , Γν0 , Γ̄βλ , C̃αγ , C̃γ ,
γ (∗)0
(∗)β
Γ̃αγ (∗)β
, Γαν , Cβα , Cβγα , Cβ0
α
, Γ0µ , C̄)0α , C0α
0
, L000 }. (14.4)
T (S̃ (2) M) = H(S̃ (2) M) ⊕ F (1) (S̃ (2) M) ⊕ F (2) (S̃ (2) M) ⊕ R (14.5)
where H, F (1) , F (2) , R represent the horizontal vertical normal and deforma
tion distributions respectively.
In the following we study the Bianchi identities and YangMillsHiggs
fields on S̃ (2) M bundle..
14.2. BIANCHI IDENTITIES 243
a a a
D̃µ R̃κλ + D̃κ R̃λµ + D̃λ R̃µκ =0 (14.11)
ce ce ce
D̃µ R̃κλ + D̃κ R̃λµ + D̃λ R̃µκ =0 (14.12)
(∗) (∗) (∗)
Using the Jacobi identities Q( α, β, γ)[D̃α , [D̃β , D̃γ ]] = 0 the Bianchi
identities with respect to spinor quantities produce the relations,
D̃α Qab ab ab
βγ + D̃β Qγα + D̃γ Qαβ = 0, (14.13)
D̃α Qaβγ + D̃β Qaγα + D̃γ Qaαβ = 0. (14.14)
The new Jacobi identity, due to λ, has the form
where,
δ̃ 1 ∂ 1
D̃µ(∗) = µ
+ ωµ(∗)ab Jab , D̃α(∗) = ¯α + Θα(∗)ab Jab ,
δx 2 ∂ξ 2
(∗) ∂ ∂ ∂
D̃0 = + ω0ab Jab , = Lµ0 haµ Pa , ¯α = ψαa Pa
∂λ ∂λ ∂ξ
Now we put,
d
d δ̃ P̃0α d
D̃µ P̃0α = + P̃cµ0 Acµ + ωαa
(∗)d a
P̃µ0 , (14.19)
δxµ
d
d
∂ P̃µ0 d
D̃α P̃µ0 = + P̃cµ0 Acµ + ωαa
(∗)d a
P̃µ0 , (14.20)
∂ ξ¯α
d
d
∂ P̃αµ d (∗)d a
D̃0 P̃αµ = + P̃cαµ Ac0 + ω0a P̃αµ . (14.21)
∂λ
in virtue of (14.14), (14.15) and (14.16) we get the identity
d d d
D̃µ P̃0α + D̃α P̃µ0 + D̃0 P̃αµ =0 (14.22)
Similarly we define
cd
cd 1 ∂ P̃0α (∗)c ad
D̃µ P̃0α = + ωµa P̃0α , (14.23)
2 ∂xµ
cd
cd 1 ∂ P̃µ0 (∗)c ad
D̃α P̃µ0 = + ωαa P̃µ0 , (14.24)
2 ∂ ξ¯α
cd
cd 1 ∂ P̃αµ (∗)c ad
D̃0 P̃αµ = + ω0α P̃αµ . (14.25)
2 ∂λ
From (14.18)–(14.20) we get
cd cd cd
D̃µ P̃0α + D̃α P̃µ0 + D̃0 P̃αµ =0 (14.26)
Ã : S̃(M) −→ g
ÃX = AiX τi , [τi , τj ] = Cijk τk
ÃX = {Aµ , Aα , Āα , ϕ}
where the elements τi are the components which satisfy the commutation
relations of the Lie algebra. Then Ã is called a gvalued spinor gauge po
tential.
