3rd Edition
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John A. Banks
Study Guide for
Stewart, Redlin and Watson's f
COLLEGE ALGEBRA
Third Edition
John A. Banks
Evergreen Valley College
San Jose City College
B Brooks/Cole
Thomson
Australia
Learning.
For more information about this or any other Brooks/Cole product, contact:
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Printed in Canada
10 987654321
ISBN 0534373607
Preface to Third Edition
To master college algebra and move on to further studies, you need to practice solving problems.
The more problems you do, the better your problem solving skills will become. You also need
exposure to many different types of problems so you can develop strategies for solving each type.
This study guide provides additional problems for each section of the main text, College
Algebra, Third Edition. Each problem includes a detailed solution located adjacent to it. Where
appropriate, the solution includes commentary on what steps are taken and why those particular steps
were taken. Some problems are solved using more than one approach, allowing you to compare the
different methods.
mathematics. Therefore, it is extremely important that you work out each problem before looking at
the solution.
If you immediately look at the solution before attempting to work it out, you short change
yourself. You skip the important steps of planning the strategy and deciding on the method to use to
carry out this plan. These problem solving skills cannot be developed by looking at the answer first.
Another method you can use to help study is to use index cards. Put a problem that you find
challenging on one side of the card and the solution and its location in the text on the other side of
the card. Add new problems to your collection whenever you do your homework. Once a week test
yourself with these cards. Be sure to shuffle the cards each time.
Finally, I would like to acknowledge the many useful comments and suggestions provided by
Anna Fox, Lothar Redlin, and Saleem Watson.
I hope you find that this study guide helps in your further understanding the concepts of
college algebra.
John A. Banks
Evergreen Valley College
San Jose City College
J
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012
http://archive.org/details/isbn_9780534373603
11
Contents
Chapter 1 Basic Algebra
Section 1 . What Is Algebra? 2
Section 1.2 Real Numbers 3
Section 1.3 Exponents and Radicals 9
Section 1.4 Algebraic Expressions 14
Section 1.5 Fractional Expressions 20
Section 1.6 Basic Equations 25
Chapter 4 Functions
Section 4. What is a Function? 72
Section 4.2 Graphs of Functions 75
Section 4.3 Applied Functions: Variation 78
Section 4.4 Average Rate of Change: Increasing and Decreasing Functions 80
Section 4.5 Transformations of Functions 82
Section 4.6 Extreme Values of Functions 88
Section 4.7 Combining Functions 93
Section 4.8 OnetoOne Functions and Their Inverses 98
Chapter 1
Basic Algebra
Write down the general principle exemplified by the One way to express this is
ab + ac = a(b + c)
The list offacts only shows this statement is true
for 2 and not for any number in general.
Write down the general principle exemplified by the first number + second number =
following list of facts: second number + first number
4+7=7+4 or a + 6 =6+ a,
6+ 12= 12 + 6
5+3=3+5
B. Finding the pattern leads to writing formulas that can then be used to solve other problems.
(c) A movie is 2 hours 15 minutes long. How much 2 hours 15 minutes = 135 minutes
video tape is needed to put the movie on tape? D = RT
12.5 cm
D= (135 minutes) = 1687.5 cm
minute
Section 1.2 Real Numbers
Key Ideas
A. Real numbers.
B. Converting a repeating decimal to a traction.
A. There are many different types of numbers that make up the real number system. Some of these
special sets are shown below.
Symbol Name Set
N Natural (counting) {1,2,3,4,...}
Z Integers {...,2, 1,0, 1,2, ...}
Every natural number is an integer, and every integer is a rational number. For example:
3 6
3 = =  = . But not every rational number is an integer and not every integer is a natural
number. Real numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers are called irrational, n and \/2
are examples of irrational numbers. Every real number has a decimal representation. When the
decimal representation of a number has a sequence of digits that repeats forever it is a rational number.
The real numbers can be represented by points on a line, with the positive direction towards the right.
We choose an arbitrary point for the real number and call it the origin. Each positive number x is
represented by the point on the line that is a distance of x units to the right of the origin, and each
negative number x is represented by the point x units to the left of the origin. This line is called the
real number line or the coordinate line. An important property of real numbers is order. Order is
used to compare two real numbers and determine their relative position.
rational.
representation,
lOOOOx = 4578.4578
lx = 0.4578 Subtract.
9999x = 4578
4578 1526
Divide.
9999 3333
1526
So the fraction representation of 0.4578 is
3333
lOOOx = 3123.3
lOOx = 312.3 Subtract.
900x = 2811
2811 937
Divide.
900 300
 937
So the fraction representation
K of 3.123 is .
300
ab = ba
Associative Laws (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (ab)c = a(bc)
Distributive Laws a(b + c) = + c)a ab + ac
ab + ac (b =
The number 0, called the additive identity, is special for addition because a + = a for any real
number a. Every real number a has a negative, a, that satisfies a + (a) = 0. Subtraction is the
operation that undoes addition and we define a b = a + ( &) We use the following properties to
handle negatives:
is the operation that undoes multiplication and we define a 5 b = a . We use the following
a c ac a c a d a b a + b
= = ~  +_=
b" d bd b^d b c c c c
a c ad + be ac a a a a
a
b
'
d
c
~
bd bc~^b T =
^6
=
~b
if  = , then ad = be.
b d
D. A set is a collection of objects, or elements. A capital letter is usually used to denote sets and lower
case letters to represent the elements of the set. There are two main ways to write a set. We can list all
the elements of the set enclosed in { }, brackets, or list a few elements and then use ... to represent that
the set continues in the same pattern. Or we can use set builder notation, "{x x has property P}." \
This is read as "the set of x such that x has the property P." The two key binary operations for sets are
called union and intersection. The union of two sets is the set that consists of the elements that are in
either set. The intersection of two sets is the set that consists of the elements in both sets. The empty
set, 0, is a set that contains no elements. Intervals are sets of real numbers that correspond
geometrically to line segments. Study the table on page 15 of the main text and note the differences
between the symbols ( and ) as well as the symbols [
and ].
Anc = o.
,4 U C= {x oo 
< x < oo}
012345678
I I I I I I I
+
01234567
I I I I I I
<X>
01234567
I I 1 I I I I
om^+
01234567
I 1 I I
Vn W= [2, 4) n (4, 6] = 0.
E. The absolute value of a number a, denoted by \a\, is the distance from the number a to on the real
number line. Remember absolute value is always positive or zero. It is also defined as
\a\ = < .,
~~
n . If a and b are real numbers, then the distance between the points a and 6 on the
1
'
[ a, if a <
real line is d(a, b) = \b a\. By Property 6 of negatives \b a\ = \a  b\
(b) 8
a = a a a a
,o _ 1, a/0 =
a
,a^0
n
n factors of a
In addition to the exponent definitions, the following key exponent laws should be mastered.
= m_n
a ,a/0 To divide two power of the same number, subtract the exponents.
(a
m n
= a mn To raise a power to a new power, multiply the exponents.
)
n
(ab) = an bn To raise a product to a power, raise each factor to the power.
To raise a quotient to a power, raise both numerator and denominator
to the power.
Simplify,
(a) x3 x5
(b) w 12,8
w
8
y
15 15 7
y y y
1 l
yl5 y 158 y~
(d) (5x)
a
(5i)
3
= 5
3
x3 = 125:c
3
.
(C) (m 3\7
3
(m 3 7
= m 37 3 7 _
= m
, 21
) )
29 97
= 2 = 2
2
= 4 or
27
1 1
~ 9 = 2^
27 27 2 2
A. Shortcut: In problems like lc and If above, compare the exponents in the numerator and denominator.
If the exponent in the numerator is larger, we simplify the expression by bringing the factor up into the
numerator. If the exponent in the denominator is larger, we simplify the expression by bringing the
factor down into the denominator.
Simplify
27 3
Since both 27 and 9 are powers of 3, first express
each number as a power of 3.
HZi _
~
OT _ tl _ &_
 3 25  3IO 
1 _

1
95 ( 3 2)5 3IO9 3
3.
5 2 3 4
Simplify (2x'y )(3x y ) . (2x 7 y 5 )(3x 2 y 3 ) 4  (2x 7 y5 )[(3) 4 (x 2 ) 4 (y
3 4
) ]
= (2x 7 y 5 )(3 4 x 8 y 12 )
= (2)(81)(x x )(y y
7 8 5 12
)
= 162x 15 y 17
4 4 3 3 5 3 5
x*y X3f _ (x ) y x (z )
i2)Xt' (
2 6)3 (y 4)5
12 3 5 15
_ x y x 2
17
y *3
10

2 fci
2a 2
5
= ao
5
3 3
=
3a
2b (
(b) simplify.
3
4w34
v i 4 3 l0 3 ( 3 ) ; 4 ( 3 )
t
2w 2
v 5 23 w 2(2) v b(3)
_
2~ 6 urV 2
2~ 3 w~ 6 v~ 15
.27
= 2" 3 iiT V 7
=
2 3
w3 8io 3
3..4A3
4uru~ 4 s 3
= {2w* v
2
y
2w 2 v 5
= (2wv^)~ 3
= 2 3 u; 3 V  9(  3) = 2 3 uTV 7
,27 ,27
3 3 3
2 KJ 8tl>
(C)
(5
3
m 7
n2 )
3
(5
3
m 7
n2 )
3
5
3(3
W( 3
)n
2<3>
5
9
m n 21 6
(3
4
m 2
n 3 4
) (3
4
m n 2 3
)
4
3 4(4
>m 2 (4
)7i
3 (4 )
3 16
m 8 n 12
5
9
m 21(8)
3 16 n 126
5
9
m 29
3 16
n6
B. Scientific notation is used to express very large numbers or very small numbers in a more compact
way. The goal is to express the positive number x in the form a x 10", where 1 < a < 10 and n is an
integer.
ll
.
4.1 x 10~ 7
7 Ifa s=4.1 x 10"
7
,
6w 9
1.97 x 10 and ,
m 0.64 x 10
13
6.4 x 10~
14
Similarly, the nth root of a is thenumber that, when raised to the nth power, gives a. So if n is a
positive integer then y/a = b means b n a and b is called the principal nth root of a. When n is even,
a > and 6 > 0. The key rules of exponents to master are:
a' = a
If a > and 6 > 0, then y/ay/b y/ab. If a > and 6 > 0, then </f = ^2.
V b yfb
a _ y/a
</ab = y/ay/b
b~ <fb
a if n is odd
a \/a ."/ r,n
\a\ if n is even.
v/54
'54
V^
1:
1
9. Simplify.
m
D. The definitions of rational exponents are: a
l//fJ
</aanda m ^ n = (</a) = </a.
10. Simplify,
2
8 2/3 2 /3= = = 4or
(a) 8
^) 2
2
82 / 3 = tf& = ^64 = 4
3
93 2 9V2 = = 33 =
^)
''
(b) 27
5/3 V3 =
(c) (8x 3 y 9 ) (8xV) 8 5 /3 2:3(5/3^9(5/3)
_ 23(5/3)^.3(5/3)^(5/3) _ 2
5
X 5 y 15
= 32x 5 y 15
E. Radicals are eliminated from the denominators by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by
an appropriate expression. This procedure is called rationalizing the denominator.
1 . Rationalize the denominator in each of the following
expressions.
1 1 1 y/2 _ y/2
(a) 7= ~ ~
v/2 v/2 \fi 2
7 _ _ \/7 ^3 _ y^T
(b)
4 3 "73
y/j_
~ yjl
'
yfi
~ 3
13
1
\ \ariable is a letter that can represent any number in a given set of numbers (called the domain). A
constant represents a fixed number. Algebraic expressions using only addition, subtraction, and
multiplication are called polynomials. The general form of a polynomial of degree n in the variable x
is:
anxn + a n ix n ~ + l
+ a<ix 2 + a\x + ao
where ao, a\ a^ , a n \ a n are constants with a n
, ^ 0. A polynomial is the sum of terms of the
form akx k (called monomials) where a^ is a constant and k is a nonnegative integer.
9y  6y
7
(b) + 200y 5 Degree 7
(d) v/W + 3w 3
 f w2 Degree 4
B. Terms with the same variables raised to the same powers are called like terms. Polynomials are added
and subtracted using a process called combining like terms which utilizes the Distributive Law.
2. Find the sum: First group like terms, then combine like terms.
(5z 3 + 3x 2 2x+ 1) + (x
3
6x 2 + 5x 1).
(5x 3
+ 3x  2x +
2
1) + (x
3
 6x 2 + 5x  1)
= 5x 3 + x 3 + 3x 2  6x 2 + 2x + 5x + 1  1
= (5+ l)x 3
+ (3  6)x 2
+ (2 + 5)x
= 6x  3x + 3x
3 2
3. Find the difference: First, group like terms, then combine like terms.
= 7x 3  2x 3  x 2  (6x 2 )  9x + 5  (6)
= 5x 3
+ 5x  9x +
2
1
14
B. The product of two polynomials is found by repeated use of the Distributive Law.
4. Find the product: (x3  lay + 2y 2 )(x + 4y). Stan h> treating the first expression as a single
number and distribute each term ovei (x I 4y).
= x  4x y
3 2
+ 2xy + 4x 2 y  \6xy 2 + 8y 3
2
= x 3  14xy 2 + 8y 3
y/x (X + y/x)
y/x
= r
Xy/X
Ax
7= + v/X\/X
A y/x
j=
y/x y/x
/ Ax
= Xy/X f=
+ x  A
y/x
= Xy/x Ayfx 4 X A
{a + b)
2
=
a + 2ab + b 2
2
Perfect Square
(a  b) =a  2ab + b
2 2 2
Perfect Square
(a + 6) 3 = a 3 + 3a 2 6 + 3ab 2 + 6
3
Perfect Cube
(a  6) 3 = a 3  3a 2 6 4 3ab 2  6
3
Perfect Cube
15
6. Ute the special product formulas to find the following
products
(a) (3x  2y3 ) 2 Perfect square:
(3x  2y 3 )
2
= (3x) 2  2(3x)(2y 3 + ) (2y
3 2
)
= 9x 2  \2xy 3 + 4y 6
2
(b) (u> + 2u;)
3
Perfect cube:
{w 2 + 2w) 3
= (w 2 3 + 3( 2 2 (2w) + 3(w 2 )(2u;) 2 +
) ) (2w) 3
= w 6 + 6w 5 + 12iu 4 + 8w 3
2 1
= (v^) 
= X
X
D. Factoring is the process of writing an algebraic expression (a sum) as a product of simpler ones.
Factoring is one of the most important tools in algebra. Factoring is the opposite operation of
expanding. The simplest factoring occurs when each term has a common factor. To factor a quadratic
polynomial, a seconddegree polynomial of the form x 2 + bx + c, we first observe that
(x + r)(x + s) = x 2 + (r + s)x + rs, so that r + s = b and rs = c. If c is negative, then r and s have
different signs and we look for a difference of b. If c is positive, then r and s have the same sign as b,
either both negative or both positive, and we look for r and s to sum to b.
6x 4  2x 7 + 8x 8 = 2x 4 (3  x 3 + 4x 4 )
(b) 4x 2 u;3  16xu> 4 + 28x 6 u; 6 The gef of 4, 16, and 28 is 4; the gef of x 2 x 5 and , ,
x6 is x 2 and
, w 3 w A and w 6 is w 3
the gef of , , .
Ax 2 w 3  \6xw A + 28x 6 w6
= 4x 2 u> 3 (l  4x 3 w + 7x A w 3 )
16
.
factors 1 20 2 10 4 5
corresponding
sum
Therefore, taking r = 2 and s =  10, we get the
factorization:
x2 + 6x  16 = (x + 8)(x  2).
L). To factor a general quadratic of the form ax 2+ bx + c, we look for factors of the form px + r and
qx + s, so ax 2
+ bx + c = (px + r)(qx + s) = pqx 2 + (ps + qr)x + rs. Therefore, we must find
numbers p, q, r, and 5 such that pq a;ps + qr b\ and rs c. If a is positive, then p and q are
positive and the signs of r and 5 are determined as before by the sign of b and c. If a is negative, first
factor out 1
8. Factor 3x 2  7x + 2 Since c is positive and b is negative, r and s are
both negative
factors of a 1 3 13
factors of c 1 2 2 1
corresponding
1 +6 2 + 3
sum
Since, 1
1 + 3 2 = 7 the l's must go into different
3x 2  7x + 2 = (x2)(3x 1).
17
I i muLis 1
; arc used to factor special quadratics, while formulas 4 and 5 are used on the sum or
difference ol cubes (third degree polynomials).
Formula Name
1. a2 b 2 = (ab){a + b) Difference of Squares
a + 2ab + b 2 = {a + b) 2
2
Prefect Square
a  lab + b = (a  b)
2 2 2
Prefect Square
4. a3 b = (ab){a + ab + b 2
3 2
)
Difference of Cubes
5. a3 + b 3 = (a + b){a 2 ab + b 2 )
Sum of Cubes
Notice that formulas 1, 4, and 5 have only two terms while formulas 2 and 3 have three terms each.
When factoring a quadratic with three terms and the first and third terms are perfect squares, check the
middle term to see if it is 2ab, if so, then it is a perfect square. Also notice this is almost the same table
that appeared earlier in the section. In this version of the table the sums are listed first followed by the
product equivalent. In many cases, factoring techniques are combined with the special factoring
formulas.
9. Factor.
(a) x 2  8x + 16 Since x 2 and 16 are perfect squares, we check the
x 2  8x + 16 = (x  4) 2
2
(c) 9x 2 + 12x + 4 Again, since 9x and 4 are perfect squares, we check
the middle term and find: 12x = 2(3x)(2).
Factoring, we get:
9x 2 + 12x + 4 = (3x + 2)
2
8x  64
3
= (2x) 3  (4) 3
= (2x4)[(2x) 2 + (2x)(4) + (4) 2 ]
18
x
10. Factor.
(a) 8x 4  24x 3 + lSx'
J
First factor out the common factor of 2./
'':
4 3
8x  2 lx + 18x 2
2x "'(
\.r \2.r + 9)
Then factor the second factor (which is a perfect
square). So:
F. Polynomials with four terms can sometimes be factored by grouping the terms into groups of 1 and 3
terms, or 2 and 2 terms, or 3 and 1 terms.
11. Factor x
6
+ 2x 4 + 2x 2 + 4. First group into groups of two, then factor out the
common factor.
x6 + 2x 4 + 2x 2 + 4 = (x
6
+ 2x 4 )
+ (2x 2 + 4)
= 4 2
x (x + 2) + 2(x 2 + 2)
= (x 4 + 2)(x 2 + 2)
12. Factor x
4
 x 2 + 6x Grouping into groups of two terms each yields no
common factor. However, if we group
2
+ 6x 9 together and factor out 1 we get:
x  x
4 2
+ 6x  9 = x + (x + 6x  9)
4 2
x 4  (x 2  6x + 9)
x 4  (x 3) 2
2
[x (x 3)][x 2 + (x 3)]

