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Fusion Engineering and Design 63 / 64 (2002) 333 / 342 /64 (2002) 333 /342

Fusion Engineering and Design 63 / 64 (2002) 333 / 342 www.else v ier.com/locate/fusengdes Thermal-hydraulic


Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of IFMIF liquid lithium target

Mizuho Ida a, , Hideo Nakamura b , Hiroshi

Nakamura c , Hiroo Nakamura a ,

Koichiro Ezato a , Hiroshi Takeuchi a

a Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan b Department of Reactor Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan c Japan Science and Technology Co., 5-1-4 Takamoridai, Kasugai, Aichi 487-0032, Japan


International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based deuteron /lithium neutron source for testing fusion materials. High-speed flow up to 20 m/s is required for the liquid lithium target to remove high heat load 1 GW/m 2 of deuteron beams. Thermal-hydraulic stability of the target system is required during long-term operation of IFMIF. Thermal-hydraulic analyses and simulation experiments with water jets were carried out to verify the stability of the IFMIF target flow. Appropriateness of concept of the high-speed flow on concave back-wall was verified by the analyses. There were enough temperature margins to avoid boiling and a thickness margin of 3 mm in the target. Acceptable range of the back-wall radius was 100 /1000 mm. By the experiments with different nozzle wall roughness, main cause of surface waves was found to be boundary layer at the nozzle exit depending on the wall roughness. Cause of increased surface waves in case of the coarse-wall nozzle was a transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer. Based on the experimental results, a wall roughness less than 6.3 mm was recommended for IFMIF target. These results give stable conditions of the IFMIF target, verify the appropriateness of its design and give guidelines on its fabrication. # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fusion material; Fusion neutron; IFMIF; Lithium flow target; Thermal-hydraulic analysis; Flow boiling; Free surface; Interfacial stability; Surface wave; Flow simulation; Boundary layer

1. Introduction

The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based neutron source employing deuteron /lithium (D /Li)

Corresponding author. Tel.: /81-29-282-6095; fax: /81-


E-mail address: ida@ifmif.tokai.jaeri.go.jp (M. Ida).

stripping reaction. High-flux, high-energy neutron field (2 MW/m 2 ) is generated to provide the irradiation damage up to 200 dpa with an appro- priate He-generation/dpa ratio in a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm 3 ) for testing of candi- date materials for first walls of fusion reactors. A development of such a type of neutron source was firstly implemented in 1978 /1984 by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Testing Facility (FMIT) project [1] in the United States. Flow experiments

0920-3796/02/$ - see front matter # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 9 2 0 - 3 7 9 6 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 1 2 2 - 9


M. Ida et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 63 /64 (2002) 333 /342

were carried out with a target width of 100 mm and a thickness of 19 mm to achieve stable jet at high speed up to 17 m/s. Deviation of jet thickness and instability of target surface were observed. After the FMIT project, efforts for the develop- ment of such a neutron source were continued in 1988 /1992 by Energy Selective Neutron Irradia- tion Test Facility (ESNIT) plan [2] in Japan. Utilizing the essential technology basis defined

by the FMIT and the ESNIT, the IFMIF project

has been initiated as an international collaboration

among the European Union (EU), Japan, the Russian Federation (RF) and US under the International Energy Agency (IEA) since 1995 [3,4]. The IFMIF provides larger irradiation volume than those of the former facilities. Three-

year key element technology phase (KEP) was initiated in 2000 to reduce the risk factors of key technology needed to achieve continuous wave (CW) beam with the current of 250 mA and energy

of 40 MeV, to achieve the corresponding power

handling capabilities in the liquid Li target system, and to satisfy the availability and reliability of the

target during long-term operation of the IFMIF


To provide the high-flux neutron field in the above-mentioned volume with gradient less than

10% cm 1 , nearly uniform broad beams are irradiated at a footprint of 200 /50 mm 2 on the