We can define the gauge covariant derivatives:
d) ˆ ˜
[D̂α , D̄ β ] = [D̃α , D̄β ] + iF̃αβ
e) ˆ ] = [D̃ , D̄
[D̂ , D̄ ˜ ] + iF̃
µ α µ α µα
α β α β αβ
f) ˆ , D̄
[D̄ ˆ ] = [D̄
˜ , D̄
˜ ] + iF̄˜ (14.28)
δ L̃ ∂ L̃ ∂ L̃
= D̃X ( )− =0 (14.32)
δAY ∂(D̃X AY ) ∂AY
∂ L̃ ∂ L̃ ∂ L̃ ∂ L̃
D̃k ( ) + D̃β ( ) + D̄ β ( )− =0 (14.33)
∂(D̃k Aλ ) ∂(D̃β Aλ ) ∂(D̄β Aλ ) ∂Aλ
The nonlinear connection on S̃ (2) (M) is defined analogously, as for the vector
bundles of order two [111, 120]
where H,F (1) ,F (2) ,R represent the horizontal, vertical, normal and deforma
tion distributions respectively.
We introduce the fundamental gauge 1form fields which take values from
the Lie algebra of the Poincarè group and denote by Jab , Pa the generators
of the fourdimensional Poincarè group (namely the angular momentum and
(∗)ab
linear momentum), by ωµ  the Lorentz  spin connection coefficients, Ψ̄αa ,
(∗)ab
Ψaα , θα , θ̄(∗)αab  the spintetrad and spin  connection coefficients, and Lao
 the deformed tetrad coefficients. We use Greek letters λ, µ, ν, . . . for space
time indices, α, β, γ, . . . for the spinor, a, b, c, . . . for Lorentz ones, and the
index (o) represents the deformed variable; λ, α, a = 1, . . . , 4. The general
14.4. FIELD EQUATIONS OF AN INTERNAL DEFORMED SYSTEM249
and, similarly to [148], other four curvatures and torsions. The contribution
(∗)
of the λ  covariant derivative Do provides us the following curvatures and
torsions
a ab ab a
Roµ , Roµ , Roo = 0, Roo = 0, P̄oaα , P̄oabα , Poα
a ab
, Poα .
In the following, are derived the field equations, by means of the Palatini
method, using a Lagrangian of the form
L = h(R + P + P̄ + Q + Q̃ + Ro + P̄o + P o)
where,
κA ∈ {(haµ (z), ωµ(∗)ab (z), ψαa (z), ψ̄ αa (z), θα(∗)ab (z), θ̄(∗)αab (z), ωo(∗)ab (z))},
δ δ δ ∂ ∂
δM = M ∈ µ
, , ¯α , , z = (z M ) = (xµ , ξα , ξ¯α , λ)
δz δx δξα ∂ ξ ∂λ
250CHAPTER 14. BIANCHI IDENTITIES AND DEFORMED BUNDLES
and
c
R = hµa hκc Rµκ , P = hµ ψcα Pµα c
, P̄ = hµ ψ̄αc P̄µcα ,
α β
Q = Qabαβ ψ̄a ψ̄b , Q̃ = Q̃abαβ = ψαa ψβb , S = ψ̄aα ψβb Sαabβ ,
R = Loκ hµc hκa Roµac
, P̄o = Loκ hκa ψ̄αc P̄oacα , Po = Loκ hκa ψ̄cα Poαac
.
o
H̃ = R + P + P̄ + Q + Q̃ + S + Ro + P̄o + Po ,
H̃νb = 2Rνb + Pνb + P̄νb + Roν
b b
+ P̄oν b
+ P(o)ν ,
Rνb = hκc Rνκ
bc
, Pνb = ψ̄cα Pνα
bc
, b
Roν = Loκ hκ Roν
b
+ Loν hµc Roµ
bc
,
P̄νb = ψαc P̄νbcα , b
P̄oν = Loν ψ̄αc P̄obcα, b
Poν bc
= Loν ψ̄cα Poα .