= (x 2  x4 3)(x 2 4x 3)
19
"
A. A quotient of two algebraic expressions is called a fractional expression. We deal only with values of
the variables that do not make the denominator zero. Rational expressions are fractional expressions
where the numerator and denominator are both polynomials. We simplify fractional expressions in the
same way we simplify common fractions: First factor and then cancel common factors.
_ x+ 3
~ x+ cancel
1
The rule
a
 =
c a
 c
 is used to multiply two fractional expressions. However, before multiplying the
ab b a
numerator and denominator, first factor each expression, simplify by canceling common factors, and
then multiply the remaining factors.
x 2  2x + 1 x2 + Ax + 4
2. Multiply Factor, cancel common factors.
X z
+X
x  2x
2
+ 1 x 2
+ Ax + 4
x2  A x2 +x2
_ (x l)(x 1) (x + 2)(x + 2)
factor
" (x + 2)(x2) '
(x + 2)(x 1)
x 1
cancel
,, a c a d a
d
C. The rule r ^ = /,
 =  = is used to divide two fractional expressions. This rule is
b d _ b c b c
d
commonly referred to as "invert and multiply.
.
x2 x 6 x2 9 x6 x2  9
3. Divide
x + 4 x + 3x 
2
4 x + 4 ' x 2
+ 3x  4
x2 x  6 x2 + 3x  4 invert &
x + 4 x  2
9 multiply
(x3)(x + 2) (x + 4)(x 1)
factor
(x + 4) (x3)(x + 3)
(x + 2)(x 1)
cancel
x+ 3
x2 +x2
simplify
~ a }
 7x 2  8x x 2  9x + 8 x 3  7x 2  8x  9x + 8 x2
4. Divide
:
2  2x  15 "
x 3  9x 2 + 20x x 2  2x  15  9x 2 + 20x x3
x 3  7x 2  8x x 3  9x 2 + 20x invert &
x 2  2x  15 x 2  9x + 8 multiply
x 4  3x 3  4x 2
simplify
x2 + 2x  3
2 3x 2 3x
+ +
x4 4 x x4 (x  4)
2 3x
x4 x 4
_ 23x
x 4
21
2 x The LCD (least common denominator) of x + 3
lb) r +
x + 3 x + 5 and x + 5 is (x + 3)(x + 5).
2 X
+
x + 3 x + 5
2 (x + 5) x (x + 3)
= +
(x + 3) (x + 5) (x + 5) (x + 3)
2x+ 10 x2 + 3x
=
(x + 3)(x + 5) (x + 3)(x + 5)
x 2 + 5x + 10
(x + 3)(x + 5)
2 3
+
(x3)(x + 2) (x + 3)(x + 2)
_ 2 (x + 3)
~ (x3)(x
+ 2) (x + 3)
3 (*3)
+
(x + 3)(x + 2) (x3)
2x + 6
(x3)(x + 3)(x + 2)
3x9
(x3)(x + 3)(x + 2)
5x 3
(x3)(x + 3)(x + 2)
2 1
x2 + 4x + 4 x2 + 5x + 6
2 1
+
(x + 2)(x + 2) (x + 2)(x + 3)
2 (x + 3)
(x + 2)(x + 2) (x + 3)
1 (x + 2)
+
(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 2)
2x 6
(x + 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
x + 2
(x + 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
x  4
(x + 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
::
E. To simplify a compound fractional expression, first get a single term in the numerator and a single term
denominator, by using a common denominator.
6. Simplify
*+ l 2 + 1 2 + 1
a(9
y X y + x
 +
X X X
X2 x 2  y2
xy xy xy
2
y + x r  y2
X xy
y + x xy
X X2 y 2
(y + a xy
X (x  y)(x + y)
y
x  y
z 1 x 1 (x + 1) X X
I "+ 7
x x + 1 X X + 1 x (x + 1) (x + 1) X
7. Simplify
1)
x
x 1 x 1 (x1) x 1
2
x +1 X
+
xfx + 1) x(x + 1)
x 1
2
X +X+ 1
x(x+ 1)
x2  x 2
x 1
x2 +x+ l #
x2  x 2
x(x +1) x 1
X2 + x+ 1 (x 1)
x(x+l) (x  x 
2
2)
(x 2 + x+l) (x1)
x(x+l) (x + l)(x2)
x3  1
x(x+ l) 2
(x2)
23
Radicals are eliminated from the denominators by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by
in appropriate expression. This procedure is called rationalizing the denominator. If a fraction has a
denominator of the form A + B\/C, we may rationalize the denominator by multiplying numerator
and denominator by the conjugate radical, A  B\JC. Then by the difference of squares, we have
flv/r) (a  \/c) = A 2  B 2 C.
3 (lW2)
1  72 (lv/2) (l + V^)
3 + 3^ 3 + 3v/2
1 2
= 33\/2
V^ V^ y/l (v^>/3)
(b)
yjl+yfi V^+V^ (v/5+v/s) (>/5>/3)
_ yi53
53
153
v3 y^x
=
\/3  y/x v3 4 )/x
7 7 v/3+y^
3 i
'(73+V^)
24
.
A linear equation is a first degree equation. To solve an equation means to find all solutions (roots) of
the equation. Two equations are equivalent if they have exactly the same solutions. You go between
equivalent equations by using the two Properties of Equality:
1 You can add or subtract the same quantity to both sides of the equation.
2. You can multiply or divide both sides of the equation by the same nonzero quantity.
Remember to always check each solution in the original equation. Rational equations can be
transformed to an equivalent linear equation by multiplying both sides by the LCD (provided that the
LCD is not zero). This process can introduce extraneous solutions, so it is extremely important to
(b) 5x + 7 = x  1 5x + =x
7 1 subtract x and 7
4x = 8
x = 2 multiply by 1/4
10 + 7^ 3
3 = 3
v/
6x 4 =x subtract 6x
4 = 5x
} =*
Check:  2l()
3 6
ioli
15 30
2_ _ 2_ I
15 15 V
25
: Solve
U)
2x + 6
+
2
1
=
1
6
2x + 6 1\ (\ ,
multiply
by LCD
2x + 6
6x + I  ]6x = x simplify
3x
4x+ 12+ 3x = x
7x + 12 = x
6x = 12
x = 2 potential
solution
^ u 2 2)' + 6 1 9 1
Check:
,
, x +  = 
3(2) 2 6
1 1
_2_ , 2_
'
:: 6'1"
2
~ 6
1 1
J
x 2
+ x = x2 + 2x 3 subtract
x = 3
x = 3 potential solution
(3) ? (3) + 3
Check:
(3)  1 (3) + 1

9
= 
4 V/
26
10
(c) +2 = Since 2x  6 = 2(x  3). the LCD is 2x  6.
x 3 2x6
x + 2 10
+ 2 =
x  3 x6
x + 2 10
+ 2)(2j6) = (2x  6)
i3 2x6
10

(frfW3) + 2(2x6) 2i6
(2i 6)
2j + 4 + Ax  12 = 10
6x8= 10
6x= 18
x = 3 potential solution
ri 6
2
n 9
2(3)
10
10
6
B. We solve basic equations of the form X n = a by taking radicals of both sides. The rules applying to
radicals are:
n even a > 0: two nth roots are y/a and  y/a. a < 0: nth root does not exists.
(c) x2  8 = x2  8 =
x 2
= 8
! = ,/8 = 2y2
27
(d) lx
2
= 24 4x 2 = 24
x 2
= 6 multiply by 1/4
x = y/6
4x 2
= 24
(2x) 2
= 24
2x = v/24 = 2^/6
x = V^6
Check each answer.
(e) x 4  16 = x4  16 =
x4 = 16
x = ^/l~6 = 2
1 + 3 = y/E
X = 3 >Jl
(b) (2x  5)
3
+ 64 = (2x  5)
3
+ 64 =
(2x  5)
3
= 64
2x  5 = >/^64 = 4
2x= 1
C. To solve equations involving a fractional exponent, we first isolate the term with the fractional
exponent, then raise both sides of the equation to the reciprocal of that exponent.
28
5. Solve the equation,
(a) 3x 3/5 = 81  81 Isolate the terms
) = 27 5 / 3 = (3
3 5/ 3
)
j = 35 = 243
x 4/3
= 625 = 5
4
(
x 4/3)3/4 = 4
(5 )3/4
x = 5
3
= 125
D. In many formulas, it is often necessary to express one of the variables in terms of the others. As in
other equations in this section, we first isolate the terms involving this variable on one side of the
equation and then use one of the techniques discussed so far.
A=i(bi+bi)h A=(b +b
1
2A
=
.
bx +
.
62
L L
bi+b 2 =
2A
2A
h h
2irr = 2nrh
2 with h.
2ttrh = A  2nr
2
h =
A  2nr 2 2nr
yk
(xhy
xl vz = x . h
yk
h = x
29
Chapter 2
Coordinates and Graphs
30
Section 2.1 The Coordinate Plane
Key Ideas
A. Coordinate system.
B. Distance formula and Midpoint formula.
A. The xy coordinate system is called the rectangular coordinate system or the Cartesian coordinate
system. The plane used with this coordinate system is called the coordinate plane or the Cartesian
plane. The points are gi\en as (a coordinate, //coordinate)
B. The distance between the points l\(x\, y\) and ft(ia, //_>) is given by the formula
d(Pi,P2 )= y/faxtf + toyrf.'
The midpoint of the line segment joining Pi(xi, yi) and Po(x2, 2/2) is (
7:
2
1 ,
2
)
= v/(i)
2
+ (2)2 = yrT4
= v/(l(2))2 + (43) 2
= v/(3)
2
+ (7) 2 = v/9 + 49
= v/58
= v/(7(5)) 2 + ((6)(l)) 2
7(12)2 + (5) 2 = 7144 + 25
T69= 13
31
2 \\ hich point is closer to the origin?
la) (5,4) or (3, 3) Distance from (5, 4) to the origin is
d= ^(5  0)
2
+ (4  0)
2 = ^/25 + 16 = y/il
d= ^(3  0)
2
+ (3  0)
2 = V/9T9= v/l8
= 3/2
d= y/(7  0)
2
f (3  0)
2 = v/49 + 9 = \/56
d= y/(6  0)
2
+ (5  0)
2 = ^36 + 25 = v/oT
(c) P = (5,4)andP2 =
1
(2,l)
(5) + (2) 4 + l \ /7 5
2 '27 = I 2'2
32
Section 2.2 Graphs of Equations
Key Ideas
A. The graph of an equation.
B. Intercepts.
C. Equation of a circle.
D. Symmetry of graphs.
(x,y) :;::ifi V
.!..,..>..:.<..;..!. .;.. < .. 1 .. t . .)..;.
2 (2,9) i !: ;: i.i
1 (1,7)
(0,5)
\ .,.;..'
1 (1,3)
2 (2,1)
3 (3,1)
!!< ( .>..:......>..>..:
y (*.V)
2 7 (7,2)
1 1 (1,1)
15
1
1
1
(1,0)
(1,1)
2 7 (7,2)
3 17 (17,3)
33
B. The .rcoordmatcs of points where the graph of an equation intersects the xaxis is called the
xintercept. The ycoordinates of points where the graph of an equation intersects the yaxis is called
the j/intcrccpt
A*
xintercept The xcoordinates of the
Set y = and
points where the graph
solve for x. \ r x
intersects the xaxis.
ny
yintercept The ycoordinates of the
Set x = and
points where the graph
solve for y. \ i x
intersects the yaxis.
y = 2(0)3 = 3
So the yintercept is 3.
x  Ax  5
2
= (x  5)(x + 1) =
5 = x+ 1 =
x = 5 x = 1
So the xintercepts are 5 and 1 .
(0)
2
4(0)2(0)y = y + 5 & = y + 5 *>
V = 5
So the yintercept is 5.
x = 2(0) 2  1 * x=l
So the xintercept is 1.
= 2y
2
l *> 2y 2
= l => y = y^
So the yintercepts are tA.
34
The general equation of a circle with radius r and centered at (/;, fc) is: (x h? + (v  k) 2 = r2 .
When the center is the origin. (0, 0), this equation becomes .r
2
+ y
1
= r
J
5. Find an equation of the circle with radius 8 units Placing h = 2, A = 4, and 5 = 8, we have:
centered at (2, 4). (x2) + (y(4)) 2 =
2
82
(x  2) 2 + (y + 4) 2 = 64
6. Determine the center and the radius of the circle given Group terms by variable; complete the square.
by x 2 + y
2
+ 6x  Ay  68 = 0. x2 y + 6x  Ay  68 =
4
2
x 2 + 6x _ + y 2  Ay + _ =
j 68
x + 6x + 9 + y 2  Ay + 4 =
2
68 +9+4
(x + 3) 2 + {y 2) 2 = 81 = 92
(1) A curve is symmetric with respect to the xaxis if its equation is unchanged when y is
replaced by y.
(2) A curve is symmetric with respect to the yaxis if its equation is unchanged when x is
replaced by x.
(3) A curve is symmetric with respect to the origin if its equation is unchanged when x is
35
8 Dcierminc which kind of symmetry the graph of the Check each type of symmetry.
equations3 + 2
y  6y = 2 has. "with respect to the xaxis"
NO, since
x2 + (y)
2
 6(y) = x 2 + y 2 + 6y and
z2 + 6y 7^ x + y 6y
2 2 2
y +
"vv/7/i respect to the yaxis"
Yes, since (x) 2 + y
2
 6y = x 2 + y 2 6y = 2
Determine which kind of symmetry the graph of the Check each type of symmetry.
equation x 4 + 3y
2
= 6 has. "with respect to the xaxis"
Yes, since x 4 + 3(y)
2
= 6 <* x4 4 3y
2
= 6
is the same equation.
36
Section 2.3 Graphing Calculators and Computers
Key Ideas
A. Viewing rectangles and the domain and range.
B. Intersecting curves.
A. Calculators and computers graph by plotting points. Sometimes the points are connected by straight
lines, other times just the points are displayed. The viewing area of a calculator or computer is referred
to as the viewing rectangle. This is an \a, b] by [c, d] portion of the coordinate axis. Choosing the
appropriate viewing rectangle is one of the most important aspects of using a graphing calculator.
1. Use a graphing calculator to draw the graph of the The solutions shown below are representations of
3
2
1
3 2 1
1
12 3
2
3
4 2 2 4
2
4
2. Graph the equation below on a graphing calculator. We graph the equation y = abs(x 2  4) in the
y=\x  2
4
viewing rectangle [5, 5] by [5, 5].
4
VV 2
2
2 4
4
37
Ciraph ihe equation 9j 2 I Ay 2 = 36 using a graphing We solve for y: 9x 2 + Ay 2 = 36 <=>
:
...,.,,^....:..:.,.. : r . .
B. To determine whether two equations intersect, graph both equations in the same viewing rectangle.
First choose a relatively large viewing rectangle to obtain a global view of the graphs. Then to
investigate details you must zoom to a small viewing rectangle that shows just the details of interest.
Solutions found using a graphing calculator are only approximations. Exact solutions can only be
confirmed by substituing the answer into the original equation and verify it is a solution.
38
Do the graphs intersect in the given viewing rectangle'.'
If they do, how many points of intersection are there?
3
(a) y = x + 2x 2 , y = yjx 2 + 4; [5, 5] by (5, 5] Graphing the two equations in the viewing rectangle
[5, 5] by [5, 5], it appears that these equations
have only one point of intersection.
(b) y = x3  3x  1.5. y = 4x + 6; [10, 10] by Graphing the two equations in the viewing rectangle
[20, 20] [10, 10] by [20, 20]. It appears that these
equations have two points of intersection.
20
10
/7l0
' '20
39
(C) y = 4 j2  3. y = x 2  6x + 9; [10, 10] by Graphing the two equations in the viewing rectangle
(2, 50] [ 10, 10] by [2, 50]. It appears that these equations
have two points of intersection.
50
\ 40
We
10 5
i
V 5
40
Section 2.4 Lines
Key Ideas
A. Slope of a line.
B. Pointslope equation.
C. Slopeintercept equation.
D. Other line equations.
Slope is an extremely important concept in mathematics. Slope is a central focus in the study of
calculus. The slope of a nonvertical line that passes through the points Pi{x\,yi) and Po(x2, 2/2) is
39
or m = = t= 2
4 ~(5)
(b) P(2,5)andQ(3,4) in
32
3 (4)
(c) P(7,4)andQ(4,3)
<)
22
(d) P(5,2)andQ(3,2) m
35
Note: = is defined but
8
is not defined;
12
(e) P(4,2)andQ(4,l) m = 44 which is undefined.
41
The following is the pointslope form of the equation of the line that passes through the point
(xi, 1/1 ) and has slope m: y y\ = m(x X\). This is a formula you should learn.
Find an equation of the line that passes through the Substitute into the equation y  y\ = m(x x\]
point (2, 1) with slope 5. Sketch the line. with (xi, j/i) = (2,1) andm = \.
y(l) = i(x2)
y+l = Ux 2)
: :
:
:
'
,
,j ft
^> ^
'

