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Subject Complexi Questions Answers

No. ty
1 Informatic simple What is sql override ? Overriding a SQL in source qualifier or lookup for additional logic.
2 Informatic simple Can we have multiple Yes
a conditions in a Lookup?
3 Informatic simple Can we have multiple Yes
a conditions in a Filter?
4 Informatic simple How the flags are called in 0 - DD_INSERT , 1- DD_UPDATE , 2- DD_DELETE , 3- DD_REJECT
a Update strategy?
5 Informatic simple Is it possible to run the YES USING PMCMD
a session other than Server
manager? If so how?
6 Informatic simple What is diff. Things u can Start, Stop and abort the session
a do using PMCMD?
7 Informatic average/si What is the use of power For 3rd party connectors to sap, mainframe, Peoplesoft
a mple plug?
8 Informatic average/si What kind of Test plan? In Informatica we create some test SQL to compare the number or records and
a mple What kind of validation validate scripts if the data in the warehouse is loaded for the logic incorporated.
you do?
9 Informatic simple What is the usage of We use a lookup for connecting to a table in the source or a target. There are 2 ways
a unconnected/connected in which a lookup can be configured i.e. connected or unconnected
look up?
10 Informatic simple What is the difference Connected Lookup Receives input values directly from the pipeline. Unconnected
a between Connected and Lookup Receives input values from the result of a :LKP expression in another
Unconnected Lookups ? transformation. Connected Lookup You can use a dynamic or static cache.
Unconnected Lookup You can use a static cache. Connected Lookup Cache includes all
lookup columns used in the mapping (that is, lookup table columns included in the
lookup condition and lookup table columns linked as output ports to other
transformations). Unconnected Lookup Cache includes all lookup/output ports in the
lookup condition and the lookup/return port.Connected Lookup Can return multiple
columns from the same row or insert into the dynamic lookup cache. Unconnected
Lookup The dynamic lookup cache, Designate one return port (R). Returns one column
from each row. Connected Lookup If there is no match for the lookup condition, the
Informatica Server returns the default value for all output ports. If you configure
dynamic caching, the Informatica Server inserts rows into the cache. Unconnected
11 Informatic simple If u have data coming from Joiner Transformation
a diff. sources what
transformation will u use
in your designer?
12 Informatic simple What are different Input, Output, Variable, Return/Rank, Lookup and Master.
a ports in Informatica?
13 Informatic simple What is a Variable port? Variable port is used to store intermediate results. Variable ports can reference input
a Why it is used? ports and variable ports, but not output ports.
14 Informatic average Diff between Active and Transf can be active or passive , activ tranf can change the no of rec passed th it, a
a passive transormation ? passive tranf can never change the rec cnt, Active trsnf that might change the rec cnt
are advan ext proc, aggrega, filter,joiner,normalizer, rank , updte strategy, source
qualifier, if u use powerconnect to access erp sources, erp source quail is also an
active tranfor
Passive tranf :- lookup, expression, external procedure, seq generator, stored
15 Informatic simple What are Mapplet? U can connect
A mapplet is a only 1 active
reusable tranf
object torepresents
that the same tranf
a setor
oftarget can connect
transformations. any noyou
It allows of to
a pass
transformation logic and can contain as many transformation as you need.
16 Informatic simple What is Aggregate An aggregator transformation allows you to perform aggregate calculations, such as
a transformation average and sums. The Aggregator transformation is unlike the Expression
transformation, in that you can use the Aggregator transformation to perform
17 Informatic simple What is Router calculations
A on groups. is similar to a Filter transformation because both
Router transformation
a Transformation? How is it transformations allow you to use a condition to test data. A Filter transformation tests
different from Filter data for one condition and drops the rows of data that do not meet the condition.
transformation? However, a router transformation tests data for one or more conditions and gives you
the option to route rows of data that do not meet any of the conditions to default
18 Informatic simple output group.
What are connected and Connected transformations are the transformation, which are in the data flow, whereas
a unconnected unconnected transformation will not be in the data flow.
transformations? These are dealt in Lookup and Stored procedure transformations.

19 Informatic simple What is Normalizer Normalizer transformation normalizes records from COBOL and relational sources
a transformation? allowing you to organize the data according to your needs. A normalizer
transformation can appear anywhere in a data flow when you normalize a relational
20 Informatic simple How to use a sequence source.
By using Stored procedure transformation.
a created in Oracle in
21 Informatic simple What are source qualifier The source qualifier represents the records that the Informatica Server reads when it
a transformations? runs a session.
22 Informatic simple What are cache and their The Informatica server creates index and data cache for aggregator, Rank, joiner and
a types in Informatica? Lookup transformations in a mapping. The Informatica server stores key values in the
index cache and output values in the data cache.
23 Informatic simple What is an incremental In Incremental aggregation, you apply captured changes in the source to aggregate
a aggregation? calculations in a session. If the source changes only incrementally and you can capture
changes, you can configure the session to process only those changes. This allows the
Informatica server to update your target incrementally, rather than forcing it to
process the entire source and recalculate the same calculation each time you run the
24 Informatic complex What is Reject loading? session.a session, the Informatica server creates a reject file for each target instance in
a the mapping. If the writer or the target rejects data, the Informatica server writes the
rejected row into reject file.
The reject file and session log contain information that helps you determine the cause
of the reject. You can correct reject files and load them to relational targets using the
Informatica reject load utility. The reject loader also creates another reject file for the
data that the writer or target reject during the reject loading.

25 Informatic average WHAT IS SESSION and SESSION - A Session Is A set of instructions that tells the Informatica Server How And
a BATCHES? When To Move Data From Sources To Targets. After creating the session, we can use
either the server manager or the command line program pmcmd to start or stop the
BATCHES - It Provides A Way to Group Sessions For Either Serial Or Parallel Execution
By The Informatica Server. There Are Two Types Of Batches :
1. SEQUENTIAL - Run Session One after the Other.
2. CONCURRENT - Run Session At The Same Time.
26 Informatic simple Significance of Source When you add a relational or a flat file source definition to a mapping, you need to
a Qualifier Transformation connect it to a Source Qualifier transformation. The Source Qualifier represents the
records that the Informatica Server reads when it runs a session. · To join data
originating from the same DB.
· Filter records in the Source itself.
· To specify an outer join instead of a default inner join.
· To specify sorter ports.
· To select distinct values from the source.
· To create a custom query to issue a special select statement for the Informatica
server to read source data. For example, we might use a custom query to perform
aggregate calculations or execute a stored procedure.
27 Informatic average What are 2 modes of data The data movement mode depends on whether Informatica Server should process
a movement in Informatica single byte or multi-byte character data. This mode selection can affect the
Server? enforcement of code page relationships and code page validation in the Informatica
Client and Server. a) Unicode – IS allows 2 bytes for each character and uses additional
byte for each non-ascii character (such as Japanese characters)
b) ASCII – IS holds all data in a single byte

28 Informatic simple Why we use lookup Lookup Transformations can access data from relational tables that are not sources in
a transformations? mapping. With Lookup transformation, we can accomplish the following tasks:
a) Get a related value - Get the Employee Name from the Employee table based on the
Employee ID
b) Perform Calculation
Update slowly changing dimension tables - We can use unconnected lookup
transformation to determine whether the records already exist in the target or not.