Li target. This footprint size is far larger than that

of FMIT, whose beam distribution is nearly

Gaussian with 30 /10 mm 2 as full width at half maximum (FWHM) [7]. Furthermore, the heat load by D beams is up to 10 MW in IFMIF, while it was 3.5 MW in FMIT with beam current

of 100 mA and energy of 35 MeV [7]. To remove

such a high heat load of 1 GW/m 2 , 10 MW at a

footprint of 200 /50 mm, high-speed flows of up

to 20 m/s are required for the IFMIF liquid Li

target with a free surface without boiling of the Li flow during the beam irradiation. Furthermore, thermal and hydraulic stability is required on the target flow during long-term operation of the target system with the availability of 95%. To achieve stable intense neutron field in IFMIF, the jet thickness and surface fluctuation are required

to be more controlled than those measured and

observed in the FMIT experiments. Clarification is

required about the acceptable range of the target specification and requirement on the target fabri- cation. Therefore, more investigations, especially on thermal and hydraulic stability, and design work have been required for IFMIF target system. Issues associated with the stability of the target flow have been investigated for years and are included in one of the essential tasks during IFMIF-KEP. This paper focuses on the thermal and hydraulic analyses and flow experiments with water which have been carried out to verify and clarify the thermal-hydraulic stability of the target flow and thus the appropriateness of target design.

2. IFMIF target geometry to satisfy the requirements on Li flow

In the IFMIF target, a reference design adopts a double reducer nozzle to generate high-speed flows without separation in the flow nozzle and a concave wall to avoid boiling of the Li flow with a static pressure in the high-speed Li target flow in centrifugal force field. Table 1 and Fig. 1 show the main specifications and a schematic representation of IFMIF target, respectively. The target flow width of 260 mm is selected to cover the beam width of 200 mm. The flow thickness of 25 mm was expected to cover the range of deuteron beams penetration at an energy of 40 MeV. The D beams are injected in a region at 150 /200 mm

Table 1 Specification of IFMIF target

Beam deposition area

Width of Li jet 260 mm


(Width) /50 mm (Height)

Thickness of Li jet

19, 25 mm (for 32, 40 MeV D beams)


Average velocity of Li jet (U 0 )


m/s (range 10 /20 m/s)

Flow rate of Li 0.130 m 3 /s (U 0 /20 m/s, D /25 mm)

Average temperature


8C at upstream of beam deposi-

of Li

tion, 285

8C at downstream of beam

deposition, (40 MeV D beams, U 0 /

20 m/s)

Pressure at jet surface 1 /10 3 Pa

M. Ida et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 63 /64 (2002) 333 /342


Engineering and Design 63 / 64 (2002) 333 / 342 335 Fig. 1. Schematic of IFMIF

Fig. 1. Schematic of IFMIF Li target.

downstream from the nozzle exit to reduce damage of the nozzle by intense neutron field. To achieve the high-speed uniform flows in the IFMIF target, Shima’s nozzle [8] is employed for the IFMIF target, because its symmetrical nozzle curve (x n , 9/y n ) is clearly defined by following functions:

, 9 / y n ) is clearly defined by following functions: Fig. 2. Cur v

Fig. 2. Curves of double reducer nozzle to achieve high contraction ratio without separation.

with viscosity, one-step contraction with a con- traction ratio of 10 may cause separation in a nozzle at high speed of 20 m/s. Maximum con- traction ratio of 4 was employed after hydraulic analysis and survey of existing nozzles. A double

x n 2a n ln[2cos u =2] 2b n ln[2sin u =2] [a m





2b n (a n b n )

(a n b n )] cos u

y n b n


(a n b n )u [a m



2b n (a n b n )

(a n b n )]sin u







where a n and b n are widths of the inlet (u 0/ p ,

/ ), respec-

tively. Shima obtained these equations based on the potential flow theory that is applicable to low- viscosity fluid. In the IFMIF, a contraction ratio through the nozzle is selected to be 10 because of a requirement from the Li loop design to control flow velocity in the piping. In case of actual fluid

x n 0/ / ) and outlet (u0/0, x n 0/

reducer nozzle with flow width ratio of 10:2.5:1 was introduced. The curves of upstream part (x 1 , 9/y 1 ) and downstream part (x 2 , 9/y 2 ) are given with Eqs. (1) and (2) and with the following inlet and outlet sizes:

a 1 250 mm;

b 1 62:5 mm for the upstream part (x 1 ;9y 1 );


M. Ida et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 63 /64 (2002) 333 /342

a 2 62:5 mm;

b 2 25 mm for the downstream part (x 2 ;9y 2 ):

Fig. 2 shows the whole shape of the double- reducer nozzle obtained by applying this connect-

ing method. The lengths of the nozzle parts are 260


( /140 mm B/X 1 B/120 mm) for the upstream


and 130 mm ( /90 mm B/X 2 B/40 mm) for the

downstream part. These lengths were employed after consideration and hydraulic analysis to avoid the influence of upstream disturbance with mini- mum length.

3. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of Li target

Thermal-hydraulic analyses have been carried

out to verify the appropriateness of the reference

target design mentioned above and to clarify the acceptable range of target specification such as

flow velocity and back-wall radius.

3.1. Calculation model

The thermal behavior of the IFMIF Li flow can be predicted without real beam heating, because an effect of beam momentum as pressure on the

free surface can be neglected. For example, under

a condition of irradiation by beams with an energy

of 40 MeV and a current of 250 mA onto Li flows with a velocity of 20 m/s, pressure by the beams momentum is about 32 Pa, which gives displace- ment of 0.02 mm in thickness on Li flow surface [9]. Numerical calculations thus have been carried

out to simulate the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of IFMIF Li target, to verify the appropriateness of

the target concept and design, and to estimate

temperature and spatial margins. The two-dimensional analyses were performed employing a cylindrical coordinate shown in Fig. 3, because the beam width of 200 mm is large enough and another numerical simulation [10] predicted that the three-dimensional convection at the beam edge induced by density variations was negligible even in the significant centrifugal force field. A multi-dimensional, transient, thermal- hydraulic code FLOW-3D [11] was used for both

analyses. Fig. 3 indicates the distribution of the heat generation rate along the jet thickness in the

heated region ( /25 mm B/L B/25 mm, L is the vertical position relative to the beam center), thus the beam energy deposition curve, obtained using the modified EDEP-1 code [12]. In every case, standard deviation ( s E ) of beam energy is 0.5 MeV assuming a use of energy dispersion cavity (EDC) in accelerator system. The calculation conditions are summarized in Table 2. The target average velocity (U 0 ) and back-wall radius (R W ) were


m/s, R W /100, 250 and 1000 mm.

as primary parameters: U 0 /10 and 20

3.2. Results

The liquid Li is heated up while it flows through the heated region. The maximum temperature in every case was indicated at the point with a depth of 19 mm (i.e. peak location of the energy deposition) and L / /25 mm in flow direction (i.e. lower edge of D beams). Fig. 4 shows the calculated Li temperatures and the boiling points depending on the calculated pressure. The tem- perature and pressure are those at the location of L / /25 mm. The Li temperature in three cases of R W /100, 250 and 1000 mm were almost same. The curves of Li temperature have shapes similar to that of energy deposition in Fig. 3. It means that an effect of thermal conductivity on temperature distribution is not significant in target flows with high velocities. There was no change in Li temperature in the depth region of 22 /25 mm. The Li temperature is always lower than the boiling point. For the reference case U 0 /20 m/s, R W /250 mm, there is temperature margin be- tween Li temperature 280 8 C and boiling point 344 8 C at the surface. The margin is far larger (between 408 and 1121 8 C) inside the flow than at the surface. While the boiling points are 344 8 C at the surfaces because of vacuum condition of 0.001 Pa, they increase with depth because of the centrifugal force field. The pressure in Li flow is almost in inverse proportion to back-wall radius R W , because the pressure is given as integration of rU 2 /R , where r , U and R are the Li density, velocity and curvature radius of streamline in every location, respectively. Therefore, as shown

M. Ida et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 63 /64 (2002) 333 /342


Engineering and Design 63 / 64 (2002) 333 / 342 337 Fig. 3. Schematic of calculation

Fig. 3. Schematic of calculation model.