3. Find an equation of the line that passes through the Substitute into the equation y  y\ = m(x  x\)
point (1,3) with slope . Sketch the with (xi , 2/1 )
= ( 1 , 3) and m = I.
y3 = (xl)
: : : : at
 >>+< !
C. The following is the slopeintercept form of the equation of a line: y = mx + b. This is a special
form of the pointslope equation, where the yintercept 6 is the point (0, b). Again, this is a formula
you should learn.
4. Find an equation of the line with slope 2 and Substituting into y = mx + 6 we get:
and yintercept 5.
y = 2x + 5
5. Find an equation of the line with slope  and Substituting into y = mx I 6 we get:
and yintercept 3.
y = x  3
42
D. The general equation of a line is the equation ax + by = c. Every line can be expressed in this form.
Vertical lines have the form x = c and have no slope. Horizontal lines have the form y = d and have
zero slope.
Find an equation of the vertical line that passes i = 2
through the point (2, 1).
3i  2y = 0.
3x  2y =
2y = 3x
V=l*
Slope m = , yintercept =
2x + by = 24.
2x + by = 24
by = 2x  24
2x  24 Remember to divide
y
5 everything by 5.
2 24 a+b o 6
y = z x~T c c c
Slope m = I, yintercept 24
5
E. Two lines are parallel if and only if they have the same slope (or both have no slope). Two lines with
slopes mi and m^ are perpendicular if and only if m\rri2 = 1, that is, their slopes are negative
reciprocals, so m =
2 . Also, horizontal lines (0 slope) are perpendicular to vertical lines (no
mi
slope).
perpendicular, or neither.
(a) 2x + 6y = 7 and x + 3y = 9 Solve each equation for y in order to put each line
into slopeintercept form.
2x + 6y =7 x + 3y =9
6y = 2x + 7 3y = x + 9
V=\ x +l y=\x + 3
Both lines have the same slope, 4, and different
yintercepts, thus they are parallel.
43
Jy = and 5x + 2y = 2 Solve each equation for y in order to put each line
into slopeintercept form.
5x 4 2y = 5x + 2y = 2
2y=5x 2y = 5x42
_ _5. y= x+l
v
Since ()
() # 1 and the slopes are not
(c) 3i  y = 10 and x 4 3y = 9 Solve each equation for y in order to put each line
into slopeintercept form.
3x y = 10 x 4 3y = 9
y=3x410 3y=x49
y = 3x  10 y = 5X + 3
1
Since 3 , the lines are perpendicular.
1/3
10. Are A{\, 7), B(7, 9), C(9, 3), and D(3, 1) the Plot the points to find their relative position.
vertices of a rectangle, or parallelogram, or neither. Find the slope of the lines passing through each
pair of points.
slope of AB= ^ = \
slope of BC = 5f = 3
slope of CD = =
\
slope of DA = 7^3 = 3
44
Chapter 3
Equations and Inequalities
45
Section 3. 1 Algebraic and Graphical Solutions of Equations
Key Ideas
A. Algebraic Method.
B. Graphical Method.
A. In the algebraic method, we use the rules of algebra to isolate x on one side of the equation.
1. Solve algebraically,
(a) 4x  24 = 4x 24 = Isolate x
4x = 24 Add 24
x = 6 Divide by 4
(b) 7x + 9 = 2x  1 7x + 9 = 2x  1 Isolate x
5x = 10 Subtract 9 and 2x
x = 2 Divide by 5
3x(x 3 =
^3x9 +
3x(x 3)

3. ;) i)
x + 2(x 3) = 2(3x)
x + 2x 6 = 
6x
3x 6 = 
6x
6 = 3x
2 = X
Check:
2 2
1
i 9
3(2)9 3(2) (2) 3
1 _2_ 9 _2_
+
15 6 ~ 5
~15 ~ 15
" ~5