29 Informatic simple What are confirmed Confirmed dimensions are linked to multiple fact tables
a dimensions
30 DataWare simple What is Data A DW is a DB used for query,analysis and reporting . By definition DW is a subject
housing warehousing oriented, intergrated, non volatile and time variant
Subject Oriented:- Represents a subject Aread like sales, Mktg
Integrated :- Data Colleted from multiple source systems integrated into a user
readable unique format
Ex:- male, female ,0,1, M,F, T, F
Non Volatile :- Dw stores historical data
Time Variant :- Stores data timewise like weekly,monthly,quarterly, yearly

31 Informatic simple What is a reusable transf.. Reusable tranformation:- if u want to create tranfor that perform common tasks such
a What is a mapplet . as avg sal in a dept
Explain diff. Bet them Mapplet:- Is a reusuable object that represents a set of transformations

32 Informatic simple What happens when u use Inserts:- treats all records as inserts , while inserting if the record violates primary,
a the delete or update or foreign key or foreign key in the database it rejects the record
reject or insert statement
in your update strategy?
33 Informatic simple Where do u design ur designer
a mappings
34 Informatic simple Where do u define users Repository manager
a and privileges in
35 Informatic simple How do u debug the data Use debugger in designer
a in Informatica tool
36 Informatic simple when u run the session If you select the option discard target data then it will not load to target
a does debugger loads the
data to target ?
37 Informatic simple Can u use flat file and yes
a table (relational) as source
together ?
38 Informatic simple suppose I need to Router or filter
a separate the data for
delete and insert to target
depending on the
codition, which
39 Informatic average transformation u use ?
What is the difference Index cache:Contains columns used in condition
a between lookup Data Data cache: :Contains other output columns than the condition columns.
cache and Index cache.
40 Informatic average What is an indicator file Indicator file is used for Event Based Scheduling when you don’t know when the
a and how it can be used. Source Data is availaible., A shell command ,script or a batch file creates and send this
indicator file to the directory local to the Informatica Server.Server waits for the
indicator file to appear before running the session.
41 Informatic simple Different Tools in · Source Analyzer
a Designer · Warehouse designer
· Transformation Developer
· Maplet designer
· Mapping designer

42 Informatic simple Components of · Designer

a Informatica · Workflow Manager
· Workflow Monitor

43 Informatic simple Different Tools in · Task Developer

a Workflow Manager · Worklet designer
· Workflow Designer

44 Informatic simple What is overview window ? It’s a window in which you can see all the transformations that are used for a mapping.
a Why it is used ?
45 Informatic simple · While using Debugger, The left hand corner of the transformation that has an arrow looks like moving.
a how will you fined out
which transformation is
currently running ?
46 Informatic simple How do u load the data Using workflow manager
a using Informatica?
47 Informatic simple What is an Filter The Filter transformation provides the means for filtering records in a mapping. You
a Transformation? or what pass all the rows from a source transformation through the Filter transformation, then
options u have in Filter enter a filter condition for the transformation. All ports in a Filter transformation are
Transformation? input/output, and only records that meet the condition pass through the Filter
48 Informatic simple What happens to the transformation.
Discarded rows do not appear in the session log or reject files
a discarded rows in Filter
49 Informatic average What are the two Informatica provides Server Manager and pmcmd programs to communicate with the
a programs that Informatica Server:
communicate with the Server Manager. A client application used to create and manage sessions and batches,
Informatica Server? and to monitor and stop the Informatica Server. You can use information provided
through the Server Manager to troubleshoot sessions and improve session
pmcmd. A command-line program that allows you to start and stop sessions and
batches, stop the Informatica Server, and verify if the Informatica Server is running.
50 Informatic simple What u can do with The Designer client application provides five tools to help you create mappings:
a Designer ? Source Analyzer. Use to import or create source definitions for flat file, Cobol, ERP, and
relational sources.
Warehouse Designer. Use to import or create target definitions.
Transformation Developer. Use to create reusable transformations.
Mapplet Designer. Use to create mapplets.
Mapping Designer. Use to create mappings.
51 Informatic avrage What are different types of Tracing Levels in Transformations :-
a Tracing Levels u hv in Level Description
Terse Indicates when the Informatica Server initializes the session and its components.
Summarizes session results, but not at the level of individual records.
Normal Includes initialization information as well as error messages and notification of
rejected data.
Verbose initialization Includes all information provided with the Normal setting
plus more extensive information about initializing transformations in the session.
Verbose data Includes all information provided with the Verbose initialization

Note: By default, the tracing level for every transformation is Normal.

To add a slight performance boost, you can also set the tracing level to Terse,
writing the minimum of detail to the session log
when running a session containing the transformation.
52 Informatic simple What is Mapplet and how A mapplet is a reusable object that represents a set of transformations. It allows you to
a do u create Mapplet? reuse transformation logic and can contain as many transformations as you need.
Create a mapplet when you want to use a standardized set of transformation logic in
several mappings. For example, if you have a several fact tables that require a series
of dimension keys, you can create a mapplet containing a series of Lookup
transformations to find each dimension key. You can then use the mapplet in each fact
table mapping, rather than recreate the
same lookup logic in each mapping.
53 Informatic simple If data source is in the PowerMart and PowerCenter treat a Microsoft Excel source as a relational database,
a form of Excel Spread sheet not a flat file. Like relational sources, the Designer uses ODBC to import a Microsoft
then how do use? Excel source. You do not need database permissions to import Microsoft Excel
To import an Excel source definition, you need to complete the following tasks:
· Install the Microsoft Excel ODBC driver on your system.
· Create a Microsoft Excel ODBC data source for each source file in the ODBC 32-bit
· Prepare Microsoft Excel spreadsheets by defining ranges and formatting columns of
numeric data.
· Import the source definitions in the Designer.
Once you define ranges and format cells, you can import the ranges in the Designer.
Ranges display as source definitions
when you import the source.
54 Informatic simple When do u use connected A connected Lookup transformation is part of the mapping data flow. With connected
a lookup n when do u use lookups, you can have multiple return values. That is, you can pass multiple values
unconnected lookup? from the same row in the lookup table out of the Lookup transformation.
Common uses for connected lookups include:
=> Finding a name based on a number ex. Finding a Dname based on deptno
=> Finding a value based on a range of dates
=> Finding a value based on multiple conditions
Unconnected Lookups : -
An unconnected Lookup transformation exists separate from the data flow in the
mapping. You write an expression using
the :LKP reference qualifier to call the lookup within another transformation.
Some common uses for unconnected lookups include:
=> Testing the results of a lookup in an expression
=> Filtering records based on the lookup results
=> Marking records for update based on the result of a lookup (for example, updating
slowly changing dimension tables)
=> Calling the same lookup multiple times in one mapping

55 Informatic simple How many values it Connected Lookup can return multiple values where as Unconnected Lookup will
a (informatica server) return only one values that is Return Value.
returns when it passes
thru Connected Lookup n
Unconncted Lookup?
56 Informatic simple What kind of Using transformations, you can modify data in the following ways:
a modifications u can ----------------- ------------------------
do/perform with each Task Transformation
Transformation? ----------------- ------------------------
Calculate a value Expression
Perform an aggregate calculations Aggregator
Modify text Expression
Filter records Filter, Source Qualifier
Order records queried by the Informatica Server Source Qualifier
Call a stored procedure Stored Procedure
Call a procedure in a shared library or in the External Procedure
COM layer of Windows NT
Generate primary keys Sequence Generator
Limit records to a top or bottom range Rank
Normalize records, including those read Normalizer
from COBOL sources
Look up values Lookup
Determine whether to insert, delete, update, Update Strategy
or reject records
Join records from different databases Joiner
or flat file systems
57 Informatic simple Expressions in Expressions in Transformations
a Transformations, Explain To transform data passing through a transformation, you can write an
briefly how do u use? expression. The most obvious examples of these are the
Expression and Aggregator transformations, which perform calculations on either
single values or an entire range of values
within a port. Transformations that use expressions include the following:
--------------------- ------------------------------------------
Transformation How It Uses Expressions
--------------------- ------------------------------------------
Expression Calculates the result of an expression for each row passing through
the transformation, using values from one or more ports.
Aggregator Calculates the result of an aggregate expression, such as a sum or
average, based on all data passing through a port or on groups within that data.
Filter Filters records based on a condition you enter using an expression.
Rank Filters the top or bottom range of records, based on a condition you enter using
an expression.
Update Strategy Assigns a numeric code to each record based on an expression,
indicating whether the Informatica Server should use the information in the record to
insert, delete, or update the target.

In each transformation, you use the Expression Editor to enter the expression. The
Expression Editor supports the transformation language for building expressions. The
transformation language uses SQL-like functions, operators, and other components to
build the expression. For example, as in SQL, the transformation language includes the
functions COUNT and SUM. However, the PowerMart/PowerCenter transformation
language includes additional functions not found in SQL.

When you enter the expression, you can use values available through ports. For
example, if the transformation has two input ports representing a price and sales tax
rate, you can calculate the final sales tax using these two values. The ports used in the
expression can appear in the same transformation, or you can use output ports in
other transformations.