The equation (14.4) is the Einstein equation for empty space, in the
framework of our consideration. Also, the variation of L with respect to
(∗)ab
ωµ gives the second field equation
∂ν [h(hµa hνb − hµb hνa )] − ∂ α [hhµa ψαb ] − ∂α [hhµa ψ̄bα ] − ∂o [hLoa hµb ]−
(∗)d (κ µ) (∗)c (∗)αc
−h[ωκ(a hb) hd + hµa (ψ̄cα θαb + ψαc θ̄b )+
(∗)c
+hµd (ψ̄bα θαa
(∗)d
+ ψαb θa(∗)αd ) − Loκ ωob hµ[c hκa] = 0,
where the parantheses (... ) and [... ] are used to denote symmetrization
and antisymmetrization respectively.
The variation of L with respect to ψαa provides the field equation
1 β cα 1 ba µ
ψ̄ S + P h + Q̃dγα
a ψγd = 0.
2 c βa 2 µα b
14.4. FIELD EQUATIONS OF AN INTERNAL DEFORMED SYSTEM251
From the variation with respect to ψ̄ αa we get the fourth field equation
1 baα µ 1 bβ
P̄µ hb + ψβb Saα + ψ̄dγ Qdaγα = 0.
2 2
Finally, are obtained the explicit expressions of the other three field equa
tions, by means of the variation of L with respect to the connection coeffi
(∗)ab (∗)ab
cients θα , θ̄(∗)αab and ω(o) .
252CHAPTER 14. BIANCHI IDENTITIES AND DEFORMED BUNDLES
Chapter 15
15.1 Introduction
The theory of spinors on pseudoRiemannian spaces has been recognized by
many authors, e.g. [128, 39, 203] for the important role it has played from
the mathematical and physical point of view.
The spinors that we are dealing with here, are associated with the group
SL(2, C). In particular SL(2, C) acts on C 2 . Each elements of C 2 represents
a twocomponent spinor. This group is the covering group of the Lorentz
group in which the tensors are described [39]. The correspondence between
spinors and tensors is achieved by means of mixed quantities initially intro
duced by Infeld and Van der Waerden.
The correspondence of tensors and spinors establishes a homomoerhism
between the Lorentz group and the covering group SL(2, C).
In the following, we give some important relations between spinors and
tensors on a general manifold of metric gµν .
Let σ : S ⊗ S̄ → V 4 be a homomorphism between spinor spaces S, S̄ and
fourvectors belonging to the V 4 space, then the components of σ, which are
called the Paulispinor matrices, are given by
0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
σAB ′ = √ , σAB =√
′ , (15.1)
2 0 1 2 1 0
2 1 0 i 3 1 0
σAB ′ = √ , σAB′ = √
2 −i 0 2 0 −1
253
254 CHAPTER 15. TENSOR AND SPINOR EQUIVALENCE
µ µ µ
The hermitian spinorial equivalent notation of σAB ′ is given by σAB ′ = σ̄BA′ =
µ
σ̄B′ A . Greek letters µ, ν, · · · represent the usual spacetime indices taking
the values 0, 1, 2, 3 and the Roman capital indices A, B, A′ , B ′ are the spinor
indices taking the values 0, 1. The tensor indices are raised and lowered by
means of the metric tensor, whereas the raising and lowering of spinor indices
is given by the spinor metric tensors εAC , εB′ C ′ which are of skewsymmetric
′
form. Thus, for two spinors ξ A , nA we have the relations, moreover we have,
satisfied,
µ νAB ′ µ ′
σAB ′σ = g µν , σAB AB
′ σν = δνµ .
The relationship between the matrices σ ν and the geometric tensor gµν ,
as well as its spinor equivalent are
µ ν
gµν σAB ′ σCD ′ = εAC εB′ D′ , (15.3)
µ ν
gAB′ CD′ = σAB ′ σCD ′ gµν = εAC εB ′ D ′ ,
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
g AB CD = σµAB σνCD g µν = εAC εB D .
SAB′ = S̄A′ B .
y k yk = gkλy k y λ = 0, (15.4)
15.1. INTRODUCTION 255
Dµ εAB = 0,
LBAµ = LABµ
LABµ = LC
Bµ εCA .