15
= 
5 V/
In the graphical method, we move all terms to one side and set the expression equal to y. We then
sketch the graph of the equation and find the values of x for which y = 0. Another method is to set
each side of the equation equal to y, then sketch the graph of the equations and determine where the
graphs intersect. Solutions found using a graphing calculator are only approximations. Exact solutions
can only be confirmed by checking.
46
3. Solve the equation graphically. We graph the equation y = x3 + 3x 2  3 in the
100
80
60
40
J 5 10
y = x3 + 3  Graph
x2 + 2
We graph y = x3 + 3
xl
+ 
2
in the viewing
4 ^2/ 2 4
' 2
/
* 4
1
47
Section 3.2 Modeling with Equations
ko Ideas
A. Guidelines for solving word problems.
B. Mixture and concentrations problems.
Chicago at 70 miles per hour. When will the express Let * = the number of hours the first train travels.
overtake the slower train? Then t  2 = the number of hours the second train
travels.
per hour. When will the car overtake the bicyclist? Then * + \ = time bicyclist rides, since the bicyclist
leaves 15 minutes before the car.
Using the formula D= RT,
20(t+ \) =35*
20* + = 35*5
5 = 15*
* = ^ = 5 hours or 20 minutes.
Check:
Bicyclist: 20( + J) = 20( ) = f miles
Car: 35(1) = $ ^s y
48
3. Wanda has 75 coins. Some of the coins are quarters Here we are after the numher of quarters and the
and the rest are dimes. If the total amount is $12.90. number of dimes. We let the variable equal one
How many of each type of coin does she ha\c I of the quantities.
x = number
Let of quarters
75  x = number of dimes
75 coins total
"*"
/ value of \ _
~ 19 Qn
lzyu
^ the quarters ) \ the dimes )
0.25x + 0.10(75 x) = 12.90
Solve for x:
0.15i = 5.40
5.40
x = = 36
0.15
So Wanda has 36 quarters and 75  36 = 39 dimes.
Check:
0.25(36) + 0.10(39) = 9.00 + 3.90 = 12.90
y
B. Mixture and concentration problems are solved by relating the values of some quantity put into the
mixture with the final value of the quantity removed from the mixture. In these problems, it is helpful
to draw pictures and fill in a table like the one shown below.
Value in Value out
Type or name
%
amount
value
4. A butcher at a supermarket has 50 pounds of ground Let x = number of pounds of 15% fat ground
the
meat that contains 36% fat. How many pounds of meat added make the mixture.
to
ground meat containing 15% fat must be added to In this case, the amount of fat put into the mixture
obtain a mixture that contains 22% fat? must equal the amount of fat taken out.
Value in Value out
Type 36% fat 15% fat 22% fat
% 36% 15% 22%
amount 50 X 50 + x
value 0.36(50) 0.15x 0.22(50 + x)
49
A winef) nukes a \anci> wine that, according to the Let x = 93% Cabernet blend that is
gallons of
label, contains 95% Cabernet grape juice. Due to a removed. Then 1500  x is the gallons of the 93%
\al\e error, too much Zinfandel juice is added to the blend that remains. When 500 gallons are added, the
blend. As a result, the winery ends up with 1500 resulting blend will have 2000  x gallons
gallons of wine that now contains 93% Cabernet juice. Value in Value out
The winery has only 500 gallons of pure Cabernet Pure final
Type old blend
juice, so they remove a portion of the 93% blend Cabernet blend
and add 500 gallons of 100% pure Cabernet to reach % 93% 100% 95%
95% Cabernet concentration. How many gallons do gal. x1500 500 2000  x
they do they need to remove and replace with pure value 0.93(1500  x) 1(500) 0.95(2000  x)
Cabernet juices?  =
0.93(1500 x) + 500 0.95(2000  x)
93(1500 x) + 50, 000 = 95(2000  x)
139, 500  93x + 50, 000 = 190, 000  95x
189, 500  93x = 190, 000  95x
2x = 500
x = 250 gallons
Check:
If 250 gallons of the 93% blend are removed,
we will have 1250 gallons left, to which 500
gallons of 100% juice are added. The result will
50
Section 3.3 Quadratic Equations
Key Ideas
A. Zero factor property.
B. Completing the square.
C. Quadratic formula.
D. Modeling with quadratic equations.
A. Quadratic equations are seconddegree equations. Quadratic equations can be solved by first getting
one side equal to zero and factoring the quadratic equation. Then use the zero factor property:
ab = if and only if a = or b = 0. Refer back to Section 1 .4 for a review of factoring.
1 . Solve the equation x J
+ 3x + 2 = 0. x 2
+ 3x + 2 = factor
(x + l)(x + 2) = set each factor =
x+l=0 x + 2 = solve
x= 1 x = 2
Check:
(l) 2 + 3(l) + 2= 13 + 2 = y
(2) 2
+ 3(2) + 2 = 46 + 2 = y
Check:
(3)
2
+ 12 = 7(3) (4) + 12 =
2
7(4)
9 + 12 = 21 y 16+12 = 28
y
Check:
(3)
2
= 2(3) + 3 (l) 2 = 2(l) + 3
= + = "2 + 3
9 6 3
V 1
y
51
H Nome equations can also be solved by using the form x
2
= c, where c is a constant and c > 0, and then
taking the square root of both sides. So x = yfc.
4 Solve the equation x
2
= 9. x2 =9
x = ^/9
x = 3, that is, the solutions are x = 3 and x = 3.
x = y/6
4x 2 = 24
(2x) 2 = 24
2x = y/2A = 2y/6
x = y/6
The goal in finding the solution to a quadratic equation by completing the square is to add the
appropriate constant to make a perfect square, (x + m) 2 or (x m) 2 . Step one is to isolate the terms
involving the variables, x 2 and bx, on one side of the equation. Step two is to determine the constant
needed to add to both sides to complete the square. Since (x m) 2 = x2 2mx + m 2 , the coefficient
of the middle term, 6, must equal 2m, that is, m = ^b ; so add () to both sides.
x = 3^/b
52
8. Solve by completing the square: 4i 2 = 12x + 1 4x 2 = 12x + 1
x 2
3s  i Divide both sides by A.
2
Add = to both
3X+IJ + J (I) I
sides.
Simplify.
x
3 _
n/I0
Take
2 2
sq. root of both
sides.
y/lO
I = I
x
_
= 3/l0
2
b \/6 2  Aac
C. The quadratic formula, x , gives the roots (solutions) to the quadratic equation
2a
ax 2 + bx + c = 0. The radical, \Jb 2 Aac , is called the discriminant, D. When D > 0, the
quadratic equation has two real solutions. When D = 0, there is exactly one solution. And when
D < 0, the quadratic equation has no real solution.
9. Solve each equation by using the quadratic
formula.
(a) Ax 2  Ax  3 = Setting a = 4, b = A, c = 3 and substituting into
the quadratic formula:
b s/b 2  Aac
x =
2a
(4)y/(4) 2 4(4)(3)
2(4)
_
4y/l6+48 _
4y/64 _
48
8 8 8
53
lb) 3j  7x + 3 = Setting a = 3, 6 = 7, c = 3 and substituting into
the quadratic formula:
=
b \/b 2  Aac
x
2a
.(7) > /(7)4(3)(3)
2(3)
_
~~
7y/4936 _
7y/l3
6 6 '
74/13 7y/l3
So the solutions are x = and x =
b y/b 2  Aac
x =
2a
(20)^(20) 2 4(4)(25)
2(4)
x + 16 = x2 + 2x  8
= x2 + x  24
Setting a = 1, 6 = 1, c = 24 and substituting into
the quadratic formula:
b \/b 2  Aac
2a
2
(1) V (1) /
4(D( 24)
2(1)
i/ 1+96 _ ly/97
54
D. Applied problems often lead to quadratic equations. Review Section 3.2 for help in setting up models
from word problems.
10. Linda takes 2 hours more than Greg does to service Let t = the time it takes Greg to service the copier;
a photo copier. Together they can service the copier t + 2 = the time it takes Linda.
in 5 hours. How long does each take to service the
copier? 6 does  and Linda does
Each hour Greg of the
t t + 2
1 1 Multiply by the
+
1 t + 2 LCD: 5t(t + 2)
 + )5((! + 2)
\[
+ 27= 5
5(t + 2) + 5t = t(t + 2)
5t+\0 + 5t = t
2
+ 2t
\0t+ 10 = t
2
+ 2t
= t
2  St  10
=
b y/b 2  Aac
x
2a
(8)vV8)24(l)(10)
2(1)
55
.
II A tug tows a barge 24 miles up a river at 10 miles per Let r = the rate of the river's current.
hour and returns down the river at 12 miles per hour. Then 10  r is the true rate of the barge up river and
The entire trip take 5^ hours. What is the rate of 12 + t is the true rate of the barge down river.
the river's current? Use the distance formula and D = RT and solve for
time: T=
H
The time it takes the barge to go up the river is
24
10 r'
The time it takes the barge to go down the river is
24
12 + r"
10
24
r
+
12
24
+ r
4=n 2 2
24 24
2(10r)(12 + r) +
L0 12 + r.
11
2
J2(10r)(12 + r)
= ll(r 2
+ 2r24)
= ll(r4)(r + 6)
r4 = r + 6 =
r = 4 r = 6
r = 6 does not make sense, since it requires the river
to flow backwards.
Check: r 4
When r = 4, the rate up river is 10  4 = 6 miles per
hour, so the trip up river takes y or 4 hours.
The rate down river is 12 + 4 = 16 miles per hour,
so the trip down river takes  hours or 1 1 hours.
56
Section 3.4 Complex Numbers
Key Ideas
A. Arithmetic operations on complex numbers.
B. Dividing complex numbers, the complex conjugate.
C. Square roots of negative numbers.
D. Imaginary roots of quadratic equations.
Complex numbers are expressions of the form a + 6 i, where a and b are real numbers and i is the
imaginary number defined by the equation r = 1. The term a is called the real part and the term b
is called the imaginary part. Two complex numbers are equal if their real parts are equal and their
imaginary parts are equal. The number bi, b ^ 0, is called a pure imaginary number. You add two
complex numbers by adding the real part and adding the imaginary part. The distributive property or
the FOIL method can be used along with the identity i
2
=  1 to multiply two complex numbers.
Add or subtract.
(a) (3 + 4i)  (4  5z) (3 + 4t) (4 50 = 3 + 4i  4 + 5i
= (34) + (4 + 5)z
= 1 + 9*
2. Multiply.
(a) (2  3i)(7  5i) We use the distributive property.
57
The difference of squares product (a  bi)(a + bi) = a2  (bi)
2
= a2 + b 2 is used to simplify
fractional expressions or to divide complex numbers. The numbers a + bi and a bi are called
complex conjugates.
3 + i
4 Simplify
3 i 3z 3 ij \3 + i
2(3 + i)
_ 2(3 + i)
9  i
2 ~ 9+1
2(3 + i) _ 3M
10 " 5
or
4  3i
5. Divide 4  3i by 3 + 2z. (4  3t) + (3 + 2%)
3 + 2i
/43A 3 ~ 2^ \
(
\Z + 2i) U 2*, J
128* 9z + 6i
2
9 4i 2
12  Hi 6 6  17*
9 + 4 13
or
13
Hi
13
'
C. If r < 0, then the square roots of r, are i y/r and iy/r, where i^/r is called the principal square
root of r. Remember y/ay/b = y/ab only when a and 6 are not both negative. For example: if a
and 6 are both negative then \/ 3y^6 = v3 i
i y6 = 3y/2i 2
3y2, while
Evaluate,
(a) v^l 1 = i
58
D. In the quadratic formula, if the discriminant D= b
2
 Aac is less than 0, then there are no real
solutions to ax 2
f bx + c = 0. Both solutions will be complex and they will be complex conjugates.
7. Solve x 2 + 4x + 6 = x2 + Ax + 6 =
Setting a = 1,6 = 4, c = 6 and substituting into
the quadratic formula:
6 \/b 2  Aac
X =
2a
(4)vW4(l)
2(1)
4 \/l6  24 4 y/^8
=
2 2
= 2\/2i.
8. Solve 5x 2  6x + 5 = 5x 2  6x +5=
Setting a = 5, 6 = 6, c = 5 and substituting into
the quadratic formula:
6 y/6 2  4ac
x =
2a
(6)^(6) 2 4(5)(5)
2(5)
_ 2(3 4 1) _ 34t
~ "
10 5
or x = I  i
59
1
A. Higher degree equations are solved by getting one side equal to zero and factoring.
1 Find all solutions of the equation x
J
 Ax 1 = 5x.  4x 2
x3 = 5x Set = 0.
x  4x  5x
3 2
= Factor.
x(x 2  4x  5) =
x(x 5)(x + 1) = Set each factor = 0.
(x
2
 4)(x 2 + 4) = Factor.
(x2)(x + 2)(x 2
+ 4) = Set each factor = 0.
x2=0 x+2=0 x2 + 4 =
x = 2 x = 2 x2 = 4
x = 2i
Two real solutions are x = 2 and = 2 and the
x
two complex solutions are x = 2i and x = 2t.
B. Equations involving one radical are solved by isolating the radical on one side and then squaring both
sides. When there is more than one radical, put a radical on either side and then square both sides. It
is very important to check your solutions to these problems. Extraneous solutions are incorrect
solutions that can be introduced into a problem by squaring, for example, 3^3 but (3) = 2
( 3) 2 .
2x  7 = l
x + 18x + 81 Simplify.
= x 2 + 16x + 88 Set = 0.
2
(16) v/(16) 4(l)(88)
x
2(1)
60
= Afow a yj to
4. Find all real solutions to y/2x + ^x + 1 7. v/2x+ ,/xT\ = 7
the other side.
Isolate the
x+ = 49 1 14x/2x + 2x
1 4 v/2x = x 4 48 Square both sides.
392x = 196(2x) = x 2 + 96x + 2304
= x 2  296x + 2304
= (x  8)(x  288)
x8 = x288 =
= 8 x x = 288
Check x = 288 in the original equation.
v/2(288) + ^(288) + 1 = ^576+ v/289
= 24+17 = 41/7
Therefore, x = 288 is not a solution.
Check x = 8 in the original equation.
v/2(8~)+y(8)+l = /T6+ v/9
=4+3=7 y
So x = 8 is the only solution.
5. Find all real solutions to \j2x + 9 =x+ 4. y/2x + 9 = x + 4 Square both sides.
2
(v/2xT9) = (x + 4) 2
2x + 9 = x2 + 8x + 16 Simplify.
= x 2
+ 6x + 7
(6)y/(6) 2 4(l)(7)
x =
2(1)
6 y/36  28 _ 6 y/8
2 2
6 + 2^ 2(3 v/2) . /r
^3 + 2^/2) = 1 + ^/2
77ns u fcarc/ ro c/jecA: directly. We use the fact ifb >
a/i<i fe
2
= a, r/i^n > = y^a.
(l + >/2) =1 + 2^2 + 2 = 3 + 2^
So this solution checks.
61
( \n equation of the form aw 2 + bw + c = 0, where w is an algebraic expression, is an equation of the
quadratic type. We solve equation of the quadratic type by substituting for the algebraic expression.
6 Find all solutions of the equation x 4  3x 2 + 2 = 0. Since all variables are raised to even powers, we use
the substitution w x2 . The equation then becomes
x4 = (x 2 2  3(x 2 + 2
 3x 2 + 2 ) )
= w 2  3iu + 2
w  3 to + 2 =
2
Factor.
w2 = u;l=0
x2  2 = x2  1 =
x2 = 2 x2 = 1
x = v/2 x = 1
The four real solutions arex = l,x = l,x=iy/%
and x =  y/2.
+ 4( x +   5 = w 2 + Aw  5.
xJ v x
w 2 + Aw  5 =
(w l)(iw + 5) =
to 1 = ty + 5 =
x+ 1=0 x\ h5 = Multiply by x.
x x
x 2
+ lx = x 2
+l+ 5x =
x2 x+l = x2 + 5x+l=0
Applying the quadratic formula to x2 x+ 1 =
( 1) ^(i) 2  4(1)(1)
2(1)
zn i.
2 2
5 y/25A 5 N /21
2
= l 2
x = f + ^andx = ^.
  *fi,
x=i^i.
62
Section 3.6 Linear Inequalities
Key Ideas
A. Rules for manipulating inequalities.
B. Graphing linear inequalities.
C. Simultaneous inequalities.
A. Inequalities are statements involving the symbols < , > , > , and < . These rules should be mastered
to the point that you know what rule to use and when and how to use it.
Rules Description
If a < b, then a + c < b + c. Add/subtract same value from each sides.
If a < b and c > 0, then ac < be Multiplying each side by a positive constant maintains
the direction of the inequality sign.
If a < b and c < 0, then ac > be. Multiplying each side by a negative reverses the
direction of the inequality sign.
1 . Solve and graph the solution on the number line below. 4x 5 < 3 Add 5 to each side.
4i  5 < 3 4x < 8 Divide each sides by 4.
x < 2
012345678 <
012345678 1 1 I I I I
2. Solve and graph the solution on the number line below. 5X + 7 > 2x Add \x to each side.
3 > x
012345678 I I I I I I
012345678
3. Solve and graph the solution on the number line below. 8x < 2x  15 Subtract 2xfrom each side.
4K3
I I I I I I I I I
012345678 I 1 I I I I I
63
K. Wc solve inequalities graphically by graphing each side of the inequality in the same viewing rectangle.
We then determine where the graph of one inequality lies above the graph of the other.
4 Solve the inequality 4x  5 > 7  2x graphically. We set t/i = 4x  5 and y2 = 7  2x in the viewing
rectangle [5,5] by 10,10]. From the graph we
see that y\ > y2
when x > 2, so the
solution is (2,oo).
5. Solve the inequality ji + 7 > 2x graphically. We set y\ = x 4 7 and y2 = 2x in the viewing
rectangle [5, 5] by [10, 10]. From the graph we
see that y x > y 2
Simultaneous inequalities use the same rules as simple inequalities. Whichever inequality rule you
apply to one of the inequality expressions, you must apply to each of the other expressions. These
inequalities are also usually expressed in increasing order.
6. Solve the inequality 3 < 2x  7 < 8. 3 < 2x  7 < Add 7 to each side.
5 < x< f
7. Solve the inequality 3 < 8 + 4x < 8. 3< 8 + 4x < Subtract 8 from each side
 < x <0
8. Solve the inequality 7 < 2  3x < 11. 7 < 2 3x < 11 Subtract 2 from each side.
9 < 3x < 9 Divide by 3, reverse the
direction of the inequality sign.
64
Section 3.7 Nonlinear Inequalities
Key Ideas
A. Products and quotients.
B. Solving nonlinear inequalities.
C. Solving an inequality graphically.
D. Modeling with nonlinear inequalities.
If a product or a quotient has an odd number of negative factors, then its value is negative.
Since a factor can only change signs when it is 0, we set first set each factor equal to and determine
these points. These points determine intervals which we can check. To determine the signs of the
factors in each region we use test value, a number we choose from within each interval.
1. Solve the inequality (x  2)(x + 1) < 0. (x2)(x + 1) <0
x2 = x+ = 1
x = 2 x = 1
Interval (0O.1) (1,2) (2,oo)
Test value 2 3
Sign of x  2 +
Sign of x + 1 + +
Sign of
+  +
(x2)(x+l)
Since we want the interval where the product is
x 5
2. Solve the inequality > 0. >0
x + 7
x 5 = x + 7 =
x = 5 x = 7
Interval (00,7) 7,5) (5,oo)
Test value 10 10
Sign of x 5
Sign of x I 7 +
x 5
Sign of
x + 7
Since we want the interval where the quotient is
65
B. These steps are used to solve inequalities that are not linear.
Move all term to one side of the inequality sign. If the nonzero side of the inequality involves
quotients, bring them to a common dominator.
Factor the nonzero side of the inequality.
List the intervals determined by the factorization.
Make a table or diagram of the signs of each factor on each interval. In the last row of the table
we determine the sign of the product (or quotient) of these factors.
Determine the solution set from the last row of the table. Be sure to check whether the
inequality is satisfied by some or all of the endpoints of the intervals (only necessary when <
and > are involved).
2x 2x
4. Solve the inequality >0. >0
x2 + l x2 + l
2x = & x =
Since x 2 + 1 ^ 0, this does not factor any further.
Interval (oo.O) (O.oo)
Test value 1 1
Sign of 2x
Sign of x 2 + 1 +
2x
Sign of
x2 + l
66
1
(3x)(3 + x)
< & x
<0
x = 3 +x= x =
3 = x x = 3
Interval (00,3) (3,0) (0,3) (3,oo)
Test value 5 1 1 5
Sign of 3 i + + +
Sign of 3 +x + + +
Sign nl .r + +
Sign of
9 i 2 +  + 
i
Since the inequality included the equality, we first
[3,0)U[3,oo).
4 3
6. Solve the inequality > > <^> >0
x 1 x 4 x 14 x x x 4
4(x4) 3(x 1)
>0
(xl)(x4) (x4)(xl)
4x  16  3x + 3 x 13
> < >0
(x l)(x4) (x l)(x4)
x 13 = x = 1 x4 =
x= 13 x= 1 x = 4
67
3
x 2  11 x2  11
7. Solve the inequality
x + 1
< 1.
X+ l
<
"" 1
X+l
 1 <0 &
A/ov a// terms to one side.
x
2  11 x+l X' x 12
<0 <0
x+l x+l x+l
Get a common denominator, simplify, and factor.
(x4)(x + 3)
<0
x+ 1
x4 = x + 3 = x+ 1
x = 4 x = X 1
Interval (co, 3) (3,1) (1,4) (4,oo)
Test value 5 2 5
Sign of x  4 +
Sign of x + 3  + + +
Sign of x + 1 + +
Sign of
x2 x 12  +  +
x + 1
C. As in linear inequalities, we solve inequalities graphically by graphing each side of the inequality in the
same viewing rectangle. We determine which graph goes with which equation by evaluating each
equation at an x value. Then determine where the graph of one equation lies above the graph of the
other.
2/i< V2 when
x > 1. So the
solution is(l,oo).
68
9. Solve the inequality \/x 2 + 2x + 4 > \/2x 2 + 1 We set yi = y/x 2 + 2x + 4 and y2 = \/2x 2 + 1
so the solution is
[1,3].
2
O.Olx + 4x + 800
ft and 2/2 = 12 and graph
69
Section 3.8 Absolute Value
Kcj Ideas
A. Properties of absolute value inequalities.
A. Equations involving absolute values are solved using the property x = c is equivalent to i = c. To
BOlve inequalities that involve absolute value we use the following properties.
c<x<c 0
1. x < c < c
x < c or c < x
1
3. x > c
c
1
4. x c c 1
c c
1. Solve x + 61 = x + 6 = 8 or x + 6 = 8
x = 2 x = 14
7 < 3x + 5 < 7
12 < 3x < 2
4 < x < 1
4 o 1
+ I
2
70
4. Solve > 2 and graph the solution. > a
2x+ 1 2x+ 1
3
> 2
2x+ 1
3 > 22x + 1
2x+ 1 < I
 < 2x < 
f<*<i
However, is not defined for x = j.
2x+ 1
71
1
Chapter 4
Functions
72
Section 4.1 What is a Function?
Key Ideas
A. Functions.
B. Domains and ranges
A. A function / is a rule that assigns to each element x in a set A exactly one element, called f(x), in a
set B. That is, x G A and f(x) B. Set A is called the domain and set B is called the range. "f(x)
is read as "/ of x" or "/ at x" and represents the value of / at x, or the image of x under /. Since
f(x) depends on the value x, f(x) is the called the dependent variable and x is called the
independent variable.
Express the rule in functional notation.
1 + 6
(a) Add 6 then divide the sum by 5. /(.r) =
3(0)
2
+ (0) 00
=
/(0)
2(0) .I
73
It not explicitly stated, the domain of a function is the set of all real numbers for which the function
makes sense and defines a real number. The domain is The range is the set
the 'input' to the function.
of all possible values, f(x), as x varies throughout the domain of /. The range is sometimes called the
image, because it is the "image of x under the rule /." The range depends on the domain, so the range
is referred to as the dependent variable. The range is the 'output' of the function.
4
Find the domain of the function f(x) = The only values of x which / does not make
for
x + 2
when
sense occur thedenominator is 0, that is, when
x + 2 = 0orx = 2. So the domain of / is
(oo, 2) U (2, oo). The domain can also be
expressed as: {x x  ^ 2} or x ^ 2.
4. Find the domain of the function f(x) = Again, the only values of x for which / does not
x3 25x
make sense occur when the denominator is 0.
x 3  25x = Factor.
x(x  5)(x + 5) =
x=0 x  5 = x+5=0
x =5 x = 5
Domain is {x x ^ 5, x x ^ 5}.
 ^ 0,
The domain can also be expressed as:
(oo, 5) U (5, 0) U (0, 5) U (5, oo).
5. Find the domain of the function f(x) = \/x 2 4. We are looking for the values of x for which the
function makes sense and defines a real number.
Since we can only find the square root of a
nonnegative number, using the methods from
Chapter 3, we have
x  4
2
>
(x2)(x + 2)>0
Interval (00,2) (2,2) (2,oo)
Test value 5 5
Sign of x  2 +
Signofx + 2 + +
Sign of x 2 4 +  +
Since the inequality includes the equality, we check
the endpoints of the intervals and see that both
x = 2 and x = 2 are acceptable as input values.
Thus the domain is (co, 2] U [2, oo).
74
Section 4.2 Graphs of Functions
Key Ideas
A. Graphs of linear functions and other functions.
B. Piecewise defined functions.
C. Vertical line test.
means, the graph of / is all the points (x, y) where y = f(x) and x is in the domain of /. A function
defined by f(x) = mx + b is called a linear function because the graph of the equation y = mx + 6 is
1 . Iff(x) = 3x + 1 find the domain and range of / This is a linear function with slope 3 and
and sketch the graph of /. yintercept 1. Generate some points and plot.
ft .. , ...
j j j \ i ; i i I
ji
f
i
: : : 1 : : i^.
:: i
>> :
2. If f(x) = \j2x + 1 find the domain and range of / This is not a linear function. We need to find the
and sketch the graph of /. domain before we can generate points to plot.
x > 2 1
1
3
2
2
4 3
i.:.i.;.. i .lli.i.;..:.. H .:
4.. j.. ,..;..
L
Hr^E
..j...j..i..;..;..j. .\.
75
; It f(x) = 1 find the domain and range of/ This is a constant function, so every input value
and sketch the graph of /. gives the same output value, in this case 4.
:
">*
.;..;..; .., ..;. .
j..
B. A function is called piecewise defined if it is defined differently for distinct intervals of its domain.
Jx+1 ifx<
;W "\2x + 2
l ifx> 0.
5 i
e i .y.<..j..j...4j"
7
y/ .: ; : :
; j ft
i.;..j..:.^. f .:..:..i.4.i
 *i
".': !';:::
. ; .   . .
*
76
The Vertical Line Test states that "a curve in the is the graph of a function if and only if no
plane
vertical line intersects the curve more than once." works because a function defines a unique value,
It
/(a), so if a vertical line, z = a, intersects a graph in more than one place the value of /(a) is not
unique. The vertical line test is a very easy test to apply.
.,..,..,
77
Section 4.3 Applied Functions: Variation
Kcj Ideas
A. Direct variation.
B. Inverse variation.
C. Joint variation.
A mathematical model is a function that describes, at least approximately, the dependence of one
physical quantity on another physical quantity. In the direct variation model, y is directly
proportional to x if x and y are related by the equation y kx for some constant k / 0. The
constant k is called the constant of proportionality.
Federal excise tax on gasoline is 130 per gallon. Federal excise tax on gasoline is 13tf per gallon.
Wnte an equation that directly relates the tax as Since tax is 13# per gallon we have T= 0.\3g.
a function of gallons. Here 0.13 is the constant of proportionality.
(a) If the can is 12.5 cm tall and contains 355 ml when Let h = height of the can, V= volume of the can,
full, determine the constant of proportionality and and k be the constant of proportionality.
write the equation for the variation. V = kh
When h = 12.5, V= 355. Substituting we have
355 = 12.5/fc <=> k = 28.4
Thus the model is V= 28.4/i.
(b) How much is left in the can when the liquid is Setting h = 3 in the equation yields
3 cm deep? V= 28.4/i
= 28.4(3) = 85.2 ml.
(c) How deep is the liquid when there is 300 ml left? Setting V = 300 and solving for h yields
V = 28.4/i
300 = 28.4/i
10.56 cm = h.
78
B. In another model, y is inversely proportional to x if x and 1/ are related by the equation y =  for
x
some constant A: ^ 0.
3. Write an equation that relates the width to Let id = width and let / = length.
the length of all rectangles whose area is Since A= wl we have
4 square units. 4
A = wl & w=
/
C. If one quantity is proportional to two or more quantities, we call this relationship, jointly proportional
if x, y, and z are related by the equation z kxy for some constant k ^ 0.
4. Glulam beams are long beams used in construction.
(a) Write an equation that directly relates the volume Let V = the volume of wood (ft
3
);
of the wood used to the length and width of the / = length (in ft) and w= width (in ft).
V = \lw
(b) How much wood is in a 2 foot wide, 50 foot long Substituting w= 2 and / = 50 we find
glulam beam. V= \lw = (50)(2) = 2
f ft
3
w 66.7 ft
3
.
79
Section 4.4 Average Rate of Change: Increasing and Decreasing Functions
Key Ideas
A. Average rate of change.
B. Increasing and decreasing functions.
A. The average rate of change of the function y = f(x) between x = a and x b is:
= ; =
change in x b
;
a
The average rate of change is the slope of the secant line that joins the points (a, f{a)) and (6, f(b)).
133 10
3 + 1
(9 9) (31)
0_(_ 4) 4
=
4 4
(1 1) 1( h 1) 00
=
80
2. A graph a function is given. Determine the average
rate of change of the function between the indicated
values of the variable.
We use the points (3, 0) and (0, 6).
average rate _