Table 2

Calculation condition

Deuteron energy Beam current Thickness of Li jet Average velocity of Li jet (U 0 ) Radius of back-wall (R W ) Inlet temperature Boundary condition

40 MeV 250 mA 25 mm 10 and 20 m/s

100, 250 and 1000 mm

250 8C Adiabatic at back-wall, Free surface, Free slip at Back-wall

Fluid property


8C Li (only density depends on


in Fig. 4, the curve of boiling point in case of U 0 / 20 m/s, R W /1000 mm is nearly equal to that in case of U 0 /10 m/s, R W /250 mm. However, U 0 and R W do not make significant difference in boiling point in high-pressure region because of low saturated vapor pressure of Li. This analysis was performed assuming a use of EDC. In case without EDC, the energy deposition curves have narrower and higher peaks than those in Fig. 3. The temperature increase at the depth of 19 mm is expected to be about 1.5 times as high as that in Fig. 4. Without an EDC, the peak

temperature is expected to be about 730 8 C in the case of U 0 /10 m/s, which is sufficiently lower than the boiling point even in the case of R W / 1000 mm. Therefore, a removal of EDC is acceptable in IFMIF design. As the result, appropriateness of the concept of high-speed flow on concave back-wall was verified through this analysis. There is enough margin of temperature to avoid boiling in the IFMIF target. Acceptable range of the back-wall radius is 100 / 1000 mm. As a reference design, the back-wall radius of 250 mm is selected in the IFMIF [3,4]. This calculation did not deal with three uncer- tainties in the jet thickness: thickness of boundary layer, fluctuation of surface location and deviation of beam-penetration depth. Acceptable velocity decrease in boundary layer was conservatively determined to be U (y )/U 0 /0.8, where y is the distance from a back-wall. In case of a laminar boundary layer, based on Blasius’ solution, this thickness is 0.4 mm (i.e. U (0.4 mm)/U 0 /0.8) at the location at the lower edge of the heated region, where U 0 /10 m/s. In the case of turbulent boundary layer, based on 1/7 power law, the thickness is 1 mm. With both results, a value of 1 mm is employed as such thickness of boundary layer.


M. Ida et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 63 /64 (2002) 333 /342

Fusion Engineering and Design 63 / 64 (2002) 333 / 342 Fig. 4. Depth profile of

Fig. 4. Depth profile of Li temperature and boiling point. (E D /40 MeV, L / /25 mm).

The amplitude of surface waves was observed to be less than 1 mm in former water experiments [13 /15]. Wave amplitudes on Li surface are expected to be less than 1 mm because the surface tension of Li is higher than that of water. Uncertainty of beam penetration depth is expected to be less than 1 mm even assuming 1 MeV in deviation of D energy, as shown in Fig. 3. As a result, the calculated spatial margin of 3 mm is large enough to avoid a direct penetration of D beams into the back-wall or a significant heating of Li at low velocity in a boundary layer.

4. Simulation experiment by water jet flow

Water experiments have been performed to investigate the hydraulic behavior of Li flow for IFMIF target. Because the kinematic viscosity ( n ) of water 1.01 /10 6 m 2 /s at 20 8 C is nearly equal to that of Li 0.98 /10 6 m 2 /s at 250 8 C, water flow can simulate Li flow with matching both Reynolds numbers (Re ) on the same size geome- tries. Nearly full-size, vertical flow experiments were performed since 1995 to verify the appropri- ateness of the double reducer nozzle [13]. High- speed water flows up to 20 m/s were successfully generated through the nozzle with neither separa- tion in the nozzle nor significant deformation of free surface flow along concave back-wall. In these experiments, 2D and 3D waves were observed on

the surface [13 /15]. Therefore, the main concern about the flow stability has moved to surface stability.

4.1. Effectiveness of water experiment to simulate surface stability of high-speed Li flows

The main cause of such surface waves is the velocity distribution in boundary layer at the nozzle exit. The velocity distribution is formed along the nozzle wall and its recovery into uniform velocity in shear layer under free surface was observed in the former water experiments [13 / 15]. The velocity distribution in Li flow is nearly equal to that in water flow, because the formation of boundary layer and the velocity recovery depend on Reynolds number. To investigate the surface behavior, water experiments have been carried out using small, horizontal, test equipment. Effects of gravity and centrifugal forces on surface wave can be ignored according to former experi- ments and the linear stability theory [13 /15] in case of high-speed flow. While Go¨ rtler instability will occur in a boundary layer on the side of concave wall, it is expected not to affect stability on the surface side around the location of beams footprint only about 150 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. The most remarkable difference between Li and water flows is their surface tensions s /0.386 N/m for Li at 250 8 C and 0.0728 N/m for water at