In this case there is no unique solution for the lightcone [80, 26]. The problem
of causality is solved considering the velocity as a parameter and the motion
of a particle in Finsler space is described by a pair (x, y). The metric form
in such a case will be given by
δy α = dy α + Njα dxj .
Thus we have
15.2. GENERALIZATION SPINOR–TENSOR EQUIVALENTS 257
δy α = 0.
preserves the anisotropy of space with torsions. in this case all objects de
i
pend on the position and spinors, e.g. the Pauli matrices σ̃AA ′ (x, θ, θ̄). Such
if the vector y is a null, then the corresponding spinor metric of the bundle
will be given in the form
′ ′ ′ ′
G = gAA′ BB′ dθA dθ̄A dθB dθ̄B + hAA′ BB′ δ(θB θ̄B )δ(θA θ̄A ) (15.11)
or equivalently
′ ′ ′ ′
G = gAA′ BB′ dθA dθ̄A dθB dθ̄B + hAA′ BB′ δy AA δy BB ,
′ ′
where y AA = θA θ̄A , when y is null vector (cf. [39]).
∂2L 1
gij = i j
, L = F2
∂y ∂y 2
is given by
′ ′
gij = σ̃iAA σ̃jBB gAA′ BB′ .
µ
, i → µ
, A , A′ , (dxµ , δy i) → (dxµ , δθA , δ θ̄A )
δx ∂y δx ∂θ ∂ θ̄
δ ′ ′
a) µ
= σ̃µAA ∂A ∂A′ − NµA ∂A − N̄µA ∂A′ (15.14)
δx
′
b) ∂P σ̃PAA = ∂AA′ , P = {i, α}
µ ′
c) dxµ = σ̃AA A
′ dθ dθ̄
A
′ ′ ′ γ ′ ′
d) δy α = (θ̄A dθA + θA dθ̄A )σ̃AA
α
′ + (θ̄
A
NγA + θA N̄γA )σ̃AA B
′ dθ dθ
B̄
15.3. ADAPTED FRAMES AND LINEAR CONNECTIONS 259
AB ... ′
δζBA ′ ... CB ′ ... B′ AC ′ ... AB ′ ... C′ AB ′ ...
AB ′
△µ ζBA ′ = µ
+ LA C
Cµ ζBA′ ... + L̄C ′ µ ζBA′ ... − LBµ ζCA′ ... − L̄µA′ ζBC ′ ...
δx
AB ′ ...
AB ′ ∂ζ BA′ ... A CB ′ ... B′ AC ′ ... C AB ′ ... C′ AB ′ ...
△E ζBA′ = E
+ CCE ζBA ′ ... + C̄C ′ E ζBA′ ... − CBE ζCA′ ... − C̄EA′ ζBC ′ ...
∂θ
AB ′ ...
AB ′ ∂ζBA ′ ... A CB ′ ... B′ AC ′ ... C′ AB ′ ...
△Z ′ ζBA′ = Z ′ + C̄CZ ′ ζBA′ ... + C̄C ′ Z ′ ζBA′ ... − C̄Z ′ A′ ζBC ′ ... . (15.18)
∂ θ̄
260 CHAPTER 15. TENSOR AND SPINOR EQUIVALENCE
Proof. Applying the relations (15.18) to a null vector y with the Cartan
α
type properties yk = 0 and y α β = δβα [116, 14], and taking into account
the (15.2) a), (15.5) we obtain the relations (15.19). (As we have mentioned
previously the ycovariant derivative has corresponded to the spinor covariant
derivatives).
T (X, Y ) = DX Y − DY X − [X, Y ]
.