60 _ 6 _
~~
~~
of change  (3) 3
B. Graphs of functions are described by what the function does as x increases over an interval in the
domain.
A function / is called increasing on an interval / if f{x\) < /(X2) whenever x\ < i 2 in /.
A function / is called decreasing on an interval / if f{x\) > /(X2) whenever xi < x<i in /.
3. State the intervals in which the function whose
graph is shown below is increasing or decreasing.
10 5
81
Section 4.5 Transformations of Functions
ke> Ideas
A. Verticil shifts of graphs.
B. Horizontal shifts of graphs.
C. Vertical stretching, shrinking, and reflecting.
D. Horizontal stretching, shrinking, and reflecting.
E. Symmetry, odd, and even functions.
When c > 0, the equation y = f(x) +c moves the graph of y f(x) vertically c units up, and the
equation y = f(x)  c moves the graph of y = f(x) vertically c units down.
1 Graph the functions f(x) = x and g(x)
3
= x3 + 4 First graph /(x) = x3 . Then graph g(x) = x3 + 4
on the same coordinate axis. by translating the graph of / up 4 units.
2. Graph the functions f(x) = x and g(x) = x  2 First graph /(x) = x. Then graph g(x) = x  2
on the same coordinate axis. by translating the graph of / down 2 units.
 t V
. .
:..:..:..:..:.. ..:.;..;..:..:..:..
.............:...._
rf::
:::::: >,
........._.......... ....................
. ..(..>.. :../.....).. 
c . : ; > :
B. When c > 0, the equation y = f(x  c) moves the graph of y = f(x) horizontally c units to the right,
and the equation y = f(x + c) moves the graph of y f(x) horizontally c units to the left.
82
3. Let /(x) = x2 . Evaluate the functions f{x  3) and f(x  3) = (x  3)2 = x 2  6x + 9
f(x + 2). Sketch all three on the same coordinate axis. moves f(x) right 3 units.
/(j + 2) = (x + 2)2 = x 2 + 4x + 4
moves /(x) left 2 units.
. f{*) i
J jFUrf)
l
f(x + 2)\ \
<<> ,
A /.
>>
.;..;... \ A .
/
y
!!>::.;
vx
.,..;..;. ..>.;...
.j,
..:
r i?
easier to graph using the
horizontal shifts. i ;
^^
,
......_..........
!
J/>
<
T**
 1
*

*5
.............
......_.......... 
.;..;..:..;..;..;..
i
.,..;. ..;...;..,..,..
C. For c > 1, cf(x) stretches the graph of y f(x) vertically by a factor of c. For
the equation y
< c < 1, = cf(x) shrinks the graph of y = f(x) vertically by a factor of c. And
the equation y
3/W /(*)
E
c i i
5 :
i >::: ii >: : i !>< : iiiv
~~ **
\
<'..! '}':<   i
>::<< 
*/W x
'
83
: 
6 let f(x) m yfi 1. Find 2/(x) and 2f{x). 2/(x) = 2(^/1 1) =2^2
Scfa all three graphs on the same coordinate axis.
= 2(y/x 1) = 2yx" +
2/(x) 2
.
.J..;..!..;..;..;.. ;..;....;.
>:!)!>:<
trr :
>> >:
a . i
4/w /w * /
k*..: .:.i. :..:..:..;...;.
.:..:..:.
.;..;..;..;..,..;..;..;..;...;..
:..; .....;
.:.~ :..:..:..:..;.
:< ;..;..;.....,.;.
>:: !} : : :!;>::
 c   i
1   i :
   : 
>
j ; 1 i :
.:..;..;. ;.i.;..;..:.;.;. ..;.; A.2. i..;..:..:.i..i.
;  j >:; ;  ;  i >,  ..;.., ; : ;..;..,..;..;..;.
*
 1
* ......
'
'
8. Let/(x) Find
" the functions" \f(x) and
x2 + l
2 
>*(?tt) 2(x 2 + 1)
2/(x). Sketch all three graphs on the same 10
2/(x) = 2,
coordinate axis. 1
x2 + 1 / x2 + 1
. . . ;..;..;..U.?s
84
1
D. For c > 1, the equation y = f(cx) shrinks the graph of y = /(x) horizontally by a factor of . For
c
< c < 1, the equation y = f{cx) stretches the graph of y = f(x) horizontally by a factor of  And
c
y = f{x) reflects the graph of y  f(x) about the yaxis.
A'
/(3jf)
: M
i :
? i i i : .
i :
'
, i : :
ii.i.ii ..j.
I i>:  <
10. Let f(x) = x 2 + x. Find f(2x) and /(x). Sketch all /(2x) = (2x) 2 + 2x= 4x 2 + 2x
three graphs on the same coordinate axis.
/(x) = (x) 2 + (x) = x 2  X
<S

Am frfW. .
':"*"!"("?":"!'
;:
:
.>..j.., ..i.. !..>..>.....
~
..;..>:<!; ..iii
~ri*5
1 11
: <(
,..'>..;..<.
!> :'.
.>. .;.. J., j.. ;.. >.. >. ;....;..;.. >..;..;..;..;.. >..;..<.
j j
i::il f'f*i"i
85
I Symmetry often helps in graphing a function. An even function / is a function for which
f(x) = f{x) for all x in its domain. The graph of an even function is symmetric about the t/axis.
An odd function / is a function for which f{x) = }{x) for all x in its domain. The graph of an
odd function is symmetric about the origin. Before graphing, quickly check to see if the function is
:
.
T .:..:..:J^.:..:..:..:.. : r . .
8x 8x
(b) f{x) = /(*) =
x 2
+ l x 2
+ l
8(x) 8x 8x
f(x) =
(x) 2 + 1 x2 + 1 x2 + l
l*l"+*4l
;
^ :< j  1 
>  > 
86
.
1
i* .
.........
.
I i^4. h ..j.4j
i i i i i < ...... ^
...J.. >.<.."
*.......... .....................
/(x) = 3
(x)  (x)  8(x) 2
+ 4
= x  x + 8x + 4
3 2
And /(x) = x 3 + x 2 + 8x  4.
44 4tf
>!<
.
iii. .iii..
 < iii i
ii.; !  ';: if
*.
15
i i.i.i.
.;..;..;.. ..;..;..;.. ( ..1..;..; ..;.. iii
< iii
**
.....
"i "i"!'
,
..1.;. :
87
d ' J
:
E
i *>: : !! >:: j !> ::
.;..;..;.. 1.. .;..;..j. :::  3

_
'?":'"i'
'".'"'_>* 1
: ..i.i.fs
\ 1
.;..;..j..:..;.L..;. ..;..;...;..
..;..;..;.
Li../.
j\
r . ; . ..;..:..:..:. i. y .. ,. _ .
i
 : t 
i   i   j 
: :    i   i  >  ;    i   i   j  :  :
(:
'}":"i"i"!"f"'\'f
..j. .;..;... ;..i.ij. .j..;..;..;
r~'V.":":'~'v
........... : ..;
88
. 4 J
= 2(.r
:,,.+ J)  2()
= 2(xi) 2 7
i.i.i.. ;..;..
' : ' ; ! ' ; i ! ; ; :
i r :i i ,
>:<((>!<   i   i
 5  i  <  i
B. When a > 0, the parabola (quadratic function), f(x) = a(x  h) 2 + k, opens up. The lowest point is
the vertex (h, k), so the minimum value of the function occurs when x h, and this minimum value is
= (x
2
45x4?)44f
,2 9
= (x4r 4
Minimum value of 1 at x = 1
To find the xiniercepts set f= and solve.
f(x) = x 2 4 5x 4 4 =
(x4l)(x4 4) =
i+l=0 i+4=0
x = 1 x =
xintercepts: 1 and 4
To find the y intercept evaluate /(0).
yintercept: /(0) = 4
> i
I
: E i i i
_.
i
..i..>.. >..:..<.. !}> ...<.
:
*5
89
(b) f(r) = 3x 2 6x + 4 /(x) = 3x 2  6x + 4 = 3(x 2  2x) + 4
= 3(x 2
2x + l) + 43(l)
2
= 3(x 1) + 1
Minimum value of 1 at x = 1.
Since /(x) = 3(x  l)
2
+ 1 and since the sum of two
squares does not factor, there are no xintercepts.
yintercept: /(0) = 4
y
t \
s E  >:
i > ]> >:: {[} :; ((> :!( i >: :! i ;/>:; < >; : :
! * v : ! ;
_
i
::.:

'^
!;>::> .1.1:..;. ...{..(..;..>..;..<.
3
r
S i
> i
: E
i i :  :! ';>: : t **<  >+
xintercepts: and 
Don't forget x = 0.
yintercept: /(0) =
j\
y .
>;:<>: :    i   >  ; :
:  
i
  i   i  :  :
90
^
= 5(x+l) 2 + 6
i
I
CJ >
>
: :
i >>:< ii ><< ii >:< (!
ffv'!"!"f'f
j
(1.6).
*
>:!>::
> >:<! >:
>*< j
"}'4"f* "i"l" 4* t'i"l"l* 4't'f
**> "i"j't"t" l"l"t*t"i"!"l"f"i"i*
II  > : :  < !>< : :
 . ; s
* :
 . .
... ..
>:< ii 4 :: i>;:ct>:  1   1 >: ^  1  1  >. :  : ii :  : <
i : 
c

3. A farmer wants to enclose a rectangular field on three First make a drawing and label the sides.
sides by a fence and divide it into two smaller y
rectangular fields by a fence perpendicular to the
second side. He has 3000 yards of fencing. Find the
dimension of the field so that the total enclosed area
is a maximum. Equating the fencing material, we have the equation
3x y = 3000. We want to maximize the area
4
A = 3(x 2  lOOOx)
= 3(x 2  lOOOx + 250, 000) + 750, 000
_ 3(:r500) 2 +
750,000
So A is a maximum of 750, 000 sq. yds when
x = 500 yds and y = 3000  3(500) = 1500 yds.
91
A point a is called a localmaximum of the function / if /(a) > f(x) for all x in some interval
containing a. Likewise, a local minimum of the function / is a point a where f(a) < f(x) for all x in
sonic interval containing a. When using a graphing device, these local extreme values can be found by
looking tor the highest (or lowest) point within a viewing rectangle.
Find the approximate local maximum and minimum
values of f(x) = x 3  2x + 4. Local minimum: y w 2.91 1 at x 0.816
[0,1] by [2.5, 3]
5.4
5.3
1,0.5] by [5,5.5]
5.2
5.1
5
1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5
No local maximum.
10
tf
[12, 12] by [10, 10] 10 5 i 5 10
f\
92
Section 4.7 Combining Functions
Key Ideas
A. Sum of functions.
B. Difference of functions.
C. Product of functions.
D. Quotient of functions.
E. Composition of functions
A. Let f(x) be a function with domain A and let g(x) be a function with domain B. Then the sum of the
functions / and g is (/ + g){x) = f{x) + g(x) where the domain is An B.
1 Let f{x) = Sx + 3 and g{x) = x2  4. Find f + g (/ + <?)(') = /(*) + <?(*)
and find its domain. = (8x + 3) + (i 2  4)
= x2 + 8x  1
Domain: Since the domain for both / and g is the
numbers.
numbers.
3. Let f(x) = y/x + 3 and g(x) = \/9 Find (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x)
[3,oo).
93
B. Lei f(x) be a function with domain A and let g(x) be a function with domain B. Then the difference
:hc functions / and g is (/  g)(x) = f(x)  g(x) where the domain is A(l B.
4 Let f{x) = \fx 2  1 and g(x) = \/\6x 2 . Find (/  9)(x) = f {x)  g (x)
/  g and it domain.  1  V^16  x 2
= yjx 2
Domain of /: x  1 > =>
2
(oo,l]u[l,oo).
Domain of g: 16  x 2 > <^>
Domain of / g is
2 1
5. Let f(x) = and g(x) = . Find (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x)
x 3 x + 5
2 1
/  g and it domain.
x 3 x + 5
Domain of /: x  3 ^ <=> x ^ 3
Domain of g: x + 5^0 => x^5
Domain of /  g is {x x  ^ 3 or x ^ 5}.
Domain of g: i 2  4 /
(x2)(x + 2)^0 = x^2
Domain of / pis {x x / 2}.
C. Let f(x) be a function with domain A and let #(x) be a function with domain B. Then the product of
the functions / and g is (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x) where the domain is A D B.
2
7 Let f{x) = x + 2andg(x) =  4. Find (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x)
x+ 1
2x + 4
4x8
x+ 1
94
Let /(x)  y/x + 12 and g(x) = y/x  5. Find (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x)
fg and it domain.
= (>
/i+12)( > /i5)
= ^(i+ 12)(x5) = v/x 2 + 7x  60
Domain of /: x + 12 > o x>12or
[12,oo).
Domain of g: x5>0 <= x > 5 or (5,oo).
D. Let f(x) be a function with domain A and let g(x) be a function with domain B. Then the quotient of
ff\
(x) = f(x)
j, where the domain {x AD
the functions / and g is I is 
y(x) 7^ 0}.
or [l,oo).
9
[l,2)U(2 l
oo).
/(g) _ x2 4
(b) Find and find its domain.
9(x) y/x 1
95
.
_ x +
2
f(x) 9
nd  and find its domain
x2  9
I
g(x)
Domain of numerator: all real numbers.
Domain of denominator: x 2  9 # =>
E. Given two functions / and g, the composition function fog is defined by (fog)(x) = f(g(x)). We
sometimes say that fog is '/ acting on g{x)\ in other words, x is the input to g and g(x) is the input to
/. The domain of fog is that subset of the domain of g where g(x) is in the domain of /. Another way
of saying this is that the domain of fog is those points where both g(x) and f(g(x)) are defined.
(a) Find fog and find its domain. (fog)(x) = f (g(x)) + 9) = f(x
= v/(x + 9) 10= y/x 1
= y/x 10 + 9
Domain: x  10 > <^> x > 10 or [10, oo).
12. Let/(x)
v
= 4andleto(x)
yv
= .
'
x '
x +A
1
(a) Find fog and find its domain. (fog)(x) = f(g(x)) = /
x + A
1
1
4=x+44=x
x+4
+ 4^0
Domain: x <=> x / 4 or
{xx^4}.
1
AW; is never 0.
x + 4
(b) Find gof and find its domain. (9of)(x) = g(f(x)) = f(A
x
=
T =x
xi
 4 +4 
x
Domain: x ^ or {x 
x ^ 0}.
96
13. Let /(x) = \/x 2 + x + 1 and let g{x) = x2  1.
and since x 4
 x + 2
1 = (x 2
 j) +  (by
= (v/x 2 + x+l)  1
_ .2
X^ + X + 1  1 See no/e below.
Domain: Since x 2 + x + 1 = (x + ^) + ,
x 2
+ x + 1 > 0. So the domain is all real numbers.
(v/z 2 + x+ l) = x2 + x + l.
97
3
\. A function with domain A is called a onetoone function if no two elements of A have the same
image; that is, f(x\ ) ^ /(X2) whenever x\ ^ xi Another way of stating this is, "If f(x\ ) = ffa),
then xi X2" One test for determining when a function is onetoone is called the horizontal line
test which states that a function is onetoone if and only if no horizontal line intersects its graph more
than once. Care must be taken to avoid some common errors in algebraically showing a function is
onetoone. While it is true that a ^ b implies that a +c 7^ b + c, it is not true that a/fe and c^d
implies that a +c/ & + rf.
x2 + 2x  3 = (x  l)(x + 3) =
x 1 = x+3=0
x = 1 x =
So, /(l) = /( 3) = 0, thus / is not onetoone.
Since f(x) = (x l) 4 (found by completing
2
I
98
/
B. Let / be a onetoone function with domain A and range B. Then its inverse function f~
l
has
domain B and range A and is defined by
f~
l
{y) =x ^ f( x ) = V for any y in B.
_1
It is a common mistake to think of the 1 in / as an exponent: f~
l
(x) ^
3. Suppose / is onetoone and /(0) = 3, /(l) = 4,
_1
(a) Find/" 1
(3). / (3) = since /(0) = 3.
_1
(b) Find/ 1
(4). / (4) = lsince/(l) = 4.
C. If / is a onetoone function, then we find the inverse function by the following procedure.
1. Write y = f{x).
2. Solve this equation for x in terms of y (if possible).
_1
What is the domain and range of / ? y
2
= 2x  1 Square both sides.
y
2
+ 1 = 2x
2
y + i
x = \y
2
+ \
_ 1 _2 __ 1
Interchange x and y.
r\x) 1^2
Domain of/ l
( = range of /): [0,oo)
_1
Range of ( = domain of /): [5,00)
99
3x 1 3x 1
S Find the inverse function of /(x) =
2 + x * 2 + x
What i> the domain and range of / 19 j/(2+ x) = 3x  1
2y+l
J/3
2x + 1
y= x o
Interchange x and y.
3
nw 2l +
x 3
1
_1
Domain of / ( = range of /): {x x  # 3}.
1
Range of / ( = domain of /): {y\y 2}. ^
Note: Here it is easier to find the domain of f in
order to find the range of f~ x .
_1
I). Even though we might not be able formula for /
to find the we can still find the graph of f~ l The
, .
graph of f~ l
is obtained by reflecting the graph of / about the line y = x. The important thing here is
_1
that (a, b) is a point on the graph of / if and only if (6, a) is a point on the graph of / .
(a)
:
r
...^...;....^^,:.....::
*/ ^
I >: i
>'.
(b)
. My ,....; ;
;.....;.
yi f i
i
f"f
V s
100
1
Chapter 5
Polynomials and Rational Functions
101
ion 5.1 Polynomial Functions and Their Graphs
Ki> Ideas
\. 1V1\ normal functions.
B. Graphs ot polynomials.
C. End behavior of polynomials.
D. Zeros of Polynomials.
I . Intermediate Value Theorem for polynomials.
and the leading coefficient, a n are important in factoring polynomials and finding zeros. The
,
Constant coefficient:
Note: Even though no constant term is shown,
it is understood to be zero.
Constant coefficient: 17
B. The graph of a polynomial is always a smooth curve that has no breaks or sharp corners. The graphs of
polynomials of degree and degree 1 are lines and graphs of polynomials of degree 2 are parabolas.
Polynomials with only one term are called monomials.
102
2. Sketch the graph of the function by translating the
graph of an appropriate function of the form y = jn .
(a) P{x) = \x 2 This is a reflection about the xaxis and shrinking of
the parabola y = x2 .
_
>:!!;;: i i i
<< i > . > i . <
>:;( [ > ;
i >!: iii j :<
.>....<..;.. ';..>..;...:.. ..j. .)><.<<..
;: i i I ..;....<.... i .
.
. .. .
i . ;. .
i . . j
i  j.  : 
..';. .. .
<
.
fS r
:#>:<;.:>:<
>: ;> ; :
i:
i ;
: ii:I : !(>: :(! >::)  i
!::! tt>: c
C. The end behavior of a function is what happens to the values of the function as x becomes large. We
use the following notation:
x * oo means "x becomes large in the positive direction"
103
n even n odd
x oo y oo x oo y > oo
a >
x oo > y * oo x oo y oo
x oo > y oo x oo y oo
>
a<0 x oo
* y oo x oo > y oo
Use a large viewing rectangle when using a graphing device to find the end behavior. Be sure to verify
that what you see agrees with the degree of the polynomial.
3. Describe the end behavior of each polynomial. Since we are only interested in the end behavior,
use a large viewing rectangle.
(b) Q(x) = O.lx 8 + 5x 7 + x + 10 Since the degree of Q(x) is 8, we know that both
as x oo
20 10 10 20
y oo, and
x oo as y
> * oo.
100 This is different
than what the rules
tells us. However,
400 if we increase the
200 viewing rectangle to
x oo we have
D. The graph of the polynomial y = P(x) touches or crosses the xaxis at the point c if and only if
104
Sketch the graph of the polynomial P(x) = 4x 2  ^4
x
4. Start by finding the zeros of P(x) by factoring.
This polynomial is easy to factor.
P(x) = 4x 2  x 4 = x 2 (4  x 2 )
= x 2 (2x)(2 + x)
x2 = 2x = 2 + x =
x = 2 = x x = 2
Thus the xinterccpts are x = 0, x = 2, and x = 2.
Since P(0) = 0, the yintercept is y = 0.
Find some additional points and sketch.
ny t\*..:....: ! :......
i
*5 ; 1  ;
>*
>: ! ><
5. Sketch the graph of the polynomial Set each factor equal to zero to find the xintercepts.
P(x) = (x2)(x+l) 2 . P(x) = (x2)(x+l) 2
x2=0 x+l=0
x = 2 x = 1
Thus the xintercepts are x = 2 and x = 1.
Since P(0) = (2)(1)
2
= 2, the yintercept is
y = 2.
Find some additional points and sketch.
Af:..:........: :....:.
i
*5
^ *i
\
105
kttch the graph of the polynomial Set each factor equal to zero to find the xintercepts.
::t>: :