58 Informatic average In case of Flat files (which U get a fatal error which cause server to fail/stop the session.
a comes thru FTP as source)
has not arrived then what
59 Informatic average What does a load manager The Load Manager is the primary PowerCenter Server process. It accepts requests
a do ? from the PowerCenter Client and from pmcmd. The Load Manager runs and monitors
the workflow. It performs the following tasks:
Starts the session, creates DTM process and sends pre & post
session emails.
1.Manages the session and batch scheduling
2.locks the session and reads the session properties.
3. expands the session and server variables and parameters
4. validates the source and target code pages
5. verifies the permissions and privileges
6. creates session log file
7. creates DTM process which executes the session

60 Informatic simple What is a cache Temporary memory area used to store intermediate results
61 Informatic simple What is an Expression Expression transformation is used to calculate expressions on a row by row basis.
a transformation? Total_sal = Com * sal

62 Informatic simple I have two sources S1 S1 should be the master as it contains few records so that the usage of cache can be
a having 100 records and S2 reduced , S2 should be detail.
having 10000 records, I
want to join them, using
joiner transformation.
Which of these two
sources (S1,S2) should be
master to improve my
performance? Why?

63 Informatic average I have a source and I want YES, Write a stored procedure and use Stored Procedure Transformation
a to generate sequence
numbers using mappings
in informatica. But I don’t
want to use sequence
generator transformation.
Is there any other way to
do it?
64 Informatic average What is a bad file? Bad file is the file which contains the data rejected by the writer or target.
65 Informatic average What is the first column of Record / Row indicator
a the bad file? 0,1,2,3
0 – insert -- Rejected by writer/target
1- update -- Rejected by writer/target
2- delete -- Rejected by writer/target
3-reject -- Rejected by writer --- coz update st. has marked it for reject.

66 Informatic average What are the contents of Index cache files and Data caches
a the cache directory in the
67 Informatic simple server
Is lookup a Active Passive.
a transformation or Passive
transformation ?
68 Informatic simple What is a Mapping? Mapping Represent the data flow between source and target
69 Informatic simple What are the types of Passive and active
a transformations
70 Informatic simple If a sequence generator Each target will get the value in multiple of 3
a (with increment of 1) is
connected to (say) 3
targets and each target
uses the NEXTVAL port,
what value will each target
71 Informatic average Have you used the Abort, Abort can be used to Abort / stop the session on an error condition.
a Decode functions? If the primary key column contains NULL, and you need to stop the session from
continuing then you may use ABORT function in the default value for the port. It can be
used with IIF and DECODE function to Abort the session.

72 Informatic average What do you know about o Load Manager is the first process started when the session runs. It checks for
a the Informatica server validity of mappings, locks sessions and other objects.
architecture? Load o DTM process is started once the Load Manager has completed its job. It starts a
Manager, DTM, Reader, thread for each pipeline.
Writer, Transformer o Reader scans data from the specified sources.
o Writer manages the target/output data.
o Transformer performs the task specified in the mapping.
73 Informatic simple What are the default String = Null, Number = 0, Date = 1/1/1753
a values for variables?
74 Informatic simple How many ways you can 1. Source Qualifier
a filter the records? 2. Filter transformation
3. Router transformation
4. Ranker
5. Update strategy
75 Informatic complex · How do you identify the Bottlenecks can occur in
a bottlenecks in Mappings? 1. Targets
The most common performance bottleneck occurs when the informatica server
writes to a target database. You can identify target bottleneck by configuring the
session to write to a flat file target.
If the session performance increases significantly when you write to a flat file, you
have a target bottleneck.
Solution :
Drop or Disable index or constraints
Perform bulk load (Ignores Database log)
Increase commit interval (Recovery is compromised)
Tune the database for RBS, Dynamic Extension etc.,

2. Sources
Set a filter transformation after each SQ and see the records are not through.
If the time taken is same then there is a problem.
You can also identify the Source problem by
Read Test Session – where we copy the mapping with sources, SQ and remove all
transformations and connect to file target. If the performance is same then there is a
Source bottleneck.
Using database query – Copy the read query directly from the log. Execute the query
against the source database with a query tool. If the time it takes to execute the query
and the time to fetch the first row are significantly different, then the query can be
modified using optimizer hints.
Optimize Queries using hints.
Use indexes wherever possible.

3. Mapping
If both Source and target are OK then problem could be in mapping.
Add a filter transformation before target and if the time is the same then there is a
(OR) Look for the performance monitor in the Sessions property sheet and view the
If High error rows and rows in lookup cache indicate a mapping bottleneck.
Optimize Single Pass Reading:
Optimize Lookup transformation :
1. Caching the lookup table:
When caching is enabled the informatica server caches the lookup table and
queries the cache during the session. When this option is not enabled the server
queries the lookup table on a row-by row basis.
Static, Dynamic, Shared, Un-shared and Persistent cache
2. Optimizing the lookup condition
Whenever multiple conditions are placed, the condition with equality sign
should take precedence.
76 Informatic complex How to improve the 1 Run concurrent sessions
a Session performance? 2 Partition session (Power center)
3. Tune Parameter – DTM buffer pool, Buffer block size, Index cache size, data cache
size, Commit Interval, Tracing level (Normal, Terse, Verbose Init, Verbose Data)
The session has memory to hold 83 sources and targets. If it is more, then DTM can
be increased.
The informatica server uses the index and data caches for Aggregate, Rank, Lookup
and Joiner transformation. The server stores the transformed data from the above
transformation in the data cache before returning it to the data flow. It stores group
information for those transformations in index cache.
If the allocated data or index cache is not large enough to store the date, the server
stores the data in a temporary disk file as it processes the session data. Each time the
server pages to the disk the performance slows. This can be seen from the counters .
Since generally data cache is larger than the index cache, it has to be more than the
4. Remove Staging area
5. Tune off Session recovery
6. Reduce error tracing
77 Informatic What is Business It is available in navigator inside the folder.
a components ? Where it
exists ?
78 Informatic complex What are Short cuts ? Shortcuts allow you to use metadata across folders without making copies, ensuring
a Where it is used ? uniform metadata. A shortcut inherits all properties of the object to which it points.
Once you create a shortcut, you can configure the shortcut name and description.
When the object the shortcut references changes, the shortcut inherits those changes.
By using a shortcut instead of a copy, you ensure each use of the shortcut matches
the original object. For example, if you have a shortcut to a target definition, and you
add a column to the definition, the shortcut inherits the additional column.
· Scenario1
Here is a table with Single Row, in a target table the same row should be populated 10
Using Normalizer, we can do it. Hint : Normalizer / Occurs make it 10 and
Have 10 inputs and a output. You will get 10 rows.
79 Informatic simple While importing the Source name
a relational source definition Database location
from database, what are Column names
the meta data of source U Data types
import? Key constraints

80 Informatic simple . How many ways U can Two ways

a update a relational source 1. Edit the definition
definition and what r they? 2. Re-import the definition

81 Informatic simple How many ways u create Two ways

a ports? 1. Drag the port from another transformation
2. Click the add button on the ports tab.

82 Informatic average .What r the unsupported COBOL source definition

a repository objects for a Joiner transformations
mapplet? Normalizer transformations
Non reusable sequence generator transformations.
Pre or post session stored procedures
Target definitions
Power mart 3.5 style Look Up functions
XML source definitions
IBM MQ source definitions

83 Informatic simple What r the mapping Mapping parameter represents a constant value that U can define before running a
a parameters and mapping session. A mapping parameter retains the same value throughout the entire session.
variables? When u use the mapping parameter ,U declare and use the parameter in a mapping
or maplet. Then define the value of parameter in a parameter file for the session.
Unlike a mapping parameter, a mapping variable represents a value that can
change throughout the session. The informatica server saves the value of mapping
variable to the repository at the end of session run and uses that value next time U
run the session.
84 Informatic simple Can U use the mapping NO.
a parameters or variables We can use mapping parameters or variables in any transformation of the same
created in one mapping mapping or mapplet in which U have created mapping parameters or variables.
into another mapping?

85 Informatic simple Can u use the mapping Yes. Because reusable transformation is not contained with any maplet or mapping.
a parameters or variables
created in one mapping
into any other reusable
86 Informatic simple How can U improve Use sorted input.
a session performance in
87 Informatic simple transformation?
.What r the difference U can join heterogeneous data sources in joiner transformation which we can not
a between joiner achieve in source qualifier transformation.
transformation and source U need matching keys to join two relational sources in source qualifier
qualifier transformation? transformation. Where as u doesn't need matching keys to join two sources.
Two relational sources should come from same data source in sourcequalifier. U
can join relational sources which r coming from different sources also.