Relatively to an adapted frame we have the relations
δ δ µ δ A ∂ A′ ∂
a) T k
, λ = Tλk µ
+ Tλk A
+ T̄λk
δx δx δx ∂θ ∂ θ̄A′
∂ δ ν δ B δ B′ ∂
b) T A
, µ = TµA ν
+ TµA B
+ T̄µA
∂θ δx δx δθ ∂ θ̄B′
∂ δ ν δ B ∂ B′ ∂
c) T A ′, µ
= TµA ′
ν
+ TµA ′
B
+ T̄µA ′
∂ θ̄ δx δx ∂θ ∂ θ̄B′
∂ ∂ µ δ C ∂ C′ ∂
d) T A
, B = TBA µ
+ TBA C
+ T̄BA (15.20)
∂θ ∂ θ̄ δx ∂θ ∂θC ′
∂ ∂ δ ∂ ∂
, B′ = TBµ′ A µ + TBC′ A C + T̄BC′ A C ′
′
e) T A
∂θ ∂ θ̄ δx ∂θ ∂ θ̄
∂ ∂ µ δ C ∂ C′ ∂
f) T , = T BA ′ + TBA ′ + T̄B ′A
∂ θ̄A ∂ θ̄B
′
δxµ ∂θC ∂ θ̄C ′
∂ ∂ δ ∂ ∂
= TBµ′ A′ µ + TBC′ A′ C + T̄BC′ A′ C ′ .
′
g) T A ′, B
∂ θ̄ ∂ θ̄ ′
δx ∂θ ∂ θ̄
15.4. TORSIONS AND CURVATURES 261
l l l A A ′ λ ′ λ
TAB = CAB − CBA , T̄AB = −RAB , TµA ′ = −C̄A′ µ
A
∂NµA A′ A′ A′ A′
TµA = − A′ , TµB
′ ′ = CµB ′ = CB ′ µ − PµB
∂ θ̄
′
B B A′ A′ ∂CAA
TAA′ = −CAA′ , TAB′ = CAB′ − B′ ,
∂ θ̄
where we have put
δ ∂ ∂ δ δ ∂
= , , = , ,
δY P ∂θA ∂ θ̄A′ δY Q δxµ ∂ θ̄∆
′ ′
∆ = B, B ′ and CAA = CAA θB .
So, we obtain the following:
262 CHAPTER 15. TENSOR AND SPINOR EQUIVALENCE
B δCAB′ A ∂LB Aµ ρ B ρ B
∂Nµρ B D′ B
IAA ′µ = µ
− A
+ C A′ A ρµL − L C
Aµ A ρ ′ − A ′ CAρ − L̄A′ µ C̄D ′ A
δx ∂ θ̄ ′
∂ θ̄
′
′
′
δ C̄AB′ C ′ ∂ L̄B A′ µ B′ D′ B′ E′
IAB′ C ′ µ = − + C̄ A ′ D ′ L̄C ′ µ − L̄E ′ µ C̄A′ B ′
δxµ ∂ θ̄C ′
ρ
∂Nµ ′ D′ B′
− A′ L̄B C ′ ρ − L̄A′ µ C̄D ′ C ′
∂ θ̄
15.4. TORSIONS AND CURVATURES 263
′
k ∂CAk ′ ν ∂CBν k
ρ k ρ k ∂LD B k
JνA ′B = B
− A
+ C Aν′ C Bρ − C Bν C A ′ ρ − A ′ CD ′ ν
∂θ ∂ θ̄ ′
∂ θ̄
∂CAρ ′ B ∂CAB ρ ′
rho k ρ k ρ ∂LD A ρ
JAA ′B = A
− A
+ C A′ A kBC − C C
AB A′ k − A ′ CD ′ B
∂θ ∂ θ̄ ′
∂ θ̄
′ ′ ′
∂ C̄AB′ C ′ ∂CAB′ A ′ ′ ∂LD A B′
JAB′ C ′ A = A
− + C A
B D B E
′ D CC ′ A − CA′ E CC ′ A − C̄ C ′ D′
∂θ ∂ θ̄A ′
∂ θ̄A ′
ν B B′
KµA ′ B′ = KAA ′ B ′ = KA′ C ′ D ′ = 0.
So we have
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