M. Ida et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 63 /64 (2002) 333 /342


20 8C. However, the effects of surface tension on surface instability become insignificant or to be neglected in cases of high-speed flows, according to the linear stability theory. In the theory, the surface behavior is characterized by the Weber

number We /U (rD /s ) 1/2 , where U , r and D are the flow velocity, density and thickness of shear layer, respectively. The ratio l /D is predicted to be constant in case that We /2.5, where l is the wavelength of most unstable wave. For the velocity range of IFMIF target flows (i.e. U /

10 /20 m/s), using D /0.08 mm (at U /10 m/s)

and 0.05 mm (U /15 m/s) observed in water experiment mentioned below, ranges of Weber number is We /10.5 /16.6 for 20 8C water and 3.2 /5.1 for 250 8 C Li. Therefore, the behavior of surface wave will not significantly depend on surface tension, but on Reynolds number. Water experiments are effective to simulate high-speed Li flows not only in a nozzle but also on a surface.

4.2. Experimental setup and condition

As shown in the thermal-hydraulic analysis, surface-wave amplitude less than 1 mm is accep- table for the target of the reference design. Velocity distribution of boundary layer was ex- pected to depend on an inner wall roughness of upstream nozzle and flow length along the wall. The wall roughness may change because of corro- sion and erosion during operation in long time. This change may bring growth of wave amplitude. Therefore, water experiments were carried out with varying the wall roughness to clarify effects of the wall roughness on the behavior of surface waves and to determine the nozzle design for IFMIF Li target. A straight test section placed in horizontal direction [16,17] was employed for convenience of free surface observation, because the effect of gravity and centrifugal force on the wave ampli- tude was not significant. Observations of the free surface were performed using high-speed digital camera through the viewing ports at locations near nozzle exit and 150 /200 mm downstream from the exit. The latter location corresponds to footprint of D beam in IFMIF target. The nozzle and test section were made of acrylic resin for measurement

Table 3 Experimental condition

Average velocity of jet Jet thickness, width Roughness of nozzle wall Working pressure at free

surface Fluid Pure water (20 /30 8C, contain- ing tracer)

2.5 /20 m/s 10 /100 mm 6.3, 100 mm (two nozzles) 0.015, 0.1 Mpa

of velocity distribution at the nozzle exit by an argon laser source (Spectra Physics, Model 168- 06), a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV, Aero- metrics RSA-2000) and tracer. Fine measurements with spatial resolution of 0.01 mm were performed near the wall on the free surface side to obtain data in boundary layer. The experimental conditions are summarized in Table 3. Water jets with velocity up to 20 m/s, thickness of 10 mm and width of 100 mm were generated through the double reducer (100 mm 0/ 25 mm 0/10 mm) nozzle. The water experiments were performed with two types of test equipment to investigate the effect of the nozzle wall rough- ness on the free surface stability. One has a nozzle with a wall roughness of 6.3 mm and the other with 100 mm. Working pressure of cover gas faced to the free surface was 0.1 (1 atm) and 0.015 MPa to verify that the effect of the pressure on growth of surface instability. Such effect had not been verified in the former water experiments per- formed under the pressure of 0.1 MPa.

4.3. Effects of wall roughness of nozzle and pressure of cover gas

The effect of working pressure on the surface wave growth was found to be insignificant by comparing experimental results, in which surface waves were observed under both pressure condi- tions. These results also suggest that surface instability may occur even on the IFMIF target under vacuum condition of 0.001 Pa. Utilizing the result, the following experiments were performed under pressure condition of 0.1 MPa. The experiments were performed using nozzles with smooth (roughness: 6.3 mm) and


M. Ida et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 63 /64 (2002) 333 /342

Fusion Engineering and Design 63 / 64 (2002) 333 / 342 Fig. 5. Roughness growth of

Fig. 5. Roughness growth of free surfaces depending velocity and nozzle-wall roughness. (White arrows indicate flow directions).