:
 rfs
The Intermediate Value Theorem for Polynomials P is a polynomial function and P(a) states that if
and P(6) have opposite signs, then there exists one value c between a and b for which at least
P(c) = 0. Between successive zeros, the values of the polynomial are either all positive or all
negative. To sketch the graph of y = P{x), we first find all the zeros of P. Then choose test points
between two successive zeros of the graph to determine the sign of P{x). When P(x) is negative, the
graph of y = P(x) is below the xaxis. When P(x) is positive, the graph of y = P(x) is above the x
axis. If c is a zero of P(x), and the corresponding factor (x c)
m occurs exactly m times in the
factorization of P(x), then the graph crosses the xaxis at c when m is odd and does not the xaxis
when 77i is even.
7. Sketch the graph of the polynomial P(x) = (x2) 3 (x + l)
2
.....  
< >
i a :
.
i
:.:.
rr'i"
r
t
I f
'"":"?'"'
106
8. Sketch the graph of the polynomial P(x) = x 2 (x+l)(x3)
P(x) = x 2 (x+l)(x3). x2 = x + 1 = x3 =
x = x=l x = 3
The xintercepts are x = 0, x = 1, and x = 3.
P(0) = (0)
2
(l)(3) = 0, the yintercept is y = 0.
,.<r
' 
I..;..;.....;., i
. .j .;.... ; ..;. .1 ..;..;..;.....;..;.. ;.
F. The points at which the graph of a function changes from increasing to decreasing or from decreasing
to increasing are called local extrema. Calculus tells us that a polynomial of degree n can have at
most n 1 local extrema. A local extremum is a local maximum when it is the highest point within
some viewing rectangle and a local minimum when it is the lowest point within some viewing
rectangle.
9. Graph the following polynomials using a gTaphing Pick a large viewing rectangle to make sure you find
device. Determine the yintercept and approximate all local extrema. Then reduce the size of the
the xintercepts. Also approximate the coordinates viewing rectangle to find the values to the
of all local extrema to 2 decimal places. nearest hundredth.
15
\
10
\
4 2
\ 2
5 r
10
15
107
ib) R(x) 0.1x 5 + 2x 3  12x3 yintercept: 3
xintercepts: 0.25
local maximum: (1.59,9.06) and (3.08, 9.24)
local minimum: (3.08,3.24) and (1.59, 15.06)
[5, 5] by [20, 20]
20
\
4 2 > 2 4
10
20
IOC
Section 5.2 Dividing Polynomials
Key Ideas
A. Division Algorithm.
B. Synthetic division. Remainder Theorem, and Factor Theorem.
Long division for polynomials is a process similar to division for numbers. The terminology of
division is as follows. The divisor is divided into the quantity called the dividend. The result is called
the quotient and what is left over is the remainder. A very useful algorithm is the Division
Algorithm. If P(x) and D(x) are polynomials, with D(x) ^ 0, then there exist unique polynomials
Q(x) and R(x) such that: P(x) = D(x) Q(x) + R(x), where R(x) = or the degree of R(x) is less
than the degree of D(x). P(x) is the dividend, D(x) is the divisor, Q{x) is the quotient, and R(x) is
the remainder. The important thing to remember when dividing is to insert Ox* for missing terms.
2x 3 + 6x 2
2x 3 + 4x 2
2x 2 X
2x 2 + 4x
5x + 6
So x 4 + 4x 3 + 6x 2  x 4 6 =
(x 2
+ 2x)(x 2
+ 2x + 2) + (5x + 6)
x4  3x 2
x3 + 3x 2 + Ox
x3 3x
3x 2 + 3x + 4
3x 2  9
3x4 13
So x 4 4 x3 4 4 = (x 2  3)(x 2 4 x 4 3) 4
(3x4 13)
109
S\nthetu di> ision ii I very important tool used in factoring, in finding solutions to P{x) = 0, and in
c\ aluuting polynomials, that is, finding the value of P{c). This is a skill that is developed by practice.
Remember to insert a in the
k
corresponding place when the x term is missing. When D(x) = x c,
the Division Algorithm becomes the Remainder Theorem: P(x) = (x  c) Q(x) + r, where
r = P(c). This means that the remainder of P(x) when divided by (x c) is the same as the
functional value at x = c. When the remainder is zero, the Remainder Theorem yields the Factor
Theorem: P(c) = if and only if x  c is a factor of P(x).
So x 3
+ 2x  lOx
2
= (x  3)(x 2 + 5x + 5) + 15.
P(3). = (3)
3
+ '
2(3)
2
  10(3) = 27 +
= 15
P(x) = x5  3x 3  7x 2  5x + 2 by x  2. 1 3 7 5 2
l
Then find P(2). 2 4 2 10 30
1 1 5 15 28
110
Let P(x) = 6x 3  x 2  31 j  24. Show that
So P(  1 ) = 0, x =  1 is a zero, and x + 1 is a
factor. Then
P(x) = 6x 3  x 2  31x  24
= (x + l)(6x 2 7x24)
= (x+l)(3x8)(2x + 3)
P(x) = 2x 3  7x 2  7x+ 30
= (x + 2)(2x 2  llx+15)
= (x + 2)(2x5)(x3)
11
Section 5.3 Real Zeros of Polynomials
Kej Ideas
A. Rational roots.
1
B. DeaCMtes Rule of Signs.
(.'. I ppcr and lower bounds for roots.
n
A. If  is a rational root of the polynomial equation a n x + a n \x n l
+
+ a\x
l
+ clq = 0, where
<7
p divisor of ao
an 7^ (not necessarily a n = 1), a t 0* an d a i
ls an integer, then  is of the form xttt
divisor of a n
1 . What numbers could be the integer zeros of the When the leading coefficient is 1 , then the roots
polynomials? must be factors of the constant term.
(a) P(x) = x5 + 25x 4  2x 3 + 121x 2  x + 12 So the possible integer zeros are factors of 12 which
are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12.
(c) R(x) = x6 + llx 5 4 7x 3  6x + 24 So the possible integer zeros are factors of 24 which
are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24.
ll 3 5 16 12 2 1 3 5 16 12
2 18 2 28
18 6 1 14 16
3 5 16 12
12 12
4 4 Yes
3x 2 + 4x  4 = (3x  2)(x + 2)
3x2 = x + 2 =
3x = 2 x = 2
x
x 1
3
112
Find all possible rational roots of the equation,
x4  x3  1 lx 2 4 9x + 18 = and then solve it divisors of 18
= 1,2, 3. 6. 9. 18
completely. divisors of 1
1 11 9 18
M 1
1 11 2
1 11 2 16 No
2 1 1 11 9 18
2 2 18 18
1 199 Yes
1 1 9 9
3 12
1 Yes
x2 + 4x + 3 = (z+ l)(x + 3)
x+l=0 x+3=0
x = 1 x = 2
113
i
it complcteh divisors of 10
11 10 11 51 32 20
10 30 62
21
10 21 30 62 42 No
2 10 11 51 32 20
20 62 22 20
10 31 11 10 Yes
2 10 31 11 10
20 102 226
10 51 113 216 No
ll 10 31 11 10
10 21 10
10 21 10 Yes
114
B. Descartes' Rule of Signs states that if P(x) is a polynomial with real coefficients, then
1. The number of positive real solutions of P(x) is at most equal to the number of variations in
sign in P(x) or is less than that by an even number.
2. The number of negative real solutions of P(x) is at most equal to the number of variations in
sign in P(x) or is less than that by an even number.
This is very useful when there is an odd number of variations in sign. In this case you are guaranteed at
5. Use Descartes' Rule of Signs to help find all rational P(x) has one variation in sign, so there is one
zeros of die polynomial, positive real zero.
1 
12 1 4 6
1 3 2
1 3 Yes
1 1 3 2 6 13 26
1 2 22
1 2 6 1 1
3 1 3 2 6
3 6
1 Yes
P(x) = x4  2x 3  x 2  4x  6
= (x + l)(x3)(x 2 + 2)
115
(.'. The number a is a lower bound and the number b is an upper bound for the roots of a polynomial
equation if every real root c of the equation satisfies a < c < b. Bounds a and 6 are found in the
1 If we divide P(x) by x  b (where 6 > 0) using synthetic division, and if the row that contains
the quotient and remainder has no negative entries, then b is an upper bound for the real roots
for P{x) = 0.
2. If we divide P{x) by x a (where a < 0) using synthetic division, and if the row that
contains the quotient and remainder has entries that are alternately nonpositive and
nonnegative, then a is a lower bound for the real roots for P{x) 0.
6. Show that all the real roots of the equation 6 11 4 44 48
2x* + 1 li 3 + 4x 2  44x  48 = lie between 6 12 6 60 624
and 3. 1 10 104 576
2 11 44 48
6 51 165 363
2 17 55 121 315
an upper bound.
4x 5  6x 3 + 7x 2  8x  16 = T T
6 7 8 16
8 16 20 26 36
4 8 10 13 18 52
4 6 7 8 16
M
4 4 2 5 3
4 4 2 5 3 19
2 4 6 7 8 16
8 Hi 20 54 92
4 8 10 27 46 76
an upper bound.
116
3
D. Roots of the equation P(x) = are the same as the zeros of the polynomial P(x). We summarize the
steps in finding the roots of a polynomial P(x):
Negative roots:
P{x) = x 3  3x 2 + lOx + 24,
so there is only one possible negative root.
3. 1 1 3 10 24
1 2 12
1 2 12 12
2 13 10 24
22 24
1 1 12 Yes
x2 x 12 = (x4)(x + 3)
x4=0 x+3=0
x = 4 x =
117
lind all rational zeros of the equation 1. List of possible roots: , 1, , 2, 3,
llx 3 + 4x 2 44x48 = 0. 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48.
Negative roots:
P(x) = 2x 4  llx 3 + 4x 2 + 44x  48,
so there are three or one possible negative roots.
2 11 4 44 48
1 6 5 no c
2 12 10 39
2 11 4 44 48
2 13 17 27
2 13 17 27 75
2 11 4 44 48
75
3 21 2
2 14 25 no chance
2 11 4 44 48
4 30 68 48
15 34 24 Yes
1
1
2 15 34 24
2 L
27
1 7 2
2 14 27 no<
11 2 15 34 24
2 13 21
2 13 21 3
3 1
2 15 34 24
2 L
3 18 24
2 12 16 Yes
2x 2
+ 12x + 16 = 2(x + 4)(x + 2)
x + 4 = x + 2 =
x = 4 x= 2
118
E. We can use the upper and lower bounds theorems to determine the xbounds of the viewing rectangle
that will contain all solutions to P(x) = 0.
So x = 1 is an upper bound.
6 1 6 1
6
1 1
71 6 1 5
7 7 42
1 1 6 47
x = 7 is a lower bound. Since P( 6) > and
P(7) < 0, there is a root between 7 and 6.
(ii) We graph P(x) = x3 + 6x 2  x  5 in the
viewing rectangle [7, 1] by [5, 5].
So x == an upper bound.
1 1120201
1 is
1 2
1 2 2 1
x = 1 is a lower bound.
(Note: zero is both nonnegative and nonpositive.)
(ii) We graph P(x) = x4 + x3 + 2x 2  1 in the
1 ^d^__< er3 l
2
4
119
Section 5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
Ki\ Ideas
A. The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.
B. Conjugate roots.
C. Linear and quadratic factors.
This section contains many important theorems and ideas. Notice that these theorems only say that
these zeros exists, not how or where to find them. Section 5.3 explain where to look for the zeros and
how to find them. The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra states that every polynomial,
P(x) = a n x n + a n _ix n_1 + a\x + ao, n > 1, a n ^ 0, with complex coefficients has at least one
\
x
complex zero. The Complete Factorization Theorem states that P(x) can always be factored
completely into P(x) = a(x  c\)(x  C2)(x  c n _i)(x c n where a, c\, ) c<i, ... ,c n _i, c n are
complex numbers, a^O. If the factor (x  c) appears times in the complete A; factorization of P{x),
then c is said to have multiplicity k. The Zeros Theorem states that every polynomial of degree n > 1
x 1 ^36 = it^/36 = 6i
2. Find all solutions of the equation x2  2x + 5 = 0. Using the quadratic formula we have:
_ (2) x/(2)
2  4(1)(5) _ 2 74^20

2(1) 2
2(1 2i)
= l2t
So the solutions are 1  2z and 1 + 2i.
(a) A polynomial P(x) of degree 4 with zeros 2, P(x) = a[x  (2)][x  (l)][x  3][x  5]
1,3, and 5, and with constant coefficient 60. = a(x + 2)(x + l)(x  3)(x  5)
= a(x 2 + 3x + 2)(x 2  +
8x 15)
= a(x 4
 5x  7x
3 2
+ 29x + 30)
Since 60 = = 2;
a(30), a hence
120
(b) A polynomial Q{x) of degree 6 with zeros 0, g(z) = a[x(0)][x(l)] 2 [x(3)] 3
1, and 3, where 1 is zero of multiplicity 2 and
= ax(x  l) (x
2
+ 3)
3
3 is zero of multiplicity 3.
= ax(x 2 2x+ l)(x
3
+ 9x 2 + 27x + 27)
= ax(x 5 + 7x 4 + 10x 3  18x 2  27x + 27)
= a(x 6
+ 7x 5
+ 10x 4  18x 3  27x 2 + 27x)
Since no information is given about Q other than its
(c) A polynomial R(x) of degree 5 with zeros R(x) = a[x  (2  i)}[x  (2 + i)][x  (2)]
3
= a(x 2
 4x + 5)(x 3  6x 2 + 12x  8)
= a(x 5  10x 4 + 41x 3  86x 2 + 92x  40)
R(x) = x + 5
10x 4
 41x + 86x  92x
3 2
I 40.
B. The Conjugate Zeros Theorem tell us that imaginary roots of polynomial equations with real
coefficients come in pairs. If the polynomial P has real coefficients, and if the complex number a + bi
is a zero of P, then its complex conjugate a  bi is also a zero of P.
121
4 find a polynomial P(x) of degree 5, with real Since 3  2z is a zero, so is its conjugate, 3 + 2i.
= 5
x  12x 4
+ 57x  126x
3 2
4 104x.
= [(a;+l) + 3i][(ar+l)3t]
= (x 4 l)
2
 (3i)
2
= x2 + 2x + 1  9z
2
= x2 + 2x + 10
z
2
+ 2x + 10)4x 5
+ 4x + 25x 
4 3
56x 2  74x  20
4x 5 + 8x 4 + 40x 3
4x 4 15x 3 56x 2
4x 4 8x 3 40x 2
7x 3  16x 2  74x
7x 3  14x 2  70x
2x 2  4x  20
2x 2  4x  20
2 I 4 4 7 2
8 8
4 4 10.
Factoring the resulting polynomial gives us
4x 2 + 4x+l = & (2x+l) 2 =
2x+l=0  2x=l <= x=
x 1
2
122
If we do not use complex numbers, then a polynomial with real coefficients can always be factored into
linear and quadratic factors. A quadratic polynomial with no real zeros is called irreducible over the
real numbers. Such a polynomial cannot be factored without using complex numbers.
Let P(x) = 5x 6  80x 2 .
123
Section 5 s Rational Functions

Ki> Ideas
A. Domain and miercepis of rational functions.
H. \nou notation and asymptotes.
I Multiphaiy of factors and its effect on asymptotes.
D. Slant asymptotes.
K. Vertical asymptotes and end behavior on graphing devices.
A. A rational function is a function of the form r(x) , where P and Q are polynomials, Q is not
the zero polynomial. The domain of r(x) is the set of real numbers where Q{x) ^ 0. The xintercepts
are the real numbers where P(x) = 0. The yintercept is r(0), provided is in the domain of r(x).
=
2x 2 + 5x + 2
1 Find the domain, the xintercepts, and the yintercept r(x)
x2  llx + 24
2x 2 4 5x + 2
of the function r(x) = (2x I l)(x + 2) Factor the numerator
 11x4 24'
x2 (x  and the denominator.
3)(x 8)
x3 f 5x 2 6x
=
.
numerator =
yintercepts: r(0) = A =
B. The arrow notation in the table below is to help determine the behavior of a function around holes in its
approaches a from either the right side or the left side. Vertical asymptotes occur where the
124
'
denominator equals zero. The line y = 6 is a horizontal asymptote of the function y = f(x) if y b
as x oo or as x oo. The end behavior of the rational function
> >
a n x n + o n ix""' +
r(x) =
/ ^
r + a is completely determined
+ a\x
l
.
asymptote.
Cases
ases 3. n > m. Here the end behavior is the same as the end behavior of y = r^x
n m . (See
bm
slant asymptote in 'D' section for more information about this case.)
x 2 4
3. Sketch the graph of the function y = 3 First factor the numerator and denominator to find
c
2  2x 
the domain, xintercepts, yintercepts, and
asymptotes.
x2 4 _ (x2)(x + 2)
V ~ x 2
2x3 ~ (x3)(x + l)
yintercept: y = =j =
Horizontal asymptote: y
1 _
= 1
.:...:.. :J ..: 1
. : :?  *
:
'
* ... .;..;.
'" * *
;
 >
'
'" '
r'rl'f?
125
2 
r
3
 3x 2 + 2x
Btcfa the uraph of the function y = First factor the numerator and denominator to find
x4 + 1 '
_ j  3x
3 2
I 2x _ x(x2)(x 1)
x4 + 1 x4 + 1
Domain: all real numbers since the denominator does
not factor. Vertical asymptotes: none
xintercepts: x = 2 and x =
yintercept: y = =
Since n < m, horizontal asymptote: y = 0.
;
i \
y
i
"
C. In the same way that multiplicity influences how the graph of a polynomial behaves around zeros,
multiplicity of the zeros of the numerator and the zeros of the denominator affect the graph of a rational
function. If a factor occurs an even number of times, then the graph stays on the same side of the x
axis near the value of x corresponding to that factor. If a factor occurs an odd number of times, then
the graph changes sides of the xaxis at that factor.
Domain: x ^ 3 and x ^ 3
Vertical asymptotes: x = 3 and x = 3. Both roots
are multiplicity one, so the graph changes sign at
each asymptote.
graph does
"f ":'"l"i
>:< ii
not change
::
';,;.
i ; j.
'
I i
'',
: . : t
:'';,
> : I I
sign here.
yintercept:
y = 0.
Horizontal
asymptote: i.. ;..;.. ;.. .. ;. u ;.. j..   
>
l^ 
< 
i 
i >