88 Informatic simple In which conditions we can Both pipelines begin with the same original data source.
a not use joiner Both input pipelines originate from the same Source Qualifier transformation.
transformation(Limitations Both input pipelines originate from the same Normalizer transformation.
of joiner transformation)? Both input pipelines originate from the same Joiner transformation.
Either input pipelines contains an Update Strategy transformation.
Either input pipelines contains a connected or unconnected Sequence Generator
89 Informatic simple What r the settings that u Master and detail source
a use to configure the joiner Type of join
transformation? Condition of the join

90 Informatic simple What r the join types in Normal (Default)

a joiner transformation? Master outer
Detail outer
Full outer
91 Informatic simple How the informatica When the informatica server runs in the ASCII data movement mode it sorts session
a server sorts the string data using Binary sort order. If U configure the session to use a binary sort order, the
values in Rank informatica server calculates the binary value of each string and returns the specified
transformation? number of rows with the highest binary values for the string.

92 Informatic simple What is the Rank index in The Designer automatically creates a RANKINDEX port for each Rank transformation.
a Rank transformation? The Informatica Server uses the Rank Index port to store the ranking position for each
record in a group. For example, if you create a Rank transformation that ranks the top
5 salespersons for each quarter, the rank index numbers the salespeople from 1 to 5:

93 Informatic simple What is the Router Input group

a transformation? Output group
A Router transformation is similar to a Filter transformation because both
transformations allow you to use a condition to test data. However, a Filter
transformation tests data for one condition and drops the rows of data that do not
meet the condition. A Router transformation tests data for one or more conditions and
gives you the option to route rows of data that do not meet any of the conditions to a
default output group.
If you need to test the same input data based on multiple conditions, use a Router
Transformation in a mapping instead of creating multiple Filter transformations to
perform the same task
94 Informatic simple What r the types of The designer copies property information from the input ports of the input group to
a groups in Router create a set of output ports for each output group.
Two types of output groups
User defined groups
Default group
U can not modify or delete default groups.

95 Informatic simple Why we use stored For populating and maintaining data bases.
a procedure transformation?
96 average What r the types of data 3 types of data
that passes between Input/Out put parameters
informatica server and Return Values
stored procedure? Status code.

97 Informatic average What is the status code? Status code provides error handling for the informatica server during the session. The
a stored procedure issues a status code that notifies whether or not stored procedure
completed sucessfully. This value can not seen by the user. It only used by the
informatica server to determine whether to continue running the session or stop.

98 Informatic simple What r the tasks that Join data originating from same source data base.
a source qualifier performs? Filter records when the informatica server reads source data.
Specify an outer join rather than the default inner join
specify sorted records.
Select only distinct values from the source.
Creating custom query to issue a special SELECT statement for the informatica
server to read
source data.
99 Informatic simple What is the default join Inner equi join.
a that source qualifier
100 Informatic simple provides?
. What r the basic needs to Two sources should have primary and Foreign key relation ships.
a join two sources in a Two sources should have matching data types.
source qualifier?

101 Informatic simple what is update strategy This transformation is used to maintain the history data or just most recent changes
a transformation ? in to target

102 Informatic simple Describe two levels in Within a session. When you configure a session, you can instruct the Informatica
a which update strategy Server to either treat all records in the same way (for example, treat all records as
transformation sets? inserts), or use instructions coded into the session mapping to flag records for different
database operations. Within a mapping. Within a mapping, you use the Update
Strategy transformation to flag records for insert, delete, update, or reject.
103 Informatic average What is the default source Data driven.
a option for update strategy
104 Informatic average What is Data driven? The informatica server follows instructions coded into update strategy
a transformations with in the session mapping determine how to flag records for insert,
update, delete or reject.
If u do not choose data driven option setting, the informatica server ignores all update
strategy transformations in the mapping.

105 Informatic simple What r the options in the Insert

a target session of update Delete
strategy transformation? Update
Update as update
Update as insert
Update else insert
Truncate table

106 Informatic simple What r the types of The Designer provides two mapping wizards to help you create mappings quickly and
a mapping wizards that r to easily. Both wizards are designed to create mappings for loading and maintaining star
be provided in schemas, a series of dimensions related to a central fact table. Getting Started Wizard.
Informatica? Creates mappings to load static fact and dimension tables, as well as slowly growing
dimension tables.
Slowly Changing Dimensions Wizard. Creates mappings to load slowly changing
dimension tables based on the amount of historical dimension data you want to keep
and the method you choose to handle historical dimension data.

107 Informatic simple What r the types of Simple Pass through mapping :
a mapping in Getting
Started Wizard? Loads a static fact or dimension table by inserting all rows. Use this mapping when
you want to drop all existing data from your table before loading new data.

Slowly Growing target :

Loads a slowly growing fact or dimension table by inserting new rows. Use this
mapping to load new data when existing data does not require updates.
108 Informatic avrage What r the mappings that Type1: Rows containing changes to existing dimensions are updated in the target by
a we use for slowly changing overwriting the existing dimension. In the Type 1 Dimension mapping, all rows contain
dimension table? current dimension data.
Use the Type 1 Dimension mapping to update a slowly changing dimension table
when you do not need to keep any previous versions of dimensions in the table.

Type 2: The Type 2 Dimension Data mapping inserts both new and changed
dimensions into the target. Changes are tracked in the target table by versioning the
primary key and creating a version number for each dimension in the table.
Use the Type 2 Dimension/Version Data mapping to update a slowly changing
dimension table when you want to keep a full history of dimension data in the table.
Version numbers and versioned primary keys track the order of changes to each

Type 3: The Type 3 Dimension mapping filters source rows based on user-defined
comparisons and inserts only those found to be new dimensions to the target. Rows
containing changes to existing dimensions are updated in the target. When updating
an existing dimension, the Informatica Server saves existing data in different columns
of the same row and replaces the existing data with the updates

109 Informatic average What r the different types Type2 Dimension/Version Data Mapping: In this mapping the updated dimension in the
a of Type2 dimension source will gets inserted in target along with a new version number. And
mapping? newly added dimension
in source will insert into target with a primary key.

Type2 Dimension/Flag current Mapping: This mapping is also used for slowly
changing dimensions. In addition it creates a flag value for changed or new dimension.
Flag indicates the dimension is new or newly updated. Recent dimensions will gets
saved with current flag value 1. And updated dimensions r saved with the value 0.

Type2 Dimension/Effective Date Range Mapping: This is also one flavor of Type2
mapping used for slowly changing dimensions. This mapping also inserts both new and
changed dimensions in to the target. And changes r tracked by the effective date
range for each version of each dimension.
110 Informatic average How can u recognize In the Type2 mapping we have three options to recognize the newly added rows
a whether or not the newly Version number
added rows in the source r Flag value
gets insert in the target ? Effective date Range

111 Informatic average What r two types of Load manager Process: Starts the session, creates the DTM process, and sends post-
a processes that informatica session email when the session completes.
runs the session? The DTM process. Creates threads to initialize the session, read, write, and transform
data, and handle pre- and post-session operations.

112 Informatic What r the features of the U can use command line arguments for a session or batch. This allows U to
a server manager in the change the values of session parameters, and mapping parameters and mapping
informatica 5.0? variables.

Parallel data processing: This feature is available for power center only. If we use the
informatica server on a SMP system, U can use multiple CPU's to process a session

Process session data using threads: Informatica server runs the session in two
processes. Explained in previous question.
113 Informatic simple Can u generate reports in Yes. By using Metadata reporter we can generate reports in informatica.
a Informatica?

114 Informatic simple What is metadata It is a web based application that enables you to run reports against repository
a reporter? metadata.
With a meta data reporter, u can access information about Ur repository with out
having knowledge of sql, transformation language or underlying tables in the
115 Informatic simple Define mapping and Mapping: It is a set of source and target definitions linked by transformation objects
a sessions? that define the rules for transformation.
Session : It is a set of instructions that describe how and when to move data from
source to targets.

116 Informatic simple Which tool U use to create Informatica server manager.
a and manage sessions and
batches and to monitor
and stop the informatica
117 Informatic simple Why we use partitioning Partitioning achieves the session performance by reducing the time period of
a the session in informatica? reading the source and loading the data into target.

118 Informatic simple To achieve the session Configure the session to partition source data.
a partition what r the
necessary tasks u have to Install the informatica server on a machine with multiple CPU's.

119 Informatic avrage How the informatica For relational sources informatica server creates multiple connections for each
a server increases the partition of a single source and extracts separate range of data for each connection.
session performance Informatica server reads multiple partitions of a single source concurently. Similarly for
through partitioning the loading also informatica server creates multiple connections to the target and loads
source? partitions of data concurrently.

For XML and file sources, informatica server reads multiple files concurrently. For
loading the data informatica server creates a separate file for each partition(of a
source file).U can choose to merge the targets.

120 Informatic simple . Why u use repository When u edit, schedule the session each time, informatica server directly
a connectivity? communicates the repository to check whether or not the session and users r valid. All
the metadata of sessions and mappings will be stored in repository.
121 Informatic average What r the tasks that Load Manages the session and batch scheduling: When u start the informatica server the
a manger process will do? load manager launches and queries the repository for a list of sessions configured to
run on the informatica server. When u configure the session the load manager
maintains list of list of sessions and session start times. When u start a session load
manger fetches the session information from the repository to perform the validations
and verifications prior to starting DTM processLocking and reading the session: When
the informatica server starts a session load manager locks the session from the
repository. Locking prevents U starting the session again and again.

Reading the parameter file: If the session uses a parameter files, load manager reads
the parameter file and verifies that the session level parameters are declared in the

Verifies permission and privileges: When the session starts load manger checks
whether or not the user have privileges to run the session.

122 Informatic average What is DTM process? After the load manger performs validations for session, it creates the DTM process.
a DTM is to create and manage the threads that carry out the session tasks. I creates
the master thread. Master thread creates and manages all the other threads.

123 Informatic average What r the different Master thread: Creates and manages all other threads
a threads in DTM process?
Mapping thread: One mapping thread will be creates for each session. Fetches
session and mapping information.

Pre and post session threads: This will be created to perform pre and post session

Reader thread: One thread will be created for each partition of a source. It reads data
from source.

Writer thread: It will be created to load data to the target.

Transformation thread: It will be created to transform data.

124 Informatic average What r the data movement Data movement modes determines how informatica server handles the character
a modes in informatica? data. U choose the data movement in the informatica server configuration settings.
Two types of data movement modes available in informatica.

ASCII mode
Uni code mode.
125 Informatic average What r the out put files Informatica server log: Informatica server(on UNIX) creates a log for all status and
a that the informatica server error messages(default name: pm.server.log).It also creates an error log for error
creates during the session messages. These files will be created in informatica home directory.
Session log file: Informatica server creates session log file for each session. It writes
information about session into log files such as initialization process, creation of sql
commands for reader and writer threads, errors encountered and load summary. The
amount of detail in session log file depends on the tracing level that u set.

Session detail file: This file contains load statistics for each target in mapping. Session
detail include information such as table name, number of rows written or rejected. U
can view this file by double clicking on the session in monitor window

Performance detail file: This file contains information known as session performance
details which helps U where performance can be improved. To generate this file select
the performance detail option in the session property sheet.

Reject file: This file contains the rows of data that the writer does not write to targets.

Control file: Informatica server creates control file and a target file when U run a
session that uses the external loader. The control file contains the information about
the target flat file such as data format and loading instructions for the external loader.

Post session email: Post session email allows U to automatically communicate

information about a session run to designated recipients. U can create two different
messages. One if the session completed successfully the other if the session fails.

Indicator file: If u use the flat file as a target, U can configure the informatica server to
create indicator file. For each target row, the indicator file contains a number to
indicate whether the row was marked for insert, update, delete or reject.

output file: If session writes to a target file, the informatica server creates the target
file based on file properties entered in the session property sheet.

Cache files: When the informatica server creates memory cache it also creates cache
126 Informatic complex In which circumstances When it encounters
files. For thecircumstances
the following DD_Reject in update strategy
informatica transformation.
server creates index and data cache
a that informatica server files.Violates database constraint
creates Reject files? Filed in the rows was truncated or overflowed.
Aggregator transformation
Joiner transformation
Rank transformation
Lookup transformation
127 Informatic average What is polling? It displays the updated information about the session in the monitor window. The
a monitor window displays the status of each session when U poll the informatica server

128 Informatic average Can u copy the session to Yes. By using copy session wizard u can copy a session in a different folder or
a a different folder or repository. But that target folder or repository should consists of mapping of that
repository? session. If target folder or repository is not having the mapping of copying session , u
should have to copy that mapping first before u copy the session.
129 Informatic average . What is batch and Grouping of session is known as batch. Batches r two types
a describe about types of
batches? Sequential: Runs sessions one after the other

Concurrent: Runs session at same time.

If u have sessions with source-target dependencies u have to go for sequential

batch to start the sessions one after another. If u have several independent sessions u
can use concurrent batches. Which runs all the sessions at the same time.

130 Informatic average Can u copy the batches? NO

131 Informatic average .How many number of Any number of sessions.
a sessions that u can create
in a batch?
132 Informatic simple When the informatica If one of session is configured to "run if previous completes" and that previous session
a server marks that a batch fails.
133 Informatic simple is failed?
. What is a command that pmcmd is used to start a batch.
a used to run a batch
134 Informatic simple What r the different Two optionsRun the session only if previous session completes successfully.
a options used to configure Always runs the session.
the sequential batches?

135 Informatic simple In a sequential batch can u Yes. By setting the option always runs the session.
a run the session if previous
session fails?
136 Informatic average Can u start batches with U can not. If u want to start batch that resides in a batch, create a new independent
a in a batch? batch and copy the necessary sessions into the new batch.
137 Informatic average Can u start a session We can start our required session only in case of sequential batch. in case of
a inside a batch individually? concurrent batch
we can’t do like this.
138 Informatic average How can u stop a batch? By using server manager or pmcmd.

139 Informatic simple What r the session Session parameters r like mapping parameters, represent values U might want to
a parameters? change between
sessions such as database connections or source files.
Server manager also allows U to create user defined session parameters. Following r
user defined
session parameters.
Database connections
Source file names: use this parameter when u want to change the name or location of
session source file between session runs
Target file name :Use this parameter when u want to change the name or location of
session target file between session runs.
Reject file name :Use this parameter when u want to change the name or location of
session reject files between session runs.

140 Informatic simple What is parameter file? Parameter file is to define the values for parameters and variables used in a session.
a A parameter
file is a file created by text editor such as word pad or notepad.
U can define the following values in parameter file
Mapping parameters
Mapping variables
session parameters
141 Informatic simple How can u access the Relational source: To access relational source which is situated in a remote place ,u
a remote source into Ur need to
session? configure database connection to the data source.

File Source : To access the remote source file U must configure the FTP
connection to the
host machine before u create the session.

Heterogeneous : When Ur mapping contains more than one source type, the server
manager creates
a heterogeneous session that displays source options for all types.

142 Informatic average What is difference If u partition a session with a relational target informatica server creates multiple
a between portioning of connections
relational target and to the target database to write target data concurrently. If u partition a session
partitioning of file with a file target
targets? the informatica server creates one target file for each partition. U can configure
session properties
to merge these target files.
143 Informatic average what r the Advanced External procedure transformation and External procedure
a transformations that transformation: This
restricts the partitioning transformation contains a check box on the properties tab to allow partitioning.
of sessions?
Aggregator Transformation: If u use sorted ports u can not partition the associated

Joiner Transformation : U can not partition the master source for a joiner

Normalizer Transformation

XML targets.
144 Informatic complex . Performance tuning in
a Informatica? The goal of performance tuning is optimize session performance so sessions run
during the available load window for the Informatica Server. Increase the session
performance by following.

The performance of the Informatica Server is related to network connections. Data

generally moves across a network at less than 1 MB per second, whereas a local disk
moves data five to twenty times faster. Thus network connections often affect on
session performance. So avoid network connections.

Flat files: If ur flat files stored on a machine other than the informatica server,
move those files to the machine that consists of informatica server.
Relational data sources: Minimize the connections to sources ,targets and informatica
server to
improve session performance. Moving target database into server system may
improve session
Staging areas: If u use staging areas u force informatica server to perform multiple
data passes.
Removing of staging areas may improve session performance.

U can run the multiple informatica servers against the same repository. Distributing
the session load to multiple informatica servers may improve session performance.

Run the informatica server in ASCII data movement mode improves the session
performance. Because ASCII data movement mode stores a character value in one
byte. Unicode mode takes 2 bytes to store a character.

If a session joins multiple source tables in one Source Qualifier, optimizing the query
may improve performance. Also, single table select statements with an ORDER BY or
GROUP BY clause may benefit from optimization such as adding indexes.

We can improve the session performance by configuring the network packet size,
which allows
data to cross the network at one time. To do this go to server manger ,choose server
configure database connections.

If u r target consists key constraints and indexes u slow the loading of data. To
improve the session performance in this case drop constraints and indexes before u
run the session and rebuild them after completion of session.

Running a parallel sessions by using concurrent batches will also reduce the time of
loading the
data. So concurrent batches may also increase the session performance.

Partitioning the session improves the session performance by creating multiple

145 Informatic simple Define informatica The Informatica repository is a relational database that stores information, or
a repository? metadata, used by the Informatica Server and Client tools. Metadata can include
information such as mappings describing how to transform source data, sessions
indicating when you want the Informatica Server to perform the transformations, and
connect strings for sources and targets.

The repository also stores administrative information such as usernames and

passwords, permissions and privileges, and product version.

Use repository manager to create the repository. The Repository Manager connects to
the repository database and runs the code needed to create the repository
tables.These tables
stores metadata in specific format the informatica server, client tools use.
146 Informatic simple What r the types of Following r the types of metadata that stores in the repository
a metadata that stores in
repository? Database connections
Global objects
Multidimensional metadata
Reusable transformations
Sessions and batches
Short cuts
Source definitions
Target definitions

147 Informatic simple What is power center The PowerCenter repository allows you to share metadata across repositories to create
a repository? a data mart domain. In a data mart domain, you can create a single global repository
to store metadata used across an enterprise, and a number of local repositories to
share the global metadata as needed.
148 Informatic average How can u work with To work with remote data source u need to connect it with remote connections. But it
a remote database in is not
informatica? did u work preferable to work with that remote source directly by using remote connections
directly by using remote .Instead u bring that source into U r local machine where informatica server resides.
If u work directly with remote source the session performance will decreases by
passing fewer amounts of data across the network in a particular time.
149 Informatic average what is incremental When using incremental aggregation, you apply captured changes in the source to
a aggregation? aggregate calculations in a session. If the source changes only incrementally and you
can capture changes, you can configure the session to process only those changes.
This allows the Informatica Server to update your target incrementally, rather than
forcing it to process the entire source and recalculate the same calculations each time
150 Informatic simple . What r the scheduling you
U canrun the session.
schedule a session to run at a given time or interval, or u can manually run the
a options to run a session? session.

Different options of scheduling

Run only on demand: Informatica server runs the session only when user starts
session explicitly
Run once: Informatica server runs the session only once at a specified date and
Run every: Informatica server runs the session at regular intervals as u configured.
Customized repeat: Informatica server runs the session at the dates and times
specified in the repeat dialog box.
151 Informatic simple What is tracing level and Tracing level represents the amount of information that informatica server writes in a
a what r the types of tracing log file.
level? Types of tracing level

Verbose init
Verbose data
152 Informatic simple What is difference In case of stored procedure transformation procedure will be compiled and executed
a between stored procedure in a relational data source. U need data base connection to import the stored
transformation and procedure in to ur maping. Where as in external procedure transformation procedure
external procedure or function will be executed out side of data source. ie u need to make it as a DLL to
transformation? access in u r mapping. No need to have data base connection in case of external
procedure transformation.
153 Informatic complex Explain about Recovering If you stop a session or if an error causes a session to stop, refer to the session
a sessions? and error logs to determine the cause of failure. Correct the errors, and then complete
the session. The method you use to complete the session depends on the properties of
the mapping, session, and Informatica Server configuration.
Use one of the following methods to complete the session:
· Run the session again if the Informatica Server has not issued a commit.
· Truncate the target tables and run the session again if the session is not
· Consider performing recovery if the Informatica Server has issued at least one
154 Informatic complex If a session fails after commit.
As explained above informatica server has 3 methods to recovering the sessions. Use
a loading of 10,000 records performing recovery to load the records from where the session fails.
in to the target. How can u
load the records from
10001st record when u
run the session next time?
155 Informatic complex Explain about perform When the Informatica Server starts a recovery session, it reads the
a recovery? OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table and notes the row ID of the last row committed to the
target database. The Informatica Server then reads all sources again and starts
processing from the next row ID. For example, if the Informatica Server commits
10,000 rows before the session fails, when you run recovery, the Informatica Server
bypasses the rows up to 10,000 and starts loading with row 10,001.
By default, Perform Recovery is disabled in the Informatica Server setup. You
must enable Recovery in the Informatica Server setup before you run a session so the
Informatica Server can create and/or write entries in the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table.
156 Informatic complex How to recover the A standalone session is a session that is not nested in a batch. If a standalone session
a standalone session? fails, you can run recovery using a menu command or pmcmd. These options are not
available for batched sessions.

To recover sessions using the menu:

1. In the Server Manager, highlight the session you want to recover.
2. Select Server Requests-Stop from the menu.
3. With the failed session highlighted, select Server Requests-Start Session in
Recovery Mode from the menu.

To recover sessions using pmcmd:

1.From the command line, stop the session.
2. From the command line, start recovery.
157 Informatic complex How can u recover the If you configure a session in a sequential batch to stop on failure, you can run
a session in sequential recovery starting with the failed session. The Informatica Server completes the session
batches? and then runs the rest of the batch. Use the Perform Recovery session property

To recover sessions in sequential batches configured to stop on failure:

1.In the Server Manager, open the session property sheet.

2.On the Log Files tab, select Perform Recovery, and click OK.
3.Run the session.
4.After the batch completes, open the session property sheet.
5.Clear Perform Recovery, and click OK.

If you do not clear Perform Recovery, the next time you run the session, the
Informatica Server attempts to recover the previous session.
If you do not configure a session in a sequential batch to stop on failure, and the
remaining sessions in the batch complete, recover the failed session as a standalone

158 Informatic complex How to recover sessions in If multiple sessions in a concurrent batch fail, you might want to truncate all targets
a concurrent batches? and run the batch again. However, if a session in a concurrent batch fails and the rest
of the sessions complete successfully, you can recover the session as a standalone
To recover a session in a concurrent batch:
1.Copy the failed session using Operations-Copy Session.
2.Drag the copied session outside the batch to be a standalone session.
3.Follow the steps to recover a standalone session.
4.Delete the standalone copy.

159 Informatic complex How can u complete Under certain circumstances, when a session does not complete, you need to truncate
a unrecoverable sessions? the target tables and run the session from the beginning. Run the session from the
beginning when the Informatica Server cannot run recovery or when running recovery
might result in inconsistent data.
160 Informatic complex What r the circumstances The source qualifier transformation does not use sorted ports.
a that informatica server If u change the partition information after the initial session fails.
results an unrecoverable Perform recovery is disabled in the informatica server configuration.
session? If the sources or targets changes after initial session fails.
If the mapping consists of sequence generator or normalizer transformation.
If a concurrent batch contains multiple failed sessions.

161 Informatic average If i've done any NO. Informatica is not at all concern with back end data base. It displays u all the
a modifications for my table information
in back end does it reflect that is to be stored in repository. If want to reflect back end changes to informatica
in informatica warehouse screens,
or mapping designer or again u have to import from back end to informatica by valid connection. And u have
source analyzer? to replace the existing files with imported files.
162 Informatic average After dragging the ports of NO. Unless and until u join those three ports in source qualifier u cannot map them
a three sources(sql directly.
server,oracle,informix) to
a single source qualifier,
can u map these three
ports directly to target?
163 Informatic Server Variables 1. $PMRootDir
a 2. $PMSessionLogDir
3. $PMBadFileDir
4. $PMCacheDir
5. $PMTargetFileDir
6. $PMSourceFileDir
7. $PMExtProcDir
8. $PMTempDir
9. $PMSuccessEmailUser
10. $PMFailureEmailUser
11. $PMSessionLogCount
12. $PMSessionErrorThreshold
13. $PMWorkflowLogDir
14. $PMWorkflowLogCount
15. $PMLookupFileDir
164 Informatic Folders Folders provide a way to organize and store all metadata in the repository, including
a mappings, schemas, and sessions. Folders are designed to be flexible, to help you
logically organize the repository. Each folder has a set of configurable properties that
help you define how users access the folder. For example, you can create a folder that
allows all repository users to see objects within the folder, but not to edit them. Or,
you can create a folder that allows users to share objects within the folder. You can
create shared and non-shared folders.

Note: You must create a folder in a repository before you can connect to the repository
using the Designer or Workflow Manager.
You create and maintain folders in the Repository Manager. In the Repository Manager,
you can view the users accessing folders and the objects within each folder. You can
also copy and replace folders within the repository or across repositories.
165 Informatic Multiple Servers Register multiple PowerCenter Servers. When you register multiple PowerCenter
a Servers, choose the PowerCenter Server for a workflow in the workflow properties.
Sl.No Category Complexity Questions
1 Performance tuning Simple What are the types of optimizer?
A: Rule-based and Cost-based optimizers
2 Performance tuning Medium Which optimizer mode is the default one?
A: Optimizer takes the rule based approach as default.
3 Performance tuning Medium What is explain plan?
A:The sequence of steps the optimizer chooses to execute the SELECT,
4 Performance tuning Complex Can you force the optimizer to choose the optimal execution plan?
A:Yes. By using hints option.
5 Performance tuning Medium How will you tune the following query?
A: select empid, ename,dno from emp, dept where dno=deptno
6 Performance tuning Simple Which is faster? Using IN or EXISTS?
A: EXISTS is faster compared to IN.
7 Joins Simple What are the types of joins? What are they?
A:Simple join, Outer join, Self join
Simple join returns the common rows between two or more tables.
Outer join returns the matching rows from one, and all the rows from
the other table, with the unmatched rows marked as NULL.
Self join is joining a table to itself.
8 Queries Simple How will you fetch the first 10 records of a table?
A: select * from emp where rownum<11
9 Fundamentals Simple How many types of SQL statements are there in Oracle?
A: DDL - create, alter, drop
DML - select, insert, update, delete
TCL - commit, savepoint, rollback
DCL – Grant, Revoke
10 PL/SQL Simple What are cursors?
A: A cursor is a handle ( name or a pointer) for the memory associated
with a specific statement. A cursor is basically an area allocated by
Oracle for executing the SQL Statement. Oracle uses an implicit cursor
statement for Single row query and Uses Explicit cursor for a multi row
11 PL/SQL Simple What are attributes of cursor?
12 Queries Medium How will you identify the duplicates in a particular column?
A:Select col1, count(*) from table1 group by col1 having count(*)>1
13 PL/SQL Medium What are packages? Advantages of packages?
A:Packages Provide a method of encapsulating and storing related
procedures, functions, variables and other Package Contents.
14 PL/SQL Simple How many types of parameters can be passed to a stored procedure?
A:3 types: IN, OUT, INOUT
15 PL/SQL Simple Difference between Stored procedure and functions
A: Function returns a value to the calling block whereas the Stored
procedure does not.
16 PL/SQL Simple What are Database Triggers and Stored Procedures
A: Database Triggers are Procedures that are automatically executed
as a result of insert in, update to, or delete from table.
17 Partition Medium What are partitions?
A: Partitions are segments of a logical table split by range of key
column values.
18 Partition Complex Syntax of creating a partition
Create table A(a varchar(1), b numeric(10))
Partition by range(b)
(partition p1 values less than 10,
Partition p2 values less than 20,
Partition p3 values less than maxvalue)
19 Normalization Simple What is ER model?
A: It is a conceptual data model that views the real world as entities
and relationships. A basic component of the model is the Entity-
Relationship diagram which is used to visually represents data objects.
20 PL/SQL Simple How many types of Exceptions are there
There are 2 types of exceptions. They are
a) System Exceptions
e.g. When no_data_found, When too_many_rows
b) User Defined Exceptions
e.g. My_exception exception
When My_exception then
21 Locks Medium How many types of Locks are there? What are they?
YouShared, Share
are asked to Update,
model a Exclusive
many-many relationship given the students
and teachers data. How many tables would you require to implement
22 Normalization Medium the same?
A: 3
23 Queries Medium query?
A: Subquery is a query inside a query, where the sub query gets
executed only once.
In a correlated sub query, the sub query gets executed once for each
row processed by the parent query.
What are the two types of synonyms? What is the difference between
24 Fundamentals Simple the two?
A: Private and Public.
Private synonyms are created by the database user and is available
only to the user, where as public synonym is created by the database
administrator and is available to all users.
25 PL/SQL Simple How many types of Exceptions are there? What are they?
A: There are 2 types of exceptions. They are
a) System Exceptions
e.g. When no_data_found, When too_many_rows
b) User Defined Exceptions
e.g. My_exception exception
26 PL/SQL Complex Can you execute DDL statements inside a PL/SQL block? How?
A: Yes. By using 'execute immediate' clause.
27 Queries Medium What are embedded SQLs?
A: Sql Statements embedded in a high level language such as 'C' are
called embedded sqls.
28 Fundamentals Medium Table Emp has 3 records:
Sequence of 4 sql stmts are executed:
Delete emp where val='A'
Alter table emp modify(val varchar2(5))
Delete emp where val='B'
What is the status of the table emp?
A: Table emp has 2 records B & C.
29 PL/SQL Complex What are mutating tables?
A: Mutating table is a table that is currently being modified by insert
update or delete statement causing a trigger to fire that again tries to
modify the same table
30 Fundamentals Simple What is the difference between deleting and truncating of tables
A: Deleting a table will remove the rows from the table but space
consumed by these rows is not released. But truncating a table deletes
it completely and release the space consumed by it too.
31 Fundamentals Simple Name a few pseudocolumns.
32 Queries Medium What is 'on delete cascade' option?
A: When a key value is deleted, if you want to also delete the
references of the key, go for on delete cascade option.
33 Fundamentals Medium How many columns can table have?
A: The number of columns in a table can range from 1 to 254.
34 Database connection Medium What is tnsnames.ora?
A tnsnames.ora file provides the ability to reference oracle
databases by a simple alias.
35 Performance tuning Complex query?
A: Analyze table compute statistics
36 PL/SQL Complex What are PL/SQL tables?
A: PL/SQL tables are not stored in the database, and is usually created
inside a PL/SQL block with only one column.
37 Database connection Medium What is Oracle SID? Where do you set that?
A: If Oracle is used in a UNIX server, then Oracle SID is set in the
.profile file. It denotes the database.
38 Queries Medium How do u implement the If statement in the Select Statement?
39 Queries Simple queries?
A: Using MINUS operator
40 Conversion functions Medium What is the difference between to_char() & to_number() function/
A: To_char converts a number or date to a char.
To_number converts a char or varchar to a number.
What are inline
41 views? Views
What are the
advantages of force
42 views? Views
What type of DBMS
is supported by
43 Oracle 8i? Fundamentals
What are
44 materialized views? Views
What are the rules
that are to be
followed while
inserting data into
45 views? Views
Can you insert
records into
46 materialized views? Views
What is the
difference between
a snapshot and a
47 materialized view? Fundamentals
What is the
advantage of using
48 a clustered index? Index
What are the
enhancements on
49 Views in Oracle 8i? Views
What are the new
types of triggers
50 added in Oracle 8i? Triggers
Executing the query
on a million records
51 performance. Index
Select *, revenue-
cost from tableA
Difference between
Bitmap and B-Tree
52 indices.
Which feature in Index
Oracle 8i supports
53 updates? Summary tables
Hash and composite
54 techniques
What are the Partition
constraints imposed
on creating a
column of 'LONG'
55 datatype? Datatypes
What happens when
you use a 'for
update of clause' in
56 a select stmt? Locks
How are data stored
57 in a nested table? Nested tables
What are REF
58 cursors? PL/SQL
What is a star
59 query? Give eg. Queries
There are 2
exceptions in a
PL/SQL block. When
will both the
exceptions get
60 executed? (Twisted) PL/SQL
When do you use
'connect by prior' in
61 a query? Queries to display records hierarchy tree level
What is the
difference between
a translate and a
replace of a string?
62 Egs?
What happens when String functions
you modify and re-
compile a
63 procedure? Procedure
What are bind
64 variables? PL/SQL
How will you find
the byte size of a
65 particular column? Numeric functions
'Select sysdate from
dual' returns 5
records. What's the
66 implication? Fundamentals
How will you fetch
the age of a person,
given his DOB
column in a table,
using a simple
67 query? Date functions
Srl NO #Subject ComplexityQuestions Answers
1 Control M Average What is Control M? Control-M is a multi-platform job
scheduling and control system. It
executes as a background activity and
schedules, submits, tracks and follows up
the execution of jobs. Used in conjunction
with Enterprise Control Station
(Enterprise/CS) it provides centralised
workstation control of the job scheduling
production environment. An instance of
Control-M resides on each of the
machines for which scheduling is
required. Enterprise/CS resides on a Sun
workstation and can control multiple
2 Control M Complex Integerated Components of Enterprise/CS instances of Control-M.
Enterprise/CS is comprised of three
integrated components which work in
unison to provide centralised control of
the entire job scheduling environment.
1. The first
component, the data-centre, consists of
one or more computers which are
managed by one Control-M monitor.
Enterprise/CS can control many data-
centres of the same or different types of
2.The second component, a gateway,
provides communication between data-
centres and the Enterprise/CS
workstation(s). 3.The third
component, the Enterprise/CS
Workstation, provides an easy-to-use
graphical user interface and local SQL
database, used to maintain all the data-

3 Control M Simple Owner of the production file controlled 'prod' user.

4 Control M Average General Structure of the HOME dorectory of runlib - Storage area for all scripts and
the 'prod' user binaries used by a Control M controlled
application overlib - Temporary area
for emergency fixes rellib - Used as
holding area prior to release into run
oldlib - Contains the previous version of
any updated files.
adhoc - Emergency one off runs
INIT - Initialisation files :
ksh.env, csh.env, INIT, pcp related files,
5 Control M Simple Order date for the job.
What the environment variable CTM_ODATE mean?
6 Control M Average Stages of execution 1. Control M checks the permissions of the
file, comparing it with the job owner field.
It copies the file, making a number of
changes to the script. These changes are
made so that Control-M can trace and
post-process the job output. 2.
Control-M switches user to the job owner,
changes directory to the job owners HOME
directory and executes the .profile/.cshrc
scripts. 3. Main script startup
The Parameter Construction Program
(PCP) is used to create a file of options,
parameters and other configuration
information, some of which may change
depending on the date. 5.
Main script execution
6.Control M - Final processing

7 Control M Simple PCP The Parameter Construction Program

should be used to create any variable
configuration, parameters or startup code
required by a group of scripts.
8 Control M Average How do you call a sql? Call the oracle login instances and giving
the sql script as a parameter
9 Control M Average How do you call a Informatica session? Using pmcmd command in the script
10 Control M Simple What is RIT? It's a Run time Information Template. It
tell us the information about the control M
job reg. Its scheduling time, Inputs
reqired, database which it is using,
Whether it is doing Insert/ Update / Delete
Sl. No. Subject Complexity Questions Answers
1 DataWareh simple what is a Data Warehouse? A data warehouse is a relational database that is designed
ousing for query and analysis rather than for transaction processing.
It usually contains historical data derived from transaction
data, but it can include data from other sources. It separates
analysis workload from transaction workload and enables an
organization to consolidate data from several sources.
What is the conventional
DataWare definition of a DWH? Explain
19 housing Complex each term. Subject-oriented, Integrated, Time-variant, Non-volatile.
DataWare Draw the architecture of a
17 housing Medium Datawarehousing system. <Diagram>
What are the goals of the
35 Data
What warehouse?
are the approaches in
constructing a
DataWare Datawarehouse and the
18 housing Medium datamart? Top-down and Bottom-up approaches.
2 DataWareh simple Data Mart A data structure that is optimized for access. It is designed to
ousing facilitate end-user analysis of data. It typically supports a
single, analytic application used by a distinct set of workers.
Datawareh Can a datamart be
25 ousing Medium independent? Yes.
Datawareh What are the sources for a
30 ousing simple datawarehouse? OLTP system, Legacy system, Files, Other sources.
14 DataWareh simple What the difference is A database is an organized collection of information.
ousing between a database, a data -- A data warehouse is A very large database with special
warehouse and a data mart? sets of tools to extract and cleanse data from operational
and to analyze data.
-- A data mart is A focused subset of A data warehouse that
deals with A single area of data and is organized for quick
4 DataWareh simple OLAP (On-Line Analytical A analysis.
method by which multidimensional analysis occurs.
ousing Processing)
5 what do you mean by
DataWareh average/simple The ability to manipulate information by a variety of relevant
ousing Multidimensional Analysis? categories or “dimensions” to facilitate analysis and
understanding of the underlying data. It is also sometimes
referred to as “drilling-down”, “drilling-across” and “slicing
and dicing”
What is the difference
between OLAP, ROLAP,
Difference between OLAP &
40 OLTP?
What are the different types
20 OLAP Medium of OLAP? Give an eg. ROLAP eg.BO, MOLAP eg.Cognos, HOLAP, DOLAP
Which is the suitable data MultiDimensional Model. optimized for data warehouse, data
Data model for a datawarehouse? mart and online analytical processing (OLAP) applications. The
24 modelling Medium Why? main advantage of this database is query performance.
7 DataWareh simple Star Schema
16 DataWareh complex What are Additive Facts? Or The fact tables are mostly very huge and almost never fetch a
ousing what is meant by Additive single record into our answer set. We fetch a very large number of
Fact? records on which we then do, adding, counting, averaging, or
taking the min or max. The most common of them is adding.
Applications are simpler if they store facts in an additive format as
often as possible. Thus, in the grocery example, we don’t need to
store the unit price. We compute the unit price by dividing the
dollar sales by the unit sales whenever necessary.
8 DataWareh simple Snowflake Schema An extension of the star schema by means of applying
ousing additional dimensions to the dimensions of a star schema in
a relational environment.
Datawareh A set of fact tables with some mutual dimension tables is called
32 ousing Complex What is Galaxy schema? galaxy schema.
36 What is Dimension & Fact ?
Confirmed, Degenerate, Junk, Mini, Multivalued, Too-Many, Dirty
41 Different types of Dimensions customer, Demographic mini dimensions
Normalizat Are the dimensional tables
23 ion Twisted normalized? If so when? Yes. In snowflake schema, they are normalized.
What is Transaction fact table
37 & Centipede Fact table?
38 Different types of Facts? Additive, semi-additive, non-additive
What are the types of
48 Factless fact tables? Event tracking & coverage
43 What is Granularity? The level of detail of the facts stored in a data warehouse.
22 ion simple Is the Fact table normalized? Yes
12 DataWareh average/simple
Can 2 Fact Tables share Yes
ousing same dimensions Tables?
Give egs. of the fact,
dimensional tables,
datamarts/DWH used in your
Project- project. Explain what data
21 related Complex each contains.
31 ousing Medium What are fact constellations? Multiple fact tables sharing the dimension tables.
15 DataWareh simple What is a Fact less fact A factless fact table captures the many-to-many relationships
ousing table ? between dimensions, but contains no numeric or textual facts. They
are often used to record events or coverage information.
( A fact which does not have any measures )
Common examples of factless fact tables include:
o Identifying product promotion events (to determine promoted
products that didn’t sell)
o Tracking student attendance or registration events
o Tracking insurance-related accident events
o Identifying building, facility, and equipment schedules for a
hospital or University.

Datawareh Data that describes data and other structures, such as objects,
27 ousing simple What is metadata? business rules, and processes.
9 DataWareh simple What is data quality? Data quality (information quality) is defined as standardizing
ousing and consolidating customer and/or business data. By
cleansing/enhancing the data and combining related records
to avoid duplicate entries, you’re able to create a single
record view. Within Informatica, this all takes place prior to
the initial load to the target database as well as during the
on-going data maintenance and updating processes.
By Cleansing - The process of resolving inconsistencies and
How do you achieve data fixing the anomalies in source data, typically as part of the ETL
28 ETL simple quality? process.
46 Mining.
Datawareh System generated, artificial primary keys in alternative to the
29 ousing Medium What are surrogate keys? natural keys like SSN etc.
Datawareh Name a few data modelling
26 ousing simple tools. Erwin, Embarcedaro, Rational Rose, Oracle Designer.
Datawareh Views storing pre-computed results are called materialized
33 ousing Medium Materialized views? views.
Datawareh Can you insert into
34 ousing Medium materialized views? No.
44 Definition of Adhoc Queries?
What is ODS (Operational
Data Store), DSS (Decision
support System), Data
Staging Area, Data
45 Presentation Area.
What is Market-Basket
47 analysis?
SCD Types
49 DataWareh average/simple Type 1 : Keep Most recent Values in Target
ousing Type 2 : Keep a full history of changes in the target
Type 3 : Keep the current and previous values in the target.

6 DataWareh simple what is a Hypercube? A means of visually representing multidimensional data.


11 DataWareh complex/average
Explain the performance Partition, aggregation, indexing..
ousing improvement techniques in

To slice and dice is to break a body of information down into smaller parts or
to examine it from different viewpoints so that you can understand it better.
This term can be compared to drill down, which is the process of dividing an
information area up into finer and finer layers in a hierarchy, but with the
Explain slice and dice ? purpose of narrowing in to one small area or item.