coarse (100 mm) wall nozzles. Fig. 5 shows the observed surfaces at the viewing port 150 /200 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. Three pictures in the upper row are surfaces observed in case of the nozzle with coarse walls. The surface becomes rougher with increasing flow velocity. The other three in the lower row are those in case of the smooth one. The surface roughness is not so significant as that for coarse one. The difference between the results of the two nozzles is remark- able for high speed at 10 m/s or more. The wavelength was observed to be about 1 mm. A surface of Li flow is expected to be more stable because of the surface tension of Li higher than that of water. The cause and growth of surface wave was considered in relation with the boundary layer at nozzle exit, because effects of other causes were found to be negligible. Thickness of boundary layer is indicated in displacement thickness ( d 1 ) and momentum thickness (d 2 ), which are defined as follows:

d 1 g


1 U(y)





d 2 g


U(y) 1 U(y)





dy ;


where U (y ) is the flow velocity at a location y from a wall. With measured velocity U and U 0 , d 1 and d 2 were obtained based on Eq. (3) and Eq. (4). These thicknesses are shown in Fig. 6. In case of the smooth-wall nozzle, both thicknesses d 1 and d 2 decrease with average velocity (U 0 ). Solid lines in Fig. 6 correspond to thickness complying with relationship to U 0 based on Blasius’ solution. The boundary layer is laminar. In case of the coarse- wall nozzle, both thicknesses are nearly equal to those in case of the smooth one in low-velocity range up to about 5 m/s, while they increased in the higher velocity range. Any type of boundary layer decreases with U 0 . Therefore, some charac- teristic change from laminar boundary layer is expected to occur in the high-velocity range beyond about 5 m/s in case of the coarse. To identify the characteristics of boundary layer at high-velocity region, the shape factor H 12 / d 1 / d 2 was employed as an index. A laminar flow gives H 12 /2.6 with the assumption of Blasius’ solution. On the other hand, turbulent flow gives H 12 /1.3 with the assumption of 1/7 power law. At U 0 /5 m/s, H 12 is 2.3 for the smooth one and 2.5 for the

M. Ida et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 63 /64 (2002) 333 /342


Engineering and Design 63 / 64 (2002) 333 / 342 341 Fig. 6. Characteristics of displacement

Fig. 6. Characteristics of displacement thickness (a) and momentum thickness (b) depending average velocity and nozzle-wall roughness.

coarse one. Both boundary layers are laminar. At U 0 /10 m/s, H 12 is 2.3 (still laminar) for the smooth one but 1.6 (nearly turbulent) for the coarse one. The characteristic change from lami- nar to turbulent occurs at velocity range beyond about 5 m/s in case of the coarse-wall nozzle. The result shows that surface wave growth mainly depends on the surface roughness of the nozzle wall. The coarse-wall nozzle brings surface instability at low velocity with changing boundary layer from laminar to turbulent. Nearly the same change is expected to occur for Li flow because of similarities in kinematic viscosity and Reynolds number between Li and water. The nominal value of wall roughness 6.3 mm is acceptable, while it is easily achieved by machining on the stainless steel nozzle. Further study is required to investigate growth of the wall roughness considering erosion and corrosion during long-term operation.

5. Conclusions

Thermal-hydraulic analyses and simulation ex- periments with water jet were carried out to verify the thermal-hydraulic stability of IFMIF target flow and the appropriateness of target design, and to estimate design margins. The conclusions from the analyses and the experiments are the following:


Thermal-hydraulic analyses verified the ap- propriateness of the concept of high-speed

flows up to 20 m/s on concave back-walls. There is enough temperature margin to avoid boiling in the IFMIF target and a spatial margin of 3 mm for jet thickness. Acceptable

range of the back-wall radius is 100 /1000 mm, while reference is selected as 250 mm. 2) Water experiments with different nozzle roughness of 6.3 and 100 mm showed that the main cause of surface wave was boundary layer at a nozzle exit depending on wall roughness of the nozzle. Based on these results, the roughness of IFMIF target nozzle is recommended to be less than 6.3 mm.


Cause of the increased surface waves in case of the coarse nozzle of 100 mm is transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer above a flow velocity about 5 m/s.

These results give conditions of thermal-hydrau-

lic stability of Li target and stable operation of the

Li loop, verify the appropriateness of present

design on IFMIF target system and give guidelines

on the target design and fabrication.


The authors are grateful to Dr. M. Seki and Professor H. Matsui for the discussion on effec- tiveness of simulation experiment with water jet to investigate surface behavior of high-speed Li flows, and to Dr. M. Akiba for the guideline on


M. Ida et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 63 /64 (2002) 333 /342

the experiments and evaluation of the experimen- tal results. Appreciation is given to members of Thermal-hydraulic Safety and NBI Heating La- boratories in JAERI on their preparation and operation of the water experiments.


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