,  , . ; . . ....::'

3  i > !( }
i 
"j"j"j"f"4'i"!"i'
126
6. Sketch the graph of the function y =
x2 9
y = 9r~ =
x2
Zr
(x3)(x +
xl
2
3)
Domain: .r /
Vertical asymptotes: x = 0. This is a root of
multiplicity two, so the graph does uoi change sign at
this asymptote.
. j. 
i >....<.. J. .i.j. : ..j. .,..>. .;..<..,..[..>..;...;..(...
P(x) _ an x n + a n \x n H + ax xl +a
D. When n > m in r(x) = J
we use long division to
xm
,
"
Q(x)
Q(z) ~ bm + ftmix^ + 1
+b x x
x
+6
write r(x) = D(x) + where the degree of R(x) < the degree of Q(x). If D(x) is a polynomial
,
Q{x)
of degree 1, then D(x) is a slant or oblique asymptote. This means that as x gets large, the graph of
y = r(x) behaves like the graph of y = D(x).
_ x  4x
_ x(x2)(x + 2)
3
x  4x
3
1 ~ (x l)(x + l)
x  2
are multiplicity y
i
A i ; ; ;
1
i i , j
: .
one.
: i >: >< I
< yintercept:
j
y = o
Slant
asymptote:
y = x :/;*
since
x3 4x
j
rJff"
y =
x2  1
...\y..y....\ \...
\\
3x
= x ::i::i::::t::
127
4
Some graphing calculators and computer graphing programs do not graph function with vertical asymptotes
properly Sometimes vertical asymptotes will appear as vertical lines. Other problems are caused by viewing
rectangles that are too wide. In this case, vertical asymptotes might disappear altogether. However, wide viewing
.nglcs are useful in showing horizontal asymptotes as well as other end behavior. The key is to use a variety
of sizes of viewing rectangles to determine vertical asymptotes as well as end behavior.
(a) y=^^
x 6
[5, 5] by [20, 20] [5, 5] by [20,: 20]
20
\
10
~4~~^2^
10
V 2 4
\
20 \
"X
10
8
6
4
^
40 20 1\ 20 40
Vertical asymptote: x = 3
Horizontal asymptote: y = 5
x2 4
(b) V = [5, 5] by [5, 5] 5, 5] by [5, 5]
x 3
+ 3x
3 2 0/^2
f
[20, 20] by [5, 5] 20, 20] by [5, 5]
Vertical asymptote: x =
Horizontal asymptote: y =
128
'
8 + 3i + 2x 2
(c) y = [5, 5] by [5, 5] [5, 5] by [5, 5]
9x 2
Vj\J
4 2 2 4
2
4
/
_40 20
~v
1
( 20 40
C
Vertical asymptote: x = 3 and x = 3
Horizontal asymptote: y = 2
5
^
+x
3x 2 4 J
y = 6
10 5 i 5 10
x  5x +
2
5
10
[0,1] by [2,0]
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0.5
1
1.5
2
129
10. Graph each rational function in an appropriate
I 7x 
2
5 [5, 5] by [10, 10]
(a) f(x) =
x 2
l
g{x) = x + 7
20 JT
20
1(J
1
y
1 10 20
/^ 10
20
x + 2
/(x) = x + 7 +
x2  1
x3  x + 12
(b) f(x) = [10, 10] by [10, 10]
i + 4
10
g(x) = x 2 4x + 15
10 5 5 10
5
'10
Vertical asymptote: x = 4
[20, 20] by [10,200]
w: / DO
50
(
20 10 10 20
r
DO
\j
20 10
i
\J 10 20
48
/(x) = x 2 4x+15
x + 4
130
Chapter 6
Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
131
Section 6.1 Exponential Functions
kr\ Ideas
A. Exponential functions and their graphs.
\. For a > 0, the exponential function with base o is defined as f(x) = a x for every real number x.
The value of the base determines the general shape of the graph of f(x) = ax . For < a < 1, the
graph of f(x) = a x decreases rapidly. When a = 1, f(x) \
x
= 1 is a constant function. And for
a > 1. the function f(x) = a x
increases rapidly. Remember
a ' = ,soa
a
x
=
1
a x
, a = 1, and a positive number to any power is always positive.
As a result, the domain of f(x) = a1 is the real numbers and the range is the positive real numbers.
3 x 1
1 Sketch the graphs of f(x) = 2
X
and g(x) = (j) Since \ = 2~\ g(x) = ()
= (2" 1 ) = 2
on the same axis.
x
g(x) = 2 ky f(x) = 2
E i
E
> E
I i >;.:.. jjj ;: :
:
t i i i E :   '; :<! ';; jj
i.
rfs
!:! i i :! i i ::( i i
:: :
l>v!:<!
^)3*i
:t/wr .
:
.... 1
.. : .. ( .... !..<...
r
. ;;;..
;..;. .;..;. .;..;..
I >: i  :< .>.< .>..: .. ( ..,.. : ..(....>. i ...
. :
. .: . ...
;
. 
:
.
,
132
3. Sketch the graphs of y = 3
J
and use it to sketch First graph y = 3
X
.
the graphs of y = 2 4 3 X
and y = 4  J
3 all on To graph y = 2 + 3*, start with y = 3
1
and shift
a>. . . .
reflect the graph
of y = X
3 about
i i i i i t^^ J*....~....j..i.j..J.
At
> t  j 1 >>:  !! >:'ii !>:<
up.
\ Tf.{ ..:..
'
y=2 + 3 V
>: i j :< i : j. > \ i i
< i :< i
2000
\ 1 1
1500
1 / 1
1000
/ 1
500
o
.
)
J/ 5 10
J 15 20
20000
\
1
/
15000
/
10000
y
5000
I{ 10 20 30 40
(b) Comment on the rates of growth. Although, g(x) starts out larger than f(x) and h(x),
133
Sec! ion 6.2 The Natural Exponential Function
Ki> Ideas
A. Natural exponential function.
B. Compound interest.
C. Exponential growth.
i ^ ii
:
i
:: ii 5
; E i
i
i
:
r
_ _ .
_^ : r
;
">^ :
,.. ^
>:<;;; ;'< ]'; >:;. ii; ;<
j...;..;.. ;. 1. .;. a. ;..
. ..j..;.. v..;..;.. !..;..>..;..;.
> z
E *  I
J 
3 : < >
* E
c
V
1 H n/ r \ nt
. The rate
r

n
is
the rate per compounding period and nt is the number of compounding periods. As the number of
compounding periods per year become large, the value of the amount approaches A = Pe rt which , is
34
)
(H)(5)
1 +
TT
= 1000(1.008333333) 60
= 1000(1.645308935) = 1645.31
A= $1645.31
(S!)<5)
4=,000(l +
(
_)
0.099 \
= 1000(1.001903846) 260
= 1000(1.639726394) = 1639.73
A= $1639.73
=
A Pe rt
A = 1000e (0099)(5) = lOOOe 0495
= 1000(1.640498239) = 1640.50
A = $1640.50
5000 5000
P=
P=
/
(
1
$3389.56.
+
0.078 \
:i2)(5)
;i.0065) 60
135
A population that experiences exponential growth increases according to the formula n(t) = noe rt
when n is the initial size of the population, r is the relative rate of growth (expressed as a proportion
of the population). / is time, and n(t) is the population at time t.
n(18) = 2000e<
078 >( 18 >
= 20006 1 m n 8143
There will be about 8100 bacteria in 18 hours.
(b) What is the size after 15 days? n = 2000, r = 0.078, t = 15(24) = 360
n(t) = noe
rt
15 days.
136
Section 6.3 Logarithmic Functions
Key Ideas
A. What is a logarithm?
B. Graphs of logarithmic functions.
C. Natural and Common logarithms.
A. For a^l, the inverse of the exponential function f(x) = ax is a function called logarithm, written as
g(x) = logaX. The function log a .r is read as 'log base a of x'. So log<,x is the exponent to which the
base a must be raised to give x.
Logarithmic Form Exponential Form
logaX = y a* = x
In both forms, a is called the base and y is called the exponent. It is often useful to switch between the
different forms of the definition. Notice that loga l = and loga a = 1.
(9
i/2)5 = 24 3
3
5
= 243
137
;
Evaluate
(b) log 2
(J)
log 2 () = 3since2 3 = J.
a
(c) log (1/3) 27 log(i /3 )27 = 3 since
(J)
= 3
3
= 27
x = 2
138

B. For a > and a ^ 1, the domain for f(x) = \ogaX is the positive real numbers and the range is the real
numbers. As with exponential functions, the graph of y = logx is directly dependent on the value of
a. The graphs of f(x) = log^x and f~ {x) l
= a x for various values of a are shown below.
y=log 5
ir
5. Determine the domain and range for Domain: x  2 > <=> x > 2
f(x) = log 3 (x  2). Sketch the graph of y = f(x). Range (00,00)
: : I I ! .
t i : : ! I > i
E
}" <;*<
i
:
*
3
s ';
>
> :
:
i
i i
.
i
:
:
>
i
'
:
..
; *> = ; 4
> :
e >
< E : () 3
c > {
i
6. Determine the domain and range for Domain: Since x 2 + 1 > for all 1, the domain is
f(x) = logs(x
2
+ 1). Sketch the graph of y = f(x) (00,00).
Range: Also since x 2 + 1 > 1,
log 5 (i
2
+ 1) > log 5 l = 0, so the range is
r .; 1 : : 1 I :
: i > . i [ > : :
!>!:'.!!>::
::,.
:  i i : 1 c * : 1 I > < !
139
.
( . I he logarithm with base e is called the natural logarithm and is given a special name and notation,
loe,.r s In .r. The logarithm with base 10 is called the common logarithm and given an abbreviated
notation, logior = logx.
e
1 "1
= x In x is the power to which e must be raised to get x.
7. Find the domain of f(x) = ln(x + 2) + ln(3  2x). Since the input to a logarithm function must be
Draw the graph of y =
f(x) on a calculator and positive, we have
use it to find the asymptotes and local maximums x + 2>0 and 32x>0
and local minimums. x > 2 2x > 3
x < \
So the domain is 2 < x < . We use this as the
xrange of the viewing rectangle.
[2, ] by [8, 2]
>
6
8
140
!
A. Suppose that x > 0, y > 0, and r is any real number. Then the Laws of Logarithms are:
Rule Reason
1. lOga(iy) = logaJ + lOgaJ/ The log of a product is the sum of the logs.
2. lOgal  1 = lOgaX loga y The log of a quotient is the difference of the logs.
<[j) logs ( J
= log 5 (2x)  log 5 y
= 41og 3 x + 31og 3 y
16u;
5
16w 5
(d) log 4 log< = log 4 (l6u,
5
)log 4 (y?y")
141
B. There are several common mistakes that you need to avoid, which are the following:
7
Here the exponent is applied to the entire
3. (logax)
"
# rlog^x
function loga x, not just the input x.
(a) 41og3 x  f
log 3 y 41og 3 x  f
log 3 y = log 3 x 4  \0%zy/]?
= log 3
= log 10 x
2
+ logioy
3
 log 10 \/8
x y
'7?
= log 5 x
4
+ log 5 25  log 5 y  log 5 u;
2
= log 5 (25x
4
)
 log 5 (yti;
2
)
V yw z )
logs, since 25 = 5
2
, we have 2 = logs 25.
C. Since most calculators only have the common log and natural log functions, it is important to be able to
logaX
change the base of a logarithm. The change of base formula is log^x = . This allows us to
logo 6
evaluate a logarithm of any base (provided the base is greater than and not equal to 1). The change of
base formula can also be expressed as loga6 log^x = loga x. Of particular importance are:
logtx = 
log x
logo
 or logiX =
In x
lno
which allows us to use our calculators to find the logs of uncommon
bases.
142
3. Evaluate log67 to six decimal places. Using common logs:
86
log 7 _ 0.84509804
086033
~ log6 ~ 0.778151250
~ 1
143
4
1 . Solve for x. We take the logarithm of each side and use Law 3.
2
3l+1 = 32 2 3l+1 = 32
3l+1
log 2 (2 ) = log 2 32 Take log of each side.
3x +1 =5 Definition oflog a a = 1.
3x =4
x
x *
3
2. Solve x e
b x
+ 3xV = 4xV. x5 e x + 3xV = 4x 3 e x
5
x e* + 3xV  4xV = Set equal to 0.
(x
5
+ 3x 4  4x 3 )e x = Factor out the e x .
A)e =
+ 3x 
3 2 x
x (x
x 3 (x + 4)(x \)e x =
x3 = x+4 = xl=0
x = x = x=l
Solution: x = 0, x = 4, and x = 1.
x
Note: e x ^ since e > 0.
2x x
3. Use a graphing calculator to solve e 5e to two First set equal to zero:
decimal places. 2
e *= 5e x ^ e
2x  5e x =
Now graph /(x) = e
2x 5e x and find where it
[2, 2] by [2, 2] 2 ^1 D 1
J^
> 2
'
Solution: x ss 1.61.
144
4. Use a graphing calculator to solve xe x  3x 3 = Graph f(x) = xe x  3x 3 and find where it
i 2
\ 1
[1.4] by [2,2] u~
1 ft \ 2 3 4
I
2
"1
5. Solve the equation 4e 2l_1 = 7. 46 21 = 7
2x  1
ln(e ) = 2xl =ln(J)
2x=l + ln(J)
x= + iln() 1.06
e
2x _ 4e x +3=
3) =
1  x 
(e l)(e Sef each factor equal to 0.
e
1  1 = e
1
 3 =
e
x
= 1 e
x = 3
x = In 1 = x = In 3
So x = or x = In 3.
1. Isolate the logarithmic term on one side of the equation; you may need to first combine the
logarithmic terms.
2. Write the equation in exponential form (or raise the base to each side of the equation).
3. Solve for the variable.
145
7 Solve for j logs(62 x) = 3 We rewrite the equation in exponential form.
log 5 (62  x) =3
62  x = 53 exponential form
62  x = 125
x = 63
x = 63
Check:
log 5 [62  (63)] = log 5 125 = log 5 5
3
= 3 y
9 = 3
2
we convert log 3 x to base 9.
,
loggX loggX
we have log3X = = 2l0ggX.
log 9 3 1/2
l0g3X + loggX = 6
2l0ggX + loggX = 6
3l0ggX = 6
lOggX = 2
_ q2
9^ _
= 81
Check:
log 3 81 = log 3 3
4
= 4
log 9 81 = log 9 9
2
= 2
So log 3 81 + log 9 81 =4 + 2 = 6. y
146
9. Solve the equation log8 (x + 2) + log 3 (x + 5) = . log 8 (x + 2) + log 8 (x + 5) = I
log 8 (x
2
+ 7x + 10) = J
glogg(i 3 + 7i + 10) _ g2/3
x2 + 7x + 10 = 82/ 3 = (8
J /3
)
x2 + 7x + 10 = 2
2
= 4
x 2
+ 7x 4 6 =
(x + 6)(x+ 1) =
x+6=0 x+l=0
x= 6 x = 1
Check x = 6:
Check x= 1: