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Ezra Pound: this war did not begin in 1939. It is not a unique result of the infamous Versailles Treaty. It is impossible to
understand it without knowing at least a few precedent historic events, which mark the cycle of combat. No man can
understand it without knowing at least a few facts and their chronological sequence. This war is part of the age-old struggle
between the usurer and the rest of mankind: between the usurer and peasant, the usurer and producer, and finally between
the usurer and the merchant, between usurocracy and the mercantilist systemHitler stands for putting men over
machinesStalins regime considers humanity as nothing save raw materialthe real enemyinternational captitalismall
people everywhere were victimstheyre working night and day, picking your pocketsevery day and all night picking your
pockets and picking the Russian working mans pocketscapital is not international, it is not hypernationalit is
subnationala quicksand under the nations, destroying all nations, destroying all law and government, destroying the
nations, one at a time, Russian empire and AustriaFrance yesterdayEngland todayyou [England] are threatened by
the Russian methods of administrationthose methods are not your sole danger.usury has gnawed into England since the
days of Elizabeth, from Cromwels time, ever increasingbig money interests will win the warthe foundation for future
wars would be set in placethe nomadic parasite will shift out of London and into Manhattan. And this will be presented
under a camouflage of national slogans. It will be represented as an American victory. It will not be an American victory.
The moment is serious. The moment is also confusing. It is confusing because there are two sets of concurrent
phenomena, namely, those connected with fighting this war, and those which sow seeds for the next one. I naturally mistrust
newspaper news from America. I grope in the mass of lies, knowing most of the sources are wholly untrustworthy. The
United States has been misinformed. The United States has been led down the garden path, and may be down under the
daisiesall through shutting out news.

Ezra Pound was considered by most to be the greatest American poet of the 20th Century.

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Movie Treatment for Gradualism


250,000 We are told earliest homo sapiens exist.
BC
Wikipedia.org2008: The term human, in the context
of human evolution, refers to the genus Homo, but
studies of human evolution usually include other
hominins, such as the australopithecines. The Homo
genus diverged from the australopithecines about 2
million years ago in Africa. Several typological
species of Homo, now extinct, evolved. These include
Homo erectus, which inhabited Asia, and Homo
neanderthalensis, which inhabited Europe. Archaic
Homo sapiens evolved between 400,000 and 250,000
years ago. Many scientists favor the view that H.
sapiens evolved in Africa and spread across the
globe, replacing populations of H. erectus and H.
neanderthalensis. Others view modern humans as
having evolved as a single, widespread populations
from existing Homo species, particularly H. erectus.
The fossil evidence so far is insufficient to resolve this
vigorous debate. Starting with H. habilis, humans
began using stone tooks of increasing sophistication.
About 50,000 years ago, human technology and
culture began to change more rapidly.
148,000 The planet is a cold, dry full glacial world.
BC
128,000 Rapid warming initiates an interglacial stage.
BC
128,000- Global climates generally are warmer and moister than present, but with progressive cooling to temperatures
108,000 more similar to present.
BC
108,000 A strong cooling marks the end of the Eemian interglacial stage.
BC
103,000- Climate warms slightly but still cooler and drier than present. There are strong fluctuations.
95,000
BC
98,000 Esoteric spiritual texts regarding the Luciferin rebellion allege it occurred about 100,000 years ago.
BC
93,000- There is another cooler phase similar to that at 108,000BC
91,000
BC
91,000- There is a milder phase, resembling that at 103,000-93,000BC.
73,000
BC
73,000- There is a full glacial world, cold and dry.
58,000
BC
70,000 Neanderthals use stone tools and fire.
BC
58,000- There is a middling phase of highly unstable but generally cooler and drier than present conditions.
23,000
BC
40,000 Ice Age ends. Cro-magnons migrate into Europe.
BC
30,000 Neanderthals disappear. Asians cross land bridge between Asia and America.
BC
23,000- There is a full glacial world, cold and dry. It includes the Last Glacial Maximumthe two coldest phases-at
13,000 around 21,000-19,000BC and at 15,000-13,500BC.
BC
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20,000 European cave art begins.
BC
16,000- According to published discovery by Australian scientists during October 2004: A tiny 3-foot-high species of
10,000 human lived on Flores Island in Indonesia during this period.
BC
12,500 There is rapid warming and moistening of climates in some areas. Rapid deglaciation begins.
BC
11,500 Nearly all areas have climates at least as warm and moist as todays.
BC
10,800 There is a rapid onset of cool, dry Younger Dryas (very short-lived ice age) in many areas.
BC
9,500BC Younger Dryas ends suddenly and warm and moist climates return.
8,000 Agriculture develops in Near East.
BC
8000- narconon.org2009: Use of opium dates back further than there is history. Archeological digs in Switzerland
5500BC have found Opium Poppy seeds and pods, dating from the Neolithic age the New Stone Age, a period
 running from 5500BC to 8000BC. This makes opium the oldest known drug.
7,000- Climates are warmer and often moister than todays.
6,200BC
6,200BC There is a sudden cool and dry phase in many areas.
6000BC narconon.org2009: Cannabis seeds used for food in China.

6,000- Climates are somewhat warmer and moister than todays.
2,500BC
Wikipedia.org2008: Solar eclipses illustrate the happy coincidence that while the Sun is 400 times the
diameter of the Moon, it is also 400 times farther away giving the Sun and Moon exactly the same angular
size.
A student of revolution finds, as he progresses in his research, that the ramifications of the attack against Christian civilization are
unlimited. It extends into every sphere of activity in which one can possibly engage, whether for renumeration or as a hobby. Before he
is through (and one is never through), he must run the complete scale of research: into finance, government, politics, occultism, war,
revolution, religion, education, entertainment, and business. The first step is the realization that there is a strange admixture of people
involved, not bound together by a like position in life or by an outwardly noticeable objective, yet drawn by some hidden power, so that
their varied activities work toward a common goal. They are found to have nothing in common from the standpoint of nationality,
yet the objective is the same in China, Africa, Europe, Central America, Asia and the United States. This, too, in spite of the fact that the
living conditions in these various regions throughout the world are vastly different. Their religions are dissimilar, their systems of
government vary, and the difficulties to be met, economic and otherwise, are not the same. Not only are the involved people a
strange admixture, but their theories present the same disconnected picture, not unlike a jig-saw puzzle before it has been pieced together.
Current history, which looks episodic, is in fact the culminating stages of a very long-term policy moving internationally, but visible
only in the long perspective of time. What we think we see is often an illusion intentionally presented. The conspiracy will soon
become an open conspiracy with the general public promoting the drive toward the one world religion and government foretold in the
Bible. All great events have been engineered and maneuvered as a ship is maneuvered at its berth in the harbor using Hegelian
Dialectics, the process by which conflict creates predetermined history. When the conspiracists control both sides, then the thesis is like a
hammer and the antithesis is like an anvil and what is caught in between is broken and reshaped. Therefore, history regularly repeats
itself. Why would it not when the same ruling sect has been making and writing history throughout the ages? There is no reason to apply
these tactics in Switzerland. St. Paul described the situation when he said, For we struggle not against flesh and blood, but against
principalities, against powers, against the forces of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.(Ephesians 6:11-
12) Very few of the conspirators are aware of the scale of the struggle or of its real nature, and far fewer of the non-conspirators are
aware. The latter become watchers very soon for reasons that Charles Seymour observed: The moralist unquestionably secures wide
support; but he also wearies his audience. However, very often, the deepest penetration into the truth of a matter occurs when
conspirators allow, with arrogance and without comment, the pivotal players and the keenest commentators to speak as when V.I.
Lenin said, Peace is the absence of any resistance whatsoever. The student then is a watcher; the conspirators know the watchers are
there; however,while the conspirators do not believe watchers are a threat; the watchers know something the conspirators do not.
For those who do not believe in the conspiracy, consider this: The well-known acronym FU translated into the Microsoft font called
Wingdings is . Internet conformists claim that Wingdings and Webdings have anti-semitic secret codes. For instance, NYC in
Wingdings is  (destroying Jews is acceptablewhen actually the pirate symbol is masonic and Jewish so it reads Masonic
Judaism is good); NYC in Webdings is  (I love New Yorkwhen actually the eye is masonic so it reads I love Babylon which is
New York.) Wingdings is a font first seen on 1-1-00 designed by Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes in 1990-92 and is owned by
Microsoftand why would Microsoft, the largest funder along with Warren Buffet of abortion machines, associate itself with a font that
includes religious symbols? And why when you translate a conventional font to wingdings, and let time pass, translating wingdings
back to the conventional font results in a series of squaresno more meaning in the message.
The Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church which supplanted the Baltimore Catechism explains how satan, the devil,
interferes with our lives:

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#391: Behind the disobedient choice of our first parents lurks a seductive voice, opposed to God, which makes them fall
into death out of envy. [Cf. Genesis 3:1-5; Wis 2:24.] Scripture and the Churchs Tradition see in this being a fallen angel,
called Satan or the devil. [Cf. John 8:44; Revelation 12:9.] The Church teaches that Satan was at first a good angel, made by
God: The devil and the other demons were indeed created naturally good by God, but they became evil by their own
doing. [Lateran Council IV (1215): DS800.]
#392: Scripture speaks of a sin of these angels. [Cf. 2Peter 2:4.] This fall consists in the free choice of these created spirits,
who radically and irrevocably rejected God and his reign. We find a reflection of that rebellion in the tempters words to our
first parents: You will be like God. [Genesis 3:5.] The devil has sinned from the beginning; he is a liar and the father of lies.
[John 3:8; John 8:44.]
#393: It is the irrevocable character of their choice, and not a defect in the infinite divine mercy that makes the angels sin
unforgivable. There is no repentance for the angels after their fall, just as there is no repentance for men after death. [St.
John Damascene, De Fide orth. 2, 4: Pg 94, 877.]
#394: Scripture witnesses to the disastrous influence of the one Jesus calls a murderer from the beginning, who would even
try to divert Jesus from the mission received from his Father. [John 8:44; cf. Matthew 4:1-11.] The reason the Son of God
appeared was to destroy the works of the devil. [1 John 3:8.] In its consequences the gravest of these works was the
mendacious seduction that led man to disobey God.
#395: The power of Satan is, nonetheless, not infinite. He is only a creature, powerful from the fact that he is pure spirit, but
still a creature. He cannot prevent the building up of Gods reign. Although Satan may act in the world out of hatred for God
and his kingdom in Christ Jesus, and although his action may cause grave injuries of a spiritual nature and, indirectly, even
of a physical nature to each man and to society, the action is permitted by divine providence which with strength and
gentleness guides human and cosmic history. It is a great mystery that providence should permit diabolical activity, but we
know that in everything God works for good with those who love him. [Romans 8:28.]
#396: God created man in his image and established him in his friendship. A spiritual creature, man can live this friendship
only in free submission to God. The prohibition against eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil spells this out:
for in the day that you eat of it, you shall die. [Genesis 2:17] The tree of the knowledge of good and evil [Genesis 2:17]
symbolically evokes the insurmountable limits that man, being a creature, must freely recognize and respect with trust. Man
is dependent on his Creator and subject to the laws of creation and to the moral norms that govern the use of freedom.
#397: Man, tempted by the devil, let his trust in his Creator die in his heart and, abusing his freedom, disobeyed Gods
command. This is what mans first sin consisted of. [Cf. Genesis 3:1-11; Romans 5:19.] All subsequent sin would be
disobedience toward God and lack of trust in his goodness.
Satan cunningly plots the moves of his followers. Today, his attack is a frontal one, and he boldly appears in the open. He
wants everyone to know that he commands an infernal strategy, assisted by rapidly growing satanic sects. His logic: you do
not have to go against God when you can go without him. Satan encourages men to fulfill the exact opposite of the
beatitudes. Satans original name, Lucifer, means Light-bearer. As Gods right-hand, he was to lead Adam and Eve to God
by faith. But knowing Gods plan was to place His creation under the yet-to-be-born Christ, Lucifer usurped Gods plan by
deceiving Eve with carnal knowledge, thereby producing a kingdom that would be excluded from the Presence of God. He
hoped thereby to establish his own rule over earth; however, as death reigns in this kingdom, it must be constantly
replenished with more births and more sorrow. Ever since the Fall in the garden, Satan has sought to establish his One
World Government. He employs deception offering secret knowledge God had not revealed to Adam. Satan seeks
worship as God. On earth he is known as Baal and hundreds of other names, and according to his followers, all of which
require human sacrifice before he intervenes.
2 Thessolonians 2:9: Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders,
and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of that truth, that they
might be saved. And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie.
God has three choices. He can let the rebellion go on forever. He can control men as robots. He can withdraw ultimately from those who
refuse his love. His only choice is the third. Gods temporal judgments are disciplinary and corrective rather than punitive. God judges His
own people before he judges the unbelieving world.
Adam God formed man, Adam, out of the clay of the groundand so man became a living being. A river rises in
(Gen.) Eden and divides to become four branches: Pishon, Gihon, Tigres and Euphrates. The Lord God gave man
this order: You are free to eat from any of the trees of the garden except the tree of the knowledge of good
and bad. From that tree you shall not eat; the moment you eat from it you are surely doomed to die. The Lord
God then builta woman, Eve...they ate from the tree of life as God wanted Now the serpent was the most
cunning of the animals that God had madesaid to the woman You certainly will not die. No, God knows well
that the moment you eat of it you will be like Gods who know what is good and what is bad. she took some
of its fruit and ate itshe also gave some to her husband. God expelled them and settled them to the east.

There are Protestants who teach that Eve was actually seduced by the serpenta beast that was so close to a
human being that he could reason and talkhis seed did mingle with that of the woman and cause her to
conceiveAdams seed followed and Eve then bore first Cain then Abeland then later from Adam she bore
Seth. Cains utter defiance of God shows him to be absolutely unhumanlike: My punishment is greater than I
can bear. Behold, Thou has driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from Thy face shall I be hid;
and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me
shall slay me.

Cain was a tiller of the land while his younger brother Abel was a shepherd, and one day they both offered
sacrifice to God, Cain offering fruit and grain, and Abel offering fresh meat from his flock. For an unspecified
reason, God favors Abels sacrifice, God looked with favor on Abel and Cain resented it. So the Lord said to
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Cain: Why are you so resentful and crestfallen? If you do well you can hold up your head; but if not,
sin is a demon lurking at the door; his urge is toward you, yet you can be his master. Cain killed Abel.
God apparently was unable to find Abel or his body, or at least not admitting to do so, and so questioned Cain
about Abels location. Cain answers, Am I my brothers keeper? Although Christians interpreted Cains
motive in killing as simply being one of jealousy, this is not the older view. The Midrash, as well as the Quran,
records that the real motive involved the desire of women. According to Midrashic tradition, Cain and Abel
each had twin sisters, whom they were to marry. Abels promised wife was the more beautiful, and hence Cain
desired to rid himself of Abel.

The Lord banished Cain to Nod, east of Eden, and put a mark on him so that if anyone killed him, he would be
avenged sevenfold. Descended from Cain was Lamech. Descended from Lamech was Tubalcain, ancestor of
all who forge instruments of bronze and iron. Lamech killed a man for wounding him, a boy for bruising him
and said if Cain is avenged sevenfold, then Lamech seventy-seven fold.

Seth was then born to Adam and Eve. Men began to invoke the Lord by name.

A son Noah was born to Lamech who said here is one that shall bring us relief from our work.

Lamech, descended from Cain, died at 777.

Genesis 6, 1-4: When men began to multiply on earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of
heaven saw how beautiful the daughters of man were, and so they took for their wives as many of them
as they chose. Then the Lord said: My spirit shall not remain in man forever, since he is but flesh.
His days shall comprise one hundred and twenty years. At that time the Nephilim [prehistoric giants
of Palestine] appeared on earth (as well as later), after the sons of heaven had intercourse with the
daughters of man, who bore them sons. They were the heroes of old, the men of renown.
5600BC Wikipedia.org2007: In 1998, William Ryan and Walter
Pitman, geologists from Columbia University,
published evidence that a massive flood through the
Bosporus occurred about 5600 BC. Glacial meltwater
had turned the Black and Caspian Seas into vast
freshwater lakes, while sea levels remained lower
worldwide. The fresh water lakes were emptying their
waters into the Aegean Sea. As the glaciers retreated,
rivers emptying into the Black Sea reduced their
volume and found new outlets in the North Sea, and
the water levels lowered through evaporation. Then,
about 5600BC, as sea levels rose, Ryan and Pitman
suggest, the rising Mediterranean finally spilled over a
rocky sill at the Bosporusten cubic miles of water
identifiedwhat appeared to be ancient shorelines,
poured through each day, two hundred times what
freshwater snail shells, drowned river valleys, tool-
flows over Niagrara Fallsfor three hundred
worked timbers, and man-made structures in roughly
daysthe review of sedimentsin 2004 by a pan-
300 feet of water off the Black Sea coast of modern
European project (Assemblage-Noah Project) was
Turkeyage of about 7,000 yearsunderwater delta
compatible with the conclusion of Pitman and
south of the Bosporus. There was evidence for a
Ryancountering the hypothesis is datawater flow
strong flow of fresh water out of the Black Sea in the
through the Bosporus reversed at certain geological
8th millennium BCa comparable refillingwas
times, depending on the water level of the Aegean Sea
theTigris-Euphrates that is now occupied by the
relative to the Black Seathere has been sustained
Persian GulfBlack Sea Deluge theory based on
interactionfor at least 10,000 yearsexpeditions
Platos account of Atlantis flood {Eagle/Wind 2005)
From the Talmud:
The presence of two distinct accounts of creation led medieaval rabbis to say that there were two separate
first women. Rabbinic tradition held that the first woman refused to take the submissive position to Adam in
sex, and eventually fled from him, consequently leaving him lonely. This first woman was identified in the
Midrash as Lilith, a figure elsewhere described as a night demon. Adam is said to have separated from Eve for
130 years, during which time his ejaculations gave rise to ghouls, and demons. Elsewhere in the Talmud, Lilith
is identified as the mother of these creatures. The demons were said to prey on newborn males before they
had been circumcised, and so a tradition arose in which a protective amulet was placed around the neck of
newborns. Traditions in the Midrash concerning Lilith, and her sexual appetite, have been compared to
Sumerian mythology. The Alphabet of Ben Sira Midrash goes even further and identifies a third wife, created
after Lilith deserted Adam, but before Eve. This unnamed wife was purportedly made in the same way as
Adam, from dust, but the sight of her being created proved too much for Adam to take and he refused to go
near her. There is no record of her fate. Both Lilith and the Second Wife left long before the Tree of
Knowledge curse was brought.
Original sin is a doctrine not held by the Orthodox Christianity, Congregationalist or Judaism. Genesis
nowhere mentions the words sin and does not say that Adam was punished with death. Scholars
claim Original Sin, the concept that man is born in a condition of sinfulness and must await redemption, while
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founded on a forced reading of Genesis followed by an exegesis based on a mistranslation, nevertheless
became a cornerstone of Christian theological tradition, primarily in Western-rite churches.
The serpent that tempted Eve was interpreted by most Christians to have been Satan, although there is no
mention that the serpent is Satan in the Torah.
From Gnosticism:
Adam and Eve were a single being greater than the eternal angels and higher than Samael, the God the
Aeon and Powers that had created them. In wrath of Samael, the God of the Aeon then separated them
causing their superior knowledge of God to flee from them.
Eve has a different role equated with Wisdom, creator of the word of God.
Man and God were anthropogynous beings, later separated by God, the Father/Mother.
Women were considered equal to men.
Wrathful Yahweh of the Torah and the loving Father of Christianity are two separate divinities.
Satan the serpent is the hero who was trying to help the couple gain knowledge to defeat evil Samael, whom
they saw as the jealous demiurge of the creation.
Seth According to the Book of Jubilees, Seth married his younger sister Azura; he was 105 when his son Enos was
(Gen.) born; and he died at 912. All contemporary humans are thus seen as relating to Seth through his descendant
Noah. Through him came Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, earthly father of Jesus Christ.
Noah In Gods eyes, the earth was corrupt and full of lawlessness. Mortals led depraved lives on earth.
(Gen.)
Noah was the son of Lamech, and the tenth generation after Adam. From Noahs sons, Shem, Japheth and
Ham, all the peoples of the world would be descended. When Noah was 600 years old God decided to send a
great flood to destroy all life, for He was angered at the wickedness of man, but He saw that Noah was a
righteous man, and warned him to build a vessel for himself and his family and of every living thing so that life
might yet be saved. And so it rained for 40 days and nights and the Flood came, and all life was extinguished
except those who were with Noah. The waters prevailed for 150 days. The waters receded, and the Ark came
to rest on the mountains of Ararat. There Noah built an altar to God (the first mentioned in the Bible) and made
an offering. And when the Lord smelled the pleasing odor, the Lord said in his heart, I will never again curse
the ground because of man, for the imagination of mans heart is evil from his youth; neither will I ever again
destroy every living creature as I have done. While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat,
summer and winter, day and night, shall not cease. God made a covenant with Noah that there would never
be another flood: Noah and his descendants would henceforth be free to eat meat, and the animals would fear
man; and in return, man would be forbidden to eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood. And God forbade
murder, and gave a commandment: Be fruitful and multiply, bring forth abundantly on the earth and multiply in
it.

Noahs sons that came out of the ark were Shem, Ham and Japheth. The story of Noah concludes: Noah was
the first tiller of the soil. He planted a vineyard; and he drank of the wine, and became drunk, and lay
uncovered in his tent. Noahs son Ham saw his father naked and informed his brothers, who covered Noah
while averting their eyes. When Noah was drunk with wine, his son Ham performed an indecent act on him
[The Talmud deduces two possibilities: Ham castrated Noah; and Ham sexually abused Noah]. Noah awoke
and cursed Hams son Canaan with eternal slavery, while giving his blessing to Shem and Japheth: Blessed
by the Lord my God be Shem; and let Canaan be his slave. God enlarge Japheth, and let him dwell in the
tents of Shem; and let Canaan be his slave. Noah died 350 yeas after the Flood at age 950.

From Noahs sons, the nations branched out over the earth.
 Ham: The sons of Ham included Canaan and Cush, the father of Nimrod, the first potentate on earth. The
cities of Nimrods kingdom included Babylon and Ninevah. Traditionally, it is held that Ham was one of the
sons of Noah who moved southwest into Africa and parts of the near Middle East, and was the forefather of
the nations there. The Bible refers to Egypt as the land of Ham.
Shem: Although both Jews and Arabic peoples derive their origins from Shem, the name Semitic is now
almost exclusively used to refer to Jews.
Japheth: Japheth is commonly believed to be the father of the Europeans. The link stems from Genesis
10:5, which states that the sons of Japheth moved to the Isles of the Gentiles, commonly believed to be the
Greek Isles.
About Hebrew - Israelite Jew:
The word Hebrew comes from Eber, who came into existence 2277BC (Genesis 10:24). Many of us are Hebrews, including
the Arabs and the Turks. Six more generations takes us to Abraham (also a Hebrew, but not a Jew). Abrahams grandson,
when born, was named Jacob, but Jacobs name was later changed to Israel (Genesis 32:28). The descendants of all of
Israels sons are Israelites and the rest of the Old Testament is concerned almost wholly with these Israel people and the
nations with which they are thrown into contact. After their sojourn in Egypt, and their exodus through the Red Sea under
the leadership of Moses (not a Jew), they were formed into the Nation Israel at Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:6).
For 500 years the twelve tribes were together in this Israel Nation, but were finally divided in 975BC, into two separate
kingdoms, the House of Judah and the House of Israel. The House of Judah was made up of the Tribe of Judah and the Tribe of
THE PLT Benjamin, while the northern ten tribes made up the House of Israel, the divisions being recorded in the eleventh chapter
of I Kings. Never again are the two houses united we are told. The House of Israel was carried away in captivity to Assyria by
Shalmeneser IV (II Kings 17), thus ending their Biblical recorded history, their destiny being foretold from this point in
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prophecy.
The Jews believe the House of Israel was assimilated by Assyrian culture; their blood would now be flowing in those who
are living in Iraq and Iran; those who are living in Iraq and Iran are then the Chosen People also.
One hundred and thirty-five years later, the House of Judah (although by this time having lost many of its number), were
taken captive into Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, where they remained in captivity for 70 years. Now, those who returned
from this captivity (and the number of those taken) are the Jews of the Bible. They were already a mixed multitude and
the word Jew is a contraction of Jehudim or remnant of the land of Judah, and has nothing to do with the seed or the faith
of Abraham, referring only to a people who came from that place. Sennacherib in 709BC carried away 200,000 from the
walled cities of Judah into Assyria nine years after he had completed the captivity of the northern House of Israel, and it
was not until after this that Isaiah referred to Judah as the remnant. The Jew is first mentioned in the Bible in II Kings
16:6, the Book of II Kings being written after the Babylonian captivity. It is not scriptural, being arbitrarily used by the
translators. By the time of Jesus Christ, few Jews were even Semitic, John Hyrcanus having forcibly converted the
Edomites (who were no longer Semitic) to Judaism around 120BC.
The effect of the Babylonian Captivity upon this remnant of the House of Judah has never been fully comprehended. The
sex-politics-prosperity octopus was then flourishing in Babylon. Contact with the secret society cults that are part and
parcel of the Asiatic system is always demoralizing. The House of Judah was only a portion of the former Kingdom of Israel
and those taken into Babylon were only a small portion of the House of Judah. Those who returned to Jerusalem after
seventy years were only a small part of the original captives, their number being augmented by an infiltration from
the many varied racial types from the provinces all the way from India to Ethoiopia. When Mordecai and Haman had their
trouble which culminated in a victory for Mordecai, the Emperor of Persia decreed that it would be legal for the Jews to kill
their enemies and, as a consequence, many of the people of the land became Jews for the fear of the Jews fell upon
them (Esther 8:17).
There was now a conglomeration of people, a goodly portion Asiatics, with a background born from the cults of Babylon
that were based on mans deification. Is it any wonder that Christ was rejected as the Messiah?
The Jewish nation that was set up after the return existed only until its dispersion by Titus in 70 AD. At this time the
followers of Judaism who escaped, migrated to various parts of Europe and Asia. Those in Germany and Poland became
known in time as the Ashkenazim because the name Ashkenaz was applied to medieval Germany in rabbinacal
literature. The Ashkenazim of what is now known as the Russian Ukraine were augmented by vast hordes of Mongol
Chazars, Tartars and other Asiatics who attached themselves to this Asiatic mixture that contributed to the further downfall
of Jewry. And though they are 3000 years later than the Hebrews, they are the ones who boldly call themselves chosen
people although they are not Hebrews, Israelites or Jews of the Bible. The story of this ingrafting can be found in the Jewish
Encyclopedia. They are not Jews but they call themselves Jews. It is from this infiltration that has come the leadership
that was to concentrate unto itself the direction, enslaving and drive of all peoples known as Jews. It is from within
this leadership that pogroms have directed against Jews all over the world so that a people, bound together by fear, would be
more capable of being controlled. This Synagogue of Satan has evolved to include some with no Asiatic blood in their
veins.
4200BC Egyptians are creating star charts.

A About Astrology in Egypt:


Wikipedia2007: Astrology has a very ancient history in Egypt, with star charts found there going back to
4200BC. Egyptian astrology was dominated by the combination of the sun and the dog-star Sirius, as if
foretold when in the year the Nile river would flood, briniging fertility and life to what was otherwise varren
desert. The pyramids of Egypt also reflect the importance given to astrology, as they are oriented towads the
North pole of the sky and had a dual role as burial place for the pharoahs and astrological calculators. Varioius
pharoahs took an interest in astrology. Rameses II or Ozymandias as he was traditionally better known, was
credited with fixing the positions of the cardinal signs Aries, Cancer, Libra, and Capricorn. Some zodiac signs
are said to be Egyptian in origin, including Aries, Leo, and possibly Gemini, and the first examples of the
zodiac as we know it today appeared in Egypt.

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4000 A non-Semitic people moves into Mesopotamia.
BC Agriculture starts to develop in northern Mesopotamia.
Tiny settlements grow into villages. Irrigation
agriculture of southern Mesopotamia is starting to be
developed, and proves to be more effective than the
agriculture in the northern regions. Some of the
villages start to grow into cities. Eridu and Uruk are
among the first. Mesopotamia lies between the rivers
Euphrates and Tigris in what is Iraq today. This region
will be the birthplace of the first civilizations. Through
relatively easy irrigation the agriculture in these areas
could yield heavy crops. There were fish in the rivers,
the area had a diversified agriculture and wildfowl was
available out near the coast. There was never a
regular supply of water in Mesopotamia, and therefore
irrigation was central to controlling the crops in
southern Mesopotamia. In northern Mesopotamia,
agriculture proved successful at an earlier date, dating
back to 10th millennium BC according to archeologists.
The result is an easy surplus of food products-a
prerequisite for urbanization so cities developed. The Its lack of mountains made it fairly difficult to protect
cities were centers of trade, as well as production of against invaders. The result was numerous
handicrafts, state administration and military defense. invasions through the history, and many times did
Mesopotamia also had other important raw materials foreign warlords replace the existing rulers. Few
available, even if stone and wood was rare, which had dynasties would last more than a few hundred years.
to be imported. The most important local raw material The threat from the neighbors was another reason for
was clay, which was used for building houses, and establishing the cities: The cities could be fortified
which was used to create tablets to write on. The and defended.
richness of Mesopotamia made it attractive.
4000BC narconon.org2009: Textiles made of hemp are used in China.

3500- The Sumerian civilization (3500-2000BC) rises and falls. Around 3500BC city-states in southern
2000 Mesopotamia develop, and form the culture called Sumer. In the earliest period Sumer was divided into
BC several independent city-states, whose limits were defined by canals and boundary stones. Each was centered
on a temple dedicated to the patron god or goddess of the city and ruled over by a priest or king, who was
intimately tied to the citys religious rites. As these cities developed, they sought to assert primacy over each
other, falling into a millennium of almost incessant warfare over water rights, trade routes, and tribute from
nomadic tribes.
About Sumer:
Inhabitants of Sumer developed the first pictographic writing system, the oldest known law system, the city-
state (a prerequisite for urbanization), study of math, astronomy, and other sciences.
They had an accurate calendar that was vital to planning agriculture. They developed math using 6 and 10
based number system. They invented the clock with its 60 seconds and the 12 month calendar.
 They developed irrigation, the potters wheel, sailboat and seed plow.
They also developed astrology within the context of religion. They believed that the stars on the sky were
gods that controlled the events in the world, and that the position between these gods could be used to predict
events in the world, as well as the fortune for individuals.
Architecture was limited since there were no solid building materials available in the region.
Sumerian culture may be traced to two main centers, Eridu in the south and Nippur in the north. The deity
Enhil, around whose sanctuary Nippur had grown up, was said to have given gifts to mankind that were the
spells and incantations that the spirits of good or evil were compelled to obey. Eridu was the home of the
culture god Enki (absorbed into Babylonian myth as Ea), the god of light and beneficence, friend to humanity
who was thought to have given us the arts and sciences, the industries and manners of civilizations, the law
book. There were hundreds of Sumerian gods whose importance often waxed and waned. The gods were
said to have created human beings from clay for the purpose of serving them. The gist of Sumerian
religion was that humanity was at the mercy of the gods. The Sumerian afterlife involved a descent
into a vile nether-world to spend eternity in a wretched existence as a ghost.

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3400 The opium poppy is cultivated in lower Mesopotamia. The Sumerians refer to it as the joy plant. They
BC pass it along to the Assyrians, then the Babylonians, then the Egyptians. The poppy opens to form six leaves
 which resemble the star of David from the top. History does not mention massive drug use by the population or
frequent use by those in aristocracy or military; therefore, a person with open mind must suspect that drugs
were used by organized mystery religions.

 heroinhelper.com2009: The first people known to have used opium are the Sumarians...the use of opium
by the Sumarians dates back as far as 3500BC. It is known that they used opium medicinally. Some contend
that it was not used recreationally. This is highly unlikely however; the Sumarian name for the opium poppy is
hul gil, which means joy plant. Plus their use and export of alcohol indicates that recreational use of drugs was
as important to the people of that time as it is today. Thanks to the trading ties of the Sumarians with their
neighbors, the secret of opium-how to produce it-eventually traveled westward.
3100 The cuneiform writing system is starting to be used in southern Mesopotamia.
BC
3100 The city of Memphis in Egypt is founded by Menes of Tanis, who united the two kingdoms of Egypt. It was the
BC ancient capital from its foundation until around 1300BC. The ruins are 12 miles south of todays Cairo on the
West Bank of the Nile. With 30,000 inhabitants, it would be by far the largest settlement worldwide at the time.
Memphis reached a peak of prestige under the 6th Dynasty (2345BC-2183BC) as a center of the cult of Ptah.
It declined briefly after the 18th Dynasty with the rise of Thebes and was revived under the Persian satraps
before falling into firm second place following the foundation of Alexandria. Under the Roman Empire,
Alexandria remained the most important city. It remained the second city of Egypt until the establishment of Al
Fustat in 641. Memphis was then largely abandoned and became a source of stone for the surrounding
settlements. It was still an imposing set of ruins in the 12th century but soon became little more than an
expanse of low ruins and scattered stone.

About Ptah:
Wikipedia.com2006: In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial
mound in the Ennead cosmogonyit was saidthat it was ptah who called the world into beingPtah
manifested himself in the Apis bullwas seen as Atums father, or rather, the father of Nefertum, the younger
form of AtumAtum was identified as Ra (Atum-Ra), himself seen as Horus, this led to Ptah being said to be
married to Sekhmet, at the time considered the earlier form of Hathor, Horus, thus Atums, mother. Since Ptah
was the primordial mound, and had called creation into being, he was considered the god of craftsmen, and
in particular stone-based craftsthe craftsmen regarded him so highly as to say that he controlled their
destinyPtah also became a god of reincarnation. Since Seker was also god of craftsmen, and of re-
incarnation, Seker was later assimilated with Ptah becoming Ptah-Seker. Ptah-Seker gradually became seen
as the personification of the sun during the night, since the sun appears to be re-incarnated at this time, and
Ptah was the primordial mound, which lay beneath the earth. Consequently, Ptah-Seker became considered
an underworld deity, and eventually, by the Middle Kingdom, become assimilated by Osiris, the lord of the
underworld, occasionally being known as Ptah-Seker-Osiris.
3000BC Jacobisrael.us: Noah is born to Lamech.
3000BC Phoenicia.org2007: Tyre, along with Sidon, were established in ancient antiquity, as the very dawn well
before 3000BCthe name Syria was derived from the famous Phoenician city of Sur (Tyre/Tyrus)Syria was
always a fluid cluster of places and peoples that meant very little.
 Phoenicia.org2007: The Phoenicians of the Iron Age (first millennium BC) descended from the original
Canaanites who dwelt in the region during the earlier Bronze Age (3000-1200BC) despite classical tradition to
the contrary. There is archaeological evidence for a continuous cultural traditionthe term Phoenician is now
normally applied to them in the Iron Age (beginning about the twelfth century BC) onward when the traits that
characterize Phoenician culture evolved: long-distance seafaring, trade and colonization, and distinctive
elements of their material culture, language, and scriptprobably arrived in the region in about 3000BC. They
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established commercial and religious conections with Egypt after about 2613 BC and continued until the end of
the Egyptian Old Kingdom and the invasion of Phoenicia by the Amorites (c2200BC). Other groups invading
th
and periodically controlling Phoenicia included the Hyksos (18 century BC), the Egyptians of the New
th th
Kingdom (16 century BC), and the Hittites (14 century BC). Seti I (1290-79BC) of the New Kingdom
reconquered most of Phoenicia, but Ramses III (1187-56BC) lost it to invaders from Asia Minor and
Europeas the beginning of the Iron Age, as part of the invasion of the Sea Peoples (groups from the Greek
Islands, especially Crete), the Phillistines occupied the coastal area south of Mt. Carmel. [Hey, Jews
remember?]
3000BC The earliest known Indian astrological textbook is written.

A About Indian Astrology:


Wikipedia2007: Indian astrology is vedic [1200-700BC] in origin and has been part of Hindu teachings for
thousands of years. The earliest known Indian astrological textbook was written in about 3000BCfrom
India, Vedic astrology spread westward to the Persians and the Babylonians, and from them to the Greeks
and Romans. As a result of the Islamic conquest Arabs gained access to astrology from both the Greek
Hellenistic astrologers on one side (the West) and Vedic astrology from India on the other side (the East).
Unlike westernastrology which often had conflicts with the Church and Science, Vedic astrology has an
unbroken tradition for over 5000 years.
2750- wsu.edu2008: The Myceneans-The Early Helladic Period, 2750-2000BC: Somewhere between 3000BC and
2000BC 2000BC, the lands of Greece were settled by a metal-using agricultural people who spoke a language other
than Indo-European...we know next to nothing of these people...the period when they dominated
Greece...seemed to be one of comparative quiet and peace. All that ended around 2000BC; the early Helladic
sites and villages were destroyed in fire or abandoned outright. An invader had entered the stage, one that
quickly dominated the landscape: the Greek.
2727BC narconon.org2009: First recorded use of cannabis as medicine in Chinese pharmacopoeia. In every part
 of the world humankind has used cannabis for a wide variety of health problems.
2675BC Jacobisrael.us: Shem, Ham, and Japheth are born to Noah.
2650BC The Step Pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt is under construction.
2500 Climates are fairly similar to the present. The Great Pyramids at Giza, Egypt are under construction.
BC
 Wikipedia.org2007: the first appearance in archaeology of cultural elements clearly identifiable with the
Phoenician zenith is sometimes dated as early as the third millennium BC.
2500 The Hurrians or Khurrites were a people of the ancient near east, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and
BC areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500BC. They probably originated in the
Caucasus and entered from the north. They established themselves as ruler of small kingdoms through
northern Mesopotamia. The largest Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni. They would become the
largest ethnic group in the region; however, in most parts the Hurrians made up only a minority. By the first
millennium BC the Hurrians would be assimilated with other peoples.
2330 Mesopotamia including Sumer is conquered by Sargon I the Great, the first Semitic named king, and the
BC Akkadians who inhabitated Addad northwest of Sumer where lies Babylon.
Astrology is now traced back to the earliest phases of ancient Babylonian history, in the third millennium
BC.
A
About Astrology:
Wikipedia2007: there are three main branches of astrology todaywesternIndianand Chinesethe
study of astrology and the belief in it, as part of astronomy, is first found in a developed form among the ancient
Babylonians, and directly or indirectly through the Babylonians, it spread to other nations. It came to Greece
about the middle of the 4th century BC, and reached Rome before the advent of the Christian era. In India and
China, astronomy and astrology developed largely independently [sure]. With the introduction of Greek culture
into Egypt, both astronomy and astrology were actively cultivated in the region of the Nile during the Hellenistic
and Roman periods. Astrology was further developed by the Arabs from the 7th to the 13th century, and in the
Europe of the 14th and 15th centuries astrologers were dominating influences at court. The Mayans of Central
America and the Aztecs also developed their own form of astrology. Other cultures and civilizations around the
world also developed their own astrological systems independently [
]Astrologer is an
interpreter of celestial phenomena, while an Astronomer is a predictor of celestial phenomenaJudicial
astrologers study the supposed correlations between the positions of varioius celestial objects and the affairs of
human beingsduring the last century as astrology gained widespread popularity with the general public, its
detractors became increasingly more vocal against it.

About Astrology in Babylonia:


Wikipedia2007: astrology can now be traced back to ancient Babylonia, and indeed to the earliest phases
of Babylonian history, in the third millennium BC. In Babylonia as well as in Assyria as a direct offshoot of
Sumerian culture, astrology takes its place in the official cult as one of the two chief means at the disposal of
the priests (who were called bare or inspectors) for ascertaining the will and intention of the gods, the other
being through the inspection of the liver of the sacrificial animal (omen)just as the sacrificial method of
divination rested on a well-defined theory-to wit, that the liver was the seat of the soul of the animal and that the
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deity in accepting the sacrifice identified himself with the animal, whose soul was thus placed in complete
accord with that of the god and therefore reflected the mind and will of the god=so astrology is sometimes
purported to be based on a theory of divine government of the world. Starting with the indisputable fact that
mans life and happiness are largely dependent upon phenomena in the heavens, that the fertility of the soil is
dependent upon the sun shining in the heavens as well as upon the rains that come from heaven; and that, on
the other hand, the mischief and damage done by storms and floods (both of which the Euphratean Valley was
almost regularly subject to), were to be traced likewise to the heavens-the conclusion was drawn that all the
great gods had their seats in the heavens. In that early age of culture known as the nomadic stage, which
under normal conditions precedes the agricultural stage, the moon cult is even more prominent than sun
worship, and with the moon and sun cults thus furnished by the popular faith, it was a natural step for the
priests, who correspond to the scientists of a later day, to perfect a theory of a complete accord between
phenomena observed in the heavens and occurrences on earth. Of the planets five were re-Jupiter, Venus,
Saturn, Mercury and Mars-toname them in the order in which they appear in the older cuneiform literature; in
later texts Mercury and Saturn change places. These five planets were identified with the gods of the
Babylonian pantheon as follows: Jupiter with Marduk; Venus with the goddess Ishtar; Saturn with Ninurta
(Ninib); Mercury with Nabu(Nebo); and Mars with Nergal. The movements of the sun, moon and five planets
were regarded as representing the activity of the five gods in question, together with the moon god Sin and the
sun god Shamash, in preparing the occurrences on earth. If, therefore, one could correctly read and interpret
the activity of these powers, one knew what the gods were aiming to bring about. The influence of Babylonian
planetary lore appears also in the assignment of the days of the week to the planets, for example Sunday,
assigned to the sun, and Saturday, the day of Saturn. The Babylonian priests accordingly applied themselves
to the task of perfecting a system of interpretation of the phenomena to be observed in the heavens, and it was
natural that the system was extended from the moon, sun and five planets to the more prominent and
recognizable fixed stars. The interpretations themselves were based (as in the caactors: On the recollection or
on written records of what in the past had taken place when the phenomenon or phenomena in question had
been observed; and Association of ideas-involving sometimes merely a play upon words-in connection with the
phenomenon or phenomena observed. Thus, if on a certain occasion, the rise of the new moon in a cloudy sky
was followed by victory over an enemy or by abundant rain, the sign in question was thus proved to be a
favourable one and its recurrence would thenceforth be regarded as an omen for good fortune of some kind to
follow. On the other hand, the appearance of the new moon earlier than was expected was regarded as
unfavourable, as it was believed that anything appearing prematurely suggested an unfavourable occurrence.
In this way a mass of traditional interpretation of all kinds of observed phenomena was gathered, and once
gathered became a guide to the priests for all times. Astrology in its earliest stage was marked by three
characteristics: in the first place, in Babylonia and Assyria the interpretation of the movements and position of
the heavenly bodies were centred largely and indeed almost exclusively in the public welfare and the person of
the king, because upon his well-being and favour with the gods the fortunes of the country were dependent.
The ordinary individuals interests were not in any way involved, and many centuries had to pass beyond the
confines of Babylonia and Assyria before that phase is reached, which in medieval and modern astrology is
almost exclusively dwelt upon-the individual horoscope [
]; in the second place, the astronomical
knowledge presupposed and accompanying early Babylonian astrology was, though essentially of an empirical
character, limited and flawed. The theory of the ecliptic as representing the course of the sun through the year,
divided among twelve constellations with a measurement of 30 degrees to each division, is of Babylonian
origin, as has now been definitely proved, but it does not appear to have been perfected until after the fall of the
Babylonian empire in 539BC. The defectiveness of early Babylonian astronomy may be gathered from the fact
that as late as the 6th century BC an error of almost an entire month was made by the Babylonian astronomers
in the attempt to determine through calculation the beginning of a certain year. For a long time the rise of any
serious study of astronomy did not go beyond what was needed for the purely practical purposes that the
priests as inspectors of the heavens had in mind; in the third place, we have, probably as early as the days of
Khammurabi, i.e. 2000 BC, the combinations of prominent groups of stars with outlines of pictures fantastically
put together, but there is no evidence that prior to 700 BC more than a number of the constellations of our
zodiac had become part of the current astronomy.

About Indian Astrology:


Wikipedia2007: Indian astrology is vedic [1200-700BC] in origin and has been part of Hindu teachings for
thousands of years. The earliest known Indian astrological textbook was written in about 3000BCfrom India,
Vedic astrology spread westward to the Persians and the Babylonians, and from them to the Greeks and
Romans. As a result of the Islamic conquest Arabs gained access to astrology from both the Greek Hellenistic
astrologers on one side (the West) and Vedic astrology from India on the other side (the East). Unlike western
astrology which often had conflicts with the Church and Science, Vedic astrology has an unbroken tradition for
over 5000 years.
2218 Gutians Tribesmen from the Zagros mountains defeat the Akkadians. Another native Sumerian ruler, Gudea of
BC Lagash, rises to prominence, promoting artistic development and continuing the practice of the Sargonid kings
claims to divinity. Later, the region would become more Semitic than Sumerian, with the influx of waves of
Amorites who were to found the Babylonian Empire.
2166 Abraham is born 1,946 years after creation according to the Masoretic Hebrew Torah. He was born in
BC Mesopotamia, a place called Ur Kasdim, which has been excavated by archeologists in todays Iraq. Abraham
Abra-ham was descended from Shem. Abrahams father was Terah who came from Ur of the Chaldees. Jewish tradition
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(Gen.) teaches the origins of Abrahams monotheism. His father Terah owned a store that sold idols. Abraham, at the
age of three, started to question their authenticity. This culminated in Abraham destroying some idols.
Abraham was then brought to the king, and sentenced to death, along with his brother Haran, unless they
recanted their position. Abraham did not, and was thrown into a fire. When Abraham exited unscathed, Haran
also would not recant, and was thrown into the fire. Haran, who did not truly believe, died in the fire. Abraham
then went to the city of Haran with his father and brother. His father died there. God spoke to Abraham for the
first time, and told him of great things He would give him if he would leave Haran. He did at the age of 75.

Genesis 12:1: God said to Abram, Go from your land, from your birthplace, and from your fathers house to
the land that I will show you.
 Genesis 15:18-21: On that day, God made a covenant with Abram, saying: To your descendants I have
given this land, from the river of Egypt as far as the great river the Euphrates. The land of the Kenites,
Kenizites, Kadmonites; the Chitties, Perizites, Refaim; the Emorites, Canaanites, Gigashites and Yevusites.
Genesis 17:8: And I will give to you and to your descendants after you, the land of your temporary residence,
all the land of Canaan as an eternal possession and I will be a God to them.

God called Abraham to go to the land I will show you, and promised to bless him and make him (though
hitherto childless) a great nation. Trusting this promise, Abraham journeyed to Shechem, and at the sacred
tree received a new promise that the land would be given unto his seed. Having built an altar to commemorate
the theophany, he removed to a spot between Bethel and Ai, where he built another altar and called upon the
name of God. Here he dwelt for some time, until strife arose between his herdsmen and those of Lot.
Abraham thereupon proposed to Lot that they should separate, and allowed his nephew the first choice. Lot
preferred the fertile land lying east of the Jordan River, while Abraham, after receiving another promise from
God, moved down to the oaks of Mamre in Hebron and built an alter. In the subsequent history of Lot and the
destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abraham appears prominently in a passage where he intercedes with
God on behalf of Sodom, and is promised that if ten righteous men can be found therein, the city would be
preserved. Driven by a famine to take refuge in Egypt, Abraham feared lest his wifes beauty should arouse
the evil designs of the Egyptians and thus endanger his own safety, and alleged that Sarah was his sister. This
did not save her from the Pharaoh, who took her into the royal harem and enriched Abraham with herds and
servants. But when God plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues Abraham and Sarai left Egypt. As
Sarah was infertile, and in accordance with custom, Sarah gave Abraham her Egyptian handmaid Hagar
(actually the daughter of the Pharaoh), who, when she found she was with child, presumed upon her position to
the extent that Sarah, unable to endure the reproach of barrenness dealth hardshly with her and forced her to
flee.

Hagar ran into the wilderness, where an angel appeared to her. The angel told her to return, adding I will so
increase your descendants that they will be too numerous to count. The angel also said to her You are now
with child and you will have a son. You shall name him Ishmaelhe will be a wild donkey of a man; his hand
will be against everyone and everyones hand against him, and he will live in hostility toward all his brothers.
So Hagar returned to Abrahams house, and had a son whom she named Ishmael.

Fourteen years after this the Lord visited Sarah. Isaac being born to Abraham by his wife Sarah, Ishmael, who
till then had been considered as the sole heir, saw his hopes disappointed. At this time Abraham was promised
by God not only many descendants, but descendants through Sarah specifically, as well as the land where he
was living, which was to belong to his descendants. The covenant was to be fulfilled through Isaac, though
God promised that Ishmael would become a great nation as well. The covenant of circumcision (unlike the
earlier promise) was two-sided and conditional: if Abraham and his descendants fulfilled their part of the
covenant, God would be their God and give them the land.

Five or six years afterwards, Ishmael displeased Sarah, and she prevailed on Abraham to expel him and his
mother. Hagar, with Ishmael, wandered in the wilderness, and when reduced to great distress, a voice from
heaven said What is the matter, Hagar? Do not be afraid; God has heard the boy crying as he lies there. Lift
the boy up and take him by the hand, for I will make him into a great nation. They lived in the wilderness, and
his mother married him to an Egyptian woman. Then God said, Yes, but your wife Sarah will bear you a son,
and you will call him Isaac. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his
descendants after him. And as for Ishmael, I have heard you. I will surely bless him; I will make him fruitful
and will greatly increase his numbers. He will be the father of twelve rulers, and I will make him into a great
nation. But my covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you by this time next year. These
twelve rulers, the twelve sons of Ishmael, were tribal chiefs and settled everywhere from Havilah to Shur, east
of Egypt. From the twelve derived the twelve tribes of the Arabians.

Abraham is considered the father of the Jewish nation, as their first Patriarch, and having a son (Isaac), who in
turn begat Jacob, and from there the Twelve Tribes. To father the nation, God tested Abraham with ten tests,
the greatest being his willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. God promised the land of Israel to his children,
and that is the first claim of the Jews to Israel. Judaism ascribes a special trait to each Patriarch. Abraham had
kindness. Because of this, Judaism considers kindness to be an inherent Jewish trait.
Aish.com (2006): Abraham, the first Jew, who took upon himself the mission of spreading monotheism
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throughout the world. And his family is going to carry on this mission-to bring the idea of God into the world
and re-elevate humanity back to its ideal state.
Hebrewhistory.info2007: Josephus related how Abraham was welcomed into Egypt as a great scientist and
was encouraged by the Pharaoh to metaphysical debate with the Egyptian sages. Abrahams sagacity
confounded the Egyptians; he introduced them to the complexities of eastern mathematics, and delivered unto
them the science of astronomy, for before Abram came to Egypt they were unacquanited with those parts of
learning [jthinkhow did Giza get aligned?], for that science also came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and
from thence to the Greeks also.
Aish.com (2006): History is, first of all, the testing ground of ideasCommunism has failed and Capitalism
is sailing alongJudaism also introduced a concept into human history that is revolutionary in all aspects,
particularly in the aspect of morality and the notion of history in general-the idea of an infinite God who acts in
 historythen history is a controlled process leading to a destinationJewish history doesnt focus on power or
At some empires. It is a history of something far more profound yet much more subtle; embedded behind events is an
point about unfolding drama of a destiny being fulfilled. This is the real drama of human destinyWhen we look at the
2008 history through the lens of Judaism, we see things in a totally different waythe cause and effect scenario that
aish.com is directing historyAbraham passed on this drive to his descendants, who have been at the forefront of
changed its virtually every major advance, cause, or social movement in world history. Jews have not only been awarded
tone,
format, and
a disproportionate number of Nobel prizes for their intellectual contributions, but have led movements such as
anti- communism, socialism, feminism, civil rights, labor unions, etc..The journey that God is directing
Christian Abraham to undertake is not just a physical journey, its a journey through history that is going to be different
content; the from anyone elses. Abraham is going to become a father to a nation that is not reckoned among the rest of
new the nations, a nation that dwells alongHe will be actively involved in Jewish historyThis is so because the
message Jews are a nation with a unique mission...The nations and people who are good to the Jews will do well.
was softer; Empires and peoples that are bad to the Jews will do poorly. And the whole world is going to be
no more changed by the Jewish peopleYou can literally chart the rise and fall of virtually all the civilizations in
talk of the
mission.
the western world by how they treated the JewsYou can see the incredibly positive impact the Jews have
Likewise, hadmost basic of all is that the Jews have contributed the values that are now linked with democracy-the
the Bnai values that come from the Torah-respect for life, justice, equality, peace, love, education, social responsibility,
Brith etcGod gave Abraham and his family the Land of Israel as a laboratory where his descendants are
withdrew its supposed to create the nation thats the model for the worldits the only place on the planet earth where
public the Jewish people can achieve their mission. A model nation cannot come to be anywhere elseIf they
access to abandon the mission, they lose the landIf you dont keep Torah, the Land will vomit you out
its monthly Aish.com (2006): Every other nation in the world bases its claim to its land on conquestMight makes
anti-
Christian
rightHowever, the Jewish people base their claim on Gods promise. It is a moral claim
newsletter. Aish.com (2006): The Arabs, according to their own tradition and according to the Jewish tradition, are the
descendants of Ismaelthe Bible says specifically that Ishmael is going to be great and that hes going to be at
odds with the rest of the civilized world: You shall call his name IshmaelAnd he will be a wild man; his hand
will be against every man, and every mans hand against him; and he shall live in the presence of all his
brothers. Genesis 16:11-12
Isaac Isaac was born to Abraham by his wife Sarah, and the only child they had together. He was the longest lived
(Gen.) of the three patriarchs. Isaac was circumcised by his father when eight days old. Sarah chooses the name
Isaac, because the angel promised that she should become a mother, she being beyond the age of having
children privately laughed at the prediction. When the child was born, she said God had made me to laugh, so
that all that hear will laugh with me. She suckled the child herself and would not suffer Ishmael to inherit with
him, but prevailed on Abraham to turn him and his mother Hagar out of doors. When Isaac was about 25, the
Lord tried Abraham and commanded him to sacrifice his son. Abraham obeyed and took Isaac, with two of his
servants to the place the Lord showed him. Isaac took the wood as for a burn-offering, placed it on his son,
and took fire in his hand and a knife. Abraham put the wood in order, bound his beloved Isaac, and taking the
knife, stretched forth his hand to kill him. But an angel of the Lord prevented the sacrifice and provided another
sacrifice (a goat). When Isaac was 40, Abraham sent Eliezer, his steward, into Mesopotamia to procure a wife
for him, from Laban, his brother-in-laws family. Rebekah was sent and became the wife of Isaac. Being
barren, Isaac prayed for her and God granted her the favor of conception. She was delivered of twins, named
Esau and Jacob. Isaac favored Esau, and Rebekah Jacob. Some years afterwards, a famine obliged Isaac to
retire to Gerar, where Abimelech was king, and as his father has done previously, he reported that Rebekah
was his sister. Abimelech, having discovered that she was his wife reproved him for the deception. Isaac grew
very rich and his flocks multiplying, the Philistines of Gerar were so envious that they filled up all the wells
which Isaacs servants had dug [Aish.com2006: an oft-repeated pattern of the anti-Semite who hurts himself
in an effort to obliterate Jewish presence]. At the desire of Abimelech he departed and pitched his tent in the
valley of Gerar where he dug new wells, but was again put to some difficulties. At length, he returned to
Beersheba where he fixed his habitation. Here the Lord appeared to him, and renewed the promise of blessing
him. Also Abimelech visited him to form an alliance

Aish.com2006: things go downhill for the Philistines. Their economy collapsesthe Philistines
THE PLOT come to realize its because of the Jews. So the king offers a treaty and asks Isaac to return. This is
$ the great pattern of Jewish interaction with non-Jews in history. The Jews are often invited in. The
 country does incredibly well because of their contribution. Then for no reason-Im aware of virtually no
jthink example in history of Jews ever doing anything that caused them to be hated the way weve been
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hated-the country decides to throw the Jews out, undermining its own economy
2100- The 3rd dynasty of Ur in Mesopotamia falls owing to an Elamite
2000 invasion in 2004BC. Elam had come under control of Ur in
BC 2200BC. Mesopotamia passes to foreign influence.

About Elam:
Elam is known for its matrilinear system of succession. A
newly appointed ruler was always referred to as son of a
sister.
Culturally, Elam achieved less in several fields than its
neighboring countries, and much was imported from them.
Writing came from the Sumerians and large elements of the
architecture came from Babylonia. There is relatively little
literature from Elam, and of religion almost nothing is known.
The area of Elam is one of the oldest civilized areas in world
history.
2000- wsu.edu2008: The Myceneans-The Middle Helladic Period, 2000-1500BC: ...Greeks...these new invaders
1500BC settled all the parts of Greece, in some instances settling peacefully with the previous inhabitants, and began to
dominate Greek culture. They spoke an Indo-European language...their society was primarily based on
warfare...they settled a difficult land: the Greek mainland is hot, dry and rock. Agriculture is difficult, but some
crops grow extremely well, such as grapes and olives...traded with a civilization to the south, the Minoans...they
began to urbanize somewhere in the Middle Helladic period....
2060BC The Chinese I Ching developes into 64 hexagrams. The text of the I Ching is a set of predictions represented
by a set of 64 abstract line arrangements called hexagrams, each composed of six stacked horizontal lines,
where each line is either Yang (unbroken), or Yin (broken with a gap in the center). There are 64 possible
combinations. The I Ching has long been used as an oracle and many different ways coexist to cast a ready,
a hexagram, with its dynamic relationship to others.
Jacob Jacob was born 20 years after Isaac and Rebekah were married, at which time his father was 60, and
(Gen.) Abraham, 160 years old. He and his twin brother, Esau, were markedly different in appearance and
behavior. Esau was a ruddy hunter, while Jacob was a gentle man who dwelled in tents, interpreted by most
biblical scholars as a mark of his studiousness. During Rebekahs pregnancy, the children struggled together
within her. Fearing that she was carrying a schizophrenic child, Rebekah questioned God about the tumult
and learned that two children were in her womb, who would become two very different nations. They would
always be in competition, and eventually, the elder would serve the younger. She did not tell her husband
Isaac about this prophecy, but remembered it later when she told Jacob to go to his father in place of Esau to
receive the paternal blessing. Esau was born first. Right behind was his brother Jacob, who was grasping
onto Esaus heel. According to the biblical text, Jacob was favored by his mother, while Esau was favored by
his father. Until the age of 15, the twins were raised in the same environment and exposed to the same
teachings of their father Isaac and grandfather Abraham.
2000 Stonehenge is completed.
BC
2000BC 209.85.165.104users.cyberone.com.au2007: rationalism was not original in the Semitic peoples (now called
Afroasiatic, the Egyptians are included)-even early Judaism had its shamas-but came from the invading Aryan
(Indo-European peoples): the Brahman caste of India, the Zoroastrian and other priests of Iran, and the
rationalists of Greece, we often fail to realise that these peoples were all part of the one vast invasion around
4000 years ago, and therefore retained much in common.
2000 The first inscriptions of Assyrian rulers appear after 2000BC. Assyria then consisted of a number of city states
BC and small Semitic kingdoms. According to some Judeo-Christian traditions, the city of Ashur was founded by
Ashur, the son of Shem, who was deified by later generations as the citys patron god.
1991 Abraham dies. On the day Abraham died, however, Esau went out to the field and asked Jacob for some of
BC that red, red stuff. Jacob demanded that Esau sell him his birthright in exchange. Noting that the birthright
(Gen.) was useless to him if he died, Esau agreed, and the exchange was made. In the words of the Bible, Esau
despised his birthright. This birthright included not only the traditional Biblical birthright, which granted
superior rank in the family, a double portion of the paternal inheritance, and the priestly office in the family,
but the Abrahamic blessing as well, which promised the seed in which all the nations of the earth were to
be blessed. However, Esau well knew the prophecy which Abraham had received from God that his seed
would first be enslaved for 400 years before returning to their own land. This prophecy referred to the
enslavement of the Jewish people in Egypt. Esau wanted none of that, so he agreed to forfeit the right to be
Gods chosen people. When Isaac grew old (137) and was blind, he decided to bless his eldest son before
he died. He sent Esau out in the fields to hunt down some meat and prepare him a meal, after which he would
receive his blessing. Rebekah overheard this exchange. As Esau went out to the hunt, she instructed Jacob to
fetch her two goats so that she could prepare a tasty meal for his father, and commanded him (because he had
married a foreign woman) to bring the meal to Isaac to receive the blessing in his brothers stead. Jacob
protested that his father might notice the substitution through touch, since Esau was hairy and he was smooth.
Rebekah told him not to worry, and placed hairy goatskins over his neck and arms. Thus disguised, Jacob
went into his fathers tent. Isaac was surprised that he had returned so soon. Who are you, my son? Isaac
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THE PLOT asked suspiciously. I am Esau your firstborn, Jacob replied. Isaac was still suspicious and asked to feel him,
since Esau was hairy. The goatskins seemed to fool him, though he maintained, The voice is the voice of
Jacob but the hands are the hands of Esau. Nevertheless Isaac blessed him. As soon as Jacob left the tent,
Esau arrived and exposed the deception. Isaac was shaken, but affirmed that Jacob would indeed be blessed.
To Esaus pathetic entreaties, he agreed to give Esau a lesser blessing. Then Esau swore to himself that he
would kill Jacob in revenge as soon as his father was dead. Rebekah prophetically intuited Esaus murderous
intentions, and commanded Jacob to flee to the house of her brother, Laban, until Esaus rage subsided. His
trip would serve the double purpose of finding a wife, as Laban had two daughters, Leah and Rachel.

En route to Haran, Jacob experienced a vision in which he beheld a ladder reaching into heaven with angels
going up and down. From the top of the ladder he heard the voice of God, who repeated many of the blessings
upon him. The angels that represented the exiles of Babylonia, Persia, and Greece climbed up very high
before falling down, but the last exile, that of Rome/Edom (whose guardian angel was Esau himself) kept
climbing higher and higher into the clouds. Jacob feared that his children would never be free of Esaus
domination, but God assured him that at the End of Days, Edom too would come falling down. Jacob awoke
in the morning and continued on his way to Haran. He stopped by the well where the shepherds were
gathering their flocks to water them and met Labans younger daughter, his cousin Rachel. He loved her
immediately, and after spending a month with his relatives, asked for her hand in marriage in retun for working
seven years, Those seven seemed to Jacob but a few days, for the love he had for her, but when they were
complete, Laban deceived Jacob by switching his older daughter, Leah, as the veiled bride. Both Jacob and
Rachel suspected that Laban would pull such a trick, for he was known as the Aramean (deceiver), and
changed Jacobs wages hundreds of times during his employ. The couple devised a series of signs by which
Jacob could identify the veiled bride, but when Rachel saw her sister being taken out to the wedding canopy,
her heart went out to her and the public shame she would suffer if she was exposed. Therefore she gave Leah
the signs so that Jacob would not realize the switch. In the morning, when the truth became known, Laban
justified himself, saying that in their country it was unheard of to give the younger daughter before the older.
However, he agreed to give Rachel in marriage as well if Jacob worked another seven years for him. After the
week of wedding celebrations with Leah, Jacob married Rachel, and continued to work for Laban another
seven years. The Bible states that Jacob loved Rachel more than anything in the world, and Leah felt hated.
God opened Leahs womb and she gave birth to four sons in succession: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah.
Rachel, however, was barren, and gave Jacob her handmaid Bilhah in marriage so she could raise children
through her. Bilhah gave birth to Dan and Naphtali. Seeing that she had left off childbearing temporarily, Leah
then gave her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob in marriage so she could raise more children through her. Zilpah gave
birth to Gad and Asher. Afterwards, Leah became fertile again and gave birth to Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah.
At this point, God remembered Rachel, who gave birth to Joseph. Various interpretations of biblical passages
suggest that Jacobs favoritism of Rachel over Leah passed over to their children. Around the time that Joseph
was born, Jacob desired to return home to his parents, but Laban was reluctant to release him. God had
blessed his flock on account of Jacob. Now Laban offered to pay Jacob, and Jacob proposed an unusual deal.
He suggested that Laban remove all the spotted, speckled and brown goats and sheep from the flock;
whichever ones would be born after that would be Jacobs wages. Left alone, Jacob planted rods of poplar,
hazel, and chestnut in front of the flocks watering holes, and when the animals saw them, they gave birth to
spotted, speckled and brown foals. Thus Jacob became quite wealthy. As time passed, Labans sons noticed
that Jacob was taking the better part of their flocks, and Labans friendly attitude towards Jacob began to
change. God told Jacob he should now leave, and he and his wives and children did so without informing
Laban. Before they left, Rachel stole all the religious icons from Labans house. Laban, in a rage, pursued
Jacob for seven days. The night before he caught up to him, God spoke to him in a dream and warned him not
to say anything good or bad to Jacob. When the two met, Laban played the part of the injured father-in-law
and also demanded his religious icons back knowing nothing about Rachels theft, Jacob told Laban that
whoever stole them should die, and offered to let him search. When Laban reached Rachels tent, she hid the
icons by sitting on them. Jacob and Laban parted from each other in peace, Laban returning home and Jacob
continuing on his way.

As Jacob neared the land of Canaan, he sent messengers ahead to his brother Esau. They returned with the
news that Esau was coming to meet Jacob with an army of 400 men. In great apprehension, Jacob prepared
for the worst. He felt that he must now depend only on God, and he betook himself to Him in earnest prayer,
then sent on before him a munificent present to Esau. Jacob then transported his family and flocks back
across the ford Jabbok, then crossed over towards the direction from which Esau would come, spending the
night alone, in communion with God. There, a mysterious being appeared and wrestled with Jacob until
daybreak. When he saw he could not defeat Jacob, he touched him on the sinew of his thigh, after which God
prohibits the consumption of that part of an animals blessing, and the mysterious being said that from now on,
Jacob would be called Israel (one who has struggled with God). Jacob then asked for the beings name, but
the being refused to answer. In the morning Jacob assembled his wives and 11 sons, placing Rachel and her
children in the rear and Leah and her children in the front. Jacob himself took the foremost position. Esaus
spirit of revenge, however, had by this time been appeased by Jacobs bounteous gift of camels, goats and
flocks. Their reunion was an emotional one. Esau offered to accompany them on their way back to Israel, but
Jacob protested that his children were still young and tender, they would eventually catch up with Esau at
Mount Seir. According to the Sages, this was a prophetic reference to the End of Days, when Jacobs
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descendants would come to Mount Seir, the home of Edom, to deliver judgment against Esaus descendants
for persecuting them throughout the millennia. Jacob arrived in Shechem, where he bought a parcel of land
that would eventually house Josephs Tomb. In Shechem, his daughter through Leah, Dinah, was raped by the
princes son, who desired to marry the girl. Dinahs brothers, Simeon and Levi, offered to go ahead with the
match as long as all the men of Shechem first performed the mitzvah of circumcision upon themselves,
ostensibly to unite the children of Jacob in familial harmony. On the third day after circumcision, when all the
men of Shechem were most weak, Simeon and Levi put all the residents to death by the sword and escaped
with their sister, Dinah. Jacob remained silent about the episode, but later rebuked his two sons for their anger
in his deathbed blessing. As Jacob and his entourage neared the border of Canaan, Rchel went into labor and
died as she gave birth to her second-and Jacobs twelfth-son, Benjamin. Jacob buried her and erected a
monument over her grave, which is located just outside Bethlehem. Jacob was finally reunited with his father
Isaac in Mamre. When Isaac passed away at the age of 180, Jacob and Esau buried him together in the Dave
of Machpelah.

Jacob had 12 sons by his 4 wives: By Leah: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun; By Bilhah:
Dan and Naphtali; By Zilpah: Gad and Asher; By Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin. These 12 sons comprise the
12 Tribes of Israel. However, when the land of Israel was apportioned among the tribes in the days of Joshua,
the Tribe of Levi, being priests, did not receive land. Therefore, when the tribes are listed in reference to their
receipt of land, as well as to their encampments, the Tribe of Joseph is replaced by the tribes of Ephraim
and Manasseh (the two sons of Joseph by his Egyptian wife, Asenath, whom Jacob elevated to the
status of full tribes = 12-1 -1 +2 = 12).

God loved Jacob and hated Esau, called his descendants the race the Lord will never forgive (Romans
9:13, Genesis 12:3, Malachi 1:1-5).
Aish.com2006: Esau, who embodies the power of might and sword, will, through his descendants, give
rise to the Roman Empire or Edom as the Bible calls it. And, of course, it is the Romans (as in Roman
Jtink Catholic Church) that converted the world to Christianity, the other great monotheistic faithSo, in Esau, we
see yet another example of an offshoot of the children of Abraham [Roman Catholic Church], who, like
Ishmael, does not carry on the mission [to bring holiness to the world], yet becomes a great
 powernothing less than a cosmic struggle. These two-Jacob and Esau-started fighting in utero, and theyre
going to be fighting throughout history. Later, these power coalesce, Rome gives rise to the Western
culture and it continues to fight the Jewish people. Its not an even battle ever. Rome will always be
stronger in the physical sense, but the Jews will be stronger in the intellectual, spiritual sense. So we see
that this is where the struggle begins and its going to carry on throughout all of historyWho is the ultimate
 enemy of the Jewish people in history? The nation of Amalek. This is the people that symbolize evil, and
there is a commandment in the Bible to wipe them off the face of the earth, because their pathological hatred
for Jews is so great, if they have a chance they will wipe the Jews off the face of the earth. The nation of
K Amalek, the Bible tells us, comes into being when a son of Esau takes for a concubine a woman who may have
been his daughterFrom this union came Amalek, the patriarch of a nation with a pathological hatred of the
JewRabbi Shimon bar Yochai, who wrote the chief work of the Kabbalah, the Zohar, some 2,000 years
ago, said that Esau hates Jacob is the way of the worldthe descendants of Esau are going to hate the
 Jews.Jacob has twelve sons and a daughterall the sons are going to be totally dedicted to the mission.
They are the core group-an extended family that is going to make the nation that is going to change the
worldJacob manages to accumulate a big fortune, which becomes another great pattern in Jewish history.
 The Jew with his hands tied behind his back, when given the slightest opportunity will do remarkably
well, even in a very hostile business environment. Jacob realizes that he has to go back to the Land of
Israel because he has a missionthe only place where Jewish potential could be realizedthe re-
unitingThey meetgood to have you backJacob never goesRashi explainsthat they will meet again-at
the end of daysJacob, representing the great [Jewish] intellectual, spiritual force in human history, is saying
to Esau, the great physical force: I give you permission to go on ahead and dominate human history
physically. But at the end of days, when the lion lies down with the lamb, then well get together. Then the
Jews will be on topThis doesnt mean in the end Jews are going to conquer the worldthe whole world will
come to recognize one God and live with one [not 2?] standard of morality in peace and brotherhood. The
Jewish mission will be fulfilledThats the cosmic battle: good versus evil. This is a very powerful idea and
the dominating pattern of Jewish history.

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1932 Amorites conquer city of Ur in southern Mesopotamia near Persian Gulf.
BC
About the Amorites:
In early Babylonian inscriptions, all western lands, including Syria and Canaan, were known as the land of the
rd st
Amorites, who twice conquered Babylonia (at the end of the 3 , and the beginning of the 1 millennia.)
Though herdsmen, the Amorites were not peaceful pastoralists. They were fierce tribal clansmen who
apparently forced themselves into lands they needed to graze their herds. The urban Sumerians or Akkadians
considered their nomadic way of life with disgust and contempt.
At the time Amorites were merely a regular irritant to the Ur-III empire, but eventually they undermined it to
such an extent that the position of last king Ibbi-Sin was weakened, enabling his Elamite subjects to overthrow
his rule.
Amorites seem to have worshipped the moon god Sin and Amurru.
 Historians are not clear on the Amorites of the Old Testament who lived in close proximity to Israel.
This lack of clarity is surprising given the importance of the history of the fertile crescent. Since they
came from western lands according to the Sumerians and were herdsmen, would they not travel
through the fertile crescent? Historians do not talk about this. And how is it that the herdsmen
despised by the urban Sumerians introduce so many sophisticated reforms? Again, historians ignore
this. And why is it that the name Amorites morphs into Babylonians without any fanfare? And why
is it that the map below shows Amorites living in Phoenicia? This all is called a red flag.

1900- Old Babylonian Period: The Semitic tribe of the Amorites from west of the Euphrates, conquers most
1600 of Mesopotami and ends the last Sumerian dynasty about 1900BC. During the first centuries of their
BC rule, the government is at Isin. They eventually form a monarchical government over the city-state of
Babylon. The three centuries of their rule is known as the Old Babylonian Period.

More about the Amorites:


First version: The advent of Amorite tribes into the Mesopotamian context, engages lasting
repercussions of its social structures. The division into kingdoms has removed any trace of the
Sumerian city-state and with it, disappeared most of its principles upon which they were founded.
Men, land and cattle ceased to belong physically to the gods or to the temples and the king. The new
monarchs, gave or let out for an indefinite period numerous parcels of royal or sacerdotal land, freed
the inhabitants of several cities from taxes and forced labour, and seem to have encouraged by a new
society emerged, a society of big farmers, free citizens and enterprising merchants which was to last
throughout the ages. The priest assumed the service of the gods and cared for the welfare of his
subjects, but the economic life of the country was no longer exclusively in their hands.
Second version: The Amorites centralized the government over the individual city-states and based
their capital in the city of Babylon. They are called Old Babylonians for this reason. In order to justify
the enormous power the monarch enjoyed, the Old Babylonians believed that the monarch was a god
and had a divine origin. This powerful new monarchy invented new ways to administer the state and
its resources: taxation and involuntary military service. Above all, the greatest innovation was
centralization. While the Sumerian civilization consisted of independent and autonomous city-states,
the Old Babylonian state was a behemoth of dozens of cities. In order to make this system work,
power and autonomy was taken from the individual cities and invested in the monarch. As a result, an
entirely new set of laws were invented by the Old Babylonians: laws which dealt with crimes against
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the state. It is in the realm of law that the Sumerian state was most dramatically changed by the
Amorites. While law among the Sumerians was administered jointly by individuals and the state, the
Old Babylonians allowed the state to more actively pursue and punish criminals. The punishments
became dramatically more draconian; the death penalty was applied to many more crimes, including
bad behavior in a bar.
The Sumerian civilization survived the arrival of Amorites as it had survived the Akkadian domination
and the Gutian conquest. The religious, ethical and artistic concepts current in Mesopotamia since
proto-history have not been affected. The Amorites worshipped the Sumerian gods and the older
Sumerian myths and epic takes were piously copied, translated or adapted with in general only minor
alterations. As for the scarce artistic production of the period, there is practically nothing to
distinguish it from that of the preceding 3rd dynasty of Ur period.
1813 Amorites conquer northern Mesopotamia.
BC
1792 The Amorites are now called the Old Babylonians. They do not go back to their old herdsmen ways. The
BC city of Babylon is given hegemony over Mesopotamia by king Hammurabi (1792-1750BC) who is not now
an Amorite but a Babylonian. Sumer culture becomes a central part of Babylonian society but Sumer
disappears.
About King Hammurabi (1792-1750BC):
 Perhaps the most important legal text in history is an Old Babylonian code of laws written by Hammurabi:
the Code of Hammurabi generally regarded as Sumerian in spirit, but with all the harshness of the Old
Babylonian penalties.
 Hammarabi crushes an Assyrian attempt under king Shamshi-Adad to build their own empire. The Assyrians
disappear from the historical stage for a time.
1760 Most of Mesopotamia comes under the control of Hammurabi and Babylonia.
BC
1750 Hyksos occupy northern Egypt.
BC
1900- Babylon is in its prime. Babylon at its prime existed from about 2000BC to 1600BC.
1600
BC About the name Babylon:
 Babel is the original name (in Hebrew meaning Gate of God) for Babylon that was in modern day Iraq near
the 33rd parallel. It means confusion. All people spoke the same language according to Scripture but became
wickedGod was displeased with them and confused all their language so they could not understand each
other.
About the religion of Babylon:
 Historians say they know nothing of Old Babylonian religion except that they seem to have adopted whole-
cloth the religion of the Sumerians. The Amorites lived in close contact with the Sumerians for a long time
preceding their ascendancy over the region, so it is possible that they gradually adopted Sumerian religion over
several centuries. The Amorites did import a new god into Sumerian religion, Marduk, which they elevated
to the supreme position over the other gods. Like the Sumerians, the Amorites did not believe that life after
death held any promise or threat, so like the Sumerians, Amorite religion ruthlessly focused on this world.
 Among the literary achievements was the compilation of a series of Sumerian stories surrounding the
legendary king of Uruk, Gilgamesh. This collection tells how this king destroyed the demon of the Lebanese
cedar forests, defied the gods, and discovered the secret of the flood and its survivors.
About Cush, the founder:
 Cush was the eldest of the sons of Ham (Noahs youngest son). The ancient pagans knew Cush as Bel, the
Confounder. The ancients called him Chaos. He was known as the god of confusion because he founded
Babylon. Other names for Cush are Mercury and Hermes. He was the original prophet of idolatry and the
ringleader of the great apostasy. Under his leadership, all language was confounded and the people were
scattered. His wife was the infamous Sermiramis.
About Semiramis:
 Semiramis was both Nimrods mother and his wife. In Egypt, Semiramis and Nimrod were known
as Isis and Osiris. Together they were worshipped throughout the known world by
many other names (Adonis, Apollo, Bacchus, Bel, Beelzebub, Molech, Dionysus,
Mercury, Kronos, Saturn, Osiris, Amun-re, Orion, Phaethon, Mars, Siva, Tammuz,
Vulcan Narcissus, Linus, Memnon, Kamut, Zeus, Juno, Odin, Wodan, Thor, Jupiter;
Ishtar, Diana, Europa, Venus, Ceres, Minerva, Lakshmi, Kali, Ariadne, Aphrodite,
Astarte, Ashtoreth, Rhea, Aurora, Isis). A generational curse was on Nimrod that began with the sin
of Ham, his grandfather and youngest son of Noah. Hams fourth son was Canaan and the land named after
him became known as a place were idolatry and sin abounded (Genesis 9:18). Canaan received the curse for
Hams indecency toward his father, Noah (Genesis 9:24-26). Jewish oral tradition indicates that Hams sin
against his father was of a homosexual nature. The subsequent rejection by his father fostered rebellion in
Ham that increased exponentially through his sons, Cush and Canaan, and his grandson Nimrod. Shem killed
Nimrod and his body was chopped up into twelve pieces and sent to all parts of the kingdom as a warning
against practicing pagan worship. Semiramis was compelled to go underground with her new religion (mystery
Babylon). She proceeded to deify her son as the sun god and made herself the moon goddess. She had all
the pieces recovered except for one. To symbolize the lost part, she had giant phallic symbols built at Nimrods
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altars. Horns of a bull were another sign of Nimrod worship. Thus, Baal was invented.
 Ishtartemple.org2006: In her temples in many lands from Egypt to Assyria to Babylon to Crete to India, in
Rome and Greece and many Celtic lands, her temples had sacred priestesses who were also called prostitutes
by those of body denial religions. Her worship was in the arms of the priestess who embodied and represented
the goddess(s). These worshippers are sometimes known as pagans. A fundamental difference in the concept
of worship is important to note: In the temples of the old ways people would go to the temple to be worshipped
not to worship. Women would go to the temple to serve the Goddess to embody her, to represent her, to be
worshipped as her. Women would spend a day, or a week, or a year serving at the temple as a priestess, as a
sacred prostitute, as a whore in service to the Goddess. There they would be worshipped as the incarnation of
the goddess, as the goddess herself. Men would come to her temple to be worshipped. Men would be
welcomed and served by the priestesses and men would represent the divine male principal, the
Horned One, the Sacred Bull, The God. Men would come to the temple to give their love and passion to
The Goddess, and would receive the passion, love, and affection of The Goddess. But some three
millennia ago there came monotheists who refused Her Worship preferring instead to be diminished in
body and spirit. They called Her, The Whore of Babylon, who leads men into fornication. They called
our sacred sexuality sin, and cast shame on Her sacred Priestesses. They held up a virgin as the
W ideal that women should imitate instead of the sacred Goddess that they had always held as the most
sacred image of Woman. This is essentially the state of things in the modern world. The two principal
deities of ancient Babylon were Baal and Ishtar. Baal was the god of war and the elements and Ishtar
the goddess of fertility-both human and agricultural. These two deities have roots going back before
Babylon to Nimrod at Babel and to Assyria. Through the ages they were imported into other nations
and under different names but always retaining the same basic characteristics. Baal was also called Bel,
Baalat, Molech, Merodach, Mars and Jupiter, and was frequently represented as a bull. Ishtar was also called
Aphrodite, Astarte, Ashtoreth, Cybele or Sybil, Diana, Europa, Isis, Semiramis and Venus. The two main
elements in the worship of Baal were fire and human sacrifice, usually children. Ishtar was worshipped

W via offerings of produce and money as well as through fornication with temple prostitutes. It is this last
characteristic that helps make the tie between religious Babylon and kings and merchants. In his book The
Secret of Crete, H.G. Wunderlich reports that before marriage, every woman in Babylon was required to go
to the temple of Ishtar and lie with a stranger. We have a similar report from Gerhard Herm in his book, The
Phoenicians, where women in the Canaanite cities of Tyre, Sidon and Byblos were required to become
prostitutes for a day and give themselves to foreign guests during the spring festival. This festival
survives today in the name of Easter, which is derived from the word Ishtar. Note that the women were to
prostitute themselves with strangers or foreigners. In ancient times, the foreigners in these cities were mostly
H composed of traveling merchants and political dignitaries. In the third century AD the historian Eusebius
described the patrons of these temples in this way: It was a school of godlessness for those dissipated men,
who had ruined their bodies in the pursuit of luxuriousness. The men were soft and effeminate, were no
 longer men; they had betrayed the honor of their sex; they believed they must worship their god with
impure lust.

About the inventions of Babylon:


 Banking was invented in Babylon. Relative values were placed on commodities. Silver and gold became
$ the convenient means of exchange. Nimrod, the priest-king (descended from Cush, son of Ham, son of Noah),
offered the temple vaults and protection of the gods as security for the treasure of his citizens. He licensed
trusted commoners to take deposits and lend for 20% interest. He then issued clay tablets as legal tender. He
was the first man to conduct war with his neighbors.
 The invention of the steelyard scale allowed precious metals to be used as money.
 24 hour day; 7 day week and 360 degree circle came from there.

About the Jews that would come to Babylon:


Scripture says the Jews were in captivity for 70 years in Babylon because they did not let their land rest for
one year in 7 for a period of 490 years as God commanded. They did not trust that God would provide.
Since the Captivity, Babylon and not Jerusalem had been the center of Jewish religious scholarship and
authority.

Nimrods religion invaded the whole world and is the basis for every system of idolatry and theme of
mythology. Babylon was the seat of Satan after the flood and where he established his mystery
religion, secret signs, special privileges and power: the secret societies. The people of Babylon had the
appearance of being very impressive. They made an effort to create an urban culture that was apart from God.
Their constant and unceasing labor sought to plan and to build and to build and to enlarge themselves until
their works reached to Heaven. With this God is not pleased. Babylons climate has changedbodies of water
have dried up and the land is barren now. There is another people whose outward appearance is not
impressivea people that follow the pattern of the One who was despised and rejected by menno comely
appearancenot acknowledged for their industry, rather they are marked by their oddnessthey do not fit into
the systems of the worldthey are outcasts and misfits but they are the apple of Gods eyethe things of the
world have lost their luster in their sightthey walk as aliens in the land, seeking a city whose builder is
Godthe world that judges by external appearances sees nothing of value, nothing that impresses in this
people, but God is captivated by these for in them He sees the image of His only begotten Son taking shape.
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Now God is doing the work of separation even as Judah and Jerusalem were released from Babylon after
seventy years of captivity and were invited to return to Zion, so the people of God are being called out of
spiritual Babylonthe only home they have knownland of wealth and prosperitytheir hearts have grown
attached to the things of the worldto travel to Zion will mean hardshipmuch easier to remain in the artificial
security of a prosperous land, sleeping in a soft bedand so many people saying that things are still fine in
Babylon.
1630- Santorini, in the Aegean Sea, erupts, contributing to the demise of Minoan civilization.
1600
BC
1600sBC Jacobisrael.us2008: the Vikings were here in America when King Woden-lithi sailed the Atlantic
seventeen centuries before Christ and entered the St. Lawrence River. He established a trading post at a site
near where Toronto now stands. It became a religious and commercial center that is now known at Petroglyph
Park at Peterborough, Canada. King Woden-lithis home was in Norway. He remained in Canada for five
months, from April to September and traded his woven fabrics for copper ingots obtained from the European
settlers. He called these people Wal, which is a word cognate with Wales and Welsh. He gave these Celts his
religious beliefs, the ability to measure woven cloth and an astronomical observatory for measuring the Nordic
calendar and for determining the dates of the pagan Yale and Ishtar festivalsCelts were already herethey
wrote with the Ogam scriptletters are made by inscribing single parallel strokes placed in sets of one-to-five,
in position above, across, or below a guide linein the New England area, artifacts such as grave headstones
have been found, all with Ogam script in Gaelic script. The Celts with the Gaelic dialect came from the
highlands of Scotland. According to the Scottish Declaration of Independence written by Robert Bruce and his
noblemen, the Scotland people came from ancient Israel through the Rhineland area of France and Germany
and then through Iberia or Spainalthough the Celts were never realized as a maritime power, since they were
a people scattered over many countries, their ocean-going ships were among the best. These ships were huge
in comparison to the Roman ships. They were two thousand tons in capacity as compared to about four
hundred tons of the average Roman ship. The ships that the uncle of Jesus, Joseph of Aramathea, used to
haul lead and tin from the Glastonbury area of England for sale to the Romans were Celtic in design and
operationit was the Libyans who transcended all of the others in the span of their voyage. A Libyan, named
Erathosthenes of Cyrene, accurately calculated the earths circumference. He reasoned that the earths
oceans had to be continuous and consequently a ship could sail around the world in either direction and return
to the starting point. The date was approximately 239BC. Eratosthenes developed the system of the meridian
circles of the map of the globe. The meridian circles are simply the points on the globe where the USN is
directly overhead at noon at the local time. He set these meridian circles in a grid in such a way that a mariner
could accurately locate his position. He drew the primary meridian circle to pass through Alexandria. The
Libyans then set sail in their ocean-going vessels to prove that Eratosthenes was right. Their ships were
equipped with magnetic compasses. Their compass consisted of a ceramic bowl with the compass points
engraved around the edge. A lodestone (a strongly magnetic variety of the mineral magnetie) was floated on
the water in the bowl. Sometimes, a magnetized iron strip was suspended in the bowl. They also had a device
for navigation that was the forerunner of the modern sextant. The Libyans traveled eastward, through the Suez
Canal that King Darius had built, then sailed down the Red Sea, and then around the tip of India, through the
Indonesian straights and then into the Pacific Ocean. They arrived on the West Coast of America,
disembarked and traveled inland to Nevada. These ancient Libyans settled in the arid Nevada country
because it was very similar to their own home country. In various locations in Nevada are petroglyps, written in
Aramaic-Libyan and Celto-Gaelic which reflect their mariner skills. There is a map of North Americathe
Paiute and Shoshone tribesmen of Nevada were asked where all of the petroglyphs we now know to have
been scribed by the Libyans came from, they could tell the archaeologists and epigraphists nothing except that
neither they nor their forebears had cut themin the modern, Libyan North African region there are twofirst is
the modern Berber who is of lighter skin with obvious and European featuresbuilds his home pueblo
stylewomentattoo their chinsmencover their heads and facesshowing only their eyes to
strangerssecondis the Arabsnomadicwomenare not tattooedmen do not veil the facein the
Peabody Museum of Harvardare ancient boels madein the southwestern United States. The bowls very
clearly show a man and womanwomenj have their chins tattooed. The men have the Berber type of
scarfdisappeared in the 10th to 12th century AD, after having been here from about 500 BC. All of these
people abandoned their towns and simply vanished. The ancient Berbers were of Celto-Iberian originthe
Scottish Declaration of Independenceread that they traveled through Iberiaon their way to Scotland and
Irelandthe same Celts conducted mining operations in America and either sold or traded their metal with
Europe. But it all vanishedshen the first Celts arrived in America, they were as pagan as their brothers in
Europe. Many of the earlier inscriptions in America depicted Baal worship and classical Phallic worship. Then,
all of a sudden, there came the appearance of Christian inscriptionsthe later Christian inscriptions were
inscribed over the top of the earlier pagan writingin Cripple Creek, Colorado there is a memorial in Greek that
states, herein is the last resting place of Palladis (a priest), the servant of Godthe Christian Celts of Iberia,
Ireland, Scotland as well as the Christian Celts of America had a legal system that reflected the teachings of
the Christian Bible. The system was called the Tanistry which means the administration of law by deputies of
the king.
1600sBC The Hyksos from Asia conquer Egypt.
1628 Thera erupts which affects the fate of Minoan civilization.
BC
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1600 Roaring into history from mysterious origins, the Hittites sack Babylon and would eventually acquire the
BC rule of a great empire that stretched from Mesopotamia to Syria and Palestine.

About the Hittites:


The Hittites are shrouded in fog and mystery; history does not know where they came from, and for a long
time the language they spoke was undecipherable. Historians now believe they were Indo-European, that is,
they spoke a language from the Indo-European language family, which includes English, German, Greek, Latin,
Persian, and the languages of India. Like so many others before them, the invaders adopt the ways of Babylon
including the literature, laws, religion and long heritage of Sumerian culture.
Their empire was at its greatest from 1600-1200BC, and even after the Assyrians gained control of
Mesopotamia after 1300BC, the Hittite cities and territories thrived independently until 717BC, when territories
were finally conquered by Assyrians and others.
The Hebrew Scriptures have little to say about the Hittites, and the Egyptians regarded them as barbarians.
In fact, from 1300-1200BC, the Hittites waged a war against Egypt that drained both tragically. The Hittites left
few accounts of their history.
The Hittites were significant peoples because their empire was so large and because their primary activity
 was commerce with the peoples of the Mediterranean; therefore, they were responsible for transmitting
 Mesopotamian thought, law, political structure, economic structure, and ideas around the Mediterranean.
When the Hebrews migrated to Canaan under Moses they found a people, the Canaanites, who were,
culturally speaking, Mesopotamian.
The Hittites greatly modified the system of law they inherited from the Old Babylonians. The most
extensive literature left is decrees and laws which were far more merciful than the laws of the Old Babylonians,
perhaps because they were less concerned about central authority. Under the Hittites only a small handful fo
crimes were capital crimes. Even premeditated murder only resulted in a large fine. They modified the
role of the monarch in that they gave the king ownership of all the land under his control; previously, private
property was allowed and the monarch only owned his own private property. Individuals were allowed control
over land, which belong to the king, only by serving in the kings army. So the bulk of the population became
tenant farmers.
The Hittites adopted many of the gods of the Sumerians and Old Babylonians. Whenever they conquered a
people, they adopted conquered peoples gods into their religious system. This had a tremendous
consequence for the Jews. The Assyrians would later adopt the same tolerance, which allowed the Jewish
faith to persist after the Jewish state was decimated by the Assyrians. And the Assyrians seem to have
adopted the same tendency to adopt the gods of conquered people, so the Assyrian conquerors of Palestine
adopted the Hebrew god Yahweh, into their religions. This eventually led to what some (neglecting the lost 10
tribes) say was the only major religious schism [pagans?!] in Hebrew history, the schism between Jews and
Samaritans.
1544 According to Genesis, Joseph was born the son of Jacob when Jacob was about ninety years old and Joseph
BC was probably about six years old when his father returned from Haran to Canaan and took up his residence in
Joseph the town of Hebron.
Genesis
1530 Babylonian Old Kingdom ends and Kassite Dynasty begins when Kassites sack Babylon.
BC
About the Kassites:
In the middle of the second millennium BC, Indo-European peoples began vast and chaotic migrations out of
Europe towards Persia and India; this migration was powered by the new use of horses and chariots. These
invasions displaced many peoples who began to migrate in many directions, and some headed towards
Mesopotamia and Palestine. These Asian people who had adopted Indo-European Authority and military
structures, and many of them were invaders who set up miniature kingdoms dotting the landscape of the
Middle East and Asia Minor. The Hittites had been the most successful, but they did not control the center of
Mesopotamia for very long before another Indo-European people, the Kassites, roared in and dominated a
large part of Mesopotamia. The Hittite empire continued for several hundred years, but the Kassites would
dominate the center of Mesopotamia both militarily and commercially.
The Kassites are gone soon as wave after wave of migrations put pressure on their fragile hold on power.
The Assyrians, a Semitic people angered by Indo-European domination, would return the area to Semitic
control. Under the Assyrian king, Ashur-Dan, the last Kassite king was driven from the Babylonian throne in
the 12th century BC.
1527 Joseph was a favorite son of his fathers and was envied by his half-brothers who plotted against him one day
BC when he was seventeen, and would have killed him had not Reuben interposed. He persuaded them to
Joseph instead throw Joseph into a pit and secretly planned to rescue him later. However, while Reuben was absent,
Genesis the others planned to sell him to a company of merchants. He was stolen from the pit by passing Midianites
who sold him to the merchants who then brought him to Egypt where he was sold to Potiphar, an officer of
Pharaoh. Josephs brothers showed Josephs coat dipped in blood to their father, saying that Joseph had been
torn apart in the field. After Joseph rejected the attempts of Potiphars wife to seduce him, she accused Joseph
of attempted rape and he was cast into prison for two years. Joseph interpreted the dreams of a household
servant also imprisoned. The servant was released and later advised Pharaoh to release Joseph to interpret
Pharaohs dream. Joseph predicted that the dream meant 7 years of plenty followed by 7 years of famine and
advised Pharaoh to appoint someone to store up a surplus. Pharaoh was pleased and gave him authority over
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all of Egypt.
1514 At age 30, Joseph married Asenath, daughter of the priest of On, and thus became a member of the
BC Egyptian priestly class. Before the famine hits, he has two children, Menashe and Ephraim. The plenty came
Joseph and then the famine. During the famine Josephs brothers, without Benjamin, also came to buy grain. They did
Genesis not recognize him which occurred to him in a dream but Benjamin was in it. Therefore, he accused them of
spying and sent them away while ordering them not to return without the missing brother. Upon their return
Joseph received them kindly and threw a feast for them. Joseph then tested them further, by accusing
Benjamin of theft. But Judah pleaded for Benjamin, offering himself as a slave instead. Convinced of his
brothers repentance and overcome with emotion, Joseph finally revealed himself to them. He forgave them
and sent for his father Jacob and all their families and possessions to come to Egypt. The 70 individuals in the
greater family grow to about 3 million at the point in time when the Exodus story begins. Joseph settled
Jacobs families with Pharaohs blessing in Goshen. Joseph lived to the age of 110. Shortly before his death
he made the Israelites take an oath that they would resettle his bones in Canaan. The oath was fulfilled during
the Exodus where his remains were eventually buried in Shechem.
Aish.com2006: In Canaan, Judah, fourth oldest of the 12 brothers has three sons and the oldest marries a
 woman named Tamar. He dies, the second marries her and dies. Judah stalls the marriage to the third.
Faced with growing old and childless, she disguises herself as a prostitute and seduces Judah, who promises

 her a goat in paymentshe holds onto his staff and sealTamar is found pregnant and she is sentenced to
deathshe sends the staff and seal with the request, Please, recognize to whom this belongs. These are the
very words that Judah had spoken to his father Jacob, when-after having sold Joseph into slavery-he and his

 brothers took Josephs coat and smeared it with the blood of a goatJudah confesses She is more righteous
than I. Through his admission of guilt, Judah becomes the first person in the Bible to accept
responsibility willingly [To whom?], thereby becoming the archetypal example of sincere and
jtink wholehearted repentance. In this he is the model Jewish leader, and the mantle of kingship will forever
after belong to the tribe of Judah. His descendants will be King David and King Solomon [models!?], as
well as the prophesied Messiah. Indeed, the Jews are called Jews after Judah.
1504 Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut declares herself to be pharaoh.
BC
or About Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut (r.1504-1482BC or 1479-1458BC):
1479  Archive.salon.com: belonged to the long, illustrious, embattled Eighteenth Dynasty, which controlled
BC Egypt for over 200 years. She was married to her half-brother, Thutmosis II, in the characteristic royal incest
that would weaken or derange Egyptian ruling families down to the time of Cleopatra. Hatshepsut seems to
have muscled her brother aside and seized power for herself. After his death in 1490BC, she was regent for
his son, Thutmosis III, whom she kept in the shadows for 22 years while she ruled as pharaoh, a male role
never usurped by any other Egyptian queen. Her strangely transsexual portraits show her with delicate
female breasts and the kilt, headdress and ceremonial beard of a man.
 Ancient-egypt-online.com: the ruling pharaoh was required to be considered as divine. Hatshepsut struck
upon the brilliant plan of claiming her mother was visited by the deity Amon-Ra who called upon her
while she was pregnant with Hatshepsutmade efforts to curry favor with [priests]disposed of traditional
female clothing and donned the garb of traditional male pharaohswore a fake beard.
1550- wsu.edu2008: The Myceneans-The Late Hellanic Period, 1550-1150BC: ...around 1600BC...these [Greek]
1150BC urban centers began to thrive and Greek settlers entered their first major period of cultural creativity. Their
cities grew larger...their agriculture more efficient, and the power of these new warlord cities began to be felt
around the Aegean...for four centuries their culture thrived until it crumbled into the enptiness of history...for
almost two thousand years, the Myceneans were lost to history except for their central position in Greek
literature and mythology. For the Mycenean age found its voice in the poetry of Homer in a single defining
even: the Mycenean war against Troy...regarded as fiction only until an amateur archaeologist named Heinrich
Schliemann dug up the city of Troy in Turkey and later dug up the Mycenean cities of Mycenae...ruins tell us
very little...society was monarchical...kings accumulated vast wealth in concentrated form; the rest of society
did not share in the prosperity...society was constantly geared for battle...cities were heavy fortresses...while
the Minoans surrounded themselves with delicate art of everyday life, Mycenean art was about warfare and
hunting...they actively went looking for trouble...Hittite records in Asia Minor and the Middle East chronicling
Mycenean invasions, and the Egyptians list them among groups of raiders. And, after Minoan civilization had
been weakened in a series of earthquakes, the Myceneans conquered Crete and other Aegean
civilizations...ranged far and wide as merchants, trading raw goods such as oil and animal skins for jewelry and
other goods...kings were not above a little piracy or rapine...at the very peak of their power, shortly after the
destruction of Troy, the Myceneans suddenly disappear from history. Around 1200BC, the populations of the
cities dramatically decrease until they are completely abandoned by 1100BC. The Greeks believed that the
Myceneans were overrun by another Greek-speaking people, the Dorians...the Dorians were uninterested in
the Mycenean cities but chose to live in small agricultural groups. It may be that no invasions took place, but
that economic collapse drove people from the cities out into the countryside...Mycenean cities were
abandoned...Greek society once again became a non-urbanized, tribal culture. The Greeks also
stopped writing, so the history of this period is lost to us forever; for this reason its called the Greek Dark
Ages....
1500 After the army of the Hittite king Mursili I sacked Babylon, it gave rise to another Hurrian dynasty in northern
BC Mesopotamia. The first ruler was a legendary king called Kirta who founded the kingdom of Mitanni around
1500BC. Mitanni would become the most powerful kingdom of the Near East between 1450-1350BC.
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1500BC narconon.org2009: Scythians cultivate cannabis and use it to weave fine hemp cloth. Cannabis
 cultivated in China for food and fiber.
1500 The Eleusinian Mysteries begin. They were annual initiation ceremonies for the cult of Demeter and
BC Persephone based at Eleusis (modern-day Elefsina), 20 miles northwest of Athens, in ancient Greece.
PAG
About the Eleusinian Mysteries:
Wikipedia.com2006: Of all the mysteries celebrated in ancient times, these were held to be the ones of
greatest importance. These myths and mysteries later spread to Rome. The rites, cultic worships, and
beliefs were kept secret, for initiation rites united the worshipper with god, and included promises of
divine power and rewards in life after death. They would be held annually for about two thousand
yearsthe Mysteries were based on a legend revolving around Demeter, the goddess of life, agriculture and
fertility. One day Persephone, her daughter, was gathering flowers with friends, she was seen by Hades, the
god of death and the underworld. Hades fell so in love with her that he kidnapped her and whisked her away to
his underworld kingdom. Distraught, Demeter searched high and lowshe neglected her dutiescaused a
terrible dry seasonby consulting Zeus, Demeter was reunited with her daughter, and the earth returned to its
former verdance and prosperity: the first springPersephone was unable to remain permanently in the land of
the living; while in the underworld she had eaten six seeds of a pomegranate that Hades had given her thus
meaning that she had to stay in the underworld for six months of the yeara King Celeus is said to have been
one of the first people to learn the secret rites and mysteries of her cult [?], as well as one of the original
priestsunder Pisistratus of Athens, the Eleusinian Mysteries became pan-Hellenic and pilgrims flocked from
 Greece and beyond to participate. Around 300 BC, the state took over control of the Mysteries; they were
specifically controlled by two families, the Eumolpidae and the Kerykes. This led to a vast increase in the
 number of initiates. The only requirements for membership were a lack of blood guilt, meaning having never
committed murder, and not being a barbarian (ie, unable to speak Greek). Men, women and even slaves were
allowed to be initiated. There were four categories of people who participated: the priests, priestesses and
 hierophantes; the initiates, undergoing the ceremony for the first time; the others who had already participated
at least once. They were elegible for the fourth category; and those who had attained epopteia, who had
learned the secrets of the greatest mysteries of Demetermuch of the concrete information about the
 Eleusinian Mysteries was never written down. For example, only initiates knew what the kiste, a sacred
chest, and the kalathos, a basket with a lid, contained. The contents, like so much about the Mysteries, are
 still unknown, and probably will be forever. However, Thomas Taylor writes that this Cista (kiste) contained a
golden mystical serpent, egg, a phallus, and possibly also seeds sacred to Demeter. Taylor has written
that the Lesser Mysteries signified the miseries of the soul while in subjection to the body. The Greater
 Mysteries obscurely intimated, by mystic and splendid vision, the felicity of the soul, both here and here and
hereafter, when purified from the defilements of a material nature and constantly elevated to the realities
 intellectual (spiritual) vision. He also quotes Plato who wrote that the design of the mysteries was to lead us
back to the principles from which we descended, that is to perfect enjoyment of intellectual (spiritual)
goodthe Lesser Mysteries were held in Marchthe priests purified the candidatesfirst sacrificed a pig to
 DemeterGreater Mysteries took place in the first month and lasted nine daysThe first act of the Greater
Mysteries was the bringing of the sacred objects from Eleusis to the Eleusinion, a temple at the base of the
Acropolisalong the way, they shouted obscenities in commemoration of lambe, an old woman who, by
 cracking dirty jokes, had made Demeter smile as she mourned the loss of her daughterentered a great hall
called Telesterionshown the sacred relics. This was the most secretive part of the Mysteries and those who
 had been initiated were forbidden to ever speak of the events that took place in the Telesterion. The penalty
was deathAs to the climaxsome hold that the priests were the ones to reveal the visions of the holy
night, consisting of a fire that represented the possibility of life after death, and varioius sacred objects. Other
holdthat the experiences much have been internal and mediated by a powerful psychoactive ingredient
ANOTHER contained in the kykeo [an initiation drink]Followingwasan all-night feast accompanied by dancing and
VISION
merriment[after nine days it all ended]The Roman emperor Theodosius I closed the sanctuaries by
decree in AD392 in an effort to destroy pagan resistance to the imposition of Christianity as a state religion.
The last remnants of the Mysteries were wiped out in AD396, when Alaric, King of the Goths, invaded,
 accompanied by Christians in their dark garments, bringing Arian Christianity and desecrating the old
sacred sitessome scholars believe that the powercame from the kykeons functioning as a
psychedelic agentbarley may be parasitized by the fungus ergot, which contains LSA, a precursor to
 LSD. It is thus possible that the initiates, sensitized by their fast and prepared by preceding
ceremonies, were propelled by the effects of a powerful psychoactive potion into revelatory mind
states with profound spiritual and intellectual ramificationsmodern preparationshave yielded
inconclusive results.
2000- Haoma, from wikipedia.com2006: Haoma is the Avestan language name of a plant and its divinity both of
1000BC which play a role in Zoroastrian doctrine and in later Persian culture and mythologythe physical attributes, as
 described in the texts of the Avesta, include:furthers healingsexual
arousalstrengtheningstimulates alertness and awarenessmildly intoxicatingthe twigs are
repeatedly poundedarchaeological evidence emerged from Russian excavations in the Kara Kum desert of
Turkmenistanknown to the ancients as Margianain one of these private rooms were found three ceramic
bowlsreveals traces of both cannabis and ephedra. Clearly both these psychoactive substances had
been used in conjunction in the making of hallucinogenic drinksIn another room at the other end of the
shrine a basin containing remains of a considerable quantity of cannabis was discoveredThe discovery in
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the shrines of the remains of opium, cannabis and Ephedra in ritual vessels that are dated between 2000-
1000BC show that soma in its Iranian form haoma may be considered as a composite psychoactive substance
comprising of cannabis and Ephedra in one instance and opium and Ephedra in anotherhymns of Yasna 9-
11Haoma is said to appear before Zoroaster in the form of a beautiful manwho prompts him to gather and
press haoma for the purification of the waters. Haoma is righteous and furthers righteousness, is wise and
gives insight. Haoma was the first priest, installed by Ahura mazda with the sacred girdle
1500 The Egyptian god Amon enters a new triad with Ptah and Re, but by many he was seen as the sole power,
BC and hence all other gods were manifestations of him. During the last millennium BC, his cult would spread
beyond Egypt, and was established amonth the Cushites in modern Sudan.

About Egyptian god Amon:


Lexicorient.com2006: Amons name means hidden, and his image was typically rendered in blue, which was
the sumbol of invisibility. His wife was Mut, with whom he had the son, Khonsu, the god of the moon.
Originally Amon was a god of Thebes and, perhaps, even earlier, a god of Hermopolis. Amon had significance
for fertility and was represented as a ram. In Thebes, Amon formed a triad with his wife and son. He became
the patron of the pharaohs, and, therefore, a national god of egypt. Later, in Heliopolis, he came to be
identified with the god Re, and the names of both were united into Amon-Re. Amon-Re was the father of all
gods, the creator of every human being and all creatures. The cult of amon-Re proved to be very powerful, and
his high priest came to be one of the most important persons in Egypt, rivalling the power of the pharaohs. The
largest temple structure for Amon-Re was the temple at Karnak in Luxor, Egypt. Amon would be strongly
disputed by Akhenaten, who introduced Aten as the sole god, leading to the destruction of Amons cult.
However, under subsequent pharaohs, Amon was gradually restored as the god of the nation and its ruler.

About Egyptian god Ptah:


Lexicorient.com2006: One of the greatest gods in ancient Egyptian religion, who in many myths was the
creator of the world (in other myths, other gods were responsible for creating the world), the manker of many
things in the world and a mighty healer. He was the patron of craftsmen (building temples and tombs) and
sculptorsAt first, Ptah was a local deity of Memphis, making up a triad with the gods Sekhmet and Nefertem.
Thanks to the importance of this city after it became the capital of Egypt, Ptahs cult spread all over Egypt.
Ptah also served in the position as a mortuary god, by being in a triad with Seker and Osiris.
1482 Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut disappears.
BC
 About Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut (r.1504-1482BC):

Ancient-egypt-online.com: the female pharaoh disappeared under mysterious circumstances about fifteen
years after taking the throne. Her nephew, Thutmosis III, immediately regained control of the throne. It has
been speculated that he had her assassinated when he became old enough to rule on his own. The mummy of
the queen has never been found.

Archive.salon.com: sometime after the ascension of the imperialistic Thutmosis III following her death,
W Hatshepsuts name and image were brutally [this from a lesbian-feminist site] obliterated from the
monuments and most royal chronicles. Her very existence was forgotten until European excavations
began after Napoleons expedition to Egypt in 1798.

Wikipedia.com2006: 2436 Hatshepsut is a small main belt asteroid, which as discovered by Cornelis
Joahannes van Houten, Ingrid van Houten-Groenevelt and Tom Gehrels in 1960.

 wikipedia.com: believed to have been co-regent from about 1479-1458BC (years 7 to 21 of Thutmose III).
She is regarded as the earliest known queen regnant in history and as the first great woman in recorded
historywas the eldest daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose, the first king and queen of the Thutmosid
clan of the 18th Dynasty. Thutmose I and Ahmose are known to have had only one other child, a daughter
Akhbetneferu (Neferubity), who died in infancy. Thutmose I also married Mutnofret, possibly a daughter of
Ahmose I, and produced several half-brothers to Hatshepsut: Wadjmose, Amenose, Thutmose II, and
possibly Ramose, through that union. Both Wadjmose and Amenose were prepared to succeed their father,
but neither lived beyond adolescence. In childhood, Hatshepsut is believed to have been favored by the
Temple of Karnak over her two brothers by her father; a view promoted by her own propagandaproduced a
propaganda story in which her father Thutmose I supposedly named her as his direct heirupon the death of
her father in 1493BC, she married Thutmose II and assumed the title of Great Royal Wife. Thutmose II ruled
for thirteen years, during which it has been traditionally believed that Hatshepsut exerted a strong influence
over him, but he died and only had one son to take his place on the throne. But this was not Hatshepsuts son,
as he was the son of a lesser wife named Isis. The boys name was Thurmose III. Thutmose II had one
daughter with Hatshepsut: Neferure. Hatshepsut groomed Neferure as crown prince, commissioning official
portraits of her wearing the false beard and side lock of youthNeferure did not live into
adulthoodHatshepsut is given a reign of about 22 years by ancient authorsit is also at this point in time
that Hatshepsut disappearsHatshepsuthad herself crowned pharaoh around 1473 BC, taking the throne
name Maatkare. Hatshepsut surrounded herself with strong and loyal advisorsHapuseneb, the High Priest
of Amun, and her closest advisor, the royal steward Senemutsomehave theorized that Hatshepsut and
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Senemut were loversgraffiti in an unfinished tomb, used as a rest house by the workers of her mortuary
temple, depicting a male and a hermaphrodite in pharaonic regalia engaging in an explicit sexual act.she
had twin obelisks, at the time the tallest in the world, erected at the entrance to the temple [of Karnak].

1470 Occultists say Atlantis was destroyedsome Masonic legend refers to the children of Lamech as being the
inhabitants of Atlantis who passed down the secretsand to the twin pillars of Solomons Temple actually
BC
representing the pillars of Atlantis.
1400s Saushtatar, king of Hanilgalbat (Hurrians of Mitanni), sacked Ashur and made Assyria a vassal.
BC Assyria paid tribute to Hanilgalbat until Mitanni power collapsed from Hittite pressure, enabling Ashur-
uballit I (1365-1330), to again make Assyria an independent and conquering power at the expense of
Babylonia; and a time came when the Kassite king in Babylon was glad to marry the daughter of Ashur-
uballit, whose letters to Akhenaten of Egypt form part of the Amarna letters. This marriage led to
disastrous results, as the kassite faction at court murdered the Babylonian king and placed a pretender
on the throne. Assur-uballit promptly marched into Babylonia and avenged his son-in-law, making
Kurigalzu of the royal line king there.
1392 Moses is born in Egypt.
BC
Moses On a side bar, the Egyptians are on the upside of opium production.

 heroinhelper.com2009: The first people known to have used opium are the Sumarians [from
Mesopotamia]... Thanks to the trading ties of the Sumarians with their neighbors, the secret of opium-how to
 produce it-eventually traveled westward. By 1300BC, the Egyptians were cultivating poppies for the
production of opium. The opium they produced was an extremely popular commodity; they traded it as far
away as Greece and even central Europe.

Abraham was from Mesopotamia. The Greek philosophers were respectful of Jewish insight. opium and cannabis were
THE PLOT
known to the Greeks. The drug-orgy-dependent Eleusian Mysteries in Greece had recently been invented. The pharoah
would eject the hebrew slaves because they were so successful. HOW COULD SLAVES BE SUCCESSFUL? THEY MUST HAVE BEEN VERY
SMART AND HARD-WORKING.

The rapid multiplication of Jews from 70 to 3 million (in about 120 years) has made the Egyptians are
understandably nervous. Moses led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and into the desert, and received
the Torah of Judaism from God on Mount Sinai. The birth of Moses occurred at a time when the current
Egyptian Pharoah had commanded that all male children born to Hebrew slaves should be killed by drowning in
the Nile river. The Torah leaves the identity of this Pharoah unstated, but he is widely believed to be Ramses
II; other, earlier pharaohs have also been suggested including a Hyksos pharaoh or one shortly after the
Hyksos had been expelled. Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a son, and kept him concealed for
three months. When she could keep him hidden no longer, rather than deliver him to be killed, she set him
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adrift on the Nile river in a small craft. The daughter of Pharoah discovered the baby and adopted him as
her son, and named him Moses. By Biblical account, Moses sister observed the boat and asked the
daughter if she would like a Hebrew woman to nurse the baby. Thereafter, Jochebed was employed as the
childs nurse, and he grew and was brought to Pharoahs daughter and became her son.

 Aish.com2006: classic anti-Semitic pattern-the Jew in Diaspora is always loyal to his host country, yet can
never escape unfounded suspicion of treachery.
 Buffalo-israel-link.org2007: Anti-Semitism has always been associated with the Jewish Diasporain ancient
Egypt where Pharaoh was worried about the loyalty of his Jewish subjects: they will become even more
numerous and, if war breaks out, will join our enemies, fight against us and leave the country and
consequently the Egyptian enslaved the Jews under strict Egyptian supervision.
Moses When Moses reached adulthood, he went one day to see how his brethren, slaves to the Egyptians, fared.
Seeing an Egyptian mistreating a Hebrew, he killed the Egyptian and hid the body (aish.com2006: of course,
some Jews inform on him, which is another classic case were going to see in Jewish history-Jews informing on
other Jews.). Moses discovered that Pharoah was likely to put him to death and fled to Sinai where he
led the life of a shepherd and sojourned forty years, during which time his son Gershom was born. One
day, he saw a bush burning without being consumed. God spoke to him from the bush and commissioned
him to go to Egypt and deliver his fellow Hebrews from their bondage. Moses returned to Egypt where he
was met by his brother Aaron and gained a hearing with his oppressed brethren. It was a more difficult matter
to persuade Pharoah to let the Hebrews depart. This was not accomplished until God sent ten plagues upon
the Egyptians. (aish.com2006: [re: the stick turned into the snake]the ancient world understood spirituality
in the way we cannot even fathomIt is a fundamental idea of Judaism that theres a spiritual reality, and that
theres a physical reality. You can transcend the physical into the spiritual; you can use the spiritual to
manipulate the physical. And you can do this by accessing the dark forces or the light forces. And the
Egyptians were able to access the dark forces and they knew how to turn a stick into a snake) These
plagues culminated in the slaying of the Egyptian first-borns whereupon such terror seized the Egyptians that
they ordered the Hebrews to leave. The long procession moved slowly, and found it necessary to encamp
three times before passing the Egyptian frontier-some believe at the Great Bitter Lake, while others propose
sites as far south as the northern tip of the Red Sea. Meanwhile, Pharoah had a change of heart, and was in
pursuit of them with a large army. Shut in between this army and the sea, the Israelites depaired, but God
divided the waters so that they passed safely across on dry ground. When the Egyptian army attempted to
follow, God permitted the waters to return upon them and drown them. Following this, the Tabernacle was
constructed, the priestly law ordained, the plan of encampment arranged both for the Levites and the non-
priestly tribes, and the Tabernacle consecrated. There is a wealth of stories and additional information about
Moses in the Jewish genre of rabbinical exegesis known as Midrash, as well as in the primary works of the
Jewish oral law, the Mishnah and the Talmud.

Egyptian version: The Pharaoh who reigned after Rameses is named Merenptah and he ruled from the late
13th to early 12 century BC. An inscription from his reign is on the Israel Stele and is a record of his
campaigning in the area of Canaan, the first extra-Biblical mention of Israel anywhere in human history. The
stele says, Israel is a widow. Her seed is no more.

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th
1352- The 18 Dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten
1336 (Amenhotep IV aka Amenophis 4), servant of the
BC Aten, presides over a revolutionary period in that
Moses countrys history.

About Akhenaten:
The seat of government was relocated temporarily to
Tell el Amarna (a virgin site halfway between Thebes
and Memphis), a new art style was introduced and the
sun disc cult of Aten was elevated to pre-eminence
in Egyptian religion. He was raised by his parents by
 worshipping Amen aka Amon, however, he preferred
Aten, the sun god, that was worshipped in earlier
times. The Aten was accessible only to Akhenaten,
thereby obviating the need for an intermediate

 priesthood which had been growing in power and


influence. The two cults could not coexist and
Akhenaten sent officials to destroy Amens statues and
desecrate the worship sites. No longer did the dead
call upon Osiris to guide them through the after-
world, for only through their adherence to the king and
his intercession on their behalf could they hope to live
beyond the grave. He was married to Nefertiti and
was thought to have fathered children to two of his
daughters.
He had odd features. His undue tall stature and
feminine-like appearance has raised suspicion that
he was suffering from a certain medical syndrome. He
has unduly long limbs, elongated skull, long slender
neck, long face and huge lower jaw. In addition, his
feminine features included female-like breasts, wide
pelvis with fat hips (the breadth of the pelvis exceeded
that of the shoulders) and a redundant belly. Early
reliefs do not show any deformity while later ones do. Jacobisrael.us2008: According to the
Akhenaten disappeared from history. Rosicrucianscrowned king of Egypt in 1367BC, at
 During his reign, Egypt lost control over Syria age eleven. Their official history says that he was:
and Palestine, but remained strong. Born in a country where peoples were given to
A controversial view places Moses as a noble in the idolatry, where the chief endeavors were those of
Court of the Pharaoh. Many scholars from Sigmund building Temples to gods of all kinds, it is easy to
Freud to Joseph Campbell suggest that Moses may appreciate his attitude toward the existing religion (or
have fled Egypt after Akhenatens death (c.1358BC) religions) after he had been thoroughly instructed in
when much of the pharaohs monotheistic reforms the secret philosophy. His mind and understanding
were being violently reversed. The principal ideas were usually keen, for in his fifteenth year he
 behind this theory are: the monotheistic religion of composed many of the most beautiful prayers,
Akhenaten being a possible predecessor to psalms, and chants used in the organization today,
Moses monotheism, and a contemporaneous as well as contributing to the philosophy and
collection of Amarna Letters written by nobles to sciences. To him came the inspiration of
Akhenaten (Amarna was Akhenatens capital city) overthrowing the worship of idols and substituting the
which describe raiding bands of Habiru attacking the religion and worship of one god, a supreme deity,
Egyptian territories in Mesopotamia. whose spirit was in heaven and whose physical
Lexicorient.com2006: As most of his reforms were manifestation was the Sun the Symbol of Life. This
introduced with force, and disturbed the balance of was in accordance with the secret doctrines, and it
power and influence, they were met with strong changed the worship of the Sun as a god to the
resistance, and had no lasting influence. Hence, after worship of The God symbolized by the sun. This was
his death, under the reign of Tutankhamen, the the beginning of Monotheism in Egypt and the origin
temples of Aten were demolished, and Egypt returned of the worship of a spiritual deity which existed
to polytheism. Aten was defined as a universal, everywhere, in everything, but was nothing of the
omnipresent spirit, that not only had created the earth. [Pantheism!] Amenhotep IV started monastic
universe, but also ruled it. Akhenatens choice of life, and it is passed down to us today through the
monotheism was not only motivated by religious Roman Catholic church.
speculation, but was also an attempt to increase the
power of the Pharaoh at the expense of the local
temples and their officials, which had become both
rich and politically important.
Hebrewhistory.info2007: An archaeologist recover[s] a 3400-year-old glass ingot from a Canaanite vessel
 that foundered off the Anatolian (Turkish) coast in the 14th century BCE. The 65 tons of cargo laded on that
vessel included scores of glass ingots and a huge load of copper and tin ingotsalso recovered was a dyptich,
Page 27 of 678
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a hinged wooden writing pad. The cargo attests to the advanced state of Semitic literacy, pyrotechnology,
and science seven centuries before the Greeks adopted the Aleph-Beth, and over eight centuries before
Greek merchants such as Thales, Pyrhagorus, Leucippus, Democritus and others brought mathematical,
astronomical and scientific knowledge gained in Judah and Babylonia to Greece.
The Sea Peoples, a confederacy of seafaring raiders sail into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean,
 th
causing political unrest, and attempt to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19 dynasty.

 About The Sea Peoples:


Wikipedia.org2007: sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and
attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of
th
Ramesses III of the 20 Dynasty. The Egyptian Pharaoh Memeptah explicitly refers to them by the term the
foreign countries (or peoples) of the sea in his Great Karnak Inscription. Although some scholars believe that
they invaded Cyprus, Hatti and the Levant, this hypothesis is disputed. The Late Bronze Age in the Aegean
was characterized by raiding and resettling of threatening and migratory peoples, sometimes used as
mercenaries by the Egyptians, and operating primarily on land. Many were not listed as Sea Peoples. Among
them were the Habiru of Egyptian inscriptions, or apiru of cuneiform (bandits), and the Mariyannu, who had
Indo-European names. Sandars uses the analogous name, land peoples. Some people, such as the lukka,
were in both categories. Some scholars suspect that the Habiru are the same as the Hebrews. ..the identity of
the sea peoples has been an enigma to modern scholars, who have only the scattered records of ancient
civilizations and archaeology to inform them. The evidence shows that the identities and motives of these
peoples were not unknown to the Egyptians; in fact, many had been subordinate to them or in a diplomatic
relationship with them for at least as long as the few centuries covered by the records.
1350 The Assyrians become an important power in northern Mesopotamia, and can at times threaten
BC Babylonia. This has much to do with the fact that the Hittites did not annex Assyrian cities. In the centures that
Moses follow, the Assyrian politics of deporting rebellioius subjects made races mix in Mesopotamia.
About the Assyrians:
The Assyrians were Semitic people living in the northern reaches of Mesopotamia. They have a long history
in the area, but for the most of that history they are subjugated to the more powerful kingdoms and peoples to
the south.
Moses God appears to Moses at Mount Sinai and dictates to him the design of the Tabernacle that was to be Gods
dwelling place.

Exodus 19:6: God says, I want you to be a kingdom of priests. God does not want a kingdom of
warriors, economists and politicians. Potentially each family tent was to be a tabernacle. Are we willing to
trust Him and be unlike any other nation? At first the Jews say yes and then they live out their no. While
Moses is up there, he gets instructions for the Israelites. Wash, dont get near the mountain until after three
days and during those three days abstain from all sexual relations. Then I want you all to come up with me.
Three days later God comes down and the people dont come up and wont come up because they are scared
because they did not abstain. Moses understands and God says they should not set foot on this mountain.
Moses goes up for 30 days to fast. At day 39, the people think he is roasted in the fiery cloud. For whatever
reason, they enticed Aaron to build a golden calf that was a symbol of the Egyptian cult of Apus, worshippers of
sexual pleasure, economic prosperity and political power. God officially disowns Israel in Exodus 32.
 Moses goes down and says they broke loose to their shame. which in Hebrew means they had their
clothes stripped off. Moses goes down, smashes the tablets and calls out asking who is on the Lords side.
Only the Levites respond. Moses says to them to take the swords and slay every man. God wanted to dwell in
the midst of his people but they were no longer able to stand his presence. The nation could not have Gods
presence in the middle unless the Tabernacle was surrounded by the Levites who would slay the idolaters.
The people then wanted Aaron, not Moses, to be their priest. Aaron is never allowed in the Holy of Holies.

The Tabernacle boards and their bars were made of acacia wood overlaid with gold, as were the pillars of the
entrance door. The Ark of the Covenant was renowned for its mysterious powers against enemies of Israel and
resided in the Holy of Holies, the innermost room of the Tabernacle. Access by the High Priest was permitted
once per year on the Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur. He came with the blood of a goat on behalf of his own
and the people of Israels sins. The Ark was Gods throne and there was a cover on it called the Mercy Seat.
Gods presence remained over the Ark between two Cherubim. The high priest had to shield his eyes because
no man could see God and live. The Ark contained the two stone tablets of the law written as the Ten
Commandments by the finger of God on Mount Sinai, Aarons rod that budded and the golden pot of hidden
manna.

Jewish version (aish.com2006): what happened at Mount Sinai? To answer quite simply, the Jewish
people-every man, woman and child-had an encounter with Godyoull never find a similar storyAll
jthink
other claims about revelation in human history are based on the experience of one individual or at best a small
groupan entire people having an encounter with God is unique to Judaism. And its the one claim that
cannot be fakedJews say that we have kept the Torah for thousands of years, not because of miraclesbut
because we all stood at Mount Sinai and heard God speak and for generation after generation that very fact
was passed downA scraggly band of escaped slaves became a nation standing at the foot of Mount Sinai
and saying to God We will do and we will listen-that is, pledging to fulfill the commandments of the Torah and
Page 28 of 678
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with time to understand the mission that came with itThat is why we say that Judaism is not just a religion-its
a national identityAfter the original revelation, Moses spent 40 days listening to God talking to him, dictating
to him the 613 commandments of the Torah (which are encapsulated in Ten Statements, the so-called Ten
Commandments, and also the principles how to apply these commandments (which are referred to as the Oral
Law). Note that the Oral Law was given first. And the Oral Law has been exclusively in the domain of the
Jews. The Christians adopted the Written Law-the Torah and other parts of the Hebrew Bible as part of their
scriptures-but the Oral Law stayed uniquely jewish. Because it is the Oral Law that tells us how to live as Jews.
I cannot emphasize strongly enough how significant the Oral Law is. One cant live as a Jew without it. The
Written Law was written over a period of 40 years while the Jews wandered in the desert and God was
dictating to MosesWith the Ten Commandments in hand, Moses came down the mountain and what he saw
shocked himthe Jews were worshiping an idol.After the greatest national revelation experience in human
history when the whole nation hears God, Moses goes up to the mountain and comes down 40 days later to
find a group dancing around an idolThis is a classic case of knowing how to correctly read the textwith the
commentators because theres an oral explanation going along with the simple, very brief description in the
textWhen Moses came down the mountain, were all 3 million Jews dancing around a golden calf? No. The
Torah in Exodus 32:28 says it was only about 3 thousand people, mostly the mixed multitude of individuals who
left with the Jews because they were so impressed by what went on with the Ten PlaguesThat means only
0.1% of the Jews participatedGods reaction makes it clear he is blaming the whole nation. God holds the
Jews to a very high standard because they have a unique responsibility in human history. The world wont get
perfected without the Jews and if, God forbid, the Jews blow it, all of humanity, not just the Jewish people, will
be doomedJudaism teaches youre either part of the problem or youre part of the solution, and that you have
a legal obligation to be part of the solution. Being a by-stander is not an optionMoses spends a lot of time
back in the camp dealing with the aftermathHe smashes the idol, gathers loyal Levites around him and
executes those responsibleHe goes back upHe spends forty days on the mountain again. He comes back
down with the second set of tablets, and this is a clear sign that God has forgiven the Jewish peoplethe
dayYom KippurAs a sign of forgiveness God tells Moses He will dwell among the Jewish people, and He
instructs how His home is to be builtthe Mishkan in Hebrewbecause we dont have it, only 369 of the 613
commandments are applicable and most of those are dont
Moses A short while after the Tabernacle had been functioning, priests mounted a challenge to the leadership of
Moses and Aaron. God wanted to prove that Aaron was his choice for priesthood. A rod from the head of each
of the twelve tribes was placed before the Ark and when Moses returned, Aarons rod had budded. God
commanded Moses to fill a vessel with Manna and keep it for a memorial.

Jewish version (aish.com2006): After a year at Mount Sinai, the Jewish people pack up their portable
sanctuary and come to the borders of the Land of IsraelSo they select 12 scouts or spies-one from each of
the 12 tribesthey come backthe size of the peopleno way we can beat themtwo of the spies
dissentBut the Jewish people accept the majority report Moses is horrified and God is very angryGod
tells the Jewsthey are doomed to wander in the desert for 40 years until the entire adult male population had
died offGod tells the Jews that because they cried on this daythey will cry on this day [9th of Av] in history
for some very good reasonsJews wander for 40 yearsgreatest strengthcomplete dedication to an
ideagreatest weaknessstubborn dedication to an idea that makes every Jew think hes right and every Jew
think that hes going to change the world his way. This is a group that is impossible to leadMoses loses his
temperGod says to Mosesyoure not goinglosing your temper is a form of denial that God is running the
world

October 29,1999 Haaretz Magazine article (from the 7thfire.com) Deconstructing the walls of Jericho: Who
are the Jews?: archaeologists have learned from their excavations in the Land of Israel: the Israelites
were never in Egypt, did not wander in the desert, did not conquer the land in a military campaign and
did not pass it on to the 12 tribes of Israel. Perhaps even harder to swallow is the fact that the united
monarchy of David and Solomon, which is described by the Bible as a regional power, was at most a
 small tribal Kingdom. And it will come as an unpleasant shock to many that the God of Israel, Jehovah,
had a female consort and that the early Israelite religion adopted monotheism only in the waning period
of the monarchy and not at Mount Sinairecent scholarly researchgrant previously unthinkable credence
to an ancient historians claim that the Israelites of Exodus were actually the Hyksos, and therefore of Asiatic
originAll hell broke loose in Israel in November of that year [1999] when Prof. Zeev Herzog of Tel Aviv
 University announced: the Israelites were never in Egypt, did not wander the desert. Herzog, moreover,
states that Solomon and David are entirely absent in the archaeological recordHerzogs colleague,
Israel Finkelstein, claims the Jews were nothing more than nomadic Canaanites who bartered with the
city dwellersJerusalem did not have any central status until 722 BC with the destruction of its
northern rival Samariadiscovery of numerous references to Yahweh having a consort in the form of
Asherah. Inscriptions, written in Hebrew by official Jewish scribes in the 8th century BC, were found in
numerous sites all over the landLike Herzog, the historian Josephus (c.37AD-100AD) denied the account
of the Hebrews being held in captivity in Egypt, but he went a drastic step further about the racial origin
 of the Jews, whom he identified with the Hyksos. He further claimed they did not flee from Egypt but were
evicted due to them being leprousJosephus has been vilified over the ages as a Roman collaborator by both
Jewish and Christian scholarsJan Assmann, a prominent Egyptologist at Heidelberg University, is quite
positive in his writings that the Exodus story is an inversion of the Hyksos expulsion and furthermore that
Page 29 of 678
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Moses was an EgyptianDonald P. Redford, of Toronto University, presents striking evidence that the
Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt was inverted to construct the exodus of the Hebrew slaves storyHis
bookEgypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times was Winner of the 1993 Best Scholarly Book in
 Archaeology Award of the Biblical Archaeological SocietyThere is irrefutable evidence that the Hyksos, a
mixed Semitic-Asiatic group who infiltrated the Nile valley, seized power in Lower Egypt in the 17
th

Century BC. They ruled there from 1674BC until expelled when their capital, Avaris, fell to Ahmose
around 1567BC. The Hyksos in Egypt worshipped Set, who like Ishkur they identified as a storm deity. Under
th
the inversion theory, Jewish scholars in the 7 Century BC changed the story from expelled to escaped and as
a further insult to their enemy, Ahmose, changed and mis-spelled his name to Moses, presenting him as leader
of the Hebrew revolt. But there is also a strong possibility of two separate origins to the Moses character being
merged into oneAhmoses success in 1567BC led to the establishment of the 18th Dynasty in Egypt.
ThotMoses III overthrew the transvestite Pharaoh Atchepsut, and under ThotMoses IV Egyptian conquests
extended beyond the Sinai into Palestine, Syria, reaching Babylonia and included Canaan. By the end of this
expansion, Amenophis III (1380BC) ruled an Egyptian empire whose provinces and colonies bordered what is
now known as Turkey. This empire would have included the regions in which most of the expelled Hyksos now
lived. Amenophis IV succeeded the throne in 1353BC. He established a new monotheism cult establishing
Aten as the one supreme god and he changed his name to Akhenaton. Married to the mysterious Nefertiti,
Akhenaton declared himself a god on earth, intermediary between the one god Aten (Ra) and humanity, with
his spouse as partner, effectively displacing Isis and Osiris in the Egyptian Enead. Declaring all men to be the
children of Aten, historians suspect Akhenaton planned an empire-wide religion. He banned all idolatry, the
use of images to represent god, and banned the idea that there was more than one supreme god. It is
alongside Akhenaton and his father Amenophis III that we find the second Moses. An important figure during
this period was confusingly called Amenophis son of Hapu. He was First Minister to both kings. He is
generally depicted as a scribe, crouching and holding on his knees a roll of papyrus. He more than anyone
was responsible for authoring the religion in which the old gods were merged into one living god, Aten, who had
been responsible for the creation of the Earth and of humanity. The symbol of this god, the sun disk,
represented Ra, Horus and the other gods in one. The sun disk, in symbolism, was supported between the
horns of a bull. The Son of Hapu says this about creation: I have come to you who reigns over the gods oh
Amon, Lord of the Two Lands, for you are Re who appears in the sky, who illuminates the earth with a brilliantly
shining eye, who came out of the Nou, who appeared above the primitive water, who created everything, who
generated the great Enneade of the gods, who created his own flesh and gave birth to his own form. The
kings overseer of the land of Nubia was a certain Mermosein Amenhoteps third year as king, Mermose took
his army far up the Nile, supposedly to quell a minor rebellion, but actually to secure gold mining territories
which would supply his king with the greatest wealth of any ruler of EgyptAccording to historian Dawn
Breasted, the Greek translation of this name was MosesAccording to Jewish history not included in the Bible,
Moses led the army of Pharaoh to the south, into the land of Kush, and reached the vicinity of the Atbara River.
There he attracted the love of the princess of the fortress city of Saba, later Meroe. She gave up the city in
exchange for marriageNumber 12:1: And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Ethiopian
woman whom he had married.
1300BC Egyptians begin cultivation of opium. The trade of opium flourishes during the reign of King Tutankhamen.
 The Phoenicians and Minoans move opium to Europe.
Moses
 heroinhelper.com2009: The first people known to have used opium are the Sumarians...the use of opium
by the Sumarians dates back as far as 3500BC. It is known that they used opium medicinally. Some contend
that it was not used recreationally. This is highly unlikely however; the Sumarian name for the opium poppy is
hul gil, which means joy plant. Plus their use and export of alcohol indicates that recreational use of drugs was
as important to the people of that time as it is today. Thanks to the trading ties of the Sumarians with their
neighbors, the secret of opium-how to produce it-eventually traveled westward. By 1300BC, the
Egyptians were cultivating poppies for the production of opium. The opium they produced was an
extremely popular commodity; they traded it as far away as Greece and even central Europe.
1300 All the Hurrian states have been vanquished by other peoples.
BC
Moses About the Hurrians:
Early scholars were convinced the Hurrians were dominated by an elite of foreign rulers. These
foreigners spoke an Indo-Iranian language from Central Asia closely related to Avestan and apparently
somewhat more closely to Vedic Sanskrit. They introduced the cremation of the dead and the use of horse and
chariot-a situation that has similarities to the events in northern India at about the same time. While this foreign
aristocracy eventually abandoned their language in favor of that of their Hurrian subjects, they retained Indo-
Iranian names, they invoked Vedic gods in some of their treaties and some words from their Indo-Iranian
language survived. The state of Mitanni, itself believed to be an Indo-Aryan word, was connected with the
Indo-Aryan culture. Most rulers of Mitanni seem to have had Indo-Aryan names, and the ruling aristocracy was
called maryannu, meaning young warrior in Sanskrit marva.
The Hurrian culture made a great impact on the religion of the Hittites. The Hurrian pantheistic religion
spread to Syria and comprised the entire ancient Near East, except ancient Egypt and southern
Mesopotamia.
Moses The Midian War documented in Numbers 31 is the final military action that Moses personally led. The
people of Midian (western Saudi Arabia, southern Jordan, southern Israel, and the Sinai) had already
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jthink led the people of Israel to sin against God, and this was meant to be the final act of extermination.
Moses called forth all twelve tribes and commanded them to destroy the cities and the warriors of
Midian. That only the Midianite women and children were left alive did not satisfy Moses and Israels
leadership; because they caused the children of Israel through the counsel of the false prophet
Balaam to sin against the Lord and sent a plague in the congregation, Moses decreed kill every male
among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him. But all the little
girls among the women, that have not known a man by lying with him, keep alive for you. Mosess
commands to Israel were received from the Almighty, and are thus the definition of morality versus an
alignment with previously set standards.

wikipedia.org2008: The Bible indicates that God cautioned the Israelites against the sexual depravities of the
Canaanites and their fertility cult (Leviticus 18:27). Thus the land of the Canaanites (specifically the Amorites,
Hivites, Hethites, Girgashites and Jebusites) was deemed suitable for conquest by the Israelites partly on moral
grounds. Deuteronomy 20:16-17, one of the 613 mitzvot, prescribes that no inhabitants of the cities of
the six Canaanite nations, the same as mentioned in 7:1, minus the Girgashites, are to be left alive.
1272 Moses dies not soon enough at age of 120 in the year 1272BC according to some calculations. Moses
BC greatest legacy is expounding the doctrine of monotheism, which was not widely accepted at the time
Moses according to modern day Jews, codifying it in Jewish religion with the 1st Commandment, and punishing
polytheists. In his farewell address, Moses warns: When you come into the land which the Lord your God is
giving you and inherit it and live in it, and you say, Let us appoint over me a king like all the nations around
me, [then] you will appoint over yourself a king whom the Lord your God shall choose. (Deut. 17:14-19)
1272 The conquest of the Promised Land begins.
BC
why would
13th cen. Waves of raiders raze Byblos, the first Phoenician city. Phoenicias Tyre and Sidon gain in importance.


Joshua Joshua was the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, and the successor to Moses as the leader of Israel. He
(Book of was born in Egypt and was probably of the age of Caleb, with whom he is generally associated. He shared in
Joshua) all the events of the Exodus (sometime during the period of 18th to 13th century BC), and held the place of
commander of the host of the Israelites at their great battle against the Amalekites in Rephidim. He became
Moses minister, and accompanied him part of the way when he ascended Mount Sinai to receive the Ten
Commandments (Exd. 32:17). He was one of the two dissenters in the original 12 spies incident that led to the
40 years of wanderings. Before Moses died, he appointed Joshua as his successor (aish.com2005: Judaism
is a meritocracy. Real leadership in Jewish history goes to the people, not those who were born into the right
jthink families, but to the people who are best suited for the job.). Upon Joshua devolved a twofold duty: to conquer
the land, and to apportion it among the tribes. The Promised Land is not ruled by either Assyria or Egypt,
rather it is settled by seven Canaanite tribes who inhabit 31 fortified city-states scattered all over the map.
According to the Book of Joshua, God encouraged him to be strong and to cling to the Law, which was never to
depart out of his mouth. With the Ark of the Covenant carried by the priests in the van, on the tenth day of the
first month of the forty-first year after the Exodus the Israelites set out to conquer the land. The river,
miraculously divided as long as the priests with the Ark remained in its bed. On the western bank, at Gilgal,
Joshua pitched his camp in order that all might be able to participate in the Passover, and he directed that
every Hebrew that had been born in the desert should be circumcised. Joshua then began the wars of
conquest which were carried on for many years. Jericho was the first city captured. After exploring it by spies
Joshua invested it, finally capturing it. According to the Book of Joshua this was done by the men of war
circling the city for six days in silence, and on the seventh day, seven Rabhis or priests circled the city seven
times each blowing a shofar or rams horn, and with the priests final blow of their horns all the Israelites
shouted as one, and the walls of Jericho fell. A curse was pronounced over the ruins, and every man, woman,
and child in the city was killed save Rahab and her paternal family; they being spared because she had shown
hospitality to the spies. Jushua became famous by this victory. Joshua within a few years had made himself
master of the whole country with the exception of the Philistine and Phoenician coasts. Still he continued to
guard in Gilgal his fortified camp; thence he governed the land, and there he began to allot the districts to the
various tribes. Judah, Ephraim, and the half of Manasseh were the first to be settled, Caleb being allowed to
take Hebron. After this, Joshua removed the Tabernacle and the Ark from Gilgal to Shiloh, and took up his
residence there. Here he continued the work of apportioning the rest of the land by lot according to the
famililies. Having completed his task, he gave Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh permission to return to
their east Jordanic territory. When he was old, Jushua convened the elders and chiefs of the Israelites and
exhorted them to have no fellowship with the native population. Soon afterward he died, at the age of 110.

Jewish version (aish.com2006): Before they enter the land, the Jewish people send an envoy to the
Canaanites with the message, God, the Creator of the Universe has promised this land to our forefathers. We
are now here to claim our inheritance, and we ask you to leave peacefullymost of the Canaanites
dontJoshua has clear instructions from God that if the Canaanites dont get out, the Jews must wipe them
outthey are going to corrupt the Jewsthe Canaanites are extremely immoral and idolatrousthe Israelites
do finally lay claim but [later] And the children of Israel did that which was evil in the eyes of the Lordand the
anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel and he delivered them into the hands of spoilerstheir enemies
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(Judges 2:8-14)from a simple reading of the text, one might assume that the entire Jewish people
abandoned the Torahnot trueonly a small percentage of the people sinned, yet the entire nation is held
accountableafter the death of Joshuaa small minority took it as a license to slip into idolatry and immorality.
This happened largely because the Jews did not get rid of all the CanaanitesAnd they forsook the God of
their fathers and they went after other gods. And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel (Judges
2:8-14)God says over and overkeep the Torahyou will prosperthe whole world will come to learn from
you.

About the Tribe of Asher:


BibleWiki2007 (includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906): The fortune of Asher is foreshadowed in
the Blessing of Jacob, where it is said: Asher, his food shall be rich, and he shall yield the dainties of a
king...the blessing of Moses, delivered, according to tradition, at the close of the march, is put forward as partly
predictive: Bless be Asher with descendants, and let him be pleasing to his brethren, and let his foot be dipped
in oilthe territory allotted to Asher was the coast land extending from Dor on the south to Sidon on
 the north. It thus included, north of mount Carmet, the territories of Accho, Achzib, Tyre, and Sidon. The
coast land west of the shoulder of Carmel, though assigned to Asher, was occupied by Manasseh. The
tribe was thus settled on the western slopes and valleys of Upper and Lower Galilee and on the
Phoenician plain. Here was some of the most productive land in Palestine (pasture, wooded hills, and
orchards) noted especially for the abundance and richness of its olive oil. On account of its remoteness
from the centers of national life, and its facility of communication with the Phonician markets, as well
as the ease with which it could support itself, the tribe speedily became dissociated from the rest of
Israel, so that it took no part against the CanaanitesAsher is one of the most indistinct and elusive of
the tribes of Israel. It is difficult to fix the boundaries of the tribes possessions; and it is not even certain that
it inhabited any extensive continuous territorybesides the Phoenician coast cities (Accho, Tyre, Sidon),
Beth-dagon further inland was probably never Asherite. Asher appears to have had at no time a close
connection with the body of Israel. It had more at stake than any other tribe in the common struggle with the
northern Canaanites, and yet it held aloofCritical opinion is divided as to whether Asher was a name
originally Israelitish, or whether it was adopted by certain of the outlying tribesmen from a Canaanitic source.
What light does the story of the birth of Asher throw on the question? He was the full brother of Gad, and the
names have the same meaning. Gad is a Canaanitish god of fortune, and Asher is from a root meaning
prosperous, happy, when the great Assyrian god Asshur. But how was this name Asher suggested? A clue is
perhaps afforded in the fact pointed out that Aseru appears on Egyptian monuments as the name of a land
and people in western Galilee in the fourteenth century BC. It is conceivable that Israelitish settlers in that
region adopted in this modified form the name of their new residencestill the possibility that this Aseru was
itself the name of a Hebrew settlement existing from olden time in Palestine and kept up independently of the
sojourn in Egypt which ended with the Exodusstill another hypothesis has been offeredthat the clan Heber
of the tribe Asher represents the Chabiri of the El-Amarna tabletsif this should be correct, the conclusion
would be drawn that a formidable body of people was pressing upward from southern Palestine two hundred
years before the Exodus, and that they finally settled in western Galilee.
Wikipedia.org2007 (includes text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897): according to the Torah, the tribe
was founded by an individual, Asher the eighth son of Jacob, from whom it took its name; however Biblical
scholars view this also as postdictionin the Biblical account, Asher is one of the two descendants of Zilpah, a
handmaid of Jacob, the other descendant being Gad; scholars see this as indicating that the authors saw
Asher and Gad as being not of entirely Israelite originin common with Gad is the possibility that the tribal
name derives from a deity worshipped by the tribe, this being Asshur, the chief Assyrian deitysome
arcaeologist believe that the account of an exodus from Egypt is inaccurate, and that the Israelites simply arose
as a subculture within Canaanite society, though a number have also proposed that some of the tribes
originated as part of the Sea Peoples. Egyptian accounts of the Sea Peoples mention a group named
Uashesh/Uesheshthe tribe of Asher was also known to be the priests of the twelve tribes.
Aboutbibleprophecy.com2007: Asher made the journey with Jacob and the family from Padan Aram to
Canaan, and then later to Egyptthe Tribe of Asher failed to drive out the inhabitants of Phoenician towns in
the area of Israel that the tribe had been allotted as its inheritance (Judges 1:27)In Revelation 7:7, Asher is
among the Tribes who are promised the Seal of God for 12,000 of their members [Dan is entirely
unmentioned]
Ou.org2007: the Tribe of Asher provided oil to the other Tribes, while they provided Asher with grainthe
women of the Tribe of Asher were exceptionally beautiful and virtuous, very fit to be wives of High Priests and
Kingsthe tribes of Dan, Asher and Naphtali camped and marched together in the Wilderness, and were
called the Camp of Danthe area of the Tribal inheritance is described as containing 22 citiesthe Canaanite
nations continued to reside inb six of the largest cities that lay on the coast in the inheritance of Asher, whom
they were unable to conquer. But the Asheri dwelt among the Canaani, the inhabitants of the land; for they
did not drive them out.
Britam.org: Asher by Vair Davidiy: Simplified descriptions of British History usually depict Britain as originally
populated by Celts, who were conquered by Anglo-Saxons, who in turn were conquered by Normans of
Scandinavian origin. The actual details are far more complicated. The Normans included many native Bretons
from Celtic Brittany in France and also many adventurers and mercenaries from various other parts of France
were in the Norman forces. The Celts of Britainmay not have been strictly speaking Celts at allthey were
not a homogeneous peoplesimilarly, the Anglo-Saxon invaders actually consisted of numerous Scandinavian
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and Northern Tribes amongst whom the Vandals were quite important. The historian Procopius reported the
 the vandals had come from the Sea of Azov area just north of the Black Seathe Vandals in the first century
CE had been known as Lybians or Lugiithis culture had originated in the Scythian area but evolved differently
from that of the other Scythian peoplesAs in Phoenician Hebrew was a shortened form for Asher, and
Phoenician Hebrew appears to have been the dialect employed by the northern Ten Tribes prior to their exile.
The Aseir are also equated by scholars with the Ansis who become the ruling elite among the Goths.
Goths and Vandals spoke the same language and were considered different branches of the same people.
The Vandals had first appeared south of the Burgundians who in turn were south of the Goths on the Baltic
coast, eacst of the Vistulaat this stage the Vandals were led by two leaders, named Ambri and Assi. The
name Ambri is reminiscent of the Ambri people who, with the Sicambri (Franks), encountered Alexander the
Great in Bactria and later moved to Northern Europe whence in c. 109-101BCE they joined the Cimbri and
Teutons in attacking Romethey were descendants of Jimna son of Asher. The name of the second leader of
the Vandals was Assi which is the same name as that of the people of Assi in Roman Chronicles. These were
referred to in Chinese records as Wusun. They were recorded as having once conquered the Goths in east
Scythia. After that they then moved to the Don River region before migrating northwards. They were also
known as the Aseir. The Aseir were the people of Odin and migrated to ScandinaviaPliny said that the
Vandals were a federation encompassing the Vandili, Varini, Goths, and Burgundians. The Burgundians were
to settle in France and Switzerland and are associated with the Swedish Isle of Bornholma related people
were the Varachan Huns who were a tribal component amongst the Khazars in southern Russia. The Varins or
Warings who came with the Angles and Saxons to Britain were to conquer the Celtic Brigantesin the 400sCE
the Vandals participated in the invasion of Roman Gaul and then penetrated Spainin 429CE the
Vandalscrossed the Straits of Gibraltar into North Africa. From North Africa the Vandals raided and
plundered the city of Rome in 445CE. A tradition states that in their raid on Rome the Vandals liberated
treasure taken from the Temple in Jerusalem that the Romans had destroyed in 66CE. These treasures
included the Menorah. Some of the treasures were retaken by the Byzantines and may have been liberated
again later by the Goths. The possibility also exists that some of the Temple treasures went with the Vandals
to Ireland and then to Britain. They may still be concealed somewhere in the British Isles! The Byzantines in
533CE crushed the last vestiges of the Vandal African kingdom though most of the Vandals appear to have left
the province of North Africa previously. At all events after their defeat, Procopius records that the entire
 Vandal nation took ship and sailed away. In the Vandal period North Africa via Spain had been invaded by
other related groups such as the Massagetae (probably Nephtalites), Suebi, Franks, and others and these must
have joined the Vandals and moved with them to Ireland and from there to Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth
reported that 160,000 Africans from Ireland joined the Saxons in invading Britain. These so called Africans
were Vandals and kindred bandsHeber of Asher gave rise to the Lygae and nearby Lugi which peoples
formed the basis in Europe upon which the Vandal Federation built itself. The names Lygae and Lugi are
derived froma root implying union or allianceHeber in Hebrew has the same meaning of union and
joiningan account of early British history, which states that Britain was first populated by the sons of Bruttus
who, from Troy in Anatolia, reached Britain via Italythe Royal Scythes had included part of the Tribe of
Asherit may be observed that groups associated with the Vandals whom we have identified with Asher and
especially with the Virini sub-section of the Vandals were to several times be in the neighborhood of another
people called Sidini, Sidone, or Sudini. In the Land of Israel the Tribe of Asher had received its territorial
portion which emcompassed the famous Phoenician city of Great Sidon. Part of the Tribe of Asher appears to
have participated in Phoenician Sidonian culture and mercantile activities and this fact together with
geographical proximity in the past may explain the apparent Sidonian connectionthis closeness was to be
repeated in their places of exile. The Tribe of Asher thus appeared to have been strongly represented in the
Vandal nation The Lygian-Vandal tribes corresponded in nomenclature with the sons of Asher: Boreoi equalled
Beriah, the Omani came from Yimnah, and the Heissi were Isui, or Ishuah sons of Asher. The Vandals had
been represented in mythology by the Vane people of Vanaland. These were located beside the Don River.
They were partners of the Aseir whose name is a form for Asher. The Aseir migrated to Scandinavia where
too, the Vandals were recalled in the name Vendyssel. Yimnah, son of Asher, was to be found in the Ambri
who, from Bactria, moved northward where they were known as Ambrones and were partners to the Teutons
and Cimbr, Beriah, son of Asher, was found in the Burgundians, in the Brigantes, in the Varangian-Vikings, in
the Bergio of Scandinavia, and in the Varachan-Huns amongst the Khazars. The name Beriah may also be
rendered as Beriah. Many Vandals probably entered Britain in the Anglo-Saxon invasions. The 160,000
Africans who, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, came from Ireland were more than likely, of Vandal and
related Israelite Northern origin. The Angli conquerors of Northumbria were partnered by the Varini who were
also a Vandal group as were the Rugini who participated in the Anglo-Saxon forces. The Varini were
associable with the Sidoni, Sidini, or Seduni whose name is derived from the city of Phoenician Sidon
which in Biblical times was encompassed by territory of Asher. Heber (Cheber) son of Beriah son of
Asher was represented by Caber who, according to tradition, settled Celtic Wales. Heber was also found in the
Lugi-Ligi (league-union) of Vandal origin and too amongst the Chablones who invaded Gaul together with the
Eruli. The Eruli belonged to Arieli from the Tribe of Gad and according to Gibbon were classifiable as a Vandal
sub-tribe. On the whol, Asher predominated in northern England and Lowland ScotlandProcopius Gibbon:
the distinction among the Vandals was more strongly marked bymany of which, in a future age, expanded
themselves into powerful monarchies.
The Works of Sir Walter Raleigh-Volume III-The History of the World-Book II, Chapter VII, Section III, page
223: had for their portion that part of Phoenicia, from Zidon and the fields of Libanus, unto Ptolomais Acon
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along the sea-coast, containing thirty English miles, or thereabouts; and from the midland sea to the east
border, some twelve milesvery fruitful, abounding in wine, oil, and wheatZidonso strongneither could
the Asserites, or any of their successors, master it; but it continued all the time of the judges and kings, even
unto the coming of Christ; though, according to the warnings and threats of the prophetsit was often afflicted,
both by the enemies sword and by the pestilencefrom Zidon had Solomon and Zorobabel their principal
workmen, both in timeber and stone, for the building of the temple. For as it flourished in all sorts of learning,
so did it in all other mechanical arts and tradesafter the citizens became Christians, was held and defended
by the knights of the Dutch order: and another castle it hath on the south side, by the port of Egypt, which the
Templars guarded. It also sent many other colonies, besides that of Tyre, into places remoteStrabo and
Pliny give the Zidonians the invention of glassthey were in religion idolaters, (as the rest of the Canaanites,)
worshippers of Baal and Astarothdivers Baals, and divers Astaroths, in their idolatries they acknowledge, as
it appears by the plural names of Baalim and AstarothAstarothis pluralAugustinethinks Baal and
Astarte to be Jupiter and JunoThammuzis the name of Adonis among the Syrians. So that it may seem,
that in the sorship of Astarte, or Venus, they did bewail her husband Adonis: as also the Grecians did in their
songs of Adonisothersexpound the mourning for Thammuz to be the mourning of Osiris, in the sacrifices of
Isis; whose loss of her husband Osiris was as famous, in the Egyptian idolatry, as, with the Grecians, Venuss
loss of AdonisWoe be to thee, Chorazin! for if the great works, which were done in thee, had been done
in Tyrus and Zidon, they had repented long agone, But I say unto you, It shall be easier for Tyrus and Zidon
at the day of judgment, than for you!that sometime famous city of Tyre, whose fleets of ships commanded
and gave the law over all the Mediterranean sea and the borders thereofTyreelder than Solomons temple
240 yearsand so proud, wealthy, and magnificent was this city, as the prophet Isaiah, xxxiv. 12. calleth the
merchants thereof princes, and their chapmen the nobles of the world. It excelled both in learning and in
manufactureAlexander Macedonhaving once approached their walls, he overtopped themhe became
lord thereof, putting all to the sword that resisted; after which, he caused 2000 more to be hung up in a rank all
along the sea-shore; which execution in cold blood he performed upon the issues of those slaves which had
formerly slain all their masters, taking their wives, children, riches, and power of government to
themselvesSanballet revoltedand came to Alexander with 8000obtained of Alexander that a temple
might be built on the mountain Garizim, over Samaria; that the forces of the Jews being divided , Alexander
might the better hold them in obediencebut while Alexander besieged Gazq, Sanaballatdiedthis city of
Tyre repaired and recovered itself again, and continued in great glory about 300 years, even to the coming of
our Savious Christ, and after him flourished in the Christian faith near 600 yearsthe third city along the coast
of the sea, which the Asherites could not obtain on the south bound of Asher, was Acho of the tribe of
NephtalimPaneas [Caesarea Philippi]of this city was that woman whom Christ healed of a bloody issue, by
touching the hem of his garmentwho afterwardscaused two statues to be castChristthe other made
like herselfboth which, saith Eusebius, remainedeven to his own time, which himself had seen, who lived in
the reign of Constantine the Great. But in the year after Christ 363, that monster Julian Apostata caused that
worthy monument to be cast downinthis city, it was that St. Peter acknowledged Christ to be the Son of
Godmany other strong cities in Nephtalim, as that which is called Cedeshas embraced the
Christian faithbut in time it fell with the rest into the power of the Saracens and Turks, and by them it
was demolished
Othniel Othniel Ben Kenaz is the first Judge of Israel. He delivered Israel from Mesopotamia and brought peace for
forty years.
Ehud Ehud Ben Gera was the Judge of Israel who fought against the Moabites which brought peace for eighty years.
Shamgar Shamgar was a Judge of Israel who headed an uprising against the Philistines.
Deborah Deborah was a prophetess and the only female Judge of Israel.
Barak Barak was a judge of Israel. He was the military commander of Deborah.
Gideon Gideon was a judge of Israel for forty years. The Israelites had turned away from God after forty years of
peace brought by Deborahs victory over Canaan and were allowed to be attacked by the neighbouring
Midianites and Amalekites. God chose Gideon, a young man from the tribe of Manasseh to free the people
and condemn their worship of idols. After delivering them, the people pleaded with Gideon to be their king, but
he refused, telling them that only God was their ruler.
Abime-lech Abimelech ruled Israel for three years after the death of his father, the great judge Gideon. He was an
unprincipled, ambitious ruler, often engaged in war with his own subjects.
Tola Tola judged Israel for twenty-three years.
Jair Jair judged Israel for twenty-two years.
Jephtha Jephtha judged Israel for six years.
Ibzan Ibzan judged Israel for seven years. The Talmud asserts that he is to be identified with Boaz from the story of
Ruth.
Elon Elon led Israel for ten years.
Abdon Abdon was the son of Hillel, and was the tenth Judge of Israel.
Sam- son Samson commits suicide by pushing down the temple pillars, in order to kill as many of the Philistine leaders as
he can. In the Talmudic period many seen to have denied that Samson was an historic figure; he was
regarded as a purely mythological personage. This was viewed as heretical by the rabbis of the Talmud.
Eli Eli is one of the last Israelite Judges, the main priest and trainer of Samuel. His sons Hopni and Phinehas
were wicked and struck down by God for the irreverence they showed in doing their priestly duties.
1235 Beginning with king Tukulti-Ninurta (1235-1198BC), Assyria begins its first conquests.

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BC
1203BC Jacobisrael.us: from the official printing press of the Rosicrucians, it states: In 1203BC, several of the
Brothers of the Order who were of the Illuminati were commissioned to go into other lands and spread the
THE PLOT secret doctrines by the establishment of other lodges. It was quite apparent that Egypt was to be
subjected to a devastation and that its great learning might be lost It was finally decided that no undue haste
should be sanctioned in permitting the Brothers who have gone abroad to establish Lodges, but rather that
those who travel here in search of the Light should be tried, and to those found qualified shall be given the
commission to return to their people and establish a Lodge in the name of the Brotherhood. It was this dictum;
known as the Amra, that in later years proved the wisdom of the Councilors at this meeting, for it not only
became a hard and fast rule, but made for the success of the plans of propagation. It was in this wise that the
phrase travel East for learning or Light first came into use; for those who soon began to travel to Egypt came
from the west. About the year 1000 BC, there came to Egypt a character whose name is recorded as
Aslomon. If this is true, Israels King Solomon was trained in the Illuminati teaching. No wonder he
allowed his wives to establish their own private booths to worship their false gods..Soloman had the assistance
of two who had traveled in Egypt as architects and artists: Huramabi of Tyre and one Hiram Abifclosely
watched by the fraternity in Egyptit became apparent ..he was not adhering to the Rosicrucian philosophy, for
he used the sun as the exclusive symbol of his order. Of the growth of the Saloman brotherhood, as it was
officially called in all ancient documents, one may read in all literature bearing upon Freemasonry. It has
evolved in a semi-mystical, speculative, secret, fraternal order of power and great honor, gradually altering the
principles laid down by Saloman, it is true, but doing so for the greater benefit of man. The Greeks were now
coming to Hesbes to study, and it was at this time that the world-wide spread of the organization began.
1200- The Greek Myceneans abandon their civilization. The populations of cities dwindle until there is no
1100BC urbanized culture left on the greek mainland. They abandon [and] writing and trade. The centuries that
THE PLOT follow from 1100 to 750 are called the Greek Dark Ages. This would be convenient for the emergence of
Palestine.

wsu.edu2008: The Myceneans-The Late Hellanic Period, 1550-1150BC: ...around 1600BC...these [Greek]
urban centers began to thrive and Greek settlers entered their first major period of cultural creativity. Their
cities grew larger...their agriculture more efficient, and the power of these new warlord cities began to be felt
around the Aegean...for four centuries their culture thrived until it crumbled into the enptiness of history...for
almost two thousand years, the Myceneans were lost to history except for their central position in Greek
literature and mythology. For the Mycenean age found its voice in the poetry of Homer in a single defining
even: the Mycenean war against Troy...regarded as fiction only until an amateur archaeologist named Heinrich
Schliemann dug up the city of Troy in Turkey and later dug up the Mycenean cities of Mycenae...ruins tell us
very little...society was monarchical...kings accumulated vast wealth in concentrated form; the rest of society did
not share in the prosperity...society was constantly geared for battle...cities were heavy fortresses...while the
Minoans surrounded themselves with delicate art of everyday life, Mycenean art was about warfare and
hunting...they actively went looking for trouble...Hittite records in Asia Minor and the Middle East chronicling
Mycenean invasions, and the Egyptians list them among groups of raiders. And, after Minoan civilization had
been weakened in a series of earthquakes, the Myceneans conquered Crete and other Aegean
civilizations...ranged far and wide as merchants, trading raw goods such as oil and animal skins for jewelry and
other goods...kings were not above a little piracy or rapine...at the very peak of their power, shortly after the
destruction of Troy, the Myceneans suddenly disappear from history. Around 1200BC, the populations of the
cities dramatically decrease until they are completely abandoned by 1100BC. The Greeks believed that the
Myceneans were overrun by another Greek-speaking people, the Dorians...the Dorians were uninterested in the
Mycenean cities but chose to live in small agricultural groups. It may be that no invasions took place, but that
economic collapse...and northern migrations... drove people from the cities out into the countryside...Mycenean
cities were abandoned...Greek society once again became a non-urbanized, tribal culture. The Greeks also
stopped writing, so the history of this period is lost to us forever; for this reason its called the Greek Dark
Ages...they also abandoned their large commercial network. They virtually stopped trading with Asia Minor, the
Middle East, and Egypt...they seem to have stopped trading with one another as well...this long breathing
space allowed the Greeks the leisure to slowly redevelop an urbanized culture...at the close of the Greek Dark
Ages, the single greatest Greek accomplishment in the Greek view of themselves: the poetry of
Homer...windows into the distant Mycenean past....
Hebrewhistory.info2007: The Greeks appear on the proscenium of history in the 12th century BCE. From the
12th to the 7th century BCE, they were a collection of disparate, contentious, illiterate, barbarian tribes. For the
sake of brevity, the all-inclusive label Greeks is here being used to encompass the ancient peninsular and
insular Aegean groups, including the Dorians who invaded the peninsula from the north and indigenous
peoples such as the Achaeans, Aeolians, Pelasgians, Macedonians, Epirotes, and others. The single, most
important factor in the elevation of Greek culture was the adoption of the Semitic aleph-beth. Until then, Greek
mythology (we should hardly classify Homers tales of one-eyed monsters and sundry other fabulous creatures
as history), was rendered orally. The only reference to writing in that mythology appears in one of Homers
recitations. It concerns a foreign device, a folded tablet, brought to him by a messenger. The tablets
message, Homer relates, directs the recipient to kill the messenger carrying the tablet!
1200 to Phoenician civilization spreads across the Mediterranean.
900
BC About Phoenicia:
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Plato-dialogues.org2007: Phoenicia was the homeland of the Phoenicians, a semitic people. The Phoenician
civilization could be traced back as far as the XIIIth century BC. In biblical times, the Phoenicians were
heavily involved in maritime trade and Tyre was one of the busiest harbours of the whole Mediterranean, an
extremely wealthy city (some of Ezediels prophecies against Tyre give a very vivid description of the city and
 its wealth: Ezekiel, 26-28). They had established trading posts in various parts of the Mediterranean, as far as
Carthage, founded toward the end of the IXth century BC. For the Greeks, Phoenicians were the
descendants of Phoenix, a son of Agenor and brother of Cadmus, Cilix, Thasus and Europa. Agenor traced
his origins to Io, the Argive princess abduced by Zeus and changed by Hera into a heifer: Epaphus, Ios son by
Zeus, who was born after she had arrived in the Nile region, had married Memphis, the daughter of the River-
god Nile, from which he had had a daughter named Libya, who, from Poseidon, became the mother of twins,
Belus, who became king of Egypt, and Agenor, who settled in Syria. After Agenors daughter Europa had been
loved and abducted by Zeus under the guise of a bull to become the mother of the Cretan king Minos, he asked
his four sons to run the world and not come back until they had found her, which led them in all sorts of places
where they founded cities and established settlements: Phoenix in Tyre and Sidon, where he gave his name to
the Phoenicians, Cilix in Cilicia, Thasus in the island of Thasos, Cadmus in various places including the island
of Thera, before settling in Boetia where he founded Thebes. These wanderings preserve a legendary version
of the expeditions of Phoenicians throughout the Mediterranean and of their settlements in various places.
Through these wanderings, Phoenicians introduced in other parts of the Mediterranean world various
inventions of theirs, including the alphabet which they probably invented around 1100BC and which was
introduced in Greece toward the end of the Ixth century BC or beginning of the VIIIth, replacing earlier syllable
systems known as Linear A and B to give birth to the Greek alphabetthe main innovation of the Greeks with
respect to writing was to add letters for vowels to an alphabet which like todays Hebrew or Arabic alphabets,
included only consonants To this Herodotus bears witness in his Histories at V, 57-58, where he credits
Cadmus and his Phoenician companions with introducing many new techniques in Greece, including
the alphabet.
Wikipedia.org2007: an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along
the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading
culture that spread across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC, between the period of 1200 BC to
900 BC. Though ancient boundaries of such city-centered cultures fluctuated, the city of Tyre seems to have
been the southernmost. Sarepta (modern day Sarafand) between Sidon and Tyre, is the most thoroughly
excavated city of the Phoenician homeland. The Phoenicians often trade by means of a galley, a man-
powered sailing vessel. They were the first civilization to create the bireme. There is still debate on the subject
of whether the Canaanites and Phoenicians were different peoples or not. The Phoenicians spoke the
Phoenician language, counted among the Canaanite languages in the Semitic language family. The
Phoenician alphabet is the ancestor of virtually all modern alphabets. Through their maritime trade, the
Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to North Africa and Europe where the alphabet was adopted by the
Greeks. In addition to their many inscriptions, the Phoenicians, contrary to some reports, wrote many books,
which have not survived. Evangelical Preparation by Eusebius of Caesarea quotes extensively from Philo of
Byblos and Sanchumiathon. Furthermore, the Phoenician Punic colonies of North Africa continued to be a
source of knowledge about the PhoeniciansPhoenician is of Greek originultimately borrowed from Ancient
Egyptianbecame connected withpurple (cf. also Phoenix): cloth dyed with Haustellum brandaris was a
typically Phoenician product stories of their emigrating from various places to the eastern Mediterranean are
unfounded should these genes not be found in those various places. Hence, Herodotus account (written c.
440BC) refers to a faint memory from 800 years earlierAccording to the Persians best informed in history,
the Phoenicians began the quarrel. These people, who had formerly reached the shores of the Erythraean
Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean from an unknown origin and settled in the parts which they now
inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt
and Assyria This is a legendary introduction to Herodotus brief retelling of some mythical Hellene-
Phoenician interactions; few modern archaeologists would confuse this myth with history. For the theory that
 the history of Phoenician seafaring starts with the arrival of the Sea Peoples to the shores of present-
day Lebanonin terms of archaeology, language, and religion, there is little to set the Phoenicians apart as
markedly different from other local cultures of Canaan, because they were Canaanites themselves. However,
they are unique in their remarkable seafaring achievements. Indeed, in the Amarna tablets of the 14th century
BC they call themselves Kenaani or Kinaani (Canaanites). Note, however, that the Amarna letters predate the
invasion of the Sea Peoples by over a century. Much later in the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus writew
that Phoenicia was formerly called ___ a name Philo of Byblos later adopted into his mythology as his eponym
for the Phoenicians: Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix. Egyptian seafaring expeditions had already
been made to Byblos to bring back cedars of Lebanon as early as the third millennium BC. To many
archaeologists therefore, the Phoenicians are simply indistinguisable from the descendants of coastal-dwelling
Canaanites, who over the centuries developed a particular seagoing culture and skills. But others believe
equally firmly, with Herodotus, that Phoenician culture must have been inspired from an external source. All
manner of suggestions have been made: that the Phoenicians were sea-traders from the Land of Punt who co-
opted the Canaanite population; or that they were connected with the Minoans, or the Sea Peoples or the
Philistines further south; or even that they represent the maritime activities of the coastal Israelite tribes
like Danvery little is known of Phoenicia before it was conquered by Tutmoses III of Egypt around 1500 BC.
The Amarna correspondence (c.1411-1358BC) reveals that Amorites and Hittites were defeating the
Phoenician cities that had been vassals to Egypthistorian Gerhard Herm asserts that, because the
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Phoenicians legendary sailing abilities are not well attested before the invasions of the Sea Peoples around
1200BC, that these Sea Peoples would have merged with the local population to produce the
Phoenicians, who he says gained these abilities rather suddenly at that timein what were once areas of
Phoenician settlement, certain inhabitants still consider themselves descendants of Phoeniciansgenetic
studies demonstrate that for both male populations of Lebanon and Tunisia from areas which are past
Phoenician settlements and for Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish males there is a common m89 chromosome
Y type, while male populations which are related with the Minoans or with the Sea Peoples have a completely
different genetic markers. This implies that minoans and Sea Peoples probably didnt have any ancestral
relation with the Phoenicians. This league of independent city-state ports, with others on the islands and along
other coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, was ideally suited for trade between the Levant area, rich in natural
resources, and the rest of the ancient world. Suddenly, during the early Iron Age, in around 1200BC an
unknown event occurred, historically associated with the the appearance of the Sea Peoples from the north
who were perhaps driven south by crop failures and mass starvation following the eruption at the island Thera.
The powers that had previously dominated the area, notably the Egyptians and the Hittites, became weakened
or destroyed; and in the resulting power vacuum a number of Phoenician cities established themselves as
significant maritime powers. Authority seems to have stabilized because it derived from three power-bases:
the king; the temple and its priests; and councils of elders. Byblos soon became the predominant center from
where they proceeded to dominate the Mediterranean adnd Erythraean (Red) Sea routes, and it is here that the
 first inscription in the Phoenician alphabet was found, on the sarchophagus of Ahiram (c.1200BC). However,
by around 1000BC Tyre and Sidon had taken its place, and a long hegemony was enjoyed by Tyre beginning
The PLOT
with Hiram I (969-936BC).
Phoenicia.org2007: mid-eleventh century BCdecline of Egyptian prestige and power in the Levant. This
was due in part to the invasions of the Sea Peoples and the general disruptions of Late Bronze Age
cultures throughout the eastern Mediterranean, with the collapse of Mycenaean and Hittite culture and the
destruction of city-states in the Levant. Trade was severely affected. In the aftermath of the disruptions and
the power vacuum a new order emerged in which flourishing Phoenician settlements replaced such
destroyed centers.
1200 Under the Assyrian king, Ashur-Dan, the last Kassite king was driven from the Babylonian throne in the 12th
BC century BC.
1200- narconon.org2009: Cannabis is mentioned in the Hindu sacred text Atharvaveda (Science of Charms) as
800BC Sacred Grass, one of the five sacred plants of India. It is used medicinally [by Hindus] and ritually as an
 offering to Shiva.
1200- The first of the latin kings of Rome comes to power. The Latin kings of Rome, Alban kings of Rome or kings of
735BC Alba Longa, are a series of legendary kings of Latium and Alba Longa who, in Roman mythology, fill the gap
between Aeneass foundation of Rome and Romuluss. Ascanius, the first of the dynasty, founded Alba Longa
around the middle of the 12th century BC, some time after the destruction of Troy which according to ancient
scholars occurred in 1184BC.
1160 Under King Shutruk-Nahhunte Elam once again rises to power, strong enough to drive the Kassites out of
BC Babylonia. From this came the first and short-lived (1160-1120BC) Elamite empire.
The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to originate
 around 1050.

About the Phoenician Alphabet:


Wikipedia.org2007: became one of the most widely used writing systems, spread by Phoenician
merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it was assimilated by many other cultures and
evolvedsystems thought to have descended from Phoenician cover much of the worldwhen Phoenician
was first uncovered in the 19th century, its origins were unknown. Scholars at first believed that the script was a
direct variation of Egyptian hieroglyphshad long-term effects on the social structuresits simplicity not only
allowed it to be used in multiple languages, but it also allowed the common population to learn how to write.
This upset the long-standing status of writing systems only being learnt and employed by members of the royal
and religious groups of society, who used writing as an instrument of power to control the access of information
by the larger population. The appearance of Phoenician disintegrated many of these class divisions.
1135 Samuel is born. He was the last of the Hebrew Judges and the first of the major prophets who began to
BC prophesy inside the Land of Israel. His young life was during a time of growing degeneracy in Israel. He
Samuel selected/anointed the first two kings of Israel.
1120 Susa and Elam are sacked by the Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar I. This leads to the end of the Elamite
BC empire.
1115 The Philistines were practically the masters of Israel, according to modern Jews, and kept them in subjection.
BC God began to speak to a young pious Samuel whose fame spread because of it. The Israelites revolted and in
Samuel a battle at Aphek were defeated with the loss of 4,000. The chiefs thought to repair this great disaster by
carrying with them the Ark of the Covenant without consulting Samuel, now about 20. A second battle was
fought, and again the Philistines defeated the Israelites, slew 30,000 and took the Ark of the Covenant. The
Phillistines oppressed the Israelites for 20 years while Samuel was a spiritual power.
Gorp.away.com2007: As demands for Commerce increased and trade relations developed, the Phoenician
 influence began to spread. Although by the 8th century BC, settlements had reached much farther afield-as
far as the North Africa and Spanish coast, in the early years, Phoenician mingling remained centered along the
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Levantine coast. Ugarit, to the north of Bublos, first fell under its spell. Later, points south grew into substantial
settlements, some of which are still known to us today as cities in modern Israel.
1116- The Assyrian dream of empire began with the monarch, Tiglat-Pileser, who extended Assyrian dominance to
1090 Syria and Armenia.
BC
1100- Babylonia declines in strength and importance. Political chaos would last for about 200 years.
1000
BC
1100- The Greek Myceneans abandon their civilization around 1100BC. The populations of cities dwindle until
750BC there is no urbanized culture left on the greek mainland. They abandon writing and trade. The centuries that
follow from 1100 to 750 are called the Greek Dark Ages.

wsu.edu2008: The Myceneans-The Late Hellanic Period, 1550-1150BC: ...around 1600BC...these [Greek]
urban centers began to thrive and Greek settlers entered their first major period of cultural creativity. Their
cities grew larger...their agriculture more efficient, and the power of these new warlord cities began to be felt
around the Aegean...for four centuries their culture thrived until it crumbled into the enptiness of history...for
almost two thousand years, the Myceneans were lost to history except for their central position in Greek
literature and mythology. For the Mycenean age found its voice in the poetry of Homer in a single defining
even: the Mycenean war against Troy...regarded as fiction only until an amateur archaeologist named Heinrich
Schliemann dug up the city of Troy in Turkey and later dug up the Mycenean cities of Mycenae...ruins tell us
very little...society was monarchical...kings accumulated vast wealth in concentrated form; the rest of society
did not share in the prosperity...society was constantly geared for battle...cities were heavy fortresses...while
the Minoans surrounded themselves with delicate art of everyday life, Mycenean art was about warfare and
hunting...they actively went looking for trouble...Hittite records in Asia Minor and the Middle East chronicling
Mycenean invasions, and the Egyptians list them among groups of raiders. And, after Minoan civilization had
been weakened in a series of earthquakes, the Myceneans conquered Crete and other Aegean
civilizations...ranged far and wide as merchants, trading raw goods such as oil and animal skins for jewelry and
other goods...kings were not above a little piracy or rapine...at the very peak of their power, shortly after the
destruction of Troy, the Myceneans suddenly disappear from history. Around 1200BC, the populations of the
cities dramatically decrease until they are completely abandoned by 1100BC. The Greeks believed that the
Myceneans were overrun by another Greek-speaking people, the Dorians...the Dorians were uninterested in
the Mycenean cities but chose to live in small agricultural groups. It may be that no invasions took place, but
that economic collapse...and northern migrations... drove people from the cities out into the
countryside...Mycenean cities were abandoned...Greek society once again became a non-urbanized, tribal
culture. The Greeks also stopped writing, so the history of this period is lost to us forever; for this reason its
called the Greek Dark Ages...they also abandoned their large commercial network. They virtually stopped
trading with Asia Minor, the Middle East, and Egypt...they seem to have stopped trading with one another as
well...this long breathing space allowed the Greeks the leisure to slowly redevelop an urbanized culture...at the
close of the Greek Dark Ages, the single greatest Greek accomplishment in the Greek view of themselves: the
poetry of Homer...windows into the distant Mycenean past....
Hebrewhistory.info2007: The Greeks appear on the proscenium of history in the 12th century BCE. From the
12th to the 7th century BCE, they were a collection of disparate, contentious, illiterate, barbarian tribes. For the
sake of brevity, the all-inclusive label Greeks is here being used to encompass the ancient peninsular and
insular Aegean groups, including the Dorians who invaded the peninsula from the north and indigenous
peoples such as the Achaeans, Aeolians, Pelasgians, Macedonians, Epirotes, and others. The single, most
important factor in the elevation of Greek culture was the adoption of the Semitic aleph-beth. Until then, Greek
mythology (we should hardly classify Homers tales of one-eyed monsters and sundry other fabulous creatures
as history), was rendered orally. The only reference to writing in that mythology appears in one of Homers
recitations. It concerns a foreign device, a folded tablet, brought to him by a messenger. The tablets
message, Homer relates, directs the recipient to kill the messenger carrying the tablet!
1095 Samuel leads the Israelites against the Philistines and defeats them at Mizpah where the Israelites had fasted
BC and prayed in preparation. Samuel gathered a company of young men and established a school of prophets
Samuel that afterwards exercised important influence on the character and history of the people.
Samuel Samuel makes his sons judges but they were corrupt. The elders demand that a king should be set over them.
Samuel was disappointed and eventually anointed Saul to be their King. He spent the remainder of his life in
retirement mourning the many evils that befell the nation.
Books of Saul was the first King of Israel and the son of Kish of the tribe of Benjamin. While looking for lost livestock,
Samuel he consulted a seer (Samuel) who secretly anointed Saul as King over Israel. After he returned home, Samuel
summoned the people to an assembly. Lots were drawn to determine the new king, and Saul was confirmed
before the people as king. Shortly thereafter, Saul led the army of Israel in battle against the invading
Ammonites, whom he defeated at jabesh-Gilead. Then Saul and his son Jonathan made war against the
Philistines. Saul was apparently somewhat impatient to go into a battle against a vastly superior Philistine
force, leading to a curse from Samuel and the departure of the old judge. Shortly thereafter, while Saul still
waited, Jonathan launched a surprise attack against the Philistines without his fathers knowledge, leading to
panic among the Philistine forces. Saul took advantage to inflict a great defeat. After routing the Amalekites,
Saul refused to execute their king Agag, angering Samuel, who had instructed that the Amalekites be utterly
consecrated (eradicated). Acording to the Book of Samuel, this omission led to the kingship anointing being
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taken from Saul and given to another, David, and led Samuel to cease to give Saul guidance.

aish.com2006: One of the key commandments that the Jewish people are given upon entering the
 Land of Israel is to wipe out Amalek. Amalek is the ultimate enemy of the Jewish people in history. This
is the people that symbolize evil, and there is a commandment in the Bible to wipe them off the face of the
jthink
earth, because their pathological hatred for the Jews is so great, if they have a chance they will wipe the Jews
off the face of the earth. Amaleks major ambition is to rid the world of the Jews and their moral
influence and return the planet to idolatry, paganism, and barbarism. Since this is a cosmic war
between good and evil which cannot be settled with treaties, God commands the Jews to destroy
Amalek-the entire nation, down to the last cow [and baby infant]. Agag fathers a child before he is killed by
 the Prophet Samuel, and then the nation of Amalek goes underground. Today, we have no way of
identifying the descendants of Amalek, but we do know that the Amalekite ideology lives on. There has
been more than one occasion when people have arisen bent on exterminating the Jews. One such example
was Haman, the Persian minister who tried to annihilate the Jews in the time of Queen Esther (355BC). And
Hitler certainly espoused Amalekite ideology: Yes, we are barbarians! We want to be barbarians. It is an
honorable title to us. Providence has ordained that I should be the greatest liberator of humanity. I free man
fromthe degrading self-mortification of a false vision called conscience and moralityConscience is a Jewish
invention [and what more proof do you need that Hitler was a manchurian candidate?].

Saul effectively remained as king, however. David, a young shepherd from the tribe of Judah, was sent for as
a harp player to soothe Saul, troubled by an evil spirit after losing the anointing. Three years later when the
Philistines again invaded, David came to Sauls attention when he killed the Philistine giant Goliath with a
slingshot leading to another Philistine defeat. After making David the commander of his army, Saul soon
began to become jealous of David, who had managed to secure Sauls daughter Michal for his wife, as well as
the close friendship of Sauls own son, Jonathan. Saul, however, plotted to kill his popular young rival, and
David fled into the hills where he became an outlaw. Soon after this Saul gathered the Israelites against the
Philistines again, at Gilboa. Before the battle, Saul went to consult the witch of Endor, but was mysteriously
confronted by Samuel, who told him that he would be defeated. True to his word, the Israelites were indeed
defeated, and three of Sauls sons, including Jonathan, were killed. According to the Bible, Saul took his own
life as the battle turned against him when he ordered a soldier to kill him. David kills the soldier.
1050- Jacobisrael.us2008: North America was inhabited by Israelites 1000 years or more before 1492. There
850BC are archeological discoveries that have been made which show a strong correlation to the
Bible...Cartagewas an Israelite colony. Cartage continued Israels presence in the New World very
possibly even during Christs lifetime here on earththe Phoenicians were the city states of Tyre and Sidon,
and had a far flung empire on land and sea. They were the best sailors in the ancient world at that time, and
they saw the rise of David and Israel and made an alliance with them. They were a common race of Semitic
people; they also had a common language. There were only dialectic differences between Hebrew and the
Phoenician tongueKing Hiram the king of Tyre made David a palace and they became very close alliesthe
Israelite Phoenician alliance was an ancient super power.
Books of King Ish-bosheth (also Ashbaal in Chronicles), one of four sons of King Saul, was chosen as the second King
Samuel of Israel after the death of his father and brothers. He was proclaimed king by Abner, the captain of Sauls
army. Ish-bosheth was 40 at the time and reigned for two years. However, another faction proclaimed David
King of Judah, which led to war. Davids faction eventually prevailed against Ish-bosheths, but the war did not
come to a close until Abner joined David. Davids condition to return to him his wife Michal before peace could
be made was fulfilled by Ish-bosheth, but it was not until after Abners death that Ish-bosheth seems to have
given up hopes of retaining his power. Ish-bosheth was killed by two of his own captains who had expected a
reward from David; he instead punished the murderers as traitors. The elders of Israel come to Hebron to
anoint David King of Israel also.
1005 King David becomes the King of a united Israel (r.1005-965BC) at age 30. He is depicted as having been
BC the most righteous of all the ancient kings of Israel-although not without fault. 2Samuel states that God was so
Books of pleased with David that God promised that the Davidic line would endure forever; therefore, Jews believe
Samuel / 1 that the Jewish Messiah will be a direct descendant of King David, and Christians trace the lineage of
Chron Jesus back to him. While the nature of his reign and even his existence have been questioned by modern
THE PLOT biblical scholars, the account given in the Bible remains widely accepted by the majority of ordinary Jews and
* Christians. Muslims accept him as a prophet and reject the Biblical version of his being an adulterer and
* murderer because of the Islamic belief in the righteousness of prophets. When David takes the throne, Egypt
* and Assyria are both on a significant decline. They are not in any position to expand, which leaves a vacuum
* in the middle where Israel is located, and Israel is allowed to expand unmolested. Thus David is able to
subdue the Philistine threat and to conquer the remaining Canaanite city-stat-Jerusalem-that the Israelites have
thus far not been able to conquer. For the 450 years since the Jewish people first entered the Land of Israel
until the time of King David, Jerusalem has remained unconquerable. David makes Jerusalem his capital.
Why?

Aish.com2006: Mount MoriahThis is where Abraham went up to offer Isaac as a sacrificeToday on this
spot stands an Islamic structure known as the Dome of the Rock. Under this golden dome is a rockdrinking
stoneAccording to Judaism, the world is spiritually nourished from this spot, this stone. This is the
place where Gods presence can be felt more intensively than in any other place on the planet earth.
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Therefore, this is the logical place to build a permanent resting spot for the most holy object that the Jewish
people have-the Tabernacle and the Ark of the Covenant.
1000 King David conquers the Jebusite fortress of Jerusalem and makes it his capital, and brings the Ark of the
BC Covenant there, intending to build a temple. But God, speaking to the prophet Nathan, forbids it, saying the
Books of temple must wait for a future generation, but that He will establish the house of David eternally. Then David
Samuel / 1 establishes a mighty empire, conquering Syria, Jordan, the lands of the Philistines, and more. David had eight
Chron wives and many children by them and various concubines.
*
1000BC  Wikipedia.org2007: by around 1000BC Tyre and Sidon had taken its [Byblos] place, and a long hegemony
was enjoyed by Tyre beginning with Hiram I (969-936BC).
  Phoenicia.org2007: Tyre strengthened its influence over the northern kingdom of Israel.
 Jacobisrael.us2008: the time of Israels greatness really began with King David2Samuel8 discusses
Davids defeat of the Philistines, Moab, Analek, Edom, and the Syrians for example lost more than 80,000 men
in just three battlesDavid could mobilize over 12 million menPhoeniciansmade an alliance with them
[Israel]worlds greatest navy in the Phoenicians combined with Davids one and one-half-million man army.
And David was not the least bit reluctant to use itPsalm 83many nations that come to help the children of
Lot, which also included Ammon to destroy Israel from off the face of the earthSecular history has recorded
that Assyrias Empire went into eclipse or confusion, some encyclopedias call it, between 1100-900BC.
Halleys Bible Handbook comments on it also, and states that ancient Israel was much stronger than Assyria,
Babylon or Egyptthe same period as Israels golden age under David and Solomon. And is glossed over in
almost all historical texts, if they even cover it at allis there evidence of an Israelite Empre? The answer is
Yes! But the secular historians will rarely call it an Israelite Empire, they will call it a Phoenician Empirethe
men from Judah were only a small part of Davids army at this timewhat happened to Assyria? It was
defeated badly in a war against Israels army1Chronicles 22 relates that David accumulated for the Temple
of God iron and brass beyond calculation. Warrner Keller in his book The Bible is History states: Israel was
using the Bessemer system of smelting, which was not rediscovered until recently in the modern
eraEssian Gebar was the Pittsburgh of ancient Palestine. Nowhere else in the fertile crescent which
includes Mesopotamia could such a large smelting facility be found. Dr. Berry Fells book Bronze Age America
cites evidence that 2 billions of copper ore was taken from mines near Lake Superior in North America, in
roughly 2000-1000 BC. The dates include the time of Davids reign, at the tail end of it, as the ore apparently
ran out for they have no evidence that it was mined after thatno evidence it was used in this
hemispherethey have no idea where the copper came from which was smelted in Palestine during this
time.
* Amnon was Davids eldest son. He raped Tamar and was murdered by Absalom, third son of David. Amon
* was the progeny of David and Ahinoam. Tamar and Absalomn were the progeny of David and Maachah. Thus
* Amnon and Absalom were half-brothers, like Abrahams sons Ishmael and IsaacThe law forbade Amnon to
*
marry a half-sister, and taking evil advice he pretended to be sick. He lured Tamar into his quarters and raped
*
her. Two years later Absalom engineered Amnons death.
* After murdering his brother, Absalom fled Talmai, king of Geshur, his maternal grandfather, and it was not until
* three years later that he was fully reinstated in his fathers favour. He was now the eldest surviving son of
* David. Four years later he raised a revolt at Hebron perhaps because he was suspicious that he was not the
*
destined heir. All Israel and Judah flocked to his side, and David, attended only by the Cherethites and
*
* Pelethites and some recent recruits from Gath, found it expedient to flee. The priests remained behind in
* Jerusalem, and their sons Jonathan and Ahimaaz served as his spies. Absalom reached the capital and took
* counsel with the renowned Ahithophel. The pursuit was continued and David took refuge beyond the Jordan
* River. A battle was fought and Absaloms army was completely routed. He himself, having long hair, was
* caught by his hair in the boughs of an oak-tree, and as David had strictly charged his men to deal gently with
* the young man, Joab was informed. Joab thrust three spears through the heard of Absalom as he struggled.
David was overwhelmed with grief.
1Kings After the death of his elder brothers, Amnon and Absalom, Adonijah, fourth son of David, became heir-apparent
* to the throne. But Solomon, a younger brother, was preferred to him. Adonijah, however, when his father was
* dying, caused himself to be proclaimed king. But Nathan and Bathsheba induced David to give orders that
*
Solomon should immediately be proclaimed and admitted to the throne. Adonijah fled and took refuge at
*
* the altar, and received pardon for his conduct from Solomon on the condition that he showed himself a worth
* man (1Kings1:5-53). He afterwards made a second attempt to gain the throne, by trying to marry Davids last
* woman, Abisag from Sunam, but Solomon denied authorization for such an engagement, even if Bathsheba
* now pleaded on Adonijahs behalf. He was then seized and put to death (1Kings2:13-25).
*
* Solomon was Davids second son by Bathsheba. The prophet Nathan informs David that God has willed
* that his firstborn son must die, as punishment for Davids method of execution of Uriah the Hittite due to
*
Davids secret relationship with Bathsheba, Uriahs wife, which was fornication. After praying and fasting for a
*
* week, David heard the news that his first son had died, and comforted the grieving Bathsheba, who became
* pregnant with Solomon. His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons, by
* women other than Bathsheba. His elevation to the throne took place before his fathers death, and is hastened
* on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah.
965BC King David of Israel dies and his son King Solomon becomes King of Israel.

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Gorp.away.com2007: After 1000 BC, when Tyre rose to prominence as the principal city of Levantine
 Phoenicia, the Imperial overlord of the moment, the Assyrians, required regular tribute payments to their king.
To satisfy this demand-and Phoenician curiosity- traders pushed west in search of new resources and
commodities, founding great cities like Utica and Carthage. This expansion was further encouraged by
alliances between Tyre and Israel and later by disruptive enemy raids. Unconfirmed tradition has it that they
th
had already sailed as far as Spain and the North African coast as early as the 10-12 centuries BC, but no
evidence has been proven to confirm these dateslittle remains of the great cities that stood at the center of
this ancient maritime powerno great wealth of art depicting exactly how they lived. In fact, it has taken
chance and persistent digging just to uncover some of the foundation traces of these intrepid people.
Phoenicia.org2007: the nature of the impact on Phoenicia changed from one of occasional demands by
raiding armies to incorporation as vassals into the empire. Many cities lost their autonomy altogether and
became part of Assyrian provinces administered by governors.

1Kings The first half of the 40-year reign of King Solomon of Israel (r.965-922BC) was by far the brighter and
1-11 more prosperous. He was renowned for his great wisdom, wealth, and power, but also blamed for his later
2 pacifism toward his converted wives in their worship of other gods. He is the subject of many later legends.
Chron
According to 1Kings11:4, he had 700 wives and 300 concubines. Solomon is in a line of the greatest
1-9
Kabbalah masters [how does one know that and what happened to his sons from 1000 fornications?].
K
* In 1Kings3:5-14 there is written an account of an encounter between the newly crowned Solomon and the God
*
of the Kingdom of Israel in which he offers Solomon anything he pleases. Solomon asks for an understanding
*
* heart to judge thy people, that I may discern between good and bad: for who is able to judge this thy so great a
* people? Pleased with his non-materialistic wish God tells him that not only will he receive a foundation in
* epistemology greater than any other man, but also great wealth, power and prosperity. The idea that
* Solomons wisdom is God-given is very important to various Judeo-Christian beliefs. The biblical Book of
* Proverbs, written by Solomon, is a dogmatic guideline for morality and manners in many Jewish and Christian
* denominations.
*
*
As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive empire, he entered
*
* into an alliance with Egypt by a marriage with the daughter of the Pharoah.
*
* King Solomon surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the external grandeur of an eastern monarch, and
* his government prospered. Extensive traffic was carried on by land with Tyre and Egypt and Arabia, and by

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* sea with Tarshish (Spain), Ophir and South India and the coasts of Africa. The royal magnificence and
* splendour of Solomons court were unrivaled. People came from far and near to hear the wisdom of Solomon,
* including queen Makedah or Bilqis of Sheba. Their son Menelik I, according to Ethiopian tradition, would
*
become the first emperor of Ethiopia.
*
*
* He entered into an alliance with Hiram I, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous
* undertakings that included construction of the Temple in Jerusalem. For some years before his death David
* had been engaged in the active work of collecting materials for building the temple in Jerusalem as a
 permanent abode for the Ark of the Covenant.
*
* Solomon, with help of Hiram I of Tyre, builds the First Temple over 7 years. To the Temple every devout
* Jew turned for spiritual refreshment. To it the hosts of Israel came to celebrate their great religious feasts. In its
* courts sacrifices were made, sins were forgiven, and souls were sanctified. Within its porches, the truths of
* salvation were taught; and within its walls the faithful assembled to renew their covenants and offer their vows
* and sacraments. On its altars legal administrators burned the offerings that were slain in similitude of the
*
sacrifice of the Son of God. Behind its veil and in its Holy of Holies, once each year, the high priest made
*
* atonement for the sins of the people, and on occasion fire descended from heaven to consume the offerings on
* its altars, and the Divine Presence, the Shekinah, dwelt visibly between the cherubim. The Ark stood in the
* Holy of Holies that had led the people into the Land of Promise and that was the footstool on which the
* Shechinah had rested. From that golden altar rose the sweet cloud of incense, symbol of Israels accepted
* prayers; that seven-branched candlestick shed its perpetual light, indicative of the brightness of Gods
* Covenant Presence; on that table, as it were before the face of Jehovah, was laid, week by week, the Bread of
* the Face, a constant sacrificial meal which Israel offered unto God, and wherewith God in turn fed His chosen
*
*
priesthood. After the Temple was completed, the Tabernacle was dismantled. Underground rooms and
* tunnels for storage have not been cleared, entered or explored since the later destruction of the temple.
*
 Acacia, timber of the Shittim tree, was used to make the Temples sacred furniture. Masons use it as a
*
symbol of the immortality of the soul. It is a hallucinogenic drug.
*
*
After the completion of the temple, King Solomon erected many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem and
in other parts of the kingdom.

About Solomon and demons:


 According to Islamic tradition, Solomon was able to freely converse with animals and birds and the spirits of
the underworld who Solomon used as servants.
* The Gnostic Apocalypse of Adam, which may date to the 1st or 2nd century, refers to a legend in which
* Solomon sends out an army of demons to seek a virgin who had fled from him, perhaps the earliest surviving
*
mention of the later common tale that Solomon controlled demons and made them his slaves. This tradition of
Solomons control over demons appears fully elaborated in the early Christian work called the Testament of
Solomon with its elaborate and grotesque demonology.
Solomons mastery of demons is a common element in later Jewish and Arab legends, and is often
attributed to possession of a magic ring called the Seal of Solomon.
1Kings King Solomons reign declined in the second half. Blamed for his decline and fall from his high estate were his
1-11 polygamy and his great wealth, causing him to become decadent and involved in various forms of idol worship
2 which are contrary to the Abrahamic monotheistic religious law. The Lord had told the people of Israel that
Chron
men should not enter into marriage with foreign women for surely they would turn their hearts after their gods.
1-9
* Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians and after Milcom the abomination of the
* Ammonites. Then Solomon built a high place for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, and for Molech the
* abomination of the Ammonites. Because of this idol worship, a prophet visits Solomon and tells him that after
* his death his kingdom would be split in two and that his son, Rehoboam, would suffer because of his sin.
*
* odd and suggestive, from George Rawlinson: The kingdom of Solomon is one of the most striking
* facts in Biblical history. A petty nation, which for hundreds of years has with difficulty maintained a
*
separate existence in the midst of warlike tribes, each of which has in turn exercised dominion over it
 and oppressed it, is suddenly raised by the genius of a soldier-monarch to glory and greatness [and
only drug dealing can pay for that] an empire is established which extends from the Euphrates to the
* borders of Egypt, a distance of 450 miles; and this empire, rapidly constructed, enters almost
*
*
immediately on a period of peace which lasts for half a century. Wealth, grandeur, architectural
* magnificence, artistic excellence, commercial enterprise, a position of dignity among the great nations
of the earth, are enjoyed during this space, at the end of which there is a sudden collapsethe ruling
nation is split in twain, the subject-races fall off, the pre-eminence lately gained being wholly lost, the
scene of struggle, strife, oppression, recovery, inglorious submission, and desperate effort, re-
commences.

THE PLOT Getting rich quick means crime was involved. Getting very rich quick means drugs were involved.
922BC King Solomon of Israel dies and is succeeded by his son King Rehoboam of Israel (r.922-905BC). His
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mother was Naamah the Ammonites.
1Kings King Rehoboam of Israel was 41 when he ascended. Although he was acknowledged at once as the rightful
2 heir to the throne, yet there was a strongly-felt desire to modify the character of the government. The
Chro-nicles burden of taxation to which they had been subjected during Solomons reign was very oppressive, and
therefore the people assembled at Shechem and demanded from the king an alleviation of their burdens. The
elder counselors formerly of Solomons kingship advised that he lower taxes to gain favor among the people,
while the younger counselors exhorted that he raise the taxes to express his authority. King Rehoboam of
Israel said to the people, my father also chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
Under his taxation, the people revolted and the kingdom of Israel was split into two kingdoms, Israel and
Judah (3,400 sq. mi.). The Tribe of Judah, Rehoboams own tribe, alone remained faithful to him.
Benjamin was reckoned along with Judah, and these two tribes formed the southern kingdom, with Jerusalem
as its capital and King Rehoboam becoming the King of Judah; while the northern ten tribes formed
themselves into a separate kingdom with Samaria as its capital and choose Jeroboam as the new King of
Israel. Rehoboam tried to win back the revolted ten tribes by making war against them, but was prevented by
the prophet Shemaiah.
 Tryptamines: The substances that reliably cause the experience of being projected into another space in
which non-human entities are encounteredaka, trance possession in Africa. MAO is the main enzyme
that breaks down tryptamines in humans. Many animals, including mammals, contain psychoactive
tryptamines. Small amounts of DMT (dimethyltryptamine) can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid of
psychiatrically normal humans, schizophrenics and manics. The genus Acacia contains DMTdried
leavesbarkmethyltryptamine and DMT.
927 BC Shishak, one of the kings of Egypt, probably at the encouragement of King Jeroboam of Israel, his son-in-law,
1Kings made war against King Rehoboam of Judah, and Judah submitted to the Egyptian invader, who plundered
2 the Temple and virtually reduced the kingdom to the position of a vassal of Egypt
Chron-icles (1Kings14:25,26;2Chronicles12:5-9). A remarkable memorial of this invasion has been discovered at Karnak,
in Upper Egypt, in certain sculptures on the walls of a small temple there. The Kingdom of Judah, under
Rehoboam, sank more and more in moral and spiritual decay. There was war between Rehoboam and
Jeroboam all their days.
Jeroboam, King of Israel, builds a golden calf in two places and told the people of Israel to worship
there.

Jewish version: He sees the people continue to stream to Jerusalem on the three religious festivals. He sees
that this commonality could bring about a re-unification, in which case he will no longer be king.

Aish.com2006: a terrible period begins in Jewish history. In the next 240 years, there are 19 different kings
of the northern kingdom of Israel-one worse than the next. They are idolaters, corrupt and evil, and they lead
the Jewish people into idolatryThe prophetElijahdecides to have a show down with the priests of
BaalElijah goes up north to Mount CarmelHe proposes that each side offer a sacrificial bull to their deity
and whichever deity sent a fire from heaven to consume the offeringwould be accepted as the true
Godpriests of BaalnothingElijaha fire comes down from heaventhe priests of Baal are put to
deathmultitude responds in awe: The Lord He is Godthe very phrase we [Jews] shout out during the Yom
Kippur liturgyJezebel sends a message to Elijah: Tomorrow I will kill you!idol worship resumes soon and
Elijah has to fleethe northern kingdom sinks even further down spirituallyGod is going to get tired of this.

About Elijah:
Wikipedia.org2008: prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCaccording to the Books of Kings, Elijah raised
the dead, brought fire down from the sky, and ascended into heaven on a Chariotone of two Old Testament
figures (along with Moses) who appears and converses with Jesus during his Transfiguration. Based on a
prophecy in Malachi, many Jews still await his return as precursor to the coming of the Messiahhe is a major
part of the Jewish brit milah and Passover seder ceremoniesgiven the importance of Elijah in Jewish and
Christian tradition, the story of his career occupies remarkably little spaceintroduced in 1 Kings 17:1 as Elijah
The Tishbite. He gives a warning to Ahab, king of Israel, that there will be years of droughtthis catastrophe
will come because Ahab and his queen-Jezebel-stand at the end of a line of kings of Israel who are said to
have done evil in the sight of the Lord. In particular, Ahab and Jazebel had encouraged the worship of Baal
and killed the prophets of the Lord. Elijah appears on the scene with no fanfare. Nothing is known of his
origins or background. His name, Elijah, My god is Jehovah (Yahweh), may be a name applied to him
because of his challenge to Baal worshipBaal was the local nature deity responsible for rain, thunder,
lightning, and dew. Elijah not only challenges Baal on behalf of the Yahweh (Jehovah) the God of Israel, he
challenges Jezebel, her priests, Ahab, and the people of Israel. By the 9th century BC, the united kingdom of
David and Solomon had broken up into northern (Israel) and southern (Judah) kingdoms. With the Temple in
Jerusalem, Judah had both the seat of government and the focus of religion within its borders. It was in this
situation that Omri became king of Israel. As a purely practical matter, Omri had to take steps to contain both
government and religion within the borders of Israel, lest the loyalties of his subjects be divided between Israel
and Judah. The task of centralising the government had a relatively straightforward solution: Omri built a new
capital at Sameria on a hill 300 feet above the countryside. The religious problem posed more of a challenge,
as the requirements of Temple worship were firmly focused on Solomons Temple. To break Israels religion
away from the control of the priests of the Temple in Judah, three solutions were pursued. The first was to
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encourage the building of temples (altars where sacrifices could be offered) at local sites within the borders of
Israel. Secondly, priests were appointed from outside the family of the Levites. And finally, temples dedicated
to the Canaanite god, Baal, were alternately allowed and encouraged. All three solutions were contrary to the
laws of Moses, and were guaranteed to bring the wrath of the prophets of Yahweh (Jehovah). None of these
solutions was new to Omri. They had all been begun with the reign of Jeroboam. Omri added a new
dimension. In order to bring security with the outside world, Omri sought a marriage alliance. There was
precedent for this solution in Solomons reign. Omri was able to arrange the marriage of his son Ahab to
princess Jezebel, daughter of the king of Sidon in Phoenicia. Jezebel came to Israel not only as a princess, but
she was also a priestess of Baalall of these solutions brought security and economic prosperity to Israel for a
time. However, it did not bring peace with the prophets of YahwehAhabnot only allowed the worship of a
foreign god within the palace (Solomon also did this), he also built a temple for Baal, and allowed Jezebel to
bring a large entourage of priests and prophets of Baal and Asherah into the country. After Elijahs
confrontation with Ahab, God tells him to flee out of Israel, to a hiding place by the brook Cherith, east of the
Jordan[then] to Zarephatho in Phoeniciaafter more than two years of drought and famine, God tells Elijah
to return to Ahab and announce the end of the drought. While on his way, Elijah meets Obadiah, the head of
Ahabs household, who had hidden a hundred prophets of Yahweh the God of Israel when Ahab and Jezebel
had been killing them. Elijah sends Obadiah back to Ahab to announce his return to Israel. When Ahab
confronts Elijah, he refers to him as the troubler of IsraelElijah then berates both the people of Israel and
Ahabproposes a testto Mount Carmet. Two altars are builtElijah then invites the priests of Baal to pray
for fire to light tohe sacrificethey praywithout successElijah now orders that the alter of
Yahwehdrenched with waterfire falls from the sky, igniting the sacrificeElijah seizes the moment and
orders the death of the prophets of Baal. This episode ends with the return of rainsJezebel, enraged that
Elijah had ordered the deaths of her priests, threatens to kill ElijahElijah fleesangeltells himhe has a
long journeytravels, for forty daysGod again speaks to Elijah [at Mount Horeb]sending him out againto
anoint Hazael as king of Syria, Jehu as king of Israel, and Elisha and his replacement[during incident of
vineyard fraud and death]Elijahtells AhabJezebel will be eaten by dogshis entire kingdom will reject his
authorityAhabrepents to such a degree that god relents in punishing Ahab but will punish Hezebel and
their son-AhaziahElijahs departureapproaches the Jordandividessuddenly, a chariot of fire and horses
of fire appear and Elijah is lifted up to heavenhis mantle fallsand Elisha picks it up Elijahs final mention
in the Hebrew Bible is in Malachi, where it is said that Elijah will come again before the great and terrible day of
the Lord. That day is described as the burning of a great furnacetraditionally, in both Judaism and
Christianity, this is taken to mean that Elijah will come before the coming of the Messiah.Jesuss ministry had
little in common with that of Elijah; in particular, he preached the forgiveness of ones enemies, while Elijah
killed hisElijah had entered folklore as a rescuer of Jews in distress
The Works of Sir Walter Raleigh, pg264: but at the prayer of Elijah his fire kindled, notwithstanding that he
had caused the people to cast many vessels of water thereon, by which miracle the people incensed slew all
those idolaters on the banks of Chison adjoining.
915BC King Rehoboam of Judah dies and is succeeded by his son King Abijam (my father is Yahweh) of Judah (r.915-
1Kings 913BC). He began his three years reign with a strenuous but unsuccessful effort to bring back the ten tribes to
2 their allegiance. His address to Jeroboam and all Israel before encountering them in battle is worth of especial
Chron notice (2Chr.13:5-12). It was a very bloody battle on paper, no fewer than 500,000 of the army of Israel having
perished on the field. He is described as having walked in all the sins of his father (1Kings15:3; 2Chr.11:20-
22).
913BC King Abijam of Judah dies and is succeeded by his son King Asa of Judah (r.913-873BC). 2Chronicles
2 describes his reign in a favorable manner: He did what was good and right in the eyes of the Lord his God
Chron (2Chr. 14:2). Immediately after his accession to the throne he deprived his idoloatrous grandmother Maachah
of the title of Queen Mother. He devoted his life to destroying idols and restoring the worship of God. The first
ten years were peaceful and he fortified Judahs cities.
903BC An army of Nubians under the lead of Zerah (Osorkon II of Egypt) came upon King Asa of Judah and Asa
routed them, resulting in a peace between Judah and Egypt that lasted for the next three centuries (2Chr. 14:9-
15).
King Baasha of Israel declares war upon Judah (2Chr. 16:1-6). King Asa of Judah forms an alliance with
King Benhadad of Damascus. A prophet told him that this alliance displeased the Lord, but Asa threw the
prophet in prison. Shortly after this, Asa contracted a disease in his feet and put no trust in the Lord, but in his
physicians.
883- The greatest period of conquest for Assyria occurs under the monarchies of Ashurnazirpal II (883-859BC)
824BC and Shalmeneser III (858-824BC), who conquered all of Syria and Palestine, all of Armenia, Babylon and
southern Mesopotamia.
About the Assyrians:
 The Assyrians invented a new policy towards the conquered: in order to prevent nationalist revolts, the
Assyrians would force the people to migrate in large numbers to other areas of the empire. Besides
guaranteeing the security of an empire built off of conquered people, these mass deportations turned the
region into a melting pot of diverse cultures, religions, and languages.
 The upper land-holding classes consisted almost entirely of military commanders who grew wealthy from the
spoils taken in war. The army was the largest standing army ever seen in the Middle East or Mediterranean.
The exigencies of war excited technological innovation which made the Assyrians almost unbeatable: iron
swords, lances, metal armor, and battering rams.
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 There was a dramatic growth in science and mathematics. Among the great inventions were the division of
the circle into 360 degrees and the concept of longitude and latitude in geographical navigation. The
Assyrians developed a sophisticated medical science which greatly influenced others as far away as
Greece.
During the 9th century BC, the Chaldeans get control over Babylonia, and makes it one of the strongest
states in Mesopotamia.
878BC King Omri of Israel creates a new capital, called Samaria.

About Samaria:
 Livius.org2006: in the sixth year of his reign, king Omri (884-873BC) created a new capital, called
Samariathe palace of the new city was built on a square platform of about 180x90 meters on a hill that rises
 more than 100 meters above the surrounding country. It [Samaria] controls the north-south route and an
important road from the coast to the Jordan valley. The archaeological remains of Samaria are very
impressivethe houses were built in Phoenician styleBiblical account focuses on the history of Judah
and tends to neglect Israel, which was, however, a very powerful statethe city was fully integrated in the
international economical, political, and social systems and had several temples, including one for the UHWH
and another for the Phoenician god Baal. To orthodox Jews [100% orthodox pious!!!?], this was unacceptable,
and therefore, the Bible portrays Omri, Ahab, and his wife Jezebel as the archvillains of sacred history,
opposed by the saintly prophet Elijah.

Note how historians, even amateur historians, always, not nearly always, assume Judah was completely pious
and orthodox and worshipped the only one true God. They read the Bible but apparently did not read the
Bible.
Livius.org2006: the cult of YHWH was probably widespread in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and the
temple of Jerusalem was not the only place of worship. In the large cosmopolitan city of Samaria, the capital of
Israel, many believers venerated YHWH without feeling any need to go to the peasant town [magnificent city of
David??!...get your story straight!] that was Jerusalem. YHWH had not yet become the one God of later times,
and many Samarians and Judaeans accepted other gods together with YHWH. The rise of Judah and the
rise of monotheism took place in the seventh century, after the fall of Samaria and the.
873BC King Asa of Judah dies and is succeeded by his son King Jehoshaphat of Judah (r.873-849BC). Jehoshaphat
spent his first years fortifying his kingdom against Israel, and destroying the cult images or idols of Baal. In the
third year of his reign he sent out priests and Levites over the land to instruct the people in the Law. The
author of 2Chronicles generally praises his reign, stating that the kingdom enjoyed a great measure of peace
and prosperity. Jehosaphat also pursued alliances with his contemporaries ruling the northern kingdom, the
first being with Ahab, which was based on marriage. This alliance led to much disgrace, and brought disaster
on his kingdom with the Battle of Ramoth-Gilead. While Jehoshaphat safely returned, he was confronted by
the prophet Jehu who reproached him. Jehoshaphat repented and returned to his former course of opposition
to all idolatry and promoting the worship of God.
JewishEncyclopedia(1906).com: In primitive countries trading was monopolized by traveling merchants.
 Palestine, an agricultural country, knew the traders mostly as foreigners, chiefly Canaanitethe narrow
prejudices of the farmer, who considered the profit of the merchant ill-gotten, combined to represent the hawker
as dishonestthe term for slanderer meant originally a traveling merchant.spices were a staple
commodity of the ambulant traderwith the loss of their national independence and their gradual dispersion
into foreign lands, the Jews [use of the word jew refers to Judah and Israel an incorrect but prevalent use by
jews] resorted more and more to commerce. The pedler carried all kinds of merchandise in his boxesin
Cant. R. iii 6 the powders of the merchant is explained as a figure for the blessings of Jacob, the source of
 all blessing, like the box of the merchant which contains all kinds of spices. Spices were imported from distant
lands, and since patriarchal times had been carried by Arabian caravansthe Talmud decides that the
resident merchants of a town have no right to interfere with the trade of the pedlers for Ezra ordained
W that pedlers should be permitted to sell their goods in the cities so that cosmetics might be available to
 the daughters of Israel. The opportunities for intrigues afforded to pedlers are frequently referred
toconsidered very profitablecharacter of the pedler, however, is not highly esteemed
The Moabites form a powerful confederacy and march against King Jehoshaphat of Judah. The king prays in
the court of the temple and the Levite priest predicts they would be overthrown. The enemy quarreled among
themselves and slew one another.
849BC King Jehoshaphat of Judah dies and is succeeded by his son King Jehoram of Judah (r.849-842BC). King
Jehoram of Judah forms an alliance with the Kingdom of Israel and marries Athaliah, daughter of King Ahab of
Israel. Despite this alliance with the stronger nation, Jehorams rule was shaky. Edom revolted, and when
Jehoram marched against this people his army fled before the Edomites, and he was forced to acknowledge
their independence. 2Chronicles relates that a raid consisting of Philistines, Arabs and Ethiopians looted the
kings house, and carried off all of his family except for his youngest son Jehoahaz. After this, Jehoram was
afflicted with a painful inflammation of the abdomen, and died two years later.

Jews consider King Ahab of Israel the worst king. He marries the infamous Jezebel, and built a Temple to the
Canaanite deity Baal, popularizing this form of idolatry among the Jewish people.
842BC King Jehoram of Judah dies and is succeeded by King Ahaziah of Judah, his son and the son of Athaliah,
daughter of King Ahab of Israel.
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842BC King Ahaziah of Judah, son of Jehoram and Athaliah, the daughter of King Ahab of Israel and Queen Jezebel,
is killed. Under the influence of his mother Athaliah, King Ahaziah of Judah introduced forms of
worship that the author of Kings found offensive. He joined his uncle Jehoram, King of Israel, in an
W unsuccessful expedition against Hazael, King of the Arameans. Jehoram was wounded in the battle, and when
Ahaziah went to visit his uncle at Jezreel, he was caught up in the revolt of Jehu, who in some degree was pro-
Yahweh. The author of Kings describes, while the commanders of the army were assembled away from the
eyes of the king that the prophet Elisha sent one of his (unnamed) students to this meeting, where the student
led Jehu away from his peers and anointed Jehu King of Israel (r.842-815BC). Jehus companions then
proclaimed him gladly and proceeded to Jezreel where he slew Jehoram with his own hand. Ahaziah fled for
his life, but was wounded at the pass of Gur by one of Jehus soldiers, and had strength only to reach Megiddo,
where he died (2Kings9:22-28). Jehu enters the city and presents himself to Jezebel, mother of King Jehoram,
who receives him with insolence; Jehu aommanded the eunuchs of the royal palace to then throw her off into
the street where her body was eaten by dogs. Jehu then commanded that all the heads of royal princes of the
Omrides in Samaria be brought to him, and later slaughtered another 42 connected with the Omrides. Once in
control, Jehu killed all the worshippers of Baal and destroyed the temple of that deity. Little is know of his reign
beyond his bloody coup detat, and Jehus tolerance for the golden calves at Dan and Bethel (which drew the
disdain of the author of Kings).
842BC Athaliah, queen of Judah during the reign of King Jehoram becomes sole ruler of Judah for five years. She
2Kings was the daughter of King Ahab and Queen Jezebel of Israel. She married King Jehoram of Judah and sealed
8:25-11.16 a treaty between Israel and Judah. Jehoram of Judah, a descendant of King David, actively promoted the
worship of Yahweh in his country, but tolerated the fact that Athaliah worshiped Baal. After Jehorams death,
their son Ahaziah (also Jehoahaz) became Judahs king with Athaliah acting as queen mother. She used her
power in that role to establish the worship of Baal in Judah after Ahaziah was killed in a state visit to Israel
along with the then-king of Israel, also named Jehoram, who was Athaliahs brother. Jehu assassinated them
both in Yahwehs name and had Athaliahs entire extended family in Israel murdered. Athaliah, as queen of
Judah, had all possible successors to David executed except one. However, a grandson of hers named Joash
escaped the purge and was raised in secret by the priest Jehoiada. Five years later, Athaliah would be
surprised when Jehoiada revealed Joash.
837BC King Joash (r.837-800BC) ascends to throne of Judah. While yet an infant, he was saved from the general
THE PLOT massacre commanded by Athaliah of the family by his aunt Jehosheba, and as sole surviving son of Haziah,
was apparently the only surviving descendant of David. His uncle, the high priest Jehoiada, brought him
forth to public notice when he was seven years of age, and had Joash crowned and anointed king. Athaliah
was taken by surprise when she heard the shout of the people, and when she appeared in the temple to
challenge this coup, Jehoiada commanded her to be led forth to death.
835BC King Joash of Judah repairs temple and brings period of revival and reforms.
While the High Priest of Judah lived, King Joash of Judah favored the worship of God and observed the Law,
but on the Priests death Joash was led into supporting other gods; Zechariah, the son and successor of the
High Priest, was put to death. For these deeds, the author of the Book of Kings believed Jehoash brought
down on the land the judgement of God, and it was oppressed by the Aramean invaders.
815BC King Jehu of Israel is succeeded by his son, King Jehoahaz of Israel (r.815-801BC) who last days are not
known. 2Kings states that Jeohahaz was initially faithful to Yahweh, but his people followed the religious
practices of the house of Jeroboam, which included the worship of a cultic pole of Asherah in Samaria. The
kings of the Arameans, Hazael and Ben-hadad, prevailed over him.
Wikipedia.org2007: Carthage was founded [by Phoenicia] in 814BC under Pygmalion (820-774BC). The
 collection of city-kingdoms constituting Phoenicia came to be characterized by outsiders and the Phoenicians
themselves as Sidonia or Tyria.

About the gods of Phoenicia:


Wikipedia.org2007: the following wree among the deities in the Phoenician or Canaanite pantheom:
Adonis, handsome young god; Anath, goddess of Love and war, the maiden; Asherah or Baalat Gubl, goddess
of Byblos; Astarte (or Ashtarte), queen of Heaven; Baal, El, Ruler of the Universe, son of Dagan, rider of the
clouds, Almighty, Lord of the Earth; Baal-Hammon, god of ferility and renewer of all energies in the Phoenician
colonies of the Western Mediterranean; Dagon, god of crop fertility; Eshmun or Baalat Asclepius, god of
healing; Kathirat, goddesses of marriage and pregnancy; Melqart, king of the underworld and cycle of
vegetation; Mot, god of death and of the underworld; Resheph, god of illnesses and plagues; Shamash, god of
the Sun; Yamm, god of the sea, judge of the dead. Phoenicians formed the major naval and trading power of
the region. Perhaps it was through these merchants that the Hebrew word kenaani (Canaanite) came to have
the secondary, and apt, meaning of merchant. The phoenicians traded cedar for making ships and other
things. The Greek term Tyrian purple describes the dye they were especially famous for, and their port town
Tyre. Phoenician trade was founded on this violet-purple dye derived from the Murex seasnails shell, once
profusely available in coastal waters but exploited to local extinctionPhoenician glass was another export
ware. Phoenicians seem to have first discovered the technique of producing transparent glass, as well as
glassblowingStrabo states that there was a highly lucrative Phoenician trade with Britain for tin. Trade routes
from Asia converted on the Phoenician coast as well, enabling the Phoenicians to govern trade between
Mesopotamia on the one side and Egypt and Arabia on the other. The Phoenicians established commercial
outposts throughout the mediterranean, the most strategically important ones being Carthage in North Africa,
and directly across the narrow straights in Sicily-carefully selected with the design of monopolizing the
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Mediterranean trade beyond that point and keeping their rivals from passing through. Other colonies were
planted in Cyprus, Corsica, Sardinia, the Iberian Peninsula, and elsewhere. They also founded innumerable
small outposts a days sail away from each other all along the North African coast on the route to Spains
mineral wealththe date when many of these cities were founded has been very controversial. Greek sources
put the foundation of amny cities very early. Gades (Cadiz) in Spain was traditionally founded in
1110BChowever, no archaeological remains have been dated to such a remote eraPhoenician ships used
to ply the coast of southern Spain and along the coast of present-day Portugalit is often mentioned that
Phoenicians ventured north into the Atlantic ocean as far as Great Britain, where the tin mines in what is now
Cornwall provided them with important materials, although no archaeological evidence supports this
beliefthey also sailed south along the coast of Africaand according to Herodotus, a Phoenician expedition
sent down the Red Sea by pharaoh Necho II of Egypt (c600BC) even circumnavigated Africa and returned
through the Pillars of Hercules in three years. The Phoenicians were not an agricultural people, because most
of the land was not arable; therefore, they focused on commerce and trading instead. They did, however, raise
sheep and sell them and their wool. The Phoenicians exerted considerable influence on the other groups
around the Mediterranean, notably the Greeks, who later became their main commercial rivals. They appear in
Greek mythology. Traditionally, the city of Thebes was founded by a Phoenician prince named Cadmus
presumably around 2000BC when he set out to look for his sister Europa, who had been kidnapped by Zeus.
In the Bible, king Hiram I of Tyre is mentioned as co-operating with Solomon in mounting an expedition on the
Red Sea and on building the temple. The Temple of Solomon is considered to be built according to
Phoenician design, and its description is considered the best description of what a Phoenician temple
looked like. Phoenicians from Syria were also called Syrophenicians. The Phoenician alphabet was
developed around 1200BC from an earlier Semitic prototype that also gave rise to the Ugaritic alphabet. It was
used mainly for commercial notes. The Greek alphabet, that forms the basis of all European alphabets, was
derived from the Phoenician onethe alphabets of the Middle East and India are also thought to derive,
directly or indirectly, from the Phoenician alphabet. Ironically, the Phoenicians themselves are mostly silent on
their own history, possibly because they wrote on perishable materials, papyrus or skins. Other than the stone
inscriptions, Phoenician writing has largely perishedonly a single work survives, in Latin translation: Magos
Agriculture. What we know of them comes mainly from their neighbors, the Greeks and Hebrews. With the
rise of Assyria, the Phoenician cities one by one lost their independence; however the city of Tyre, situated just
off the mainland and protected by powerful fleets, proved impossible to take for the Assyrians, and many others
after them. The Phoenician cities were later dominated by Babylonia, then Persia. They remained very
important, however, and provided those powers with their main source of naval strength. They stacked
warships, such as triremes and quinqueremes, were probably Phoenician inventions, though eagerly adopted
by the Greeks. Cyrus the great conquered Phoenicia in 539BC. Phoenicia was divided into four vassal
kingdoms by the Persians: Sidon, Tyre, Arwad, and Byblos, and prospered, furnishing fleets for the Persian
kings. However, Phoenician influence declined after this. It is also reasonable to suppose that much of the
Phoenician population migrated to Carthage and other colonies following the Persian conquest, as it is roughly
then (under King Hanno) that we first hear of Carthage as a powerful maritime entity. In 350 or 345BC a
rebellion in Sidon led by Tennes was crushed by Artaxerxes III, and its destruction was described, perhaps too
dramatically, by Diodorus Siculus. Alexander the Great took Tyre in 332BC following the Siege of Tyre.
Alexander was exceptionally harsh to Tyre, executing 2000 of the leading citizens, but he maintained the king
in power. He gained control of the other cities peacefully: the ruler of Aradus submitted; the king of Sidon was
overthrown. The rise of Hellenistic Greece gradually ousted the remnants of Phoenicias former dominance
over the Eastern Mediterranean trade routes, and Phoenician culture disappeared entirely in the motherland.
However, its North African offspring, Carthage, continued to flourish, mining iron and precious metals from
Iberia, and using its considerable naval power and mercenary armies to protect its commercial interests, until it
was finally destroyed by Rome in 146BC at the end of the Punic Wars. As for the Phoenician homeland,
following Alexander it was controlled by a succession of Hellenistic rulers: Laomedon (323BC), Ptolemy I
(320BC), Antigonus II (315BC), Demetrius (301BC), and Seleucus (296BC). Between 286 and 197BC,
Phoenicia (except for Aradus) fell to the Ptolemies of Egypt, who installed the high priests of Astarte as vassal
rulers in Sidon. In 197BC, Phoenicia along with Syria reverted to the Seleucids, and the region became
increasingly Hellenized, although Tyre actually became autonomous in 126BC, followed by Sidon in 111.
Syria, including Phoenicia, were seized by king Tigranes the Great from 82 until 69BC when he was defeated
by Lucullus, and in 65BC Pompey finally incorporated it as part of the Roman province of Syria. From the 10th
century BC, their expansive culture established cities and colonies throughout the Mediterranean. Canaanite
deities like Baal and Astarte were being worshipped from Cyprus to Sardinia, Malta, Sicily, Spain, Portugal, and
most notably at Carthage in modern Runisiathe Phoenicians are credited with spreading the Phoenician
alphabet throughout the Mediterranean world. It was a variant of the Semitic alphabet of the Canaanite area
developed centuries earlier in the Sinai region, or in central Egypt. Phoenician traders disseminated this writing
system along Aegean trade routes, to coastal Anatolia, the Minoan civilization of Crete, Mycenean Greece, and
throughout the Mediterranean. Classical Greeks remembered that the alphabet arrived in Greece with the
mythical founder of Thebes, Cadmustin the Hebrew Bible there is no reference to the Greek term Phoenicia;
instead, the inhabitants of the coastal region are identified by their city of origin, most often as Sidonians. Early
relations between Israelites and the Canaanites were cordial: the Hebrew bible reports that Hiram of Tyre, a
Phoenician by modern assessment, furnished architects, workmen and cedar timbers for the temple of his ally
Solomon at Jerusalem. The Phoenician language was largely mutually intelligible with the Hebrew language,
ethnic and cultural similarities between the two peoples were significant, leading to the worship of Phoenician
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gods like Baal by some Jews during the time of Prophet Elijah (and vice versa, many Phoenicians have
converted to Judaism [before there was a Judaism?]Baal has also a meaning of Lord, and is found in many
Biblical namesthere is another Hiram associated with the building of the temple. 2Ch2:14 The son of a
woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father [was] a man of Tyre, skilful to work in gold, and in silver, in
brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson; also to grave any
manner of graving, and to find out every device which shall be put to him This is the architect of the Temple,
Hiram Abiff of Masonic lorelater, reforming prophets railed against the practice of drawing royal wives from
among foreigners: Elijah execrated Jezebel, the princess from Tyre who became a consort of King Ahab and
introduced the worship of her gods. Long after Phoenician culture had flourished, or Phoenicia hasd existed as
any political entity, Hellenized natives of the region where Canaanites still lived were referred to as Syro-
Phoenician, as in the Gospel of Mark 7:26the word Bible itself ultimately derives (through Latin and Greek)
from Byblos, the Phoenician city. Because of is papyruses, Byblos was also the source of the Greek word for
book and hence, of the name of the Biblethere are claims that Phoenician coins can be found as far inland of
the United States of America as Nebraska and Oklahoma. These claims have not been published in any
scientific journals and, again, there is no widespread acceptance of the validity of this work in the scientific
community.
The History of the World by Sir Walter Raleigh: ...even the name Astaroth...is plural; the singular being
Astoreth...they worshipped the Astartes...The occasion of this their multiplying of their Baals and Astoreths
may be diversely understood; either in respect of the diversity of the forms of the images, or of the worship in
divers places, or of the stories depending upon them, which (as fables use to be) were doubtless in divers cities
diverse. Augustine...thinks Baal and Astarte to be Jupiter and Juno. For the Carthaginians (which were
Tyrians) call Juno by some such name as Astarte. Tull...making divers goddesses of the name of Venus,
expounds the fourth to be Astarte; whom he makes to be born of Tyrus and Syria, and to have been the wife of
Adonis...Adonis was with great veneration commonly worshipped of the Assyrians...Thammuz...is the name of
Adonis among the Syrians...the prophet Isaeah...calleth the merchants thereof princes, and their chapmen the
nobles of the world...excelled both in learning and in manufacture....

801BC King Jehoahaz of Israel is succeeded by his son King Jehoash of Israel (r.801-786BC). When he ascended the
throne, Israel was suffering from the predations of the Arameans. Later in his reign, he was involved in war
with Amaziah, King of Judah, whom he utterly defeated at Beth-shemesh, on the borders of Dan and Philistia,
and advancing on Jerusalem, King Jehoash of Israel broke down a portion of the wall, and carried away the
treasures of the Temple and the palace. He soon after died, and was buried in Samaria. He tolerated the
worship of the golden calves, yet seems to have manifested a character of sincere devotion to the worship of
God. He held the prophet Elisha in honor, and wept by his bedside while he was dying.
800BC King Joash of Judah is murdered. He is one of three kings omitted by Matthew in the genealogy of Jesus, the
other two being Ahaziah and Amaziah. He is succeeded by his son Amaziah (r.800-783BC) who punishes the
murderers of his father. He was the first to employ a mercenary army of 100,000 Israelite soldiers, which he
did in his attempt to bring the Edomites again under the yoke of Judah. He was commanded by an unnamed
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prophet to send back the mercenaries, to whom he acquiesced, much to the annoyance of the mercenaries.
His obedience to this command was followed by a decisive victory over the Edomites. Amaziah began to
worship some of the idols he took from the Edomites, which the author of Chronicles believes led to his ruin
and his defeat by Jehoash, King of Israel whom he had challenged to battle. His defeat was followed by a
conspiracy that took his life.
800BC After the Greek Myceneans abandon their civilization around 1100BC, the tribal or clan units of the Greek
Dark Ages slowly grow into larger political units; beginning around 800BC, trade begins to dramatically
 accelerate between the peoples of Greece.

wsu.edu2008: ...marketplaces grew up in Greek villages and communities began to gather together into
defensive units, building fortifications to use in common. On this foundation, the Greek-speaking people on the
Greek peninsula, the mainland, and the coast of Asia Minor, developed political units that were centrally based
on a single city. These city states were independent states that controlled a limited amount of territory
surrounding the states. The largest...Sparta...controlled more than 3000 square miles...called the Archaic
Period...separate states had close interaction...learned political organization from one another...developed fairly
unique and independent cultures and political organizations...all...began as monarchies...ruled by a
...hereditary king...Greeks...tired of the kings, many of which were overthrown in the eighth century
BC...alternatives were put in place...most common was an oligarchy, or rule by a few...drawn from the
wealthiest citizens of the state...most of the early oligarchic governments and a few of the kings were
overthrown by tyrants...Greek history is generally unkind to the tyrants...Greeks believed that the tyrants were
illegitimate usurpers of political power; they seem, however, to have had in many cases popular support...swept
into power by dissatisfaction or crisis; they were more often then not extremely popular leaders when they
assumed the tyranny...tyrannies...fell apart rapidly...by the sixth century, the experiments began to settle
around two alternatives. The tyrranies never died out, but oligarchy became the settled norm of the Greek city-
states...several...replaced by...democracy...in the sixth century...but...looked nothing like modern
democracies...not representative...they were...run by the free, male citizens...pressured by growing
populations...went looking for unpopulated or thinly populated areas to colonize in Greece, the Aegean Sea,
and elsewhere...Italian and Sicilian shores...trading posts in the Middle East and Egypt...spreading across the
Mediterranean, and Greek commerce was rapidly making the city-states wealthy and powerful. There was no
military, political, or cultural cener of the Greek world in the Archaic period...the greatest flowering of culture
occurred on the city-states of Asia Minor, and especially Miletus...philosophy begins in these city-states and
soon spreads around the Greek world....
786BC King Jehoash of Israel is succeeded by his son King Jeroboam II of Israel (r.786-746BC). His reign was
contemporary with those of Amaziah and Uzziah, Kings of Judah. He was victorious over the Syrians and
extended Israel to its former limits. While his reign was the most prosperous that Israel had yet known,
contemporary prophets Hosea, Joel, Amos, and Jonah declared that iniquity widely prevailed in the land by
following the example of the first Jeroboam because he promoted the worship of the golden calves.
783BC King Amaziah of Judah is slain at Lachish, to which he had fled after his defeat by Jehoash, King of Israel.
783BC King Amaziah of Judah is succeeded by his son King Uzziah (also Azariah) of Judah (r. 783-742BC) whom the
people appointed to replace his father (2Kings 14:21; 2Chr.26:1). His long reign of about 52 years was
prosperous and he was considered a vigorous and able ruler. In the earlier part of his reign, under the
influence of Zechariah, he was faithful to Yahwey but toward the close of his life he wantonly invaded the
priests office (2Chr.26:16), and entering the sanctuary proceeded to offer incense on the golden altar. Azariah
the High Priest saw the tendency of such a daring act and with 80 priests he withdstood him (2Chr.26:17).
Uzziah was struck with tzaraas and was driven from the Temple and compelled to reside in a several house
to the day of his death (2Kings15:5, 27; 2Chr.26:3). He was buried in a separate grave that would testify to
coming generations that all earthly monarchy must bow before the inviolable order of the divine will.
Temples of Enterprise (in progress) by Michael Hudson-Delivered at a symposium at the Institute of Fine Arts,
$ NYU, 1990, taken from phoenicia.org2008: This paper seeks to establish that interest-bearing debts were
 introduced to the Mediterranean lands from the Near East, most likely by Phoenician merchants in the
8th century BC along with their better known innovations such as alphabetic writing...commercial and agrarian
THE PLOT debts even without interest charges-are by no means a spontaneous and universal innovation. No indications
of commercial or agrarian debts have been found in Early Bronze Age Egypt, the Indus valley, or even in Ebla,
much less in Mycenaean Greece. They are first documented in a particular part of the world-Sumer-in the third
millennium, and can be traced diffusing from southern Mesopotamia upward along the Euphrates and
westward into the Levant as part of the Sumerian commercial expansion. Originally documented as being
owed to temple and palace collectors, interest-bearing debts became increasingly privatized as they became
westernized...as commercial and agrarian debt practices spread, they did so in new contexts, often without the
public checks and balances that had been developed in southern Mesopotamia. For instance, the periodic
royal debt cancellations found in Sumer, Babylonia and Assyria from 2400 to 1600 BC were not transmitted to
Greece and Italy. As a result, debt-servitude tended to be irreversible, at least prior to Solons
seisachtheia in 594BC. This made the debt problem more serious in the Mediterranean periphery to what had
been the Bronze Age core...enough Bronze Age records have survived to show that it was neither easy nor
automatic for less centralized societies to adopt commercial debt, or for that matter for the Hittite and
Mycenaean palace economies to do so. The inference is that no debt balances arose to be settled as long as
there was no public enterprise set corporately apart, that is, no economic bifurcation between public and private
sectors. Economic units that were self-contained, such as the Mycenaean households and oikos-type estates,
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had little need of debt balances, and do not seem to have run up financial balances with outsiders...record
shows that Assyrian traders introduced interest-bearing debt to their Asia Minor colonies such as Kanesh in
Cappadocia around 2000BC. Yet signs of commercial debts and interest are not found among the econoomic
records of the Hittites who subsequently dominated the region, nor is there a hint of such debts in the
Mycenaean or Cretan Linear B records...yet the charging of interest on debts, above all agrarian usury with its
consequent debt-slavery and forfeiture of land rights, became classical antiquitys most important economic
dynamic, giving Greece and Rome their distinctive social character when compared to more archaic
communities or modern anthropological enclaves. Usurys polarizing social impact appears as an intrusive
wedge transforming the traditional social balance between well-to-do grandees and their dependents or clients.
Yet anthropologists...have tried to trace interest-bearing debt to the very inception of Indo-European speaking
society...I propose to fill the gap with a working hypothesis...assumption that must be rejected is that interest-
bearing debt is a universal phenomenon...questioning along these lines has been discouraged from late
antiquity until quite recently by the fact that usury was so strong a dynamic in Rome and Greece that it seemed
to be universal among all Indo-European speaking peoples...a search for evidence...soon flounders for lack of
relevant documentation. The Homeric poems have little to say about debt except for the argument over wegild
depicted on the shield of Achilles...earliest inscription which tells us anything...is from Eleusis c. 435-
430...archaeologists are able to trace such sophisticated economic practices as syllabic writing and account-
keeping...moving up the Euphrates...and on to Phoenicia...and Mycenae. However, interest and commercial
debt is not found among the innovations reaching the Aegean. Probably this is because Mycenaean palaces
and temples (unlike the case in Mesopotamia) were not set corporately apart from the community as profit
centers producing public goods and turning these over to a private merchant class. Account-keeping was used
not as the elaborate economic management and forward planning found found in Sumer by the twenty-fifth
century BC, but simply as a check on the access by palace servants and subordinates to storerooms...debt
hardly would seem to be more likely in the Dark Age centuries following the collapse of Mycenaean civilization
in 1200BC...all the Bronze Age administrative adoptions were lost...the term usury refers to interest-bearing
debt extended for noncommercial purposes. In agrarian economies consumer or tenant debts bear an interest
charge for loans, advances or overdue obligations that do not provide the debtor with productive assets
enabling him to repay the loan. Being part of a zero-sum economic activity, such interest is parasitic. It thus
stands in contrast to commercial loans whose interest is paid out of the incomes earned by merchatnts
productively investing the loan proceeds...becomes apparent that our lack of knowledge about the financial
dynamics of archaic Greece and Italy is part of the larger problem of knowing little about how their social life in
general was organized prior to the sixth or even the fifth century BC...little primary evidence apart from Solons
political poetry explaining his actions as archon in 594...next...around 325...by the 5th century we find such
widespread acknowledgment of interest being charged that it seems to have been there all along...but it seems
to have been the Persian wars that really monetized Greek economic life and established a credit
economy...the changes seems to have been one of degree...while coinage certainly was a catalyst, it was not
in itself a cause of usury and widespread foreclosure, which are found in the Bronze Age Near East two
thousand years prior to the invention of classical coinage...one of the few hints suggesting a Phoenician role is
the fact that the weights and measures used by Greeks and Italians seem to have been brought by Phoenician
merchants...by the time we hear of mercantile credit and usury on a large scale, in the fourth century, the major
creditors are Phoenicians or other foreigners such as the banker Pasion and his son Apollodorus. Humphreys
(1978) rightly emphasizes the alien character of credit to the Greeks, above all interest-bearing debt: Bankers,
often ex-slaves, stood outside the social circle. No doubt the same could be said of Italy. Historically, the
extending of credit at interest has been charged more by outsiders than by peers. This hardly should be
surprising, for bankers are basically money-changers, and hence typically foreigners or persons closely linked
to them...much financial terminology has Phoenician roots. Finley (1952) observes that Among the Greeks,
sales were cash sales. This rule found few exceptions, notably when real property was the object of sale.
However, earnest money as a binding deposit-arrhabon or arrha-was a common practice. To be sure, in the
millennium spanning Homer and the later Roman Empire there are less than a dozen references to the
arrhabon. But the word itself, borrowed from a Semitic tongue despite the large number of Greek terms
available for the idea of deposit, highlight what seems to be a distinction between Near Eastern and Greek
practice. It is also noteworthy that the Greeks did not know of mortgages or the acquisition of property at
only a small portion of its values, as characterized much debt foreclosure in the Bronze Age Near East.
Bogaert (1966) notes that In the domain of maritime law, Greek law seems to have stemmed from that of
Phoenicia, expecially in the concept of...insurance, a conception traceable back to the Babylonians...we hardly
can take on faith the conviction of ancient scholars such as L. Lydus that the Phoenicians were the first
usurers, the inventors of weights and measures, and methods of earning money in general, while Pliny
the Elder accorded them the invention of money. Such oversimplifications seem to have come more at the
end of classical antiquity than at the beginning. But it is clear that maritime commerce, in which the
Phoenicians played the major role, was the single most important catlyst to Greek and Italian credit
practices...it seems clear that in the seventh century popular revolts in Corinth, Olbia, Sikyon, Megara and
other cities replaced aristocratic regimes with leaders (tyrants or demagogues) who cancelled the debts
and redistributed at least some of the lands. But we are not told exactly how these debts came into being,
or even whether or not they bore interest...Finley summarizes the usual situation in antiquity: A debtor had
little chance. In fact, he had little chance before he even became a debtor, because he was poor and
essentially defenseless, against bad harvests and famine, against war and its depredations, against the one-
sidedness of the law. When his luck was bad his only defense was to put himself in fidem, in the power of the
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powerful. We know that in one way or another, creditor-patrons ended up with the lands cultivated by their
clients, whom they then began to sell outright as debt-slaves to foreign dealers in the late seventh
century...selcom a one-time affair, as marginal farms were repeatedly in need...to be a debtor was not a
contractual situation but entailed a caste-like status...the question is, how at what point did this process begin
to polarize Greek and Italian communities? One of the most intriguing reports concerns the debt revolt at
Megars...great annual festival celebrating its economic freedom from debt c. 540. This festival
commemorated the palintokia, literally the return of interest which they had chanced to have paid their
creditors. The use of the term tokos for interest is not otherwise found before the final quarter of the fifth
century...the city whose debt history is best attested is Athen...all that can be inferred is that in the closing
decades of the seventh century large landholders let out their lands to sharecroppers for one sixth of the crop
or extended credit to small farmers for repayment of up to a sixth, or perhaps more. Loans evidently were
secured by the debtors personal freedom. It was these debts that Solon cancelled in 594 when he freed the
Athenian debt slaves, redeemed some who had been sold abroad, and permanently banned debt slavery for
Athenian citizens...neither Finley nor any other economic historian had tried to describe how the
practice of charging interest first developed in archaic Greece...

...a plausible scenario...the Greek and Italian economies of the ninth and eighth centuries were not yet
monetized. Nearly all activity was on a subsistence basis. Whatever surpluses were created tended to be
consumed conspicuously (often in burials, no doubt also in the form of gift exchange) rather than invested to
produce commercial gains...enter the Phoenicians...exchange of commodities...must ground itself in the
context of economic institutions and legal traditions put into place on both sides. I suspect this is why temples
played so great a role in archaic trade, and indeed in all types of contact with foreigners. Hence we would
expect the most active traders to establish temple embassies and commercial cults and also for these
institutions to sponsor the ligaments of credit necessary for commercial trade. It probably was under such
circumstances that the idea of interest was introduced as a payment for time...no doubt the first native Greeks
and Italians to owe debts to foreigners and extend interest-bearing loans to their local compatriots would have
been landed proprietors and chieftons...some catalyst was necessary...I suspect that the catlytic ingredient was
the temples, which were permanent corporate entities set up to provide continuity and recourse among
traders vis-a-vis foreigners, above all to settle disputes among them. This would be in keeping with
earlier Near Eastern practice It would help to know more about Phoenician debt institutions and commercial
contracts, but unfortunately, documentation is almost as sparse here as it is for the Greeks and Italians. All
we know are the broad outlines of the Late Bronze Age societies whose collapse c. 1200 led to the Dark Age in
the eastern Mediterranean. We also know of the increasingly commercilized city-states that emerged in the
seventh century. But the intervening archaic period is opaque as far as historical records are concerned. All
we really know is that from the ninth century onwards a wave of Near Eastern contacts with the Aegean and
western Mediterranean gained momentum, reaching from Italy and Sardinia via North Africa all the way to
Spain...if Phoenician traders indeed brought credit practices with them, the next question concerns the Greeks
and Italisn on the receiving end. How did they adopt these practices within the context of their own social
traditions? Apart from the gold and silver booty they looted, the Greeks had little money. Their production
ability also was limited...no doubt the major (if not the only) customers of the Phoenicians were the chieftains
and landed proprietors, and perhaps some of the temples which probably played a role in legitimizing this
trade...Greek temples for their part were accustomed to receiving a tithe of war booty...the landed creditors
would have been the same proprietors who produced export goods and set up workshops. They would have
found the new credit practices-and ultimately the charing of interest on their advances-to be an economic lever
vis-a-vis less affluent parties. In other words, the proprietors of large estates would have bolstered their
power...personal debts became part of an evolving patron/client relationship, serving as levers to reduce
erstwhile free but poor individuals and their families to a state of dependency...would have been applied
domestically in an increasingly agrarian context..it is precisely the foreign-ness of this influence that explains
the rapidly polarizing impact of interest-bearing debt as it spread from commercial credit to agrarian usury.
This polarization had occurred in the Mesopotamian homeland but was reversed by periodic debt cancellations
when rulers proclaimed economic freedom from debt...however, archaic Greece and Italy had no centralized
rulers to proclaim such debt cancellations-or, where kings existed as in Rome, they were overthrown by
aristocratic families hardly eager to cancel their populations debts. Financial polarization in Greece and Italy
thus occurred much more rapidly and irreversibly than in Mesopotamia and its Near Eastern periphery, and the
deterioration from productive commercial debt to unproductive agrarian usury was more pronounced...why
Phoenician merchants would have been willing to lend goods to Greeks and then hope (presumably in vain) to
collect them when they came back a year later...temples played so important a role...they were a higher
and more perpetual source of recourse to traders. Unlike individual debtors (or creditors), they would
not go away. In effect, temple groups may have stood surety for their commercial members. Of course,
merchants probably did not lend money or provide goods on credit to many local individuals. The Greeks for
their part would have had to borrow the idea of credit itself, and subsequently to apply it among
themselves...precisely because the traders were private, they needed to form a collective institution standing
above their individual members to handle the inevitable problems that arise between their trading groups.
These guild-like organizations seem to have been established as temple cults, as were those on Delos in
Hellenistic times. Perhaps they stood ready to redeem the commercial debts of their cult members. Of course,
this does not mean that temples directly financed the trade or provided the products...rather, they served as
intermediaries by virtue of their traditional function of sponsoring contacts with alien peoples, including traders
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th
and colonizers...Phoenician objects donated to Greek sanctuaries appear primarily in the 8 century...temple
hierarchies would have served as commercial and diplomatic embassies, being higher social entities than
individual families, and hence the most morally binding contect for exchange in this archaic period when legal
formalities were still relatively loose outside of the sacred sphere. The traditional role of temples in protecting
travelers (mainly merchants) and sponsoring the general ethic of hospitality (especially at the pan-Hellenic
shrines) also is significant in this regard...the temples receiving Phoenician offerings are specifically those of
Apollo the sun-god of justice, and Hera, Artemis and Athena. These are the counterparts to the Near Eastern
deities such as Nanshe in lagash and Nidaba in Umma sponsoring written record-keeping, fair dealing, honest
weights and measures, and commercial equity in general. It was of course Apollos temple at Delphi that long
coordinated Greek colonization and related commerce and diplomacy, and likewise the Delos temple that
subsequently developed into a commercial entrepet on the basis of its archaic traditions...temples are historys
first documented creditors at interest, beginning in Sumer in the third millennium. By charging interest and
ground rent on their own assets and property, temples helped legitimize the idea of interest-bearing debt and
profit seeking in general. As recipients of votive offerings, they helped legitimize the gains earned both by
foreign traders (who typically formed their own cults as diplomatic embassies) and by well-to-do local
wealthholders. Temples often received a tithe of trade...the English conducted their business abroad via
professional temple-like organizations, e.g. the Levant Company, the Russia Company, the East India
Company and so forth...guilds were incorporated as temples-in-miniature, as were almost all early
corporations...while there were many temples in early first millennium Greece and Italy, there was no temple
economy to anywhere near the extent found in Mesopotamia...temples were catalysts. It is a characteristic of
catalysts that they are not part of the reaction themselves. While indeed there was no temple economy, the
private economy took over certain practices that were first innovated and legitimized by temples, and
subsequently were privatized...while we begin to hear of interest only in historical times-from the late 5th century
onwards-we hear nothing of its having been introduced as a sudden innovation. The implication is that interest
was there for some time. I suggest that it came along with the first strictly arms-length commercial debts,
incorporated into tradition by being sanctified by its association with the temples which acted as economic
embassies...archaeologists remain strictly fact-based...they let the limitations of their immediate
material evidence dictate the agenda of their thinking. Metholdology thus determines not only what
content and informaiton is recognized, but in many respects what the findings of the research project
will be...scholars are willing to make guesses about religion, myth and ritual, language and art. Why
not economics and finance?...when todays market-oriented economists choose to say anything about
antiquity, they tend to retroject their own ideology back onto early history...the unchecked economic
polarization stemming from antiquitys debt problems, and which today threatens once again to
polarize our own world economy, are explained as having perfectly natural and ancient Indo-European
roots and thus as being virtually a part of human nature rather than subject to alleviation or political
change...[why] the rise of Greece from seemingly hopeless depression. We also see the respect paaid by later
Greeks to Phoenicians as providers of their culture. For Greece, we have to explain big innovations. Villages
and families are drawing together to form polities. They are designating central places of worship, frequently
placing extraordinary emphasis on the divinitys house. They send settlers abroad as a matter of policy, to
insure the communitys survival. All in all, what happens more or less simultaneously in several places, in the
span of just a few years or decades in the 8th century, seems too much to be entirely self-generated...it is
probable that earlier contacts underlie 8th century consequences. In the 8th century, conditions outside of
Greece caused these contacts to flourish anew. Those who engaged in these contacts had centuries ago
ceased to be strangers to the Greeks. Their encounters lowered linguistic and other barriers....this literary gap
has led to a refusal to look at archaeology. The result was the Greek miracle...Bernals by now familiar views
on Greeks of mixed Semitic and African stock...what is absent from the material record is the role played by
individuals and events, and even that of political institutions, economies and beliefs. These are never self-
evident....
750BC A new Elamite kingdom rises, but it is not the great power of former times, and it is often threatened by the
Assyrians.
Hebrewhistory.info2007: Judaic maritime history begins with the association of the Judahites with the
$ Kinamu, as the so-dubbed Phoenicians called themselves. One of the many evidences of Judahite exports
with the sea-faring Canaanites of Tyre and Sidon, is the appearance of the Judahite royal stampon the
handles of wine jars in Canaanite cargos and in stock in Carthagethey first appeared in the eighth century
BCE.
Wikipedia.org2007: When alphabetic writing began in Greece (by c. 750BC), the letterforms used were
750BC  nearly identical to the Phoenician ones.
746BC King Jeroboam II of Israel is succeeded by his son King Zachariah of Israel (r.746-745BC). He ruled only for
six months before Shallum usurped the throne and put him to death, ending the dynasty of Jehu.
745BC King Zachariah of Israel is put to death by the usurper, King Shallum of Israel, son of Jabesh. He reigned only
a month before Menahem rose up, put him to death and became king. Menahem, King of Israel (r.745-738BC),
brutally suppressed a revolt and ripped unborn children from the wombs of their mothers. During his reign
Tiglath-Pileser II, king of Assyria, invaded with a powerful force but was induced to leave by a gift of tribute.
The author of Kings describes King Shallums rule of Israel as one of cruelty and oppression.
742BC King Uzziah of Judah dies and is succeeded by his son King Jotham of Judah (r.742-735BC). Because his
father was afflicted with tzaraas, Jotham was appointed royal steward. He fought wars against Rezin, king of
the Arameans, and Pekah, king of Israel. He was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah,
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by whose advice he benefited.
738BC King Menahem of Israel dies and is succeeded by his son King Pekahiah of Israel (r.738-737BC). King
Pekahiah was murdered in the royal palace at Samaria by Pekah, one of the captains of his army.
737BC King Pekahiah of Israel is murdered by a captain in the army who becomes King Pekah of Israel (r.737-
Zebulun 732BC). Pekah slew Pekahiah with the aid of a band of Gileadites. He entered into an alliance with Rezin,
And king of the Arameans, and took part with him in a siege of Jerusalem. But Tiglath-Pieser III, who was in
Naph-tali alliance with Ahaz, king of Judah, came up against Pekah, and carried away many as captives (2Kings15:29).
Exiled This was the beginning of the Captivity. Aish.com2006: Tiglathpileser takes over the lands
belonging to the [northern] tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali, and exiles them. Soon after this Pekah was
 put to death by Hoshea, son of Elah, who usurped the throne.
*******Dating System*******
aish.com2006: The Jewish dating system and the Christian dating system vary by as much as 150 years for
the Assyrian and Babylonian period, but by the time we get to the Roman period the discrepancy
disappearsthe Jewish dating system is taken primarily from a book called Seder Olam Rabba dating back to
the 2nd century ADfrom rabbinic traditions recorded in the Talmud as well as numerous chronologies written
in the Hebrew Bible.
735BC King Jotham of Judah dies and is succeeded by his son King Ahaz (short for Jehoahaz) (r.735-715BC). He is
said to have given himself up to a life of wickedness, introducing many pagan and idolatrous customs (Isa.8:19;
38:8; 2Kings23:12). He ignored the remonstrances and warnings of the prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah,
and appealed to Tiglath-Pileser III, the king of Assyria, for help against Rezin, king of Damascus, and Pekah,
Prince of Israel, who threatened Jerusalem. This brought great injury to his kingdom, and his own humiliating
subjection to the Assyrians (2Kings 16:7, 9; 15:29).
735BC The Roman Kingdom, acording to Roman legend, begins with the founding of Rome by Romulus.

About the Roman Kingdom:


Wikipedia2007: In Roman legend, when the Greeks waged war against the city of Troy, the Trojkan hero
Aeneas sailed across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and founded Lavinium. His son Iulus went on the found
the city of Alba Longa. From Alba Longas royal family came the twins Romulus and Remus, who went on the
found the city of Rome in 753BCthe traditional accounthas come down to us through Livy, Plutarch,
Dionysius of Halicarnassus and others, is that in Romes first centuries, it was ruled by a succession of seven
kings243 years for their reignsdiscounted by modern scholarshiop. The Gauls destroyed all of Romes
historical records when they sacked the city in the Battle of the Llia in 390BCall accounts of the kings must
be highly questioned. Archaelogical evidence does, however, support that a settlement was founded in Rome
around the middle of the eighth century BCthe kings, excluding Romulus as the citys founder, were all
elected by the people of Rome to serve for life with none of the kings relying on military forced to gain the
thronebeginning with the fith kingthe royal inheritance flowed through the royal female of the deceased
kingdifficult to determine the power of the kingthe king alone possessed the right to the auspice on behalf
of Rome as its chief augur, and no public business could be performed without the will of the gods made known
through auspices. The people knew the king as a mediator between them and the gods and thus viewed the
king with religious awe. This made the king the head of the national religion and its chief executiveit was
Romulus who instituted the augurs and was who believed to have been the best augur of all. Likewise, King
Numa Pompilius instituted the pontiffs and through them developed the foundations of the religious dogma of
Romethe king was invested with the supreme military and judicial authority through the use of
imperiumunchecked military authorityqualified him to pronounce legal judgmentappoint or nominate all
officials to officesthe Senate and Curiate Assembly had very little power and authoritythe only thing that
the king could not do without the approval of the Senate was declare waronce proposedthe people of
Rome could either accept or reject himfirst it was necessary to obtain the divine will of the gods respecting
his appointment by means of the auspices

About the Romulus and Remus:


Wikipedia2007: Romulus (c.771-717BC) and Remus (c.771-753BC) are traditional founders of Rome
appearing in Roman mythology as the twin sons of the priestess Rhea Silvia, fathered by the god of war
MarsRomulus slew Remus over a dispute over which one of the two brothers had the support of the local
gods to rule the new city and give it his name.Romulus and Remuss grandfather Numitor and his brother
mulius, descendants of fugitives from Troy, received the throne of Alba Longa upon their fathers death.
Numitor received the soverign powers as his birthrightAmulius held the treasuryhe dethroned Numitor as
the rightful kingforced Numitors daughter Rhea Silviato become a Vestal Virgin, priestesses sworn to
celibacyMars, the god of war, came to Rhea in the temple of Vesta and raped her. She bore him twin
boysAmulius was enraged and had Rhea buried aliveand ordered the death of the twins by exposurethe
servant ordered to kill the twins could not. He placed the two in a cradle and laid the cradle on the banks of the
Tiber River and went awaycarried the cradle and the twins downstreamkept safe by the river deity
Tiberinusnursed by a she-wolfdiscovered by Faustulus, a shepherd for Amuliusraised the boystheir
noble birth showed itself in their size and beauty[Amulius killed, Romulus killed RemusFaustulus killed in
following fight] Romulusbegan building the cityhe invited criminals, runaway slaves, exiles, and other
undesirables by granting them asylumto provide his citizens with wives, Romulus invited the neighboring
Sabine tribe to a festival where he abducted the Sabine womenthe Sabinessent ambassadors with
reasonable and moderate demandsRomulus would not surrender the maidensTitus Taius [appointed as]
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supreme commandermarched his army on Romea truceSabine women begged their Roman husbands
and their Sabine fathers and brothers to accept one another and live as one nationsRomulus and Tatius
would rule as joint kingsafter five yearsTatius was assassinated by foreign ambassadors and romulus
became the sole kingRomulus divided the people of Rome between the able bodied men and those unfit for
combat. The fighting men became the Roman legions consisting of 6000 infantry and 600 cavalryRomulus
selected 100 of the most noble men to serve as senators in an advisory council for the king, the Roman
Senatedescendants would become the republican nobles and elitewith the union between Romans and
Sabines, Romulus added another 100 members to the Senate of Sabine birthRomulus also instituted the
augurs as part of the Roman religion.
700s Hesiod, founder of Greek didactic poetry and possibly earliest Greek philosopher, lives in Greece.

About Hesiod (8th Century BC), a Greek:


Hypatia-lovers.com2007: suggested by some that Greek Philosophy began with Hesiod, for in his poem
Theogony (Origin of the Gods), he presented a very compelling story of how the Universe came into
PAG existence by itself, without having been created by a God or godsrecounts the creation of the world out
of chaos by natural means, but then he backs off, and retreats to the safety of conforming to the superstitions
of the masses as he goes on to delineate the birth and genealogy of the godsat first there was no distinction
between Earth and Heavenit was the creation of chaos which made possible their emergence as distinct
entitiesthe Olympian gods are directly descended from the Titans, who, in turn, were directly descended from
Heaven and Earth, so that they issued, as it were, from the womb of Nature itselfthus, the Greek gods of the
first generation (i.e., the Titans) did not create the cosmos but came into being with itit was not any god that
created the Universe, rather, a generalized universal sex drive of Nature (the longing of the sundered parts of
the original whole for one another) was the force which brought the cosmos into beingnot at all inconsistent
with the natural properties of matter as revealed by modern physicsHesiod made a grim Nostradamus-like
predictionafter his description of the fourth race of men (the demi-gods) who now forever dwell in the
blessed isles with their hearts eternally released from care, Hesiod predicted [in Works and Days] that there
would arise a fifth generation of men who would be characterized by ceaseless toil, labor and corruption-
 men to whom the gods would give bitter sorrow to endure. This race of men Hesiod predicted that Zeus
would destroy when they would no longer repay their aged parents for their childhood care, when
brotherly love no longer exists, when favor is not shown to him who is just or good, when the evil-
doers arrogance wins mens praise, and when Right shall depend upon might.
About Mnemosyne:
Wikipedia.com2006: personification of memory in Greek mythology. This titaness was the daughter of
Gaia and Uranus and the other of the Muses by Zeus. In Hesiods Theogony, kings and poets receive their
powers of authoritative speech from their possession of Mnemosyne and their special relationship with
the Museswas also the name for a river in Hades, counterpart to Lethedead souls drank from Lethe so
they would not remember their past lives when reincarnated. Initiates were encouraged to drink from the river
Mnemosyne when they died, instead of Lethe.
732BC Hoshea becomes the last King of Israel (r.732-721BC).
2Kings15:30: Hoshea conspired against and slew Pekah; King Shalmaneser V of Assyria (r727-722BC), son of
Tiglath-Pileser III, then campaigned against Hoshea, and forced him to submit tribute. However, an undated
inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III boast of making Hoshea king after his predecessor had been overthrown.
Hoshea eventually withheld the tribute, expecting support of So, the king of Egypt. There is some mystery as
to the identity of this king of Egypt: some scholars have argued that So refers to the Egyptian city Sais, and
th
thereby refers to King Tefnakht of the 24 Dynasty; however, the principal city of Egypt at this time was Tanis,
which suggests that there was an unnecessary correction of the text and Kenneth Kitchen is correct in
identifying So with Osorkon IV of the 22nd Dynasty.
2Kings17:4: Shalmaneser V arrested Hoshea, and then laid siege to Samaria; some scholars explain that
Shalmaneser V must have summoned Hoshea to his court to explain the missing tribute, which resulted in the
imprisonment of the King of Israel, and the Assyrian army sent into his land.
724BC Regardless, the Assyrians seek to capture Samaria, capital of Israel, and begin a siege [of Israel] of three
Reuben, years.
Gad, and
Manas-seh Aishcom2006: Shalmanaser V takes over the lands belonging to the [northern] tribes of Reuben, Gad and
Exiled
Manasseh, and exiles them.

Livius.org2006: Israel was unable to withstand the increasing power of Assyria, and in 724, the kingdom
became a province of the empire, called Samerina. The inhabitants [of Israel] who had survived the siege
 were deported to the east, where the lost tribes of Israel were assimilated by the native population. To
replace the Samarians, eastern people were sent back, called Cuthaeans. These people mingled with
the remaining Israelites and introduced new religious ideas. The Jews from Jerusalem who were to
compose the Bible thought the religious orthodoxy of the kings of Israel was already questionable; the
introduction of foreign ideas was an additional argument to regard the people of Samaria as heretics.
The Samarians will not have cared too much. To them, Jerusalem was a peasant town and the
kingdom of Judah was not to be taken seriously. They lived in a far more cosmopolitan world, where
polytheism was a matter of civilized behavior. Many Samarians will have believed in YHWH, but saw no
reason to worship him in Jerusalem; other Samarians accepted YHWH as one of several gods,
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something that was not uncommon in Judah either.
721BC King Shalmaneser V of Assyria dies shortly after the fall of the rebel city of Samaria in Israel. The
 Assyrian army is recalled [before they can do the same to Judah] and the Assyrian crown is seized by
Sargon II (721-705BC).
720BC King Sargon II [or someone who looks like him] of Assyria returns to Israel with the Assyrian army, and
Other of pacifies the province, deports certain citizens of Israel beyond the Euphrates (some 27,290 according to
The 10 the inscription of Sargon II), and settles people from Babylon, Cuthah, Awa, Hamath and Sepharvaim in
Tribes their place (2Kings17:6, 24). The author of the Books of Kings states this destruction occurred because the
Exiled
children of Israel sinned against the Lord, not because of a political miscalculation on Hosheas part: And the
King of Assyria took Samaria and exiled the Israelites to Assyria, and he settled them in Halah at the [River]
Habor, at the River Gozan, and in the cities of Media. This happened because the Israelites sinned against the
Lord their Godthey worshipped other gods and followed the customs of the nations (2Kings17:6-7) What
happened to Hoshea, last King of Israel, following the end of the Kingdom of Israel, and when or where he
died, is unknown.

About the King Sargon II (r.722-705BC):


 Wikipedia.org2008: Sargon II (legitimate kingwas an Assyrian king. Sargon II became co-regent with
Shalmaneser V in 722BC, and became the sole ruler of the kingdom of Assyria in 722BC after the death of
Shalmaneser V. It is not clear whether he was the son of Tiglath-Pileser III or a usurper unrelated to the royal
family. In his inscriptions, he styles himself as a new man, rarely referring to his predecessors; however he
took the name Sharru-kinu (true king), after Sargon of Akkad-who had founded the first Semitic Empire in the
region some 16 centuries earlier. Sargon is the Biblical form of the name. Beset by difficulties at the
beginning of his rule, Sargon II made a pact with the Babylonian king Marduk-apla-iddina II. He was able to
free all templesfrom taxesconquered Gaza in Philistia, destroyed Rafah, and won a victory over Egyptian
troops. On his return, he had Samaria rebuilt as the capital of the new province of Samerina and settled it with
Arabs or Assyriansunder his rule, the Assyrians completed the defeat of the Kingdom of Israel, capturing
Samaria after a siege of three years and exiling the inhabitants. This became the basis of the legends of the
Lost Ten Tribes. According to the Bible, other people were brought to Samaria, the Samaritans, under his
predecessor Shalmaneser VSargons name actually appears in the Bible only once, at Isaiah 20:1in
710BC Sargon felt safe enough in his rule to move against his Babylonian arch-enemy Marduk-apla-iddina
IIlaid siegeproclaimed king of Babylonia in 710remained in Babylon for three years; in 709BC, he led
the new year procession as king of Babylonin 710, the seven kings of la (Cyprus) had accepted Assyrian
sovereignty; in 709, Midas, king of PhrygisubmittedSargon preferred Nineveh to the traditional capital at
Assur. In 713BC he ordered the construction of a new palacein 705BC, Sargon fell in a campaign against
the Cimmerians, who were later to destroy the kingdoms of Urartu and Phrygia before moving even further
west. Sargon was succeeded by his son Sennacherib.

About the Sargon of Akkad (24th or 23rd century BC):


Wikipedia.org2008: also known as Sargon the Great (the true king or the king is legitimate)founder of
the Dynasty of Akkad, Sargon reigned for 56 years, c.2270BC-2215BCbecame a prominent member of the
royal court of Kish, ultimately overthrowing its king before embarking on the conquest of Mesopotamia.
Sargons vast empire is known to have extended from Elam to the Mediterranean searegarded as one of the
 first individuals in recorded history to create a multiethnic, centrally ruled empire, and his dynasty controlled
ANOTHER Mesopotamia for around a century and a halfSargons birth and childhood is given in the Sargon legend, a
DREAM Sumerian textur-Zababa, king of Kish, who awakens after a dream, the contents of which are not revealed on
the surviving portion of the tablet. For unknown reasons, Ur-Zababa appoints Sargon as his cupbearer. Soon
after this, Ur-Zababa invites Sargon to his chambers to discuss a dream of Sargons, involving the favor of the
goddess Inanna and the drowning or Ur-Zababa by the goddess. Deeply frightened, Ur-Zababa orders Sargon
murdered but Inanna prevents itbreaks off.

About the Deportation of 10 Tribes of Israel Myth:


 Conventional History: Although this was a comparatively mild deportation and perfectly in line with Assyrian
practice, it marks the historical beginning of the Jewish diaspora. This chapter in the Jewish diaspora,
however, never has been written for the Israelites seem to have blended in with Assyrian society and, by
the time Nebuchadnezzar II conquers Judah (587BC), the southern kingdom of the Hebrews, the Israelites
deported by Sargon II have disappeared nameless and faceless into the sands of northern Mesopotamia say
some.
 Aish.com2006: To pacify the lands they invade, the Assyrians take the indigenous people, move them
someplace else, and bring others to take their place. By the time the exiles figure out where they are,
decades pass and they dont remember to rebel any more [except the pious Judeans-they will be the
next to go].
 Aish.com2006: The Assyrians bring in a bunch of people from someplace else, why-because they are now
living in Shomron or Samaria-come to be known as Samaritans. The Samaritans are people who more or less
adopt Judaism, but not completely. Because of this, they are never really accepted by the Jewish people, and
theyre very resentfulthe Samaritans have a long history of animosity towards the Jewstoday there are
only about 600 Samaritans left, their cult site is in Mount Grizim, which is right next to the city of Shechem.
 Aish.com2006: What happens to those ten tribes? They assimilateThere are people throughout the
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world, especially in the Far East who claim to be descended from the ten lost tribesPathans, Muslim
fundamentalists who reside in northern Afghanistan and PakistanThe great sage, the Vilna Gaon, taught that
converts are lost Jewish souls who are trying to find their way back to the Jewish people.
Livius.org2006: the cult of YHWH was probably widespread in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and the
temple of Jerusalem was not the only place of worship. In the large cosmopolitan city of Samaria, the capital of
Israel, many believers venerated YHWH without feeling any need to go to the peasant town [magnificent city of
David??!...get your story straight!] that was Jerusalem. YHWH had not yet become the one God of later times,
and many Samarians and Judaeans accepted other gods together with YHWH. The rise of Judah and the
 rise of monotheism took place in the seventh century, after the fall of Samaria and the deportation of
the lost tribes of Israel to Assyria.
720BC King Ahaz of Judah places private Syrian altar in the temple. King Ahaz of Judah burned his son as an
offering and made high places to burn incense to other gods.
717BC Roman King Romulus is taken to heaven by the gods according to the Roman Senate.

Wikipedia2007: Senators grew to hate himRomuluss life ended in the 38th year of his reign, with a
supernatural disappearance, if he was not slain by the Senatea sudden storm arosewhen the storm was
overRomulus had disappearednone could find himone of the Senatorstold the assembled Romans
that he had seen Romulus being carried up into the heavenscalled out that he was going to live with the
gods, and wished his people to worship himn as the god Quirinusafter his death at the age of fifty-four,
Romulus was deified as the war god Quirinus.
717BC Roman kingship falls to Numa Pompiliius.

Wikipedia2007: though first untilling to serve as king, his father convinced him to take up the position as a
service to the gods. Celebrated for his natural wisdom, Numas reign was marked by peace and
prosperityreformed the Roman calendar by adjusting it for the solar and lunar year as well as by adding the
months of January and February to bring the total number of months to twelve. Numa instituted several of
Romes religious ritualscredited with the organization of Romes first occupatinal guildsmost religious of the
kingsintroduced the flamens, the vestal virgins of Rome, the pontiffs and the College of Pontiffsa shield
from Jupiter fell from the sky with the fate of Rome written on it. Numa ordered eleven copies of the
shield to be created and these shields became sacred to the Romansplanted ideas of meekness and
justicewaged no warswould die a natural, peaceful death.
715BC King Ahaz of Judah dies and is succeeded by his son King Hezekiah of Judah (r.715-687BC). The Bible
portrays King Hezekiah as a great and good king: And he did what was right in the eyes of the Lord, like all
that his father David had done. And he trusted in the God of Israel. There was none like him among all the
kings of Judah who were after him, nor were there before him. (2Kings18:3-5) He introduced religious reform,
reinstated religious traditions: renewed worship of Adonai, the Israelite God; abolished idol worship; abolished
shrines and smashed pillars; cut down the sacred post; broke the bronze serpent which Moses had made, for
until that time the Israelites had been offering sacrifices to the bronze serpent which Moses had made;
resumed Passover pilgrimage and tradition of inviting the scattered tribes to take part in a Passover festival.
He set himself to abolish idolatry from his kingdom, and among other things he destroys the brazen serpent
which had been relocated at Jerusalem and had become an object of idolatrous worship.
715BC Evidence suggests that Media is founded.
701BC Between the death of Sargon II, and the succession of his son Sennacherib, King Hezekiah of Judah sought to
throw off his dependence to the Assyrian kings. He refused to pay the tribute enforced on his father, and
entered into a league with Egypt. This led to the invasion of Judah by Sennacherib (2Kings18:13-16) in
701BC. King Hezekiah of Judah anticipated the invasion and made at least one major preparation: he had a
tunnel dug in order to provide Jerusalem underground access to the waters of the Spring of Gihon outside the
city. Sennacherib besieged the city and King Hezekiah offered to pay tribute, despoiling the Temple to produce
it. The narrative in the Bible states Sennacherib invaded Judah (Isa.33:1; 2Kings18:17;2Chr.32:9;Isa.36) and
besieged Jerusalem. According to the Bible, this invasion ended in the destruction of Sennacheribs army,
when Hezekiah prayed to God and that night the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the
Assyrians 185,000 men. The author of the Books of Kings remembers to include the fact that (19:37), 17
years later; Sennacherib was assassinated by his sons. There is also a less miraculous account from the
Assyrian side, that Sennacherib raised his siege of Jerusalem after Hezekiah acknowledged Sennacherib as
his overlord and paid him tribute. The narrative of Hezekiahs sickness and miraculous recovery is found in
2Kings 20:1, 2 Chr. 32:24, Isaiah 38:1. Various ambassadors came to contratulate him on his recovery, among
them Merodach-baladan, the king of Babylon.
701BC Phoenicia.org2007: During Sennacheribs reign (705-681BC) he crushed a serious revolt by coastal
[Phoenician] cities in 701BC and force Luli (Elulaeus), king of Tyre, to flee to Cypruslater Sidon revolted
 against the Assyrian ruler.
700- narconon.org2009: The Zoroastrian Zend-Avesta, an ancient Persian religious text of several hundred
600BC volumes, and said to have been written by Zarathustra (Zoroaster), refers to bhang as Zoroasters good
 narcotic (Vendidad or The Law Against Demons)
700- narconon.org2009: Scythian tribes leave cannabis seeds as offerings in royal tombs.
300BC

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689BC The Assyrians destroy Babylon. The monarchs of Assyria, who hated Babylon with a passion since it
constantly contemplated independence and sedition, destroyed that city and set up their capital in
Nineveh. Later they felt that the Babylonian god, Marduk, was angry at them and they rebuilt the city, and
returned the idol of Marduk to a temple in Babylon.
Until the sixth century BC, the Persians were a people shrouded in mystery. Living in the area east of the
Mesopotamian region, the Persians were a disparate group of Indo-European tribes, some nomadic, some
settled, that were developing their own culture and religion unique from that of the great cities to their west.
Throughout their history, they lived peacefully in the region just north of the Persian Gulf. They were left
unbothered by the epic power struggles broiling to the west in Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt. They spoke
a language similar to Sanskrit and worshipped gods similar to the gods of the Vedic period in India. Life was
hard in the region; the coastline afforded no harbor, and the eastern region was mountainous. Only a few
interior valleys supported people. In part because of geography, the Persians never really united into a single
people but rather served as disparate vassal states to the Medes, who, from their capital at Ecbatana,
controlled the area east of the Tigris river.
th
During the 7 century BC, the Temple of Amon is constructed in the oasis at Siwa, Egypt.
687BC King Hezekiah of Judah dies and is succeeded by his only son King Manasseh of Judah (r.687-642BC). King
Manasseh was 12 when he began to reign. Little is known of this king. Early on, he fell under the influence
of the anti-Yahweh court faction, and his reign was characterized by a relapse into idolatry with all its vices,
showing that the reformation under his father had been to a large extent only superficial. A systematic and
persistent attempt was made, and all too successfully, to banish the worship of Yahweh out of the land,
which was opposed by faithful prophets (Isaiah, Micah). 2Kings21:2-6: He did what was evil in the eyes of the
LordHe erected altars to BaalHe passed his son through fire, practiced astrology and read omens, and
performed necromancy and conjured spirits. He was profuse in doing what was evil in the eyes of the Lord, to
anger Him. But their fidelity only aroused bitter hatred, and a period of cruel persecution against all the friends
of the old religion began. There is an old Jewish tradition that Isaiah was put to death at this time.
681BC Esarhaddon, Sennacheribs successor on the Assyrian throne, who had his residence in Babylon for 13 years
(the only Assyrian monarch who ever reigned from Babylon), took King Manasseh of Judah prisoner to
Babylon. Such captive kings were usually treated with great cruelty. They were brought before the conqueror
with a hook or ring passed through their lips or their jaws, having a cord attached to it, by which they were led.
The severity of Manassehs imprisonment brought him to repentance. According to the Bible, God heard his
cry, and he was restored to his kingdom (2 Chr. 33:11-13). He abandoned his idolatrous ways, and enjoined
the people to worship Yahweh; but there was no thorough reformation.
676BC Phoenicia.org2007: Esarhaddon (681-669BC) who in 676BC sacked and destroyed it [Sidon] and in its
place built a governors residence, called Kar-Esarhaddon, for a new Assyrian province. He also made a treaty
with Baal, king of Tyre.
673BC Roman king Numa Pompilius dies a natural death. Domus Tullus Hostilius (r.673-641BC) becomes king of
Rome.

Wikipedia2007.com: Tullus waged war against Alba Longa, Fidenae and Veiifirst extension of the
Roman territory beyond the walls of Romesaid to have been struck dead by lightning as the punishment of
his pride. Chosen by the senators because he was a Roman and because his grandfather had fought with
Romulus against the Sabinesfriendly feelings between the Romans and the countrymen of Alba Longa
gave way to quarrelingprepared to fightRomans defeated the Albans and they were subjects of the
Roman statehad Alba Longa destroyedengaged in another way with the Sabinesneglected any service
to the gods. A dreadful plague came upon the Romans. Even Tullus was stricken with it. He determined to
practice secret sacrifices to Jupiter to ask for his favour and help. However, he did not complete them properly
and the Ggod struck him down with a thunderbolt for his wrongful practice of religion. This was seen as an
omen to the Romans that they ahd better choose a new king who would follow the peaceful example of Numa
Pompilius.
668- The last great monarch of Assyria was Ashurbanipal who extended the empire and began a project of
626BC assembling a library of tablets of all the literature of Mesopotamia. Thirty thousand tablets still remain of
Ashurbanipals great library in the city of Nineveh, the single greatest source of knowledge of Mesopotamian
culture.
Financiers appear in Babylonia who institute a reformed system of credit whereby interest-bearing capital
$ was offered for private enterprise and for governmental purposes.

Hebrewhistory.info2007: From the eighth century BCE, when the Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pieser departed
13,150 Israelites to Persia (according to the conqueror himself), to modern times, Jews have been at the
forefront of international trade. The subsequent Babylonian exile added many thousands of Judahite families
to the Persian/Babylonian milieu. Persia became the pivotal point from which trade between the eastern and
the western worlds evolved. The Jews were the common denominator between those worlds. Jewish bankers
made finance capital a factor of Persian industrial development and initiated a system of credit that Jewish
traders wove into the world economy. The surviving records of two Jewish banking families are among the
most revealing documents of the Persian period. They supplied the credit and capital for the expanding
economy of the region. Albert Olmstead, author of the authoritative History of the Persian Empire, took special
note that: Without any doubt, the most important economic phenomenon was the emergence of the private
banker and the consequent expansion of credit. Previously, until the seventh century BCE, credit was
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available in Persia mainly on a local basis as temple loans to dependents, to be repaid in kind or equivalent, or
as advances of graines or other food-stuffs from landlords to their peasant tenants in off season, to be repaid at
harvest time. Such loans were generally interest-free, albeit a penalty amounting to as much as twenty-five per
cent was imposed if payment was not made when due. By the mid-seventh century BCE, soon after the
deportation of the Israelites to the area, financiers appeared who instituted a reformed system of credit
$ whereby interest-bearing capital was offered for private enterprise and for governmental purposes.
Most important among the new institutions engaged in such enterprise were the Jewish banking houses of
Murashu and Sons, and of Egibi and Sons. They expanded the scope of credit from agrarian assistance to the
energizing of industry and commerce. The records of both powerful banking houses reveal astoundingly
sophisticated functions. They document credits issued, loans granted, bills of exchange, the founding and
financing of commercial enterprises, the purchase of goods, and the acquisition, management, and sale of
tracts of land. The Murashu family stemmed from Judahite deportees. After rooting in Nippur, a commercially
important city southeast of Babylon, they became a leading banking family of Mesopotamia The family was
central to the regions economy for at least a century and a halfthe surviving records of the Murashu
business houses are mostly of three sons and three grandsons of the founder, covering a half century between
455 and 403 BCE. They make clear that the firm had long been a vital factor in the economy of the region, and
continued to be so thereafter. The records provide a piercing view into the Persian/Babylonian economy of the
times, as well as of the vital role of Jewish artisans and entrepreneurs active within itTel Abib was one of the
twenty-eight such Jewish settlements in the immediate nippur area alone that are featured in the Murashu
records. The documents attest to the wide spread of activities of the erstwhile exiles. Included are deeds for
land acquisitions, contracts and conveyances of all kinds, insurance, the provision of capital for specific
projects. Even securities for imprisoned debtors were dealt with by the prestigious Murashu house. The
Murashus managed estates for absentee landlords, hiring labor, paying taxes to the exchequer, and remitting
the profits to the landlords. They provided small farm collectives eeking out a living along the irrigation canals
with equipment for raising water to their farms. They supplied farmers with animals, seed, and implements.
The Murashu documents make evident that many forms of producers collectives existed. In addition to
agrarian cooperatives, the system encompassed various groups of artisans, for example, carpenters, tanners,
ferrymen and shepherds, as well as merchants, scribes, and so on. Jews are prominently featured as
recipients of this assistance. Some owned land. Others were employed by high-placed Persians and
Babylonians or were servants of the crownmany Jews assumed Babylonian names, as is inevitably the
case in a Diaspora. Nonetheless, eight per cent of the clients of the banking families can be identified as
Jews from their names alone. This percentage corresponds roughly to the proportion of Jews among the
official population, which, before the influx of the deportees from Jerusalem and Judah, amounted to

$ over six per cent of the total. The Aramaic form of many other names and suggestive facts indicate that
the actual percentage was far higher. For example, a certain Jesaiah mortgaged his land to the Murashu
banking house at an annual fee of thirty thousand liters of barley. Three years later, Jedaiah in association with
other partners expanded his holdings, paying three times the amount in rent. In 419BCE, Jedaiahs son,
Eliada, formed a partnership with a person with a Persian name to become the agents of the steward of the
royal domains in the Nippur area. Most of the Jews referred to in the Murashu documents were of the lower
classes. Some were slaves. They come to our attention because slaves of those times were not treated as
mere property without rights, but as persons who retained private privileges as well as responsibilities to their
owner. They could independently enter into legal agreements that did not compromise the responsibilities to
their lordEgibiwas brought into questio because of the name of the head of the firm, Ittl-Marduk-
balatushown to be a fashionable acceptance of Babylonian norms without religious overtonesit is clear that
although the Egibi and Murashu families were wealthy Jews, and while other Jews did well at court and in the
service of the hierarchy, most Jews were busy at agriculture, crafts, and various enterprisesall fourteen canal
managers known to us by name through these documents were Jewssome Jews participated in the
military establishmentJews were concentrated in the fertile canal-laced heart of Babylonia between the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers. This region, and in particular the Jewish enclaves within the region, formed the
hub of a network of trade routes that fanned out across Asia to the East and West. Jewish merchants
 and artisans established colonies at strategic points along those routes.
About Ophism (pre-6th century BC):
Wikipedia.com2006: seems to have been a mystery religion in the ancient Greek world. Its founder was
alleged to be the mythical poet Orpheus. Nevertheless, its historical roots have been traced back to the 6th
century BC)the main elements differed from popular ancient Greek religion in the following ways: human
soulsdivine and immortal but doomed to live for a period in a grievous circle of successive bodily
lives; by prescribing an ascetic way of life which, together with secret initiation rites, was supposed to
guarantee not only eventual release from the grievous circle but also communion with god(s); by
warning of postmortem punishment for certain transgressions committed during life; by being founded upon
sacred writings about the origin of gods and human beingsrecently discovered Derveni papyrus allows
Orphic mythology to be dated back to the 4th century BC, and it is probably even olderhave parallels to
elements of Pythagoreanism...as fonder of mystery-religions, Orpheus was first to reveal to men the meaning
of the rites of initiation.
AP, June 1, 2006: A collection of charred scraps kept in a Greek museums storerooms are all that remains
the plot of what archaeologists say is Europes oldest surviving book-which may hold a key to understanding early
monotheistic beliefsMore than four decades after the Derveni papyrus was found in a 2,400-year-old
noblemans grave in northern Greece, researchers said they are close to uncovering new textU.S. imaging
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and scanning techniques used to decipher Judas Gospel-which portrays Judas not as a sinister betrayer but
as Jesus confidant-will considerably expand and clarify that textit was found half burnt in 1962. It dates to
around 340BC, during the reign of Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great. It is the oldest surviving
bookin western traditionit was probably written by somebody from the circle of the philosopher
th
Anaxagoras, in the second half of the 5 century BCAnaxagoras, who lived in ancient Athens, is thought to
have been the teacher of Socrates and was accused by his contemporaries of atheismexperts from Brigham
Young Universitycontains a philosophical treatise on a lost poem describing the birth of the gods and other
beliefs focusing on Orpheus, the mythical musician who visited the underworld to reclaim his dead love and
enjoyed a strong cult following in the ancient world. The Orpheus cult raised the notion of a single creator
god-as opposed to the multitude of deities the ancient Greeks believed in-and influenced later monotheistic
faithsin a way, it was a precursor of christianityOrphism believed that mans salvation depended on his
knowledge of the truththe manuscript will help show the influence of Orphism on later monotheistic
religions.
Wikipedia.com2006: text is a commentary on a hexameter poem ascribed to Orpheusbegins with the
words Close the doors, you uninitiated, a famous admonition to secrecy, recounted by Plato. The theogony
described in the poem has Night give birth to Heaven (Uranus), who becomes the first king. Cronus (time)
H follows and takes the kingship from Uranus, but he is succeeded by Zeus. Zeus, having heard oracles from his
father goes to the sanctuary of Night, who tells him all the oracles which afterwards he was to put into effect.
Upon hearing them, Zeus swallowed the phallus of the king Uranus who first had ejaculated the brilliance of
heaven.
650BC A new religion, Zoroastrianism, suddenly takes hold east of the Tigris River. The man who invented it
was called Zarathustra (Zoroaster in Greek), and his new religion and new gods captivated the spiritual and
social imagination of the people who would be called the Persians. Followers and those interested in the
subject say no real evidence exists pinpointing the birth date of Zarathustracould be 600BC to 4,000BC and
anywhere in between.
About Zoroastrianism:
Religion with its origin in ancient Iran which exists even in modern times. It is perhaps the worlds oldest
continuing non-pantheistic religion.
It is a dualistic religion. The universe is under the control of two contrary gods, Ahura-Mazda, the creating god
who is full of light and good, and Ahruman, the god of dark and evil. These two evenly matched gods are in an
epic struggle over creation; at the end of time, Ahura-Mazda and his forces will emerge victorious. All of
creation, all gods, all religions, and all of human history and experience can be understood as part of this
struggle. It is oriented towards the end of history and the final defeat of Ahriman and all those gods, humans,
and other animate forces arrayed on the dark side of creation.
The cult is focused on the battle against the evil, and the principal symbol of this is the sacred Fire. The most
important place of worship is the Temple of Fire, which a fire burns as a symbol of the holiness of Ahura
Mazda. The veneration of the spirits of the dead is also important. Believers are strongly occupied with the
hereafter. The believer must beware of demons, IE contamination, and this is central in their consciousness
and daily acts. The right behavior is marked with having the good in mind with your thoughts, your sayings and
your acts. There are 5 daily prayers, and ablutions are performed in front of all of these. The believer
becomes religiously active from age 7. When a believer dies, his body is brought up to the Tower of Silence,
where the corpse shall be eaten by vultures, so that neither fire nor earth becomes contaminated.
Zoroastrianism is to some extent a monotheistic religion, in the sense that there is a supreme god, Ahura
Mazda, that is central in all cult. Yet, the existence of lesser divine beings dilutes this image. Even the power
that opposes Ahura Mazda, the evil Ahriman may be seen as a deity of Zoroastrianism, since he is an
important force in cosmos.
Human beings can with the help of Ahura Mazda reach the stage of total liberation from the worldly existence.
In such a situation life becomes healthy, filled with power and dominated by bliss. And more, the influence of
the evil is extinguished.
The believers marry only within the extended family, but occasionally even with relatives as close as brother
and sister.
Livius.org2006: Hystaspes (OP. Vistaspa)was the king of a country that has been identified with
Chorasmia and Aria. According to Avestan history, Vistaspa offered asylum to Zarathustra when the latter was
hunted down by his opponents, the priests of the god Mithra. Later, the king organized a debate between the
prophet and the priests; when Zarathustra had provedd that his doctrines were superior, Vistaspa became an
adherent of the new religion. Legend has elaborated this story and added an intervention by Ahuramazda in
person: Zarathustra departed alone, at the counsel and command of Ahuramazda, to the court of Hystaspes
and the ordeal of that terrible contestHystaspes, through his great wisdom, rightness of thought and spiritual
beliefs, would have been ready to listen to Zarathustras words in order to judge of his prophethood; but even
before he could hear Zarathustras words and recognize his nature, Hystaspes was turned against Zarathustra,
through slander and sorcery, by the persuasions of the wicked rulers and the priests of the old religion. Then
he consigned Zarathustra to imprisonment and tortureand lo, through the strength of Zarathustra, who, along
fought a terrible battle against evil, a great miracle was manifest to king Hystaspes and his retainers, when they
found him alive and full of glory, despite hardship and fetters and other afflictions and prolonged starvation.
Zarathustra then works miracles from his prison, among them a cure of Hystaspes favorite war horse. Further,
through his spiritual insight he was able to tell and make known the thoughts of king Hystspes and his fellow
countrymen, and many other hidden thingsthen in order to vindicate the faith, and to reveal its truth and
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wisdom, and to remove all doubts from king Hystaspesthe creator Ahuramazda sent (the spirit) Good
Thought and (the spirit) Truth and Holy Fire as messengers to Hystaspes, to make known the truth of
Zarathustras prophethood, and the will of Ahuramazda that Hystaspes should accept the Mazda-worshipping
religion and make it current in the world. The miracle was revealed to the people of the land of Hystaspes
when the Holy Immortals descended from sky to earth and entered the dwelling of Hystaspesthe Fire of
Ahuramazda said in a mans voice: Fear not, illustrious king Hystaspes, for you have no cause for dreadthis
is the message we bring you: Accept then, most justly and wisely, the vision which Spitama Zarathurstra has
expounded in purity. Chant the Holiest of All Prayers, praise perfect righteousness and deny all worship to the
Demons. For Ahuramazda desires that you should adhere to this Religion, and the Holy Immortals desire it.
(translated by Mary Boyce)
 Haoma, from wikipedia.com2006: Haoma is the Avestan language name of a plant and its divinity both of
which play a role in Zoroastrian doctrine and in later Persian culture and mythologythe physical attributes, as
described in the texts of the Avesta, include:furthers healingsexual
arousalstrengtheningstimulates alertness and awarenessmildly intoxicatingthe twigs are
repeatedly poundedarchaeological evidence emerged from Russian excavations in the Kara Kum desert of
Turkmenistanknown to the ancients as Margianain one of these private rooms were found three ceramic
bowlsreveals traces of both cannabis and ephedra. Clearly both these psychoactive substances had
been used in conjunction in the making of hallucinogenic drinksIn another room at the other end of the
shrine a basin containing remains of a considerable quantity of cannabis was discoveredThe discovery in
the shrines of the remains of opium, cannabis and Ephedra in ritual vessels that are dated between 2000-
1000BC show that soma in its Iranian form haoma may be considered as a composite psychoactive substance
comprising of cannabis and Ephedra in one instance and opium and Ephedra in anotherhymns of Yasna 9-
11Haoma is said to appear before Zoroaster in the form of a beautiful manwho prompts him to gather and
press haoma for the purification of the waters. Haoma is righteous and furthers righteousness, is wise and
gives insight. Haoma was the first priest, installed by Ahura mazda with the sacred girdle
645BC Elam is conquered by the Assyrians, and annexed to their kingdom. Elam would never again rise to be a great
power. It was later conquered and sacked by Media and Persia.
642BC After a lengthened reign, the longest in the history of Judah, King Manasseh of Judah dies, and was buried in
the garden of Uzza, the garden of his own house, and not in the City of David, among his ancestors. He was
succeeded by his son King Amon of Judah (r.642-640BC). King Amon of Judah restored idolatry, and set
up the images which his father had cast down. Zephaniah (1:4; 3:4, 11) describes his reign as marked by
moral depravity.
642BC Roman Emperor Tullus Hostilius is struck by a lightning bolt by the gods for not practicing religion,
 according to legend. The Romans elect a peaceful and religious king in his place, Ancus Marcius, Numas
grandson.

Wikipedia2007.com: did little to expand the bordersbuilt Romes first prisonAncus used diplomacy
to peacefully join some of the smaller surrounding citiescompleted the conquest of the Latinsforming the
plebian class of Romanswould die a natural death.
640BC King Amon of Judah is assassinated (2 Kings 21:18-26; 2 Chronicles 33:20-25) by his own servants, who
conspired against him. He is succeeded by his son King Josiah of Judah (r. 640-609BC). Josiah is credited by
some historians with having established Jewish scripture in written form as part of the Deuteronomic reform
that occurred during his rule. Josiah was placed on the throne of Judah at age 8 by the People of the Land,
the international situation was in flux: to the east, the Assyrian Empire was in the beginning stages of its
eventual disintegration, the Babylonian Empire had not yet risen to replace it, and Egypt to the west was still
recovering from Assyrian rule. This favored the resurgence of the prowess of Jerusalem.
632BC King Josiah of Judah had the foreign cultic objects of Baal, Ashterah or Asherah, etc. in Solomons Temple
destroyed, the living pagan priests dismissed from their posts and the bones of the priests exhumed from their
graves and burned on their altars-an extreme act of desecration against these pagan deities (2Kings 23:4).
King Josiah did likewise in other cities.
627BC King Ashurbanipal (668-627BC) dies. He was the ruler of ancient Assyria at the height of Assyrian military
and cultural accomplishments. He establishes a great library in Nineveh. A collections of cuneiform tablets
containing approximately 1200 distinct texts remains today. Most of it is now in the possession of the British
Museum or the Iraq Department of Antiquities. It was buried by invaders centuries before the famous library at
Alexandria was established. The ancient Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh and a nearly complete list of ancient
Near Eastern rules were preserved in Ashurbanipals palace library at Ninevah. Some rooms were devoted to
history and government, others to religions and magic and still others to geography, science, poetry, etc. The
collection even held what could be called classified government materials.

About King Ashurbanipal:


Pothos.org2007: One of the most remarkable texts from ancient Mesopotamia is the collection of celestial
A omens known as Enuma Anu Enlil, which was discovered in the library of the Assyrian king Assurbanipal in
Nineveh. The authors of these seventy tablets believed that the gods had created the movements of the
planets to give the people on earth indications of the future. Enuma Anu Enlil was a dictionary of the
heavenly language and contains all kinds of explanations like when in the month Ajaru, during the evening
watch, the moon eclipses, the king will die. The sons of the king will vie for the throne of their father, but will
not sit on itthe astronomers of Assyria and Babylonia, usually called Chaldaeans, are the fathers of science-
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or at least of the scientific methodthe first stage of the Chaldaean scientific project was the recording of the
celestial phenomena and their correlation with important political eventsThe Astronomical Diariesit is
likely that the regular observation of the skies started during the reign of king Nabonassar (747-734BC). Our
oldest tablet dates back to 652/651BC; the youngest to 61/60BC.
627- Jeremiah prophecizes.
585BC
Jeremiah 11:9: And the Lord said unto me, A conspiracy is found among the men of Judah, and among the
inhabitants of Jerusalem.
Ezekial 22:25: There is a conspiracy of her prophets in the midst thereof, like a roaring lion ravening the
prey; they have devoured souls; they have taken the treasure and precious things; they have made her many
widows in the midst thereof.
Ezekial 22:27: Her princes in the midst thereof are like wolves ravening the prey, to shed blood, and to
destroy souls, to get dishonest gain.
Ezekial 11:15: Son of man, thy Brethren, even thy brethren, the men of thy kindred, and all the house of
Israel wholly, are they unto whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, Get you far from the Lord: unto us is
this land given in possession.
Ezekiel 36:2: Thus says the Lord God, Because the enemy [Israels enemy-the Jews] has spoken against
you, Aha! And, the everlasting heights [high places] have become our possession.
......... ...... ....... ...... ...... ....... ...... ...... ....... ...... ....... ...... .

625BC Media is united under King Cyaxares.


622BC King Josiah of Judah again works on behalf of Yahweh by having the High Priest Hilkiah take the tax monies
that had been collected over the years, and repairs the neglect and damage the Temple had suffered during
the reigns of Amon and Manasseh.
 While the High Priest Hilkiah was clearing the treasure room of the Temple (2 Chr. 34:14), he is said to have
found a scroll that was either a copy of the Book of Deuteronomy, or a text that became Deuteronomy.

Hilkiah brought what was to be the Torah to Josiahs attention:


Version 1: The king had it read to a crowd in Jerusalem and was praised for this piety by the prophetess
Huldahthe claim that the scroll was found has been met with increasing skepticism among modern textual
critics: the dominant view today is that the book was a forgery created to help centralize power under Josiah.
Version 2: When the King read it, it is said he tore his robes in anguish because the scroll contained an
extensive set of divinely-ordained laws of morality and purity given to Moses. It contained some of the more
barbaric elements of Mosaic law, such as the commandments to stone to death adulterers and disobedient
 children. It also mandated that the official cult of Yahweh be centralized in the Temple at Jerusalem,
greatly enhancing the power and influence of the priestly caste. Some scholars argue it was a forgery
devised by the priests. This was the fifth and last book of the Pentateuch, Deuteronomy, literally means
second law.
Version 3: There is a tradition of Jews that Josiah anticipated the spiritual decline and knew the southern
kingdom would soon be invaded so he decided to hide the Ark of the Covenant.
Livius.org2006: Towards the end of the seventh century, king Josiah tried to reform the cult in Jerusalem, an
act that is associated with the composition of the core of the Biblical book of Deuteronomy, which contains the
 regulations of the reform program. From now on, the stories and laws of the five first books of the Bible (the
Torah or Pentateuch) were at the heart of Jewish monotheism.
617BC Roman king Ancus Marcius died a natural death. Tarquinius Priscus becomes king of Rome.

Wikipedia2007.org: first king of Etruscan birth (though of Corinthian ancestry). After emigrating to Rome,
he found favour with Ancus, who later adopted him as his son. Upon becoming king, he waged wars against
the Sabines and Etruscans, which doubled the size of Rome and brought great treasures to the cityadd one
hundred new members to the Senate from the conquered Etruscan tribesused the bootyto build great
monumentssewer systemsdrain the swamp-like areafounding of the Roman gamesCircus
Maximuskilled after 38 years as King at the hands of Ancus Marcius sons.
614BC Cyaxares of Media conquers and destroys Ashur. Ashur was the first capital of Assyria, on the bank of the
Tigris, south of Nineveh. Ashur was the religious capital of Assyria, and the center for worship of the god Ashur
and the goddess Ishtar.

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612BC Assyria collapses.
Version 1: After Ashurbanipal, the great Assyrian
empire came under pressure from their old and bitter
enemies, the Babylonians. Aided by the Medes, the
Babylonians led by Nabopolassar eventually
conquered the Assyrian capital of Nineveh and burned
it to the ground ending forever Assyrian dominance in
the region.
Version 2: In an alliance with Babylon, King Cyaxares
of Media conquers Nineveh, thereby ending the
Assyrian Empire. Assyria is divided into a few
kingdoms with Medians as rulers, while the northern
parts become the Median Kingdom.

King Josiah of Judah reasserts Judean control in the former territories of the kingdom of Israel, which
is recorded in 2 Kings: he systematically destroys the cultic objects in various cities, and executes the
priests of the pagan gods. The only exception he made was for the grave of an unnamed prophet he found
in Bethel, who had foretold that these religious sites Jeroboam erected would one day be destroyed.
610BC Media conquers the kingdom of Mannai (in lands corresponding to todays northwestern Iran).
609BC Media conquers the lands of the Urartu (in lands corresponding to todays Armenia).
609BC King Josiah of Judah dies.
Version 1: The author of Kings remarks that King Necho II of Egypt met Josiah at Megiddo, and killed him the
moment he saw him (2 Kings 23:29).
Version 2: The author of Chronicles describes Josiah meeting Necho in battle, where Josiah was fatally
wounded by Egyptian archers, and was brought back to Jerusalem to die. It fits better. Necho had left Egypt
around 609BC for two reasons: one was to relieve the Babylonian siege of Harran, and the other was to help
the king of Assyria, who was defeated by the Babylonians at the Battle of Carchemish. Josiahs actions
suggest that he was aiding the Babylonians by engaging the Egyptian army.
609BC King Jehoahaz of Judah succeeds his father King Josiah of Judah. He was elected to succeed his father on
the throne, although he was two years younger than his brother Eliakim. He disregarded the reforms of his
father. Necho II marched with an army against Jerusalem, captured Jehoahaz, enforced a tribute, and
appointed his older brother Eliakim as king, who took the throne name Jehoiakim. Jehoahaz was taken captive
to Egypt, where he became the first king of Judah to die in exile.
609BC After installing King Jehoiakim of Judah (r.609-598BC), King Necho II of Egypt took no part in Judean politics,
having been defeated by the Chaldeans in the Battle of Carchemish. Egypt was permanently weakened at
the battle and Babylon moved into ascendancy as the greatest gentile power in the ancient world.
Nebuchadnezzar ascends to the throne of Babylon after defeating the Egyptians.
605BC Neo-Babylonian Period (612-539BC): Nabopolassar was succeeded by his son, Nebuchadnezzar II (605-
562BC). Nebuchadnezzar was the equal of all the great Mesopotamian conquerors. He prevented major
powers such as Egypt and Syria from making inroads on his territory, and he also conquered the Phoenicians
and the state of Judah.
600BC Q33NY = 
Britain was invaded by Q Celts (Goidelic) about 600BC. Q is Quert or Apple [tree]. Its color is green. It
signifies that a choice must be made.
Approximate beginning of money with first coins in Lydia depicting a lions head.
600BC There is a relatively wet/cold event of unknown duration in many areas.
Judah Judah is invaded by Babylon and conquered by Nebuchadnezzar (605-562BC), and King Jehoiakim of
Exiled Judah was taken prisoner and carried captive to Babylon. It was at this time that Daniel with his three
 companions and 10,000 of the best and brightest were taken captive to Babylon.

Nebuchadnezzar reinstated Jehoiakim on his throne, but treated him as a vassal king. In the year after this,
Jeremiah caused his prophecies to be read by Baruch in the court of the Temple. Jehoiakim had them also
read in the palace. The words displeased him, and taking the roll he cut it in pieces and threw it into the fire.
During his disastrous reign there was a return to the old idolatry and corruption of the days of Manasseh. After
three years of subjection to Babylon, Jehoiakim withheld his tribute and revolted, hoping to make himself
independent. Nebuchadnezzar sent bands of Chaldeans, Arameans, Moabites, and Ammonites to chastise his
rebellioius vassal.

About the Jewish Exile:


Aish.com2006: a terrible disaster, right? It turns out not to be so. In fact it turns out to be a blessing in
disguise.
 Livius.org2006: Samaria now was a minor capital in the empire of the Babylonian kingthe former
kingdom of Judah was added to Samerina. Yehud, as it was called, remained an appendix of the Samaria
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province when the Persian king Cyrus the Greatcaptured Babylon and allowed the Jews to return home.
 hebrewhistory.info2009: The dispersions of the Jews from their homelands proved to be both a bane and a
boon. Again and again Jews were ripped from their roots. Again and again Jews were obliged to make a new
life in strange surroundings. Nonetheless, some factors worked in their favor. Most importantly, the Jews were
a literate people who shared a common language with their relatives and compatriots in other lands. The Jews
have not only been the People of the Book but the people who, in the main, could read a book. Literacy leads
not only to learning but to the transfer of information from persons unknown, even from persons long dead.
 Importantly, it leads to the ability to communicate over time and space. The Jews enjoyed a commercial
advantage by virtue of familial ties and ability to communicate. Having a common interest, they established
commercial liaisons of mutual benefit, and were, often uniquely, able to issue letters of credit that were certain
to be honored months later from distant lands. Throughout the ages the participation of the Jews in the
evolution of commerce was far out of proportion to their numbers. Jewish communities were rarely deployed
into primitive hinterlands, but in ports that gave them access to their peers abroad, or along trade routes, or in
centers at the forefront of the technological revolution. Subsequent displacements widened the web of their
commercial contacts. Jews became integral to the international trade of the countries into which they
settled or were hurled. International intercourse became part and parcel of Jewish life. Erudite Jewish
traveler-traders maintained an interchange of Judaic law and cultural precepts between the dispersed
communities. Jewish identity was preserved through the links provided by world-girdling sages.
598BC King Jehoiakim of Judah was killed and his body thrown over the wall of Jerusalem to convince the besieging
army that he was dead. After having been dragged away, his corpse was buried beyond the gates of
Jerusalem with the burial of an ass. Nebuchadnezzar placed Jehoiakims son Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) on the
throne wishing still to retain the kingdom of Judah as tributary to him.
598BC King Jeconiah of Judah (r.598BC), after reigning for three months and ten days, was removed by the
2nd Babylonians, and Zedekiah was placed as King of Judah. Jeconiah, with his household, many of the rulers of
Judah Judah, and many craftsmen, were exiled to Babylon and imprisoned by Nebuchadnezzar II; he thus
Exile became the first Exilarch, the leader of the Jews of the Babylonian exile. In the 37th year of his captivity,
Jeconiah was removed from prison by Amel-Marduk, King of Babylon.

About Jeconiah (Jehoiachin) (r.598BC):


Wikipedia.org2008: King of Judahcontemporary of the Prophet Jeremiahreign to 598BCaccording to
the Books of Kings, he became king at the age of eighteen (according to most of the Hebrew Manuscipts of the
Books of Chronicles his age was eight), upon the death of his father, Jehoiakim and at the start of the
Babylonian siege of Jerusalem in 597BC. He reigned for three months and ten days, and was deposed by the
Babylonians at the end of the siege by Nebuchadnezzar in 597BCZedekiah succeeded him as king of Judah.
Jeconiah, with his household, many of the rulers of Judah, and many craftsmen, were exiled to Babylon and
imprisonedin the thirty-seventh years of his captivity (562BC), he was freed from prison by Amel-Marduk,
King of Babylon.

About the office of Exilarch:


Wikipedia.org2008: refers to the leader of the Jews of the Babylonian exile. After the fall of the first
Temple, the Greeks used the term to refer to the leader of the peoplethe origin of this dignity is not known,
but the princely post was hereditary in a family that traced its descent from the royal Davidic line. It was
recognized by the state and carried with it certain definite prerogative. The first historical documents referring
to it date from the time when Babylon was part of the Parthian Empire. The office lasted to the middle of the
sixth century, under different regimes (the Arsacids and Sassanids). During the beginning of sixth century
Mar Zutra formed a politically independent state where he ruled from Mahoza for about 7 years. He was
eventually defeated by Kavadh I, King of Persia, who wanted to introduce communism through out the Persian
Empire. The position was restored in the seventh century, under Arab rule. Exilarchs continued to be
appointed through the 11th century. Under Arab rule, the exilarch was treated with great pomp and
circumstance. The history of the exilarchate falls naturally into two periods, separted by the beginning of the
Arabic rule in Babylonia. Nothing is known about the office before the 2nd century, including any details about
its founding or beginnings. It can merely be said in general that the golah, the Jews living in compact masses
in various parts of Babylon, tended gradually to unite and create an organization, and that this tendency,
together with the high regard in which the descendants of the house of David living in Babylon were held,
brought it about that a member of this house was recognized as head of the golah. The dignity became
hereditary in this house, and was finally recognized by the state, and hence became an established political
institution, first of the Arsacid and then of the Sassanid empire. Such was the exilarchate as it appears in
Talmudic literature, the chief source for its history during the first period, and which provides our only
information regarding the rights and functions of the exilarchate. For the second, Arabic, period, there is a very
important and trustworthy description of the institution of the exilarchate; this description is also important for
the first period, because many of the details may be regarded as having persisted from itlist of
exilarchsJehoiachin, last of the Davidic kingsDavid ben Zakkai [took power in 921] was the last exilarch to
play an important part in history. His son Judah survived him only by seven months; at the time of Judahs
death, he left a twelve-year-old son, whose name is unknown. The only later exilarch whose name is recorded
is Hezekiah, an exilarch who also became gaon in 1038, but fell from power in 1040, both the last exilarch and
the last gaonin the account referring to the attempt of a Palestinian teach of the Law, Hananiah, nephew of
Joshua ben Hananiah, to render the Babylonian Jews independent of the Palestinian authoritiesthe danger
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threatening the Palestinian authority was fortunately avertsseems to have led Judah I to fear that the
Babylonian exilarch might come to Palestine to claim the office from Hillels descendanta tannaitic exposition
of Genesis 49:10 which contrasts the Babylonian exilarchs, ruling by force, with Hillels descendants, teaching
in public, evidently intends to cast a reflection on the formerthe Messiah can not appear until the
exilarchate at Babylon and the patriarchate at Jerusalem shall have ceased (Sanhedrin 38a)according
th
to Seder Olam Zuta, in Nehemiahs time, the 245 year (313CE) after the destruction of the Temple, there took
place a great religious persecution by the Persians, of which, however, no details are knownHuna V fell a
victim to the persecutions under King Peroz (Firuz) of Persia, being executed, according to Sherira, in
470Mar Zutra, who came into office at the age of fifteen, took advantage of the confusion into which
Mazdaks communistic attempts had plunged Persia, to obtain by force of arms for a short time a sort of
political independence for the Jews of Babylon. King Kobad, however punished him by crucifying him on the
bridge of Mahuza (c. 520). A son was born to him on the day of his death, who was also named Mar Zutra.
The latter did not attain to the office of exilarch, but went to Palestine, where he became head of the Academy
of Tiberias, under the title of Resh Pirka, several generations of his descendants succeeding him in this office.
After Mar Zutras death the exilarchate of Babylon remained unoccupied for some timeHaninais posthumous
son Bostanai was the first of the exilarchs under Arabic rule. Bostanai was the ancestor of the exilarchs who
were in office from the time when the Persian empire was conquered by the Arabs, in 642, down to the
eleventh century. Through him the splendor of the office was renewed and its political position made
secureHasdai I was probably Bostanais grandson. The latters son Solomon had a deciding voice in the
appointments to the gaonate of Sura in the years 733 and 759. Isaac Iskawi I died very soon after Solomon. In
the dispute between Davids sons Anan and Hananiah regarding the succession the latter was victor; Anan
then proclaimed himself anti-exilarch, was imprisoned, and founded the sect of the Karaites (So says the
Jewish Encyclopedia of 1906; the origin of the Karaites is not uncontroversial). His descendants were
regarded by the Karaites as the true exilarchsin 1040, Hezekiah, who was the last exilarch and also the last
gaon, fell a victim to calumny. He was cast into prison and tortured; two of his sons fled to Spain, where they
found refugethe title of exilarch is found occasionally even after the Babylonian exilarchate had
ceaseddescendants of the house of the exilarchs were living in various places long after the office became
extinctin accordance with the character of Talmudic tradition it is the relation of the exilarchs to the heads
and members of the schools that is expecially referred to in Talmudic literature. The Seder Olam Zuta, the
chronicle of the exilarchs that is the most important and in many cases the only source of information
concerning their succession, has also preserved chiefly the names of the scholarsthe scholars who formed
part of the retinue of the exilarch were called scholars of the house of the exilarchthey wore certain badges
on their garments to indicate their positiononce a woman came to Nahman ben Jacob, complaining that the
exilarch and the scholars of his court sat at the festival in a stolen booth, the material for it having been taken
from herthere are many anecdotes of the annoyances and indignities the scholars had to suffer at the hands
of the exilarchs servantsthe luxurious banquest at the court of the exilarch were well knownthe exilarch
Nehemiah is said to have dressed entirely in silkthe Talmud says almost nothing in regard to the personal
relations of the exilarchs to the royal courttwo allusionsfrom which it seems that the exilarch occupied a
foremost position among the high dignitaries of the state when he appeared at the court first of the Arsacids,
then of the Sassanidsthe exilarch as the chief tax-collector for the Jewish populationthe most important
function of the exilarch was the appointment of the judgethe exilarch had jurisdiction in criminal cases
alsoit is a specially noteworthy fact that in certain cases the exilarch judged according to the Persian
lawupon their conquest of Iraq, the Arabs confirmed the authority of Exilarch Bustanay and the continuation
of his governance of the Jewish communitythe Muslims regarded the office of Exilarch with profound respect
because they viewed him as a direct descendant of the prophet Dawood. Under the Abbassids, the Exilarch
ruled over more than 90% of the Jewish nation. The subsequent fragmentation of the authority of the Abassids
resulted in the waning of the authority of the Exilarch beyond Persia. A struggle for the leadership between the
Geonim and Exilarchs saw the slow relinquishing of power to the Geonim but remained an office of reverence
to which Muslims showed respect.
Wikipedia.org2008: The name Bostanai gave rise to the following legend: The last Persian king
ANOTHER (Hormuzd), inimical to the Jews, decided to extinguish the royal house of David, no one being left of that
DREAM house but a young woman whose husband had been killed shortly after his marriage, and who was about to
give birth to a child. Then the king dreamed that he was in a beautiful garden, where he uprooted the
trees and broke the branches, and, as he was lifting up his ax against a little root, an old man snatched the ax
away from him and gave him a blow that almost killed him, saying: Are you not satisfied with having destroyed
the beautiful trees of my garden, that you now try to destroy also the last root? Truly, you deserve that your
memory perish from the earth. The king thereupon promised to guard the last plant of the garden carefully.
No one but an old Jewish sage was able to interpret the dream, and he said: The garden represents the
Davidic line, all of whose descendants you have destroyed except a woman with her unborn boy. The old man
whom you saw was David, to whom you promised that you would take care that his house should be renewed
by this boy. The Jewish sage, who was the father of the young woman, brought her to the king, and she was
assigned to rooms fitted up with princely splendor, where she gave birth to a boy, who received the name
Bostanai, from the garden (bostan) which the king had seen in his dream.
Hebrewhistory.info2007: The dispersions of the Jews from their homelands proved to be both a bane
 and a boon. Again and again Jews were ripped from their roots. Again and again Jews were obliged to
make a new life in strange surroundings. Nonetheless, some factors worked in their favor. Moat
importantly, the Jews were a literate people who shared a common language with their relatives and
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compatriots in other lands. The Jews have not only been the People of the Book but people who, in the
main, could read a book. Literacy leads not only to learning but to the transfer of information from
persons unknown, even from persons long dead. Importantly, it leads to the ability to communicate
over time and space. The Jews enjoyed a commercial advantage by virtue of familial ties and ability to
communicaate. Having a common interest, they established commercial liaisons of mutual benefit, and
were, often uniquely, able to issue letters of credit that were certain to be honored months later from
distant lands. Throughout the ages the participation of the Jews in the evolution of commerce was far
out of proportion to their numbers. Jewish communities were rarely deployed into primitive
hinterlands, but in ports that gave them access to their peers abroad, or along trade routes, or in
centers at the forefront of the technological revolution. Subsequent displacements widened the web of
their commercial contacts. Jews became integral to the international trade of the countries into which
they settled or were hurled. Internaitonal intercourse became part and parcel of Jewish life. Erudite
Jewish traveler-traders maintained an interchange of Judaic law and cultural precepts between the
dispersed communities. Jewish identity was preserved through the links provided by world-girdling
sages.
598BC King Zedekiah of Judah (r.598-586BC) was the last king of Judah. The prophet Jeremiah was his counselor,
yet he (Zedekiah) did evil in the sight of the Lord (2 Kings 24:19, 20; Jeremiah 52:2, 3). All the leading priests
and people were unfaithful and followed the abominations of the nations; and they polluted the house of the
Lord. Ezekiel witnessed the departure of the Shekinah, the divine presence, in stages from the temple, the
temple courts, and finally from above the eastern gate (Ezek. 10-11).
594BC The leaders of the Athens middle class, in order to prevent civil chaos among rich and poor, recruit a
H homosexual foreign merchant named Solon to accept leadership of the city and restore some peace and
prosperity. The experiment in democracy begins.

wsu.edu2008: ...city states were independent states that controlled a limited amount of territory surrounding
the states. The largest...Sparta...controlled more than 3000 square miles...called the Archaic Period...separate
states had close interaction...learned political organization from one another...developed fairly unique and
independent cultures and political organizations...all...began as monarchies...ruled by a ...hereditary
king...Greeks...tired of the kings, many of which were overthrown in the eighth century BC...alternatives were
put in place...most common was an oligarchy, or rule by a few...drawn from the wealthiest citizens of the
state...most of the early oligarchic governments and a few of the kings were overthrown by tyrants...Greek
history is generally unkind to the tyrants...Greeks believed that the tyrants were illegitimate usurpers of political
power; they seem, however, to have had in many cases popular support...swept into power by dissatisfaction
or crisis; they were more often then not extremely popular leaders when they assumed the
tyranny...tyrannies...fell apart rapidly...by the sixth century, the experiments began to settle around two
alternatives. The tyrranies never died out, but oligarchy became the settled norm of the Greek city-
states...several...replaced by...democracy...in the sixth century...but...looked nothing like modern
democracies...not representative...they were...run by the free, male citizens....

About Solon (639-559BC):


 Wikipedia.com2006: initially, Solon worked as a foreign merchantmany important Athenians engaged
in tradefirst achieved prominence as a philosopher, but perceiving that Athens faced many problems, chose
to enter politics. Besides being quite poor, the city [Athens] was in the middle of a civil war as a
$ consequence of an oppressive financial system imposed by a few wealthy citizensgreat unrest about
the loan systemalthough he was of the patrician class by birth, he was not wealthy, so while the rich did not
perceive him as a commoner, the poor did not perceive him as an oppressor. Consequently, by popular
request, Solon was appointed Eponymous Archon, and given the task of reforming the traditional political
system. Eventually he revamped most aspects of Athenian life, both modifying the code of laws and writing a
definitive Constitutionone of the Seven Wise Men of Greecethey met mostly at Apollos temple,
Delphianotherwas ThalesHe first gained public attention by urging the Athenians to go to war over
possession of a nearby islandbecame an Athenian herobegan a series of political reforms that greatly
increased citizen participation in Athenian government. He said that he stood with a strong shield before
both parties (the common people and the powerful) and allowed neither to win an unfair victory. His
reforms, unfortunately, did not please either the wealthy or the poor. He left Athens for ten years to travelhe
went to Egyptwhere the local priestsdescribed the Atlantis island tale to him. Solon wrote this history as a
poem to bring home to Athensdied soon after his returnspent that period warning people against rulers
who would not uphold his reformsintroduced an oligarchy with a sliding scale of rights determined by property
and productive capacity dividing the population into four classes: 500-bushel men, knights, tillers, manual
laborersinstituted a graduated tax upon these upper classeswith the lowest classpaying nothing in taxes
but being ineligible for elected officeintroduced the trial by jurymilitary obligations were codified based on
classremodeled the calendarregulated weights and measuresencouraged a growth in industry by
H offering citizenship to skilled workers[Solon was] credited with being the founder of the pederastic
educational tradition in Athens. He composed poetry praising the love of boys and instituted legislation to
control abuses against freeborn boys. Specifically, he excluded slaves from the wrestling halls and from
pederastyhad the future Tyrant Peisistratus as a young boy homosexual sex partner
Webspace.ship.edu2007: Athens wasnt always great. It began as a collection of villages in some of the
poorest agricultural land in Greece. Only carefully tended grapes and olives provided early Athens with a
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livelihood, that and trade. The distance between the have-the ruling aristocratic trading families-and the have
nots-peasants working the land-and the accompanying feudal oppression, grew so great that it looked like the
city and its surrounding area would collapse under the weight. In 594BC, the leaders of the middle class
recruited a merchant named Solon to accept leadership of the city and restore some peace and prosperity. He
began by canceling all debts and freeing all who had been enslaved on account of debt. Then he proceeded to
draft a constitution in which the population was divided into four classes based entirely on economic worth, with
the highest retaining the greatest power, but the lowest being exempt from taxes. After a difficult transition, the
worlds first democracy was established under the leadership of Cleisthenes in 507BC, when he decried that all
free men would be permitted to votethe great Persian empire to the east decided to expand into, first, Ionia,
and then Greece proper. But in 490BC, 20,000 Greeks defeated 100,000 Persian troops at Marathonin 481,
the Persian emperor Xerxes sent an army of over two million men, assisted by a fleet of 1200 ships to attack
Greece again. The army ravaged the north of Greece and prepared to attack kAthens. They found the city
deserted. The Persian navy, however, found the Greek fleet waiting for it in the Bay of Salamis. The Greeks
won the day against enormous odds. By 479BC, the Persians were forced back into Asia Minorthis victory
allowed the Greek adventure to continueAthens had as many as 300,000 peoplehalf were free, one third
were slaves, and one sixth were foreignersthe free adult males who could vote numbered about 50,000.
Atlantia.de: Solonstarted the historical myth of Atlantis. From 571 to 561BC, he visited Egypt and its
neighbouring countries. In Saiis, former capital of Lower Egypt and cultural centre of the ancient world, the
priest and temple recorder Sonchis told Solon about a story of the sunken empire and continent of Atlantis that
was recorded there. In Athens, authorized persons were told by Solon this secret knowledge from the temples
of Egyptwe owe the story of Atlantis to the Greek philosopher Platowho wrote it down in his dialogues
Timaeus and Critias. This report revolves around a cnversation in honor of the acian moon goddess Bendis
which was held by SocratesHermocrates, Timaeus and Critias and which dealt with the subject of Atlantis as
introduced by Solon. Plato added this topic to his work Politeia which concerns the ideal state. The Atlantis
report, known as the Timaeus-Critias Dialogue, consists of two parts. The first part, the Timaeus, deals with
the early history of Greece and a military conflict with Atlantis. The second part, the Critias, is concerned with
a description of Atlantis. Originally, Plato intended to add a third part but he never did. This additional material
might have helped to shed light on the phenomenon of Atlantis, for the second part concludes shortly before
the doom of Atlantis with the following words:..Zeus, the god of gods, who rules according to law, and is able to
see into such things, perceiving that an honorable race was in a woeful plight, and wanting to inflict punishment
on them, that they might be chastened and improve, collected all the gods into their most holy habitation,
which, being placed in the centre of the world, beholds all created things. And when he had called them
together, he spake as follows. [the rest has been lost]
590BC Media launches a war on the kingdom of Lydia.
590BC Cyrus the Great is born in 590 or 576BC.
589BC Despite the remonstrances of Jeremiah who was beaten and thrown into prison after 40 years of pleading, King
Zedekiah of Judah revolted against Babylon and entered into an alliance with Pharoah Hophra, king of Egypt.
This brought Nebuchadnezzar with his army who began a siege of Jerusalem.

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586BC Phoenicia.org2007: Nebuchadnezzard besieged it [Tyre] for thirteen years (586-573BC).
586BC Nebuzaradan, servant of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar, conquers Jerusalem and destroys
Solomons Temple at Jerusalem on the 9th of the month of Av. Every year on that anniversary Jews read
st
1
Temple Jeremiahs Book of Lamentations which predicts the destruction of the Temple and of Jerusalem which he
Destroyed wrote while in prison. Jeremiah removes the Ark of the Covenant from the Temple before the
And
rd Babylonians destroy it. The first temple had stood for 374 years. The [some] inhabitants are murdered and
3 Judah
Exile [some] remnants carried into captivity to Babylon where they find a Jewish infrastructure already in place
which modern Jews say prevented assimilation into Babylonian society. The sacred vessels are carried
off to Babylon where Belshazzard desecrates them. This begins the new era for Gods chosen people. Since
Jeconiah, the Jews have had no king over them to the present day.

About Deportation of the Jews:


 Version 1: In order to secure the territory of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar brought Jehoiachin and Zedekiah, the
two kings of Judah in succession and held them in Babylon. In keeping with Assyrian practice, the New
Babylonians or Chaldeans forced a large part of the Jewish population to relocate. Numbering possibly up to
10,000, these Jewish deportees were largely upper class and craftspeople. This was the beginning of the
Exile in Jewish history.
 Version 2: Zedekiah and his followers attempted to escape but were captured and taken to Riblah. There,
after seeing his own children put to death, hiw own eyes were put out, and he was carried capture to Babylon
where he remained a prisoner to the day of his death. After the fall of Jerusalem, Nebuzaraddan was sent to
carry out its complete destruction. The city was razed to the ground. Only a small number of vinedressers
and husbandmen were permitted to remain in the land. Gedaliah, with a Chaldean guard stationed at Mizpah,
were left to rule over Judah.
Rabbi Ken Spiro 2001: In those days normative Judaism meant living with the constant presence of God,
which was always accessible at the Temple. Miracles occurred there daily and could be witnessed by anyone.
For example, whichever way the wind was blowing, the smoke of the sacrifices always went straight to heaven.
Feeling spiritual today is nothing compared what it was like to feel spiritual in the Temple. God was with the
Jewish people.

Leviticus 26:44: Thus, even while they [the Jewish people] are in the land of their enemies, I will not reject or
obliterate them, lest I break my covenant with them by destroying them. For I am the Lord their God; I will
remember them because of the covenant I made with their original ancesters whom I brought out from the land
of Egypt, in the sight of the nations, so that I might be their God.
585BC Peace is arranged between Lydia and Media sometime after Thales of Miletus predicts a solar eclipse.

Livius.org2007: we know almost nothing about Thales of Miletuswhat seems certain however, is that he
predicted the solar eclipse of 28 May 585, which was remembered because the Lydian king Alyattes and the
Median leader Cyaxares were fighting a battle on that day.
Under Nebuchadnezzar, the city of Babylon was rebuilt with great splendor; it would eventually become one of
the most magnificent human cities in the area. But all was not perfect because there still existed a number of
cities that were loyal to the Assyrians. The entire period is one of great unrest as Babylonian hegemony was
continually tested by philo-Assyrians. The conflict slammed the door on the Babylonian empire after a dynasty
of only five kings.

Aish.com2006: The Babylonian attitude toward the Jews is live and let live. And life in Babylonia turns out not
to be too awful. They even appoint a community leader who is the representative to the Babylonian authorities
for the Jewish community, beginning with the exiled King of Judah, JehoiachinHe is give the title of Resh
Galusa in Aramaic, the international language of the ancient Near East, a semitic language closely related to
hebrewIt is the language in which most of the Talmud is written. The Jews of Babylonia speak Aramaic and
even when they return to the land of Israel, they continue to speak Aramaic Resh Galusa means head of the
diaspora, a person who is a direct descendant of the House of King David. Even though hes not a king in the
land of Israel, hes recognized as not only being the representative of the Jewish community in Babylon but
also having noble status...this is a noble line thats always preserved in Jewish historythe Babylonians and
later the Persians and the Ottomans made life in that part of the world relatively eastFor example, when the
Jews were expelled from Spain, Sultan Bajazet welcomed them with open armsThe Book of Daniel tells the
story of Jewish young men who refuse to eat non-kosher food or to bow to idols, and who are thrown into a
fiery furnace by Nebuchadnezzar. They miraculously survive, causing Nebuchadnezzar to issue an edict
forbidding anyone to blaspheme the God of Israel.
580BC The persian king Cyrus II (Hebrew: Koresh) the Great (r.550-528BC) is born.
(or
566BC?)
Herodotuss story of Cyrus the Greats early life: His overlord was his own grandfather, Astyages, ruler of the
powerful Median kingdom. The Medes and the Persians were coalitions of Iranian nomad tribes. In the first
half of the sixth century, the Median federation was the most powerful and was able to demand tribute from the
Persians and others. After the birth of Cyrus, Astyages had a dream that his Magi interpreted as a sign that his
grandson would eventually overthrow him. He then ordered his steward Harpagus to kill the infant. Harpagus,
morally unable to kill a newborn, summoned a herdsman of the king named Mithridates and ordered him to
dispose of the child. Luckily for the boy, the herdsman took him in and raised him as his own. When Cyrus
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was ten years old, Herodotus claims that it was obvious that Cyrus was not a herdsmans son. Astyages
interviewed the boy and noticed they resembled each other. Astyages ordered Harpagus to explain what he
had done with the baby, and after confessing that he had not killed the boy, the king forced him to eat his own
son. Astyages was more lenient with Cyrus, and allowed him to return to his biological parents, Astyages
daughter Mandane and Cambyses I. After the death of his father, Cambyses I, Cyrus would become the king
of Anshan.
580BC Jews on Greeks and Babylonians:

Hebrewhistory.info2007: It has been said that the roots of the tree of knowledge which bore fruit in Athens lay
in Jerusalem. The physikoi, the Greek secular [their mathematics was a religion google it!] philosophers
among the idol-worshipping Greek masses, followed Judaic precepts. The demystification of pantheons of
mythical Gods and demons, and the introduction of a universalist principle, were essential to enlightened [no
 demons!] philosophy. Thales (fl. 580BCE) was the first significant Ionian philosopher. Thales was not born in
Greece but in Miletus, AnatoliaThales was a merchant. Long before he wrote the works that made him
renowned as the father of Greek science, he pursued a mercantile career in Babylonia, where he traveled
extensively, and became immersed in Babylonian mathematics and philosopy. Babylonia, we should
rememdber, was the very region to which, according to the Assyrian king Tiglish-Pileser, 13, 750 of the wisest
and most skilled of the Israelites had been deported by 733BCE, the number given to us in an Assyrian
inscription. Thereafter 27,290 more Israelite sages, musicians and artisans were brought to Babylonia by
Sargon II in 727 BCE, as Sargon himself boastfully recorded. The exultant blusters of the Assyrian and
Babylonian kings confirm the Biblical accounts, beginning with: In the ninth year of Hosea the king of Assyria
took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of
Gozqn and in the cities of the Medes.. Thales sojourned in the very area to which additional tens of thousands
of Judahite artisans and savants were deported by the Babylonian Nebuchadnasser in 598 and 596BCE. The
descendants of these tens of thousands of Israelite and Judahite deportees multiplied to a population of a
million; they established the great Judaic universities of Pumbeditha, Mahoza, Nehardea, and Sura [this is the
captivity!]. Thales traded in the very region in which the great Jewish sages of these universities came to write
the Babylonian Talmud. Thales acquired land-surveying techniques in Babylonia. The mathematicians of
Babylonia supplied Thales with the information and the formula that enabled him to calculate the heights of
pyramids by measuring their shadows when a mans shadow equals his height. This knowledge earned Thales
renown as the inventor of geometry! The recognition is accorded him notwithstanding that the height of
ziggurats were measured the same way in Eshnunna, two thousand years earlier! Eshnunna was a
neighboring city to Ur, the presumed birthplace of Abraham in Akkadian Shinar, the very region which was to
become Babylonia! Mathematics was not all Thales learned in Babylonia. Babylonian astronomers supplied
Thales with tables which enabled him to predict an eclipse of the sun in 585BCE. This prediction made Thales
famous, and not the Babylonian savants who supplied him with the tables in which the ecliptic cycle was
recorded. The Greeks thereafter not only adopted the Judaic/Babylonian astronomical tables and records, but
the Judaic/Babylonia systems of measurements, units of weight, division of the day into hours, minutes and
seconds, formulas for land measurement
579-578BC Roman king Tarquinius Priscus is murdered. Servius Tullius becomes Roman king.

About Roman king Servius Tullius:


Wikipedia.org2007: Described in one acount as originally a slave, he is said to have married a daughter of
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, and succeeded him after the latters assassination in 579BC. He was the first king
to come to power without the consultation of the plebeians, having gained the throne by the contrivance of
Tanaquil, his mother-in-law. In this account (found in Livy) Tullius was anointed as a young child to become
king, after he spontaneously caught on fire. He was then raised as a princefavoring the goddess
FortunaServius increasingly favoured the most impoverished people in order to obtain favours from the
plegs. His legislation was extremely distasteful to the patrician order, and his reign of forty-four years was
brought to a close by the conspiracy in 535BC headed by his son-in-law Tarquinius Superbus and his own
daughter Tulia. The street in which the chariot was driven over Servius ever after bore the name of Street of
Infamyreformed the armyconstitution [accumulated body of law and precedent recorded on stone or metal
monuments and parchment scrolls]the Roman constitution under the monarchy established a monarch, the
rex, an advisory body, the Senatus, and various types of assemblies, the Comitia. Theirs was the rule of law,
not of the monarch or the senate, and even those august institutions had to follow it. The Romans believed
inlaws, which establishedrights. When the kings were overthrown, it was on the basis that they had
violated the law [!?!]between the king and the people was the senate, which advised them both. It was the
Senate that proposed, deliberated, prepared and promulgated laws. They did not go into effect until voted
upon by the comitia curiata, an assembly of the whole populace voice voting by curia (a tribal division).Rome
was deeply divided. On the one hand were the ancient gentes organized in curiae. This was the constitutional
populace. Apparently they consisted of both Latins and Etruscans. On the other were the masses of people
who had entered Rome one way or another, mainly from the surrounding Italic tribes. They used the facilities,
needed magistrates, required defense, yet they did not participate in the government in any way. This was the
plebshe altered the constitution so as to make full use of its able and willing plebshe must have had
enough support among the gentes to do thatafter establishing their assembly, the comitia centuriata, he took
the power of the legislative vote away from the comitia curiata and gave it instead to the comitia centuriata.
This was not a removal of power from the curiae or from the gentes, as they still filled all the magistracies and
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the seats in the senate. Voting rights now depended on wealth as determined by what is believed to be the
worlds first census. The gentes were wealthy and powerful before Servius and they still were. The
significance of the Servian reforms is that he opened the ranks of the powerful to the nouveau riche and also
gave every free male a say in self-government, no matter how soft a voice...Servius did not invent the concept
of class. The prior reforms of Solon at Athens had been along similar lines, creating new tribes and
dividing the citizens by wealth so as to break the monopoly of the ancient families, whose exclusive
powers were strangling the business of statebefore Servius Tulius, society at Rome was divided into
three tribesthe Ramnes, the Tities, and the Luceres. Originally they represented the entire populace
Romanus. In tradition, the Ramnes were Laini who lived on the Palatine, the Tities were Sabini who lived on
the Quirinal and Viminal, and the Luceres were Etrusci who lived on the Caelian. These tribes consisted of 200
gentes, each of which contributed one senator to the deliberative and consultative body of the senatus. They
advised the rex and devised laws. Laws, however, required the approval of the 30 curiae into which the three
tribes were divided. These bodies met from time to time and voted, probably one curia at a timethe senators
were in fact the patres (fathers) of the clans. In time Rome was flooded with other people than members of the
gensthey had no say in the government. It is significant that they were not originally the Etruscan word
populace, but were the plebsthese were Italicsby the time of Servius the patricii had become the minority,
excluding the better part of the city from governing themselves. What Servius did to correct the imbalance is to
move the pomerium, the sacred boundary of the city, to add to the existing hill districts, thus completing the
Septimontium. The space enclosed he divided into four urban tribes, the Suburana, Esquilina, Collina, and
Palatinabrought new families into the social structure
573BC Jeremiah prophesies 70-year captivity in Babylon. Israel had forgotten to allow the land to rest every seventh
year for 490 years as God had clearly ordained to Moses at Sinai. God collected on behalf of the land.
563BC Buddha is born.
559BC Cyrus II becomes king over Anshan, an obscure Persian tribe in the south of Persia.

Livius.org2006: Cyrus became king of Ansan in 559, and formed a new coalition of his own tribe, the
Pasargadae, together with the Maraphii, Maspii, Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, Dahae, Mardi, Dropici and
Sagarti.
559BC Solon, homosexual Athenian statesman, lawmaker,and poet, dies

H About Solon (639-559BC):


Wikipedia.com2006: initially, Solon worked as a foreign merchantmany important Athenians engaged
in tradefirst achieved prominence as a philosopher, but perceiving that Athens faced many problems, chose
to enter politics. Besides being quite poor, the city [Athens] was in the middle of a civil war as a
consequence of an oppressive financial system imposed by a few wealthy citizensgreat unrest about
the loan systemalthough he was of the patrician class by birth, he was not wealthy, so while the rich did not
perceive him as a commoner, the poor did not perceive him as an oppressor. Consequently, by popular
request, Solon was appointed Eponymous Archon, and given the task of reforming the traditional political
system. Eventually he revamped most aspects of Athenian life, both modifying the code of laws and writing a
definitive Constitutionone of the Seven Wise Men of Greecethey met mostly at Apollos temple,
Delphianotherwas ThalesHe first gained public attention by urging the Athenians to go to war over
possession of a nearby islandbecame an Athenian herobegan a series of political reforms that greatly
increased citizen participation in Athenian government. He said that he stood with a strong shield before
both parties (the common people and the powerful) and allowed neither to win an unfair victory. His
reforms, unfortunately, did not please either the wealthy or the poor. He left Athens for ten years to travelhe
went to Egyptwhere the local priestsdescribed the Atlantis island tale to him. Solon wrote this history as a
poem to bring home to Athensdied soon after his returnspent that period warning people against rulers
who would not uphold his reformsintroduced an oligarchy with a sliding scale of rights determined by property
and productive capacity dividing the population into four classes: 500-bushel men, knights, tillers, manual
laborersinstituted a graduated tax upon these upper classeswith the lowest classpaying nothing in taxes
but being ineligible for elected officeintroduced the trial by jurymilitary obligations were codified based on
classremodeled the calendarregulated weights and measuresencouraged a growth in industry by
offering citizenship to skilled workers[Solon was] credited with being the founder of the pederastic
educational tradition in Athens. He composed poetry praising the love of boys and instituted legislation to
control abuses against freeborn boys. Specifically, he excluded slaves from the wrestling halls and from
pederastyhad the future Tyrant Peisistratus as a young boy homosexual sex partner
Webspace.ship.edu2007: Athens wasnt always great. It began as a collection of villages in some of the
poorest agricultural land in Greece. Only carefully tended grapes and olives provided early Athens with a
livelihood, that and trade. The distance between the have-the ruling aristocratic trading families-and the have
nots-peasants working the land-and the accompanying feudal oppression, grew so great that it looked like the
city and its surrounding area would collapse under the weight. In 594BC, the leaders of the middle class
recruited a merchant named Solon to accept leadership of the city and restore some peace and prosperity. He
began by canceling all debts and freeing all who had been enslaved on account of debt. Then he proceeded to
draft a constitution in which the population was divided into four classes based entirely on economic worth, with
the highest retaining the greatest power, but the lowest being exempt from taxes. After a difficult transition, the
worlds first democracy was established under the leadership of Cleisthenes in 507BC, when he decried that all
free men would be permitted to votethe great Persian empire to the east decided to expand into, first, Ionia,
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and then Greece proper. But in 490BC, 20,000 Greeks defeated 100,000 Persian troops at Marathonin 481,
the Persian emperor Xerxes sent an army of over two million men, assisted by a fleet of 1200 ships to attack
Greece again. The army ravaged the north of Greece and prepared to attack kAthens. They found the city
deserted. The Persian navy, however, found the Greek fleet waiting for it in the Bay of Salamis. The Greeks
won the day against enormous odds. By 479BC, the Persians were forced back into Asia Minorthis victory
allowed the Greek adventure to continueAthens had as many as 300,000 peoplehalf were free, one third
were slaves, and one sixth were foreignersthe free adult males who could vote numbered about 50,000.
Atlantia.de: Solonstarted the historical myth of Atlantis. From 571 to 561BC, he visited Egypt and its
neighbouring countries. In Saiis, former capital of Lower Egypt and cultural centre of the ancient world, the
priest and temple recorder Sonchis told Solon about a story of the sunken empire and continent of Atlantis that
was recorded there. In Athens, authorized persons were told by Solon this secret knowledge from the temples
of Egyptwe owe the story of Atlantis to the Greek philosopher Platowho wrote it down in his dialogues
Timaeus and Critias. This report revolves around a cnversation in honor of the acian moon goddess Bendis
which was held by SocratesHermocrates, Timaeus and Critias and which dealt with the subject of Atlantis as
introduced by Solon. Plato added this topic to his work Politeia which concerns the ideal state. The Atlantis
report, known as the Timaeus-Critias Dialogue, consists of two parts. The first part, the Timaeus, deals with
the early history of Greece and a military conflict with Atlantis. The second part, the Critias, is concerned with
a description of Atlantis. Originally, Plato intended to add a third part but he never did. This additional material
might have helped to shed light on the phenomenon of Atlantis, for the second part concludes shortly before
the doom of Atlantis with the following words:..Zeus, the god of gods, who rules according to law, and is able to
see into such things, perceiving that an honorable race was in a woeful plight, and wanting to inflict punishment
on them, that they might be chastened and improve, collected all the gods into their most holy habitation,
which, being placed in the centre of the world, beholds all created things. And when he had called them
together, he spake as follows. [the rest has been lost]
555BC Babylon comes under the control of a king loyal to the Assyrians, Nabonidus (555-539BC), who attacked
Babylonian culture at its heart: he placed the Assyrian moon-god, Sin, above the Babylonians principal god,
Marduk, who symbolized not only the faith of Babylon but the very city and people. Angered and bitter, the
priests and those faithful would later welcome Cyrus II of Persia into their city and end forever Semitic
domination of Mesopotamia. The center of Middle Eastern world then shift to Cyruss capital, Susa, and it
would shift again with the Greeks and then the Romans.
551BC Confucius is born.
550BC Persian Cyrus II leads a rebellion against the Medes and his alleged grandfather King Astyages. Media is
conquered by the king of Anshan, thereby Cyrus II, establishes the Persian Empire by adding Media to his
own kingdom.

About Cyrus II and the Persian Empire:


Livius.org2006: they revolted in 550BC (or 554/3 according to another chronology). The Median king
Astyages sent an army to Ansan. It was commanded by Harpagus, but he defected to the Persians.
According to Herodotus, Harpagus was looking for an opportunity to avenge himself. When Cyrus had come of
age, Harpagus managed to convince the young man that the Medes were ready to revolt against their king,
who had become a despot. Cyrus organized a federation of ten Persian tribes and revolted, and Astyages
armed all Medes, and blinded by divine providence he appointed Harpagus to be the leader of the army. Of
course Harpagus did not hesitate to switch allegiance. During a battle fought at Pasargadae, the Medes sided
with the Persians. The united army marched to the Median capital and seized Astyages, who was kept captive
by Cyrusof course, the first part of this story is an oriental fairy-tale, invented to explain the historical fact in
the second part: Astyages was betrayedread it in the near contemporaryChronicle of NabonidusThe
army of Astyages revolted against him and in fetters they delivered him to Cyrus. It is possible that the
deepest cause of the rebellion of Cyrus and Harpagus was dissatisfaction with Astyages policyCyrus
became the new ruler of the empire of Persians and Medesaccording to Herodotus, Cyrus father Cambyses
had been married to Astyages daughter Mandane. This would explain why the Medes accepted Cyrus rule;
he was one of them. Intertribal marriages were common, but it is also possible that the story of Cambyses
Median marriage was invented to justify Cyrus rule. The Greek historian Ctesias of Cnidus writes that Cyrus
also married a daughter of Astyages. If both authors are right, this woman must have been Cyrus aunt. Cyrus
seems to have united Persia and Media in a personal union; it was, therefore, a dual monarchy. Taking over
the loosely organized Median empire also implied taking over several subject countriesprobably ruled by
vassal kings called satrapsCyrus added Lydia to his possessionsa part of the population appears to have
been deported to Nippur in BabyloniaAccording to Herodotus, Cyrus left Lydia and his mind was on Babylon
and the Bactrians and the Sacae and the Egyptians. It is certain that Cyrus never invaded Egypt, which was
left to his son and successor Cambyses. However, it is possible that he added Ciliciathe Persian king took
Babylon and captured its king Nabonidus (October 539BC). The Babylonian Empire had been large, and
Cyrus now became ruler of Syria and Palestine as well. He allowed the Jews, who were exiled to Babylon, to
return home. This may have been an attempt to fortify the empires western border against possible Egyptian
attacksAnother storydeals with Cyrus expedition to India
He was a first in human history, for he was the first to conceive of an idea that would forever fire the political
and social imaginations of the people touched by the Persians: Conquer the world.
Greek historians present him as a good ruler, generous, tolerant and, in many cases, benevolent.

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Honoring the Medes, Ectabana is made the summer capital. Media is divided into two satrapies, one southern
with Ectabana as capital; and a northern with mainly non-Medes inhabitants. He gave the different lands of the
empire status as provinces, called satrapies. The satraps enjoyed great independence, and many of them had
no other requirement than forwarding part of their collected tax income and contributing soldiers to the army.
From an unknown source: Media is generally seen as the first Persian dynasty, although later dynasties
emerged from countries never subjected by Media, like Anshan.
Herodotus, Histories: The Persian nation contains a number of tribesthe Pasargadae are the most
distinguished; they contain the clan of the Achaemenids from which spring the perseid kings. Other tribes are
the Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the remainder-the Dai, Mardi, Dropici,
Sagarti, being nomadic.
From an unknown source: Until the sixth century BC, the Persians were a people shrouded in mystery. They
were a disparate group of Indo-European tribes, some nomadic, some settled, that were developing their own
culture and religion unique from that of the great cities to their west. It had its center in a new set of ideas of
religion. The Persians had lived peacefully in the region just north of the Persian Gulf (modern Iran). For the
most part, they were left unbothered by the epic power struggles broiling to the west in Mesopotamia,
Palestine, and Egypt. They were Indo-European who spoke a language similar to Sanskrit and who
worshipped gods very similar to the gods of the Vedic period in India. Because of the difficult topography, the
Persians never really united into a single people but rather served as disparate vassal states to the Medes,
who, from their capital at Ecbatana, controlled the area east of the Tigris River.
From an unknown source: The religion of Media was largely Zoroastrianism.
Wikipedia.org2007: Iranian Astrology predates Islam and flourished as early as the Achaemenian
times.
From an unknown source: A devoted Zoroastrian, Cyrus II believed that his religious duty was to bring about
the eschatological promises of Zoroastrianism through active warfare. If the universe was an epic struggle
between the forces of Ahura-Mazda and the forces of evil, Cyrus II saw his job as personally bringing about the
victory of his god. As an extension of this, Cyrus II would bring Zoroastrianism to all the peoples he conquered;
he would not force them to become Zoroastrian, though. For Zoroastrianism recognized that all the gods
worshipped by other peoples were really gods; some were underlings of Ahura-Mazda and some were servants
of Ahriman [that is the Judean definition of religious tolerance]. C yrus II saw as his mission the tearing down
religions for evil gods and the shoring up of religions of gods allied with Ahura-Mazda.
Herodotus, Histories: The Iranian boys are taught three things between 5 and 20 years of age:
horsemanship, shooting, and truthfulnessIranians do not use harsh words and to them lying is considered
 the worst sin. Next to lying is borrowing money. Because, when a person is a debtor, sometimes he is
compelled to tell a lie.

About Zoroastrianism:
From an unknown source: The religion founded by Zoroaster (aka Zarathurshtra), an ancient Iranian prophet
who preached in Bactria. Zoroaster is generally accepted as a historical figure, but efforts to date him vary
widely: 600BC to 10,000BC (Persian mythology). The religion still exists in modern times. It is perhaps the
worlds oldest continuing non-pantheistic religion.
Wikipedia2006: Zoroaster was known as a sage, magician and miracle-worker in post-Classical Western
culture, though almost nothing was known of his ideas until the late 18th century. By this time his name was
associated with lost ancient wisdom and was appropriated by Freemasons and other groups who claimed
access to such knowledge. He appears in Mozarts opera Die Zauberflote [aka The Magic Fluteoften noted
for its Masonic elements, which are rife and often elaborate. Mozart was a Masonmany of the operas ideas
and motifs also echo those of Enlightenment philosophyfeatures Sarastro, a wise priest of Isis and Osiris]
under the variant name Sarastro, who represents moral order in opposition to the Queen of the Night [a
dangerous power who can only be overcome by knowledge, beautiful, mysterioius and fascinating].
Enlightenment writers such as Voltaire promoted research into Zoroastrianism in the belief that it was a form of
rational Deism, preferable to Christianity. With the translation of the Avesta by Abraham Anquetil-Duperron,
Western scholarship of Zoroastrianism beganIn the 19th century, the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
used the name of Zarathustra in his seminal book Also sprach Zarathustra. Nietzsche fictionalizes and
dramatizes Zarathustra toward his own literary and philosophical aims, presenting him as a returning visionary
who repudiates the designation of good and evil and thus marks the observation of the death of GodRichard
Strausss Opus 30, inspired by Nietzsches book, is also called Also sprach Zarathustra. Its opening theme
(corresponding to the books prologue) was memorably used to score the opening sequence of Stanley
Kubricks movie 2001: A Space Odyssey.
From an unknown source: It is not possible to underestimate how Zoroastrianism changed the Persian
worldhistory could be understood as an epic struggle between good and evil. The political role of Persia was
put together by Cyrus, called The Great.
From an unknown source: Zarathustra preached around 600 BC a monotheistic religious message. The cult
is focused on the battle against the evil, and the principal symbol of this is the sacred Fire. The most important
place of worship is the Temple of Fire, which a fire burns as a symbol of the holiness of Ahura Mazda. The
veneration of the spirits of the dead is also important. Believers are strongly occupied with the hereafter. The
believer must beware of demons, IE contamination, and this is central in their consciousness and daily acts.
The right behavior is marked with having the good in mind with your thoughts, your sayings and your acts.
There are 5 daily prayers, and ablutions are performed in front of all of these. The believer becomes religiously
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active from age 7. When a believer dies, his body is brought up to the Tower of Silence, where the corpse shall
be eaten by vultures, so that neither fire nor earth becomes contaminated. Zoroastrianism is to some extent a
monotheistic religion, in the sense that there is a supreme god, Ahura Mazda, that is central in all cult. Yet, the
existence of lesser divine beings dilutes this image. Even the power that opposes Ahura Mazda, the evil
Ahriman may be seen as a deity of Zoroastrianism, since he is an important force in cosmos.
Human beings can with the help of Ahura Mazda reach the stage of total liberation from the worldly existence.
In such a situation life becomes healthy, filled with power and dominated by bliss. And more, the influence of
the evil is extinguished.
The believers marry only within the extended family, but occasionally even with relatives as close as brother
and sister.
It denounces laziness. Laziness and taking advantage of the products of others toil is strongly reproached as
the act of oppression. Everyone should subsist by the fruits of their own labour.
Idolatry, litholatry, and human-made places of worship are reproached in Zoroastrianism. Gods house
cannot be made by human beings with mud and stone.
Sacrifice of animals is considered a criminal act against animals.
Since the three principles of good reflection, words, deed are core to the belief system, there remains no need
for religious leaders to assume the role of mediating between God and people.
Bahais believe that Zoroaster was a manifestation of God, or one in a line of prophets who have revealed the
Word of God progressively for a gradually maturing humanity.
547BC Anaximander of Miletus, Greek mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher, dies.

About Anaximander of Miletus (611-547BC), Greek mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher:


Hypatia-lovers.com2007: disciple and friend of the Greek philosopher Thales, whom he succeeded as the
head of the Ionian schoolthe invention of cartography is also ascribed to himaccording to the Greek
philosophers Simplicius and Diogenes, Anaximander calculated the size and distances of the planetswe are
unable to give a coherent account of them [Thales views]unlike Thales, Anaximander committed his views to
writinglaid the foundations of Greek philosophical thoughtThe Infinite, out of which existing things arise,
can have neither beginning nor endconsidered the origin of the world-order to be a process of
separationthe elements arranged themselves into concentric circles with the Earth at its center under the
influence of vortex motionthe Earth was a cylinder with a depth one-third its diameter, and that we walk on
one of its two flat circular surfacessaid to have been the first to draw the inhabited world on a
tabletanimalshad their origin in the seathe first human beings arose inside fishesinnumerable world-
orders arise and perish again into that from which they came.
547- Astyages allies, the Lydians, attack the Achaemenid Empire. The Lydian king Croesus was outsmarted by
546BC Cyrus II, and in the winter, he was besieged in his capital, Sardes. Before the last battle was to begin, Harpagus
advised Cyrus to place his dromedaries in front of his warriors; the Lydian horses, not used to the smell, were
afraid and the Persians won the battle. The pacification of Lydia was left to a Persian named Tabalus, and the
task of sending Croesus treasury to Persia was entrusted to a lydian named Pactyes. As soon as Cyrus had
gone home, Pactyes induced the Lydians to revolt and, using the money, hired mercenaries in the Greek towns
and started to besiege Sardes. Harpagus took of the command of an army sent to reconquer Lydia. He
concluded the campaign in 542BC and disappeared from history.
546BC Thales of Miletus, Father of Greek Science and Philosophy dies.

About Thales of Miletus (640-546BC), Father of Greek Science and Philosophy:


Hypatia-lovers.com2007: reputedly of Phoenician parentage, Thales was the founder of the Ionian
 school of philosophyamong the Seven Wise Men of Greecefirst man known to have correctly predicted
a solar eclipsestudied in Mesopotamia and Egyptestablished the field of abstract geometrydisentangled
it from its oriental associations with sidetomancy (astrology)he maintained that Life and Death are all
onewhen he was asked how men might live most virtuously and justly, he answered By never doing
ourselves what we blame in others.the original principle of all things is water, from which everything
proceeds and into which everything is again resolveda mobile essence, changing, flowinga cycle of
existence passing from sky and air to earth, thence to plants and to the bodies of animals, and back to air and
sky againsignificant breakthroughpreferring to search for natural laws instead of mindlessly accepting the
mythological explanations of Religionthe first Greek to have attempted to find rational, natural explanation to
natural phenomenaset the course of Western thoughtwe are unable to give a coherent account of them
[Thales views-he didnt write them down!-Ive worked with rational people like that!].
539BC Aish.com2006: The last king of Babylon is Belshazzar. Like many other neighboring kings, Belshazzar is well
versed in Jewish prophecythe God of Israel had a reputationBelshazzar is aware of what the prophet
 Jeremiah had prophesiedwhen the seventy years are fulfilledI [God] will punish the king of
BabylonBelshazzarkeeps a count. But he miscalculatesIn celebration, Belshazzar throws a huge
feastorders his consorts and concubines to drink from Temple cupsAt that mement, a large unattached
hand appears and starts to write on the wallDaniel has no trouble reading the writingGod has numbered
the daysyour kingdom has been divided and given to the Medes and Persiansthat very night invading
hoardsattack
539BC The army of Persia under Cyrus II conquers Babylon. He takes control over the territories of the Babylonian
Empire including Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine [Judah and Samaria] after defeating King Nabonidus at
Otis. The Persians divided Mesopotamia into two Satrapies: Babylon and Ashur, where Babylon was the most
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important in politics and administration. The following period is one of slow economic decline for the region.
Livius.org2006: he ought to act as a Babylonian king. In his official propaganda (the Cyrus cylinder) he did
indeed present himself as the one chosen by the Babylonian supreme god Marduk. However, the great king
was not in the position to be present when the Babylonians celebrated the Akitu festival. This was a problem,
because the last king of independent Babylonia, Nabonidus, had lost much credit by not attending the festival
for several years. To prevent similar troubles, Cyrus appointed his son Cambyses as king of Babylon, and in
this quality, Cambyses was present during the ceremoniesCambyses reign in Babylon lasted for only one
year. It is not known whyincident during the New Years festival may have played a role [incorrectly dressed
or he came armed to the temple]Samaria [would be] loyal to the Persian government.
Phoenicia.org2007: Sidon reemerged as the dominant city of Phoenicia in the Persian period (539-333BC)
 and led a Phoenician contingent in the Persian wars of the early fifth century BC, helping bridge the Hellespont
and fighting at Salamis.
538BC Version 1, Aish.com2006: Cyrus II issues a decree allowing all the indigenous peoples that had been
Cyrus II exiled by the now-defunct Babylonian empire to go back to their homeland. One copy of this decree is on
Allows display at the British Museum, and although this version does not specifically mention the Jews, they are
Jews To included as we learn from the Book of Ezra1:3: In the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia, upon the conclusion
Leave of the Lords prophecy, by the mouth of Jeremiah, the Lord aroused the spirit of Cyrus, king of Persia, and he
Babylon issued a proclamation throughout his kingdom-and in writing as well, saying Thus said Cyrus the King of
Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth has the Lord, God of heaven, given to me and He has commanded me to
build him a Temple in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whoever is among you of entire people-may his God be
with him-and let him go to Jerusalem which is in Judah and build the Temple of the Lord Of what is
probably a million Jews living in the empire, only 42,000 go backthe same thing happened in 1948there
were about 12 milliononly 600,000 or 5% settledWhy? The answer is the sameThe Diaspora is nice. Its
more comfortableGod might give the Jews a little breathing spaceHes not going to allow them to staythe
higher the Jews rise in the Diaspora, the lower they fallall the places that once loved and welcomed the Jews
eventually turn on themIsrael is the only home for the Jews.

Version 2: Cyrus II claims to have been visited in a dream by Yahweh, the god of the Hebrews who was
ANOTHER
DREAM
aligned with Ahura-Mazda, and who demanded to be worshipped in the land of Judah; Cyrus II freed the
Hebrews with the specific intent that they reintroduce the proper worship of Yahweh in the Temple at
Jerusalem. The Hebrews, however, took several Zoroastrian ideas with them; although these religious
ideas simmered and brewed as unorthodox ideas among common people, they would eventually resurface in
Christianity. As a result of his policies, the Jews honored him as a dignified and righteous king. He is the only
Gentile to be designated a messiah, a divinely-appointed king, in the Tanakh.

Version 3: First Jews return from Babylon in small numbers (42,000 out of 1,000,000) to rebuild
Jerusalem. Attempts to build the Second Temple begin despite fierce opposition and delays, beginning with
erection of an altar of sacrifice on Mt. Moriah. First, Samaritan enemies who never liked the Jews and who
hate the new influx tried to join the work force and to undermine the efforts. When this attempt failed, these
enemies mounted a campaign of discouragement. Next the enemies wrote letters to Zerxes and Artaxerxes I
Longimanus saying that if the Jews are allowed to rebuild the Temple, they are going to rebel.

Version 4, Sermon by Pastor Dr. Paul Choo, Singapore, 9-8-96: The Samaritans who offered to help to
rebuild the Temple told Zerubabbel [leader of the Jewish remnant that returned from Babylon to rebuild the
nation of Israel] that we seek your God, as ye do, and we do sacrifice unto him (EXR 4:2). These Samaritans
had Jewish blood in them, and practiced many Jewish customs and religious rituals. In 2Kings17 we read of
their origins. After the Assyrian conquest of the northern Jewish kingdom, many Jews were led into captivity in
Assyria. Peoples from other nations that had been conquered by Assyria were brought into Israel, and they
intermarried with the Jews that were left in the land. These peoples brought their idolatries with them, and
greatly influenced the Jews. However, because God sent lions among them (2KI17:25), they concluded that
they needed to know the manner of the God of the land (2KI17:26). Therefore, they sought help from the king
of Assyria to send them a Jewish priest who taught them how they should fear the Lord. The resultant religion
was that they feared the Lord, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried
away from thence(2KI17:33). In other words, they did not trust that Jehovah alone was sufficient to deliver
them from danger, but simply received Jehovah as an additional help to their other gods in whom they
depended for helpThese Samaritans claimed to sacrifice unto Jehovah, however, unlike the Jews they did
not do so at the only acceptable Altar which was in the Temple at Jerusalem. This Altar was the focus of
Jewish worship because it was a type of Christs sacrifice at Calvary, and was the only acceptable place of
Jewish sacrifice Though Zerubabbel knew that the Samaritans were half-breed Jews who practised may
Jewish religious customs, and though he needed much help to rebuild the Temple, he recognized that they
were not of the same faith at all and plainly told them that Ye have nothing to do with us to build an house
unto our God, but we ourselves together will build unto the Lord God of Israel, (EXR4:3)he realized that
Gods way was not by infiltration but by separation. He realized that to accept the Samaritans as co-
workers in building Gods house was to give them the wrong impression that they were also Gods children.
Also he would give the impression to future generations of Jews that the religion of the Samaritans was no
different from theirs. Zerubabbel realized that he was not being cruel to refuse the Samaritans help, but it was
kindness, to them and to his own peopleGods way to protect His faith is by separation from all other religions
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(2CO6:14-17)Then the people of the land weakened the hands of the people of Judah, and troubled them in
building. And hired counsellors against them, to frustrate their purpose, all the days of Cyrus king of Persia
even until the reign of Darius king of Persia. And in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, wrote
they unto him an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem (EZR4:4-6).

Version 5,phoenicia.org2007: then one day the mighty king of Babylon is no more. The king of Persia from
afar assumes sovereignty over Babylons possessions on the east Mediterranean seaboard. Thus Sidon, Tyre,
Byblos, Beirut, Arvad and other port cities are left to themselves to enjoy a period of freedom and peace. Great
excitement spreads in Sidon and Tyre when news arrives that all displaced persons by order of Cyrus can now
return to their homelands. The Jews taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar are allowed to proceed to
Jerusalem. Cyrus grants a royal concession of Phoenician timber to the Jews to rebuild Jerusalem and their
temple. Phoenician artisans make their way to Jerusalem to take part in the reconstruction of the city. In the
Old Testament, Ezra (3.7) infers that Jews and Phoenicians renew commercial relations: So they gave money

 to the masons and the carpenters and food, drink and oil to the Sidonians and Tyrians to bring cedar trees from
Lebanon to the sea to Joppa, according to the grant that they had from Cyrus, king of Persiapeace reigns in
the region. Trade prospers. Herodotus (1.143) tells us that the Ionian Greeks too and those living on the
Greek islands in the Aegean have nothing to fear from the Persians. For the Phoenicians alone control the
sea routes and are free to come and go. The Persians are not seamen nor do they have a fleet.

Livius.org2006: because there was no king from the house of David anymore, the priests of Jerusalem
rose to prominence, and they said that the temple of Jerusalem was the only true sanctuary of YHWH.
To promote their claim, the text of the scriptures was revised, taking into account ideas that had
originated in Babylonia. Some scholars think the prophet Ezra, who is called the scribe of the Law of the
God of heaven, was responsible for this reeditingthere are two variants of the Torah: the well-known Jewish
version, and a second, Samaritan version. The texts are essentially the same (although there are differences),
and this can only mean that both variants go back to the same original. In other words, the holy book of the
Samaritans was composed after ca.500BC, and Samaritanism, as a recognizable group of believers, did not
originate before the fith century [BC]this means that three theories about the origin of Samaritanism can be
discarded: 1. The Samaritans themselves believe that in the age of the Judges, the sanctuary with the Ark of
the Covenant was at Mount Gerizim, and that the wicked priest Eli removed it to Shiloh. From there, king
Solomon brought the sacred objects to Jerusalem. The Samaritans think that the schism between their own
community and the Judaism of Jerusalem dates back to this period. 2. In the Jewish Bible, it is suggested that
the Samaritan community originated in the northern kingdom of Israel. When the ten northern tribes separated
from Judah, they started to accept foreign beliefs. In other words, Samaritanism originated when the Israelites
left the Covenant. 3. Another Biblical explanation is that the Samaritan desended from the people that settled
in Samaria after Israel had been conquered by the Assyrians and the original inhabitants of Samaria had been
deportedthese [three] theories have in common that they maintain that originally, there was only one, pure
and uncontaminated religion, and that later, there was a schism between Samaritanism and Judaism.
Probably, this is the wrong perspective. Originally, the cult of YHWH was widespread, and over the centuries,
two religions developed. At some stage, the Samaritans accepted the Torah that had been written in
Jerusalem, and made some changes to it. We can probably be a bit more precise about the moment when the
Torah was introduced in the north. In the 330s BC, there was discord among the priests of Jerusalem, and
several members of this order left the city. They settled in Samaria, and in 332BC, they were able to get
permission from the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great to build a temple near Shichem on Mount
Gerizim, a few kilometers east of Samaria. Archaeology has more or less confirmed this story, which is told by
Flavius Josephus, because it has shown that Shichem was rebuilt at about this moment. In itself, the
foundation of a temple was not problematic. There were Jewish shrines in Egypt and several scholars assume
that there was a sanctuary in Babylon too. But the temple of Shechem was close to Jerusalem and challenged
the latters position as the one and only shrine of YHWH. From now on, the two groups were to grow apart,
and the differences were to increase. The city of Samaria, more cosmopolitan than Jerusalem, was inhabited
by several groups of pagans, and their cult practices may have influenced those of their YHWH-worshipping
fellow-citizens. It must be stressed that not every inhabitant of Samaria was a Samaritan, and not everyone
who venerated YHWH lived in Samaria.
Essenes.net: In Nazirutha texts of our sisterhood it repeatedly makes the statement that Nazoreanism is
older than Judaism! We teach that Nazoreanism was the original religion of the Palestine area and that our
Qabalta is the original Kaballah. When the Jewish captives returned from exile in Babylon, they created a
perverted version of Nazirutha that eventually even included animal sacrifice as part of its practices. This is the
stream of thought that turned into the Rabbinic Judaism that is familiar to the modern world. Although this
modern Rabbinic Judaism has long since rejected the animal sacrifices it once accomplished in its Jerusalem
temple, it is still the daughter of its original defiled mother despite its few gnostic teachings within its mystical
branches. Original Rabbinic Judaism is the polar opposite of Nazorean Essenism. These two diverse religions
worshipped different Gods, one of Life and the other of Death. Some historians speak of the Nazoreans or
Essenes as a sect of Judaism, but this is misleading. It is more property to say that Nazoreanism and Rabbinic
Judaism are opposite religions have very little, if anything, in common. Judaism evolved in southern Israel
around Jerusalem. Nazoreanism was from northern Israel, on Mt. Carmel, and was much much olderthe
Qabbalistic Tree of Life, preserved in mystical Judaism, is a true carry over from original Nazirutha teachings.
Nazoreans do not use the same names of Deity that Jews place on the different Sephiroth of that Tree,
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however, for Nazoreans worship different Gods than the Jews, but the basic concept is the same in both
systems. Nazoreanism, thenk, is seen by us to be the secret doctrine borrowed by the Jews, but it has not
been preserved purely by them and contains many things out of harmony with the basic Naziruthian world
view.
Lao Tse dies. He was a philosopher of ancient China and an important figure in Taoism. Taoism is a variety of
related Chinese pilosophical and religious traditions and concepts that influenced East Asia for over two
thousand yeears. Taoism emphasizes compassion, moderation, and humility. It focuses on non-action,
apontaneity, humanism and emptiness.
535BC Roman king Servius Tullius is murdered.

About the Murder of Servius Tullius:


Wikipedia2007.org: His legislation was extremely distasteful to the patrician order, and his reign of forty-
four years was brought to a close by the conspiracy in 535BC headed by his son-in-law Tarquinius Superbus
and his own daughter Tulia. Tarquin was upset that he did not inherit the throne from his fatherwith his wifes
helpt, he summoned the Senate and proclaimed himself to be king of Rome. Henchmen then murdered Tullius
and Tarquins wife destroyed her fathers body by driving a chariot over itThe street in which the chariot was
driven over Servius ever after bore the name of Street of Infamy.

About Roman king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus:


Wikipedia2007.org: final king of Romeson of Priscus and the son-in-law of Servius, Tarquinius was also
of Etruscan birth. It was also during his reign that the Etruscans reached their apex of power. More than other
kings before him, Tarquinius used violence, murder, and terrorism to maintain control over Rome. He repealed
many of the earlier constitutional reforms set down by his predecessorsremoved and destroyed all the
Sabine shrines and altarsenraging the people of Romehe allowed the rape of Lucretia, a patrician Roman,
at the hands of his own son. Lucretias kinsman, Lucius Junius Brutus (ancestor to Marcus Brutus), summoned
the Senate and had Tarquinius and the monarchy expelled from Rome in 510BCthe Senate voted to never
again allow the rule of a king and reformed Rome into a republican government in 509BC. Lucius Junius
Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, a member of the Tarquin family and lucretias widower, went on to
become the first consuls of Romes new government. The new government would lead the Romans to conquer
most of the Mediterranean world and would survive for the next five hundred years until the rise of Julius
Caesar and Caesar Augustus. Even then, the trappings of the republic were not entirely done away with, the
republic would survive in a debased form until the Dominate.

About Roman Public Offices after the Monarchy:


Wikipedia2007.org: to replace the leadershiop of the kings, a new office was created with the title of
consul. Initially, the consuls possessed all of the kings powers in the form of two men, elected for a one-year
term, who could veto each others actions. Later, the consuls powers were broken down further by adding
other magistrates that each held a small portion of the kings original powers. First among these was the
praetor, which removed the Consuls judicial authority from them. Next came the censor, which stripped from
the consuls the power to conduct the census. The Romans instituted the dictatorship. The dictator was given
complete authority over all of Romes civil and military matters and there was no appeal from his decisions. His
power was so absolute that the Romans only dared to appoint a dictator in times of severe emergencies, and
the sole thing that kept this dictator from becoming another king of Rome was his six-month term limit. The
kings religious powers were given to two new offices: the Rex Sacrorum and the Pontifex Maximus. The rex
sacrorum was the dejure highest religious official for the Republic. His sole task was to make the annual
sacrifice to Jupiter, a privilege that had been previoiusly reserved for the king. The pontifex maximus, however,
was the defacto highest religious official, who held most of the kings religious authority. He had the power to
appoint all vestal virgins, flamens, pontiffs, and even the rex sacrorum himself. By the beginning of the 1st
Century BC, the rex sacrorum was all but forgotten and the pontifex maximus given almost complete religious
authority over the Roman religions.
533BC After a Samaritan lobbying effort, the Persians stop the building of the Temple in Jerusalem.
530BC King Cyrus II of Persia makes his son Cambyses II (r.530-522BC) co-regent and Cyrus embarks on a campaign
against the Queen of Massangtae in the East. Herodotus says that Hystaspes, father of the future Persian
king Darius I the Great, was in the Persian army during this last war of Cyrus the Great.

About Hystaspes, father of future Persian king Darius I the Great:


Livius.org2006: we can assume that he was born before 565BC. According to the Greek researcher
Herodotus, he had several other sons (Artabanus, Artaphernes and Artanes) and at least two daughters, who
were married to Gobrys and Otanes, Persian noblemenAfter Cyrus death in December, he was succeeded
by his son Cambyses, who may have appointed Hystaspes as satrap of Parthia. It was in this quality that
Hystaspes played an important role during the civil war which broke out in 522in March 522BC, a Magian
named Gaumata seized power.
529BC In December, King Cyrus II of Persia dies during the Massangtae campaign. Cambyses II becomes sole
ruler of Persia. Note that Herodotus said Hystaspes, father of the future Persian king Darius I the Great, was
 there; he and a jewess would spawn Darius who would later

About the death of Cyrus II:


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Britannica2006: He died battling nomads in Central Asia.
Wikipedia.com2006: Ctesias reports only that Cyrus met his death in the year 529BC, while warring against
tribes north-east of the headwaters of the Tigris. In Herodotus account, Cyrus met his fate in a fierce battle
with the Massagetae, a tribe from the southern deserts of Kharesm and Kizilhoum in the southernmost portion
of the steppe region, after ignoring advice from his advisor, Croesus, to not continue forward. The Massagetae
were related to the Scythians in their dress and mode of living; they fought on horseback and on foot. The
queen of the Massagetae, Tomyris, who had assumed control after Cyrus had defeated Tomyris son
Spargapises, led the attack. The Persian forces suffered heavy casualties, including Cyrus himself. After the
battle, Tomyris ordered the body of Cyrus to be found, and then dipped his head in blood to avenge the death
of her son at his hands.
Livius.org2006: Cyrus last expedition took him to modern Khazakhstan, where he fought against a
 nomadic tribe called Massagetes. The news of his death in battle reached Babylon in December 530BC,
where letters were dated first year of the reign of king Cambyses, because Cyrus had appointed his son
Cambyses as his successor.

About king Cambyses II:


Born of Cyrus II the Great and Cassandana (according to Herodotus) or Amytis, daughter of Astyages
(according to Ctesias).
Livius.org2006: Every Persian king needed to secure the support of the nobility. One of the meansa
dynastic marriage. Herodotus tells us that Cambyses married Phaedymia, the daughter of Otanes. This
Otanes may have been the brother of Cassadane, who was, still according to Herodotus, Cambyses mother. If
Herodotus is right, Cambyses queen was also his cousinTwo other marriages were concluded with his
sisters. One of them was-according to Ctesias-called Roxane, the other was called Atossa and was later to
marry Cambyses successor Darius. Herodotus thinks that these marriages are an example of Cambyses
madness, but it we assume that the Persian king was a Zoroastrian, there is nothing strange about it.

About Atossa:
Livius.org2006: according to Herodotus, Cambyses II fell in love with one of his sisters, Atossa. This
suggests that Atossa was born before 545BC, because in Antiquity, girls usually married after they were about
fifteen years old. Later, Atossa had to marry a usurper king, the Magian Smerdis, who had seized power in
March 522. In September 522, Darius, a member of the young branch of the royal family, the Achaemenids,
staged a countercoup and became king. To improve his claim to the throne, Darius married to Atossa, her
sister Artystone, and her niece Parmys. There may have been another important element: the name Atossa is
Zoroastrian, and it may be that Atossa belonged to a family with connection in the Persian religious
establishment. Darius and Atossa had four sons: Xerxes was born 520BC. Her became kingand died in
465BC; Masistes was their second son. Masistes is a title (the greatest one), and there are strong indications
that his real name was Ariamenes. He was one of the commanders of the Persian army during Xerxes
campaign against the Greeks and was killed after a dynastic quarrel in 478BC; Achaemenes became the
Persian satrap of Egypt, probably in 485BC. He commanded a part of the Persian navy during Xerxes
campaign against the Greeks. In 459BC, he was killed by Egyptian rebels; Hystaspes became satrap of
Bactria. Herodotus tells us that Atossa had Greek slaves and servants. He mentions the doctor Democedes of
Croton as one of her favorites; this Greek organized a reconnaissance expedition to the west about 519BC.
Atossa is conspicuously absent from all Persepolis fortification tablets, which suggests that she died before
515BCHerodotus statement that she helped Xerxes become king is therefore unlikely to be true.

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526BC Anaximenes, last Greek Philosopher of the Milesian school, dies.

About Anaximenes (585-526BC), last Greek Philosopher of the Milesian school:


Hypatia-lovers.com: believed the Earth to be a flat disk floating on air, taught that the single substance of
the Universe was air, and that all other natural elements were produced by rarefaction or condensation of air,
and were thus merely different degrees of density of the same basic substanceascribed seismic disturbances
to rains and droughts which affected the cohesive powers of the earths substratumsubstituting physical
explanation of natural phenomena for religious ones.
525BC Cambyses II conquers Egypt.

Livius.org2006: [Egyptian Pharaoh] Amasis died [526BC] during the preparations of the war [with
Persia]and was succeeded by his son Psammetichus III. Six months later, the Persian invaders and their
Arabian allies reached Pelusium. The Egyptians were defeated and Cambyses men continued to the Egyptian
capital Memphis, which they took after a long siege. Psammetichus was captured alive and received a
honorable treatment. Cambyses was recognized as the new pharaoh.
Livius.org2006: king Amasis died and was succeeded by his son Psammetichus III. During the transitional
period, the Persian king Cambyses attacked Egypt and defeated his unprepared enemies at Pelusium.
Wedjahor-Resne wasthe pharaohs personal physicianalso responsible for the royal navy. It is

 probable that Wedjahor-Resne defected to the Persians at some stage before or during this war, because
nothing is known about naval operations. The Greek historian Ctesias of Cnidus, who is not known for his
reliability but may for once have had access to reliable information, explicitly mentions a traitor, although his
name is Combaphis. It should be noted that an ally of Egypt, the Greek leader Polycrates of Samos, allowed
himself to be bribed away.
Livius.org2006 quoting Wedjahor-Resne: His Majesty appointed me his chief physician and caused me to
stay with him in my quality of companion and director of the palace, and ordered me to compose his titulary, his
name as king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Mesuti-Ra [born of Re].
Livius.org2006: When Cambyses had taken the Egyptian capital Memphis, he was recognized as the new
pharaoh. Wedjahor-Resne was reinstated in almost all his former functions and helped Cambyses behave
like a true Egyptian king...persuaded Cambyses to direct the Persian garrison in the holy city of Sais to
another camp, making sure that the sanctuary of Neil, the mother of the supreme god Re, and the shrine of
Osiris were purified.
Livius.org2006: The Histories of Herodotusand the Persian Behistun inscription agree that Cambyses
orderedhis brother [Smerdis] to be executedthe Behistun inscription calls him Bardiyadisagree about the
momentthe Greek researcher dates it during the Egyptian campaign, the inscription states that it happened
before Cambyses left Persiaprobably the inscription is correctEgypt was well-prepared for the war. Its
pharaoh Amasishad enlisted Carian and Greek mercenaries and had allied himself with Polycrates of
Samos, who owned a large navyShortly before the war broke out, Polycrates switched sideswe happen to
possess the autobiography of the admiral of the Egyptian fleet, Wedjahor-Resnedoes not mention a naval
battleIt is possible that the Persians had bribed the Egyptian admiralafter the conquest, Wedjahor-Resne
was Cambyses right-hand man.
Livius.org2006: A very late source, Iamblichus (c.245-330AD), tells us that among the slaves was the Greek
philosopher Pythagoras, who was forced to spend twelve years in Babylon before he was allowed to return
to his own country.
Phoenicia.org2007: the conquest of Egypt is necessary if Persia is to dominate the east Mediterranean
world. The Mediterranean seaboard must be taken but first an understanding reached with the kings of the
Phoenician cities to supply Persia with the necessary ships and crews. An arrangement is therefore made
whereby the kings of the city-states place their fleets at the disposal of the Persian monarch. In return the
cities are not occupied and are allowed to retain their native kings. All during the Persian period of domination
(550 to 330BC) the kings of the Phoenician cities command their naval contingents and are treated as friends
and allies. In 525BC Cambyses captures Pelusium in the Delta. The fall of Memphis completes the Persian
conquest of Egypt. When Cambyses plans a campaign against Carthage, the Phoenicians refuse to sail
because they consider the city is a colony of Tyre. Cambyses abandons the expedition. Herodotus (3.19-20)
explains: Cambyses did not think fit to bring pressure to bear because the Phoenicians had taken service
 under him of their free will and his whole naval power was dependent on them.
According to Herodotus, Cambyses II sent an army to threaten the Oracle of Amon at the Siwa Oasis.
The army of 50,000 men was halfway across the desert when a massive sandstorm sprung up and buried
them all. Although many Egyptologists regard the story as a myth, people have searched for the remains of
the soldiers for many years. These have included Count Laszlo Almasy (on which the novel The English
Patient mentioned on the cultic Seinfeld TV show - was based) and modern geologist Tom Brown. Some
believe that in recent petroleum excavations, the remains may have been uncovered.

Livius.org2006: Having conquered Lower Egypt, Cambyses sent out a small expeditionary force against the
oases in the western desert. According to Herodotus, it reached the beautiful Bahariya oasis. But when the
soldiers marched to Siwa, they were overtaken by the simoon storm and killed. Cambyses and a part of his
army went to the south (524-523BC). The capital of Upper Egypt, Thebes, was occupied and the army
continued along the Nile until it reached the first cataract, where a garrison was posted. The soldiers were
Jews who had a temple of their own. When Cambyses had reached the second cataract, he founded a town
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called market of Cambyses. It may have been a fortified trading placeAccording to Herodotus, Cambyses
intended to conquer Nubia, but this is not very likely. Egypt was not completely pacifiedDisquieting news
forced Cambyses to return to Lower Egypt (523BC). Psammetichus had organized a revolt against the new
overlord. The Persian army could easily suppress the revolt, but its revenge was bloody and
destructiveperhaps this story was made up by the Egyptian priests, who had good reasons to hate
Cambyses. Pharaoh Amasis had offered great gifts to the temples, but Cambyses considered this outrageous.
He may have tried to defend the meek against the powerful by remitting the taxes that the Egyptians had to pay
to the temples. A papyrusOf the cattle that once were given by the people to the temples of the gods, let
they give only half of itregarding the poultry, do not give it to them any more. The priests are perfectly
capable of rearing their own geese.

About the madness of Cambyses II:


Lexicorient.com2006: Cambyses was said to suffer from mental illness, being involved in many atrocities,
killing a brother and a sister and finally committing suicide. He was accused of drunkenness. But there are
also some sources that depict him as an apt leader.
Livius.org2006: Although Cambyses had reduced the temple taxes, he did his best to behave as an Egyptian
pharaoh. This is proven by the autobiography of Wedjahor-Resne, one of the few contemporary documents.
He also made a wise decision when he appointed Aryandes as satrap of Egypt. This man ruled the country for
more than twenty yearsThe Greek researcher Herodotus, living almost a century after the conquest of
Egypt, offers a completely different picture. In his view, Cambyses behavior is almost criminal. He give a
complete catalogue of evildoings. In Sais, he had violated the corpse of Amasis: When Cambyses had
entered the palace of Amasis, he gave command to take the corpse of Amasis out of his burial place. When
this had been done, he ordered his courtiers to scourge it and pluck out the hair and stab it, and to dishonor it
in every other possible wayCambyses gave command to consume it with fire, a thing that was not permitted
by his own religion. The Persians hold fire to be a god,,,, According to Herodotusa new sacrilege was
committed after the expedition to Upper Egypt. Cambyses killed the Apis bullCambysescalled for his
officersthey said that a god had appeared to themand that whenever he appeared, they [the Egyptians] all
rejoiced and kept festival. Hearing this Cambyses said that they were lying and as liars he condemned them to
deathWhen the priests brought Apis, Cambyses-being somewhat affected with madness-drew his sword, and
aiming at the belly of Apis, struck his thigh. Then he laughed and ordered those whose duty it was to do such
things, to scourge the priests without mercy Egyptologists have refused Herodotus story. It is a fact that an
Apis bull died in September 524, but he received a normal burial in the Serapeum at Saqqara (near Memphis).
The funeral monument shows Cambyses worshipping the divine bull. The next crime on Herodotus list is the
killing of his brother Smerdis. We have already seen above that this happened before Cambyses went to
Egypt. Herodotus claims that Cambyses next victim was the son of one of his courtiers, Prexaspes. Twelve
Persian noblemen were buried alive, courtiers were executed, statues of Egyptian gods were ridiculed.
Herodotus concludes with a remark that this last crime shows that Cambyses was completely out of his mind,
because only a madman [or a Jew] would mock the ancient laws and customs of a foreign country.

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22BC Cambyses dies on the way back to Persia.

About the death of Cambyses:


Livius.org2006: Cambyses left Egypt in the spring of 522BC, taking Wedjahor-Resne with him as his
 physician. Unfortunately, the king had an accident on his way back, and his doctor [Wedjahor-Resne] was
 unable to cure him. After Cambyses death and a violent civil war, Darius became king.
Phoenicia.org2007: Cambyses dies. The year 521BC marks the accession of Darius Hystaspis. Darius
believes that the greatest danger to the Persian empire is a rebellion in a distant province. To prevent power
being held by one man, he appoints three officials in each province: a satrap, a general and a secretary of
state, independent of each other they spy on each other and report to the king directPhoenicia is united with
Syria, Cyprus and Palestine in the Fifth Satrapy and is taxed lightly compared to the othersDarius is the first
Persian king to coin money.
Wikipedia.com2006: Meanwhile in Persia a usurper, the Magian Gaumata, arose in the spring of 522BC,
who pretended to be the murdered Bardiya (Smerdis) and was acknowledged throughout Asia. Cambyses
attempted to march against him, but, seeing probably that success was impossible, died by his own hand
(March 521BC). This is the account of Darius, which certainly must be preferred to the traditions of Herodotus
and Ctesias, which ascribe his death to an accident. According to Herodotus he died in the Syrian Ecbatana,
i.e. Hamath; Josephus names Damascus; Ctesias, Babylon, which is absolutely impossible.

522BC livius.org2006: In March, a Magian named Gaumata seizes power in the Achaemenid empire claiming to
be the brother of the legitimate king Cambyses, Smerdis. Gaumata could do this, because Smerdis had
been killed secretly [by Cambyses?]. Immediately Cambyses advance to the usurper, but he died before he
reached Persia; the false Smerdis was able to rule for several months. According to the Greek researcher
Herodotus, Otanes, the brother of the mother of Cambyses and the real Smerdis, was the first to become
suspicious of the false Smerdis. From his daughter Phaedymia, who was married to the king, he learned that
Smerdis was in reality a Magian. On hearing this news, Otanes invited Aspathines and Gobryas to discuss
the usurpation. Together, they decided to invite three other conspirators: Hydarnes, Intaphrenes and
Megabyzus. They were still making plans, when Darius arrived and sided with them. He convinced the
THE PLOT seven to strike immediately and not to wait, as Otanes had proposed. On 29 September 522 BC, the seven
 killed the false Smerdis. That Otanes was involved in the killing of Gaumata is confirmed by another source,
the Behistun inscription. This inscription also tells us the name of Otanes father, which was Thukhra.
Herodotus is mistaken when he calls him PharnaspeHerodotus tells us that after the murder, the seven men
discussed the future constitution of Persia. Otanes said that Persia ought to be a democracy; Megabyzus
argued for an oligarchy and Darius said that monarchy was the best kind of rule. The other four noblemen
sided with him, and Darius became king. Herodotus stresses that this discussion really took place. Probably,
he has misunderstood a debate about the future of Persia: was it to be a centralized monarchy (which it
became) or was it to be a loosely organized federation (as it had been)? When it was decided that Persia was
to be a monarchy and Darius was to be its king, Otanes choose to stay aloof of it and receive special
rights: Herodotus, Histories: To this day, the family of Otanes continues to be the only free family in
 Persia, and submits to the king only so far as the members of it may choose. They are bound, however, to
observe the law like anyone else. That is, at least, Herodotus story. But there may be more than meets the
eye: perhaps Otanes was a rival candidate to the Persian throne. There are many elements in Herodotus
story that point into this direction. In the first place, we see that Otanes started the conspiracy and that
Darius sided with them later. In the second place, Otanes and Darius argued for opposite ideas on two
occasions: should the seven wait or strike immediately and should Persia be a democracy or a monarchy? In
the third place, Otanes had a powerful claim to the throne because he was the brother of Cassandane, the
queen of king Cyrus the Great, and the father of Phaedymia, the queen of Cambyses and the false Smerdis.
Darius claim to the throne was based on the fact that he belonged to a younger branch of the family of
Cyrus and Cambyses, the Achaemenidsit is likely that Otanes, who, according to Herodotus, decided
 to stay aloof from Persian politics, prepared the road for Darius to become king. It was necessary: after
the assassination of Gaumata, the Babylonians had revolted and the crisis was acute. Otanes stepped aside
and Darius honored him by marrying his daughter Phaedymia, who had already been married to Cambyses
and the false Smerdis. When Darius married her, his rule became more legitimate. At the same time, Otanes
married a sister of Darius. They probably were the parents of Amestris, who was to marry king Xerxes. That
the king trusted Otanes, is also suggested by the fact that he ordered his father-in-law, who was probably
serving as satrap of Lydia, to conquer the Greek island Samos (c517BC). This island had been without strong
leader since an earlier Lydian satrap, Oroetus, had executed Polycrates of Samos. Its new, pro-Persian ruler,
was to be a man named Syloson. Herodotus tells us: As for Samos, the Persians took the entire population
ANOTHER like fish in a drag-net, and presented Syloson with an empty island. Some years later, however, Otanes
DREAM contracted some sort of disease of the genital organs and that, in conjunction with a dream he had,
induced him to repopulate the place. This is the last piece of information about Otanes. In 513BC, a new
satrap was appointed in Lydia, Artaphernes. Probably, Otanes had died. Otanes had a son Patiramphes, who
served as the driver of the chariot of king Xerxes during his campaign to Greece. As we have already seen
above, Otanes was probably also the father of Xerxes first wife, queen Amestris.

About Smerdis:
Livius.org2006: According to several ancient sources, Smerdis was the only one who was strong enough to
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draw a bow sent to the Persian court by an enemy; the Greek researcher Herodotus says that this enemy was
the Nubian king, others state that it was a leader of the nomads living in Central Asia. Another Greek author,
Ctesias of Cnidus, who calls this prince Tanyoxarces, says he became satrap in charge of the northeastern
border. When he brother, king Cambyses, was conquering Egypt, someone calling himself Smerdis rebelled
and became sole ruler of the Achaemenid empire after Cambyses had died of natural causes. According to the
Behistun inscription, this Smerdis rule started on 11 March 522BC, and this is corroborated by the dating of
letters in Babylonia; on 1 July he formally became king. The new king was killed, however, by the Persian
prince Darius, on 29 September in a stronghold in Media called Sikayauvati. Darius states in the Behistun
inscription that the man he had now succeeded was not the real Smerdis (who he claims was killed before
Cambyses set out for Egypt) and that the rebel was a lookalike named Gaumata. This man was a Magian and
there are some indications that Magians were not Persians but Medes. For instance, herodotus states
explicitly that the Magians were a Median tribe. It is also remarkable that the new king took Sikayauvati as his
residence: this stronghold has been identified with Ziwiye near Iranshah, a little south of Lake Urmia in the
northwest of modern Iran-almost as far away from Persia as possible. From Herodotus (Histories) we know
that he proclaimed a three years remission of taxes and military service to every nation within his dominion: a
measure that can probably best be explained when we accept that the king felt a warm sympathy for the
subject nations and cherished no particular warm feelings about Persiait should be stressed that Darius had
the Behistun inscription engraved at a place where no human being could possibly read it; only the gods were
witness to his claim that he had killed an impostor.

About the False Smerdis:


Lexicorient.com2006: A certain Gaumata claims to be Smerdis and manages to have himself crowned as
king in the absence of CambysesCambyses sets out for Syria in order to suppress an ongoing revolt,
planning to head on back to Persia to deal with Gaumata/Smerdis, but he dies or commits suicide while in
SyriaDarius defeats and kills Smerdis (also called Bardiya)according to some sources, this was rather
Gaumata who pretended to be SmerdisSmerdis had ruled since March, and now Darius could become king
himself. He married Smerdis widow, Atossa, who was the daughter of King Cyrus II the Great
Livius.org2006: Herodotus and the Behistun inscription agree that Cambyses stay in Egypt was interrupted
in the spring of 522 by the news that a Magian named Gaumata had seized power in the Achaemenid empire,
claiming to be SmerdisAccording to the Behistun inscription: When Cambyses had departed into Egypt, the
people becme hostile, and the lie multiplied in the land, even in Persia and Media, and in the other provinces.
Afterwards, there was a certain man, a Magian, Gaumata by name, who raised a rebellion in Paishiyauvada, in
a mountain called Arakadris. On the fourteenth day of the monthdid he rebel. He lied to the people, saying:
I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus, the brother of Cambyses. Then were all the people in revolt, and from
Cambyses they went over unto him, both Persia and Media, and the other provinces. He seized the kingdom
on the ninth day of the monthafterwards, Cambyses died uvamarsiyus [his own death]nobody knows how
to understand this: some scholars have argued that Cambyses died of natural causes, others maintain that it
means suicide. The second alternative seems more plausible, because otherwise he died would have been
sufficient. Herodotus offers no real help. He tells that Cambyses, on hearing the news of the rebellion, rushed
back to Persia. But when he jumped into the saddle of his horse, the cap fell off the sheath of his sword and
exposed the blade, which pierced his thigh. The Greek historian does not fail to stress that this was just the
spot where Cambyses had wounded the Apis. According to Herodotus, the Persian king died not much later.
The idea that Cambtses died by his own sword may or may not corroborate the interpretation that
uvamarsiyus means suicide. The last letter that is dated to Cambyses reign was written on 18 April 522. It
was found in Babylon, and it merely proves that Gaumata was recognized as king in April or May. Cambyses
probably was still alive. He may have died in July. The court official with the title of arstibara, lance carrier,
must have replaced him as commander. His name was Darius son of Hystaspes. According to both Herodotus
and the Behistun inscription, Darius and six noblemen killed the Magian Gaumata on 29 September 522. The
first regnal year of the new king saw nineteen battles in an intense civil war, but at the end of that long but
single year, Darius was victorious and was recognized as the true successor of Cyrus the Great and
Cambyses.

About the Second False Smerdis:


Livius.org2006: In 525BC, king Cambyses had conquered Egypt, and before he left, he had had his brother
Smerdis executed. However, a look-alike named Gaumata had been able to proclaim himself king; Cambyses
died when he marched back to Asia, and Gaumata remained sole ruler. However, his revellion was
suppressed in September 522BC by a new Persian leader, Darius I the Great. Immediately, new rebellions
started, and while Darius was occupied in Babylonia and Media, Vahyazdata proclaimed himself king, saying
that he was the real Smerdis, and gained support in Persia. He was powerful enough to appoint a satrap to
rule Arachosia (who was defeated by Darius own satrap, Vivana). We do not know much about Vahyazdatas
background, but it is possible that he was, as a Persian nobleman, in the army of Cambyses when the latter
died in July. It is possible that Vahyazdata had a better claim to the throne than Darius (or thought so), and
revolted against this new upstart king, who was not related to Cambyses. Vahyazdata was defeated by Darius
general Artavardiya on May 24 near Rakha (modern Behbehan), and a second time on July 14 near the
mountain Parga (near the modern town Forg). The usurper was captured and crucified. He is represented on
Darius monument at Behistun.

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522BC Persian King Darius I (r.522-486), son of Cambyses, ascends to the throne, and in the early years of this
Rebuild- monarch, he allowed the rebuilding of the temple to resume. Darius Is defeat of Bardiya caused
ing the dissatisfaction, and many provinces revolted against the new king. Darius I sets out on a campaign to
Temple suppress rebellions including that in Babylonia. The new king spent the autumn and winter in Babylonia,
resumes
fighting against the rebel king of Babylon, Nidintu-Bel, and reorganizing the Persian armies. Others included
Susiana, Media, Sagartia, Margiana, and Egypt.

About Persian King Darius I (549-486 or 5BC):


Lexicorient.com2006: Born 558BC into the Persian royal family, as son of Hystaspes, [possibly] satrap
governor of Parthianoted for having united Persia after some years of disintegration. He completed the
SPY process of organizing the empire into 20 satrapiesbuilt highways, established a postal system, and helped
$ the economy by having coinage, weights and measures standardized. He sent expeditions to explore travel
routes in neighbour countries, and he completed the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea. He was also a king of
great religious tolerance, allowing the practice of different religions, even himself adhering to the different gods
and cult centers. He [Darius] even built a temple to the Egyptian god Amon in Kharga Oasis. It is
generally assumed that it was Darius I who introduced Zoroastrianism as the state religion.
Livius.org2006: To improve his claim to the throne, Darius married to Artystone (535?-?)daughter of the
Persian king Cyrus the Greatwho was reportedly still a virgin. Similar marriages were concluded with
Cambyses sister Atossa and his niece Parmys, daughter of Smerdis. Artystone gave birth to at least three
children: Prince Arsames, who commanded the Nubians and the Arabs during the Persian expedition to
Greece in 480BC, which was led by his half-brother king Xerxes; prince Gobryas, who commanded several
tribes from Cappadocia during the same expedition; princess Artozostre, who was married to Mardonius, the
second in command during the same expedition. According to the Greek researcher, Herodotus, Artystone
was the favorite wife of Dariuswe know fromtablets that shebehaved independently from her
husbandshe was still alive in 506BC.Parmys and Darius had a son named Ariomardus.
Wikipedia.org2006-8: appears as a fervent believer in the Dualistic religion of Zoroaster. He was also a
great statesmen and organizer. Darius thoroughly revised the Persian system of administration and also the
LAW legal code. His revisions of the legal code revolved around laws of evidence, slave sales, deposits, bribery,
and assault. The time of conquests had come to an end; the wars which Darius undertook, like those of
Augustus, only served the purpose of gaining strong natural frontiers for the empire and keeping down the
barbararous tribes on its borders. Thus Darius subjugated the wild nations of the Pontic and Armenian
mountains, and extended the Persian dominion to the Caucasus; for the same reasons he fought against the
Saka and other Iranian steppe tribes, as well as the mysterious Turanians from beyond the Oxus. In the
process of these campaigns he made military reforms such as introducing conscription, pay for soldiers,
military training and he also made changes in the army and navy. It was through the organization of the empire
he became the true successor of the great Cyrus. His organizing of provinces and fixing of tributes is
described by Herodotushe divided the Persian Empire into twenty provinces, each under the supervision of a
governor or satrap. The satrap position was usually hereditary and largely autonomous, allowing each
province its own distinct laws, traditions, and elite class. Every province, however, was responsible for paying
a gold or silver tribute to the emperor; many areas, such as Babylonia, underwent severe economic decline
resulting from these quotas. Each province also had an independent financial controller and an independent
military coordinator as well as the satrap, who controlled administration and the law. All three probably
reported directly to the king. This distributed power within the province more evenly and lowered the chance of
revolt. Darius also increased the bureaucracy of the empire, with many scribes employed to provide records
of the administration. Many building projects were initiatednew capital of Persepoliswalls sixty feet high
LAW and 33 feet thickdug a canal from the Nile to Suezextensive road networkhighly organised with rest
stations, guarded garrisons, inns and apparently no banditsrenowned above all as being a great financier.
He fixed the coinage and introduced the tolden Daric. He developed commerce within the empire and trade
withoutpopulation increased and industries flourishedprobably had connections with Carthage, Sicily and
Italy. At the same time he attempted to gain the good will of the subject nations, and for this purpose promoted
the aims of their priests. He allowed the Jews to build the Temple of Jerusalem. In egypt his name appears on
the temples which he built in Memphis, Edfu and the Great Oasis. He called the high priest of Said, Tzahor, to
Susa, and gave him full powers to reorganize the house of life, the great medical school of the temple of Sais.
In the Egyptian traditions he is considered as one of the great benefactors and lawgivers of the country. In
similar relations he stood to the Greek sanctuaries; all the Greek oracles in Asia Minor and Europe therefore
stood on the side of Persia in the Persian Wars and admonished the Greeks against attempting resistance.
Weights and measrues were standardized but often they still operated side by side with their Egyptian or
Babylonian counterparts. This would have been a boon for merchants and trades as trade would now have
been far simpler. The upgraded communication and administration networks also helped to turn the

 Empire ruled by the Achaemenid dynasty into a seemingly commercial entity based on generating
wealth. Darius also continued the process of religious tolerance to his subjects, which had been important
parts of the reigns of Cyrus and Cambyses. Darius himself was likely monotheistic-in royal inscriptions
Ahuramazda is the only god mentioned by name. But, time and again he is mentioned worshipping, funding or
giving lip service to various pantheons of gods. This was important as the majority of the empires inhabitants
were polytheists. Also, like many other Persian kings, he maintained a no-slave policy; for example, all workers
at the Persepolis site and other sites made for him were paid, which was revolutionary at the time. His human
rights policies were also common to his ancestors and future Persian kings, continuing the legacy of the first
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human rights document ever made Darius died, probably in October 486BC, after a reign of thirty-six
years.
Eastons 1897 Bible Dictionary: Darius, king of Persia, was the son of Hystaspes, of the royal family of the
Achaemenidae. He did not immediately succeed Cyrus on the throne. There were two intermediate kings, viz.,
Cambyses (the Ahasuerus of Ezra), the son of Cyrus, who reigned from BC 529-522, and was succeeded by a
usurper named Smerdis, who occupied the throne only ten months, and was succeeded by this Darius (BC521-
486). Smerdis was a Margian, and therefore had no sumpathy with Cyrus and Cambyses in the manner in
which they treated the Jews. He issued a decree prohibiting the restoration of the temple and of Jerusalem
(Ezra 4:17-22). But soon after his death and the accession of Darius, the Jews resumed their work, thinking
that the edict of Smerdis would be now null and void, as Darius was in known harmony with the religious policy
of Cyrus. The enemies of the Jews lost no time in bringing the matter under the notice of Darius, who caused
search to be made for the decree of Cyrus (q.v.). It was not found at Babylon, but at Achmetha (Ezra 6:2); and
Darius forthwith issued a new decree, giving the Jews full liberty to prosecute their work, at the same time
requiring the Syrian satrap and his subordinates to give them all needed help. It was with the army of this king
that the Greeks fought the famous battle of Marathon (BC490). During his reign the Jews enjoyed much peace
and prosperity. He was succeeded by Ahasuerus, known to the Greeks as Xerxes, who reigned for twenty-one
years.

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 Livius.org2006: [Darius] allowed Wedjahor-Resne to return home and ordered him to supervise the
medical schools-the houses of life-that had been destroyed (by Cambyses?)his tomb has been
MED discovered in 1995 at Abusirit is interested to note that in 340BC, Wedjahor-Resne seems to have been
venerated as a more or less holy person in Memphisthe following Egyptian inscription was written over a
statuedisplayed in the Vatican museums [depicting Wedjahor-Resne and his pious acts]: Oh Osiris,
Lord of Eternity!...and I made sure that His Majesty knew the significance of the temple of Neit, which is the sky
in all its dispositions, and knew the greatness of the castles of the Red Crown and all the gods and goddesses
who live thereI provided the houses of life with students, all sons of fine people; there were no sons of
common menI gave them all they needed and all the scribes accessories, as it had always been. His
Majesty did this, because he knew how useful this art can be to survive illness and to ensure that the names of
the gods, their temples, the revenues of their wakf-estates and their rituals are remembered for eternity.
Phoenicia.org2007: Darius realizes the importance of good communications to hold his empire together.
SPY He orders that a royal highway with one hundred and eleven post houses link Sardis in Lydia to Susa in
southern Persia. Herodotus (4.52-56) travels on this royal road. At the post houses tired horses are
 exchanged for fresh steeds for the onward journey. Royal couriers find shelter and the much needed rest.
522- Livius.org2006: In December, he [king Phraortes of the Medes] seized the important city of Ecbatana, where a
521BC Persian garrison must have surrendered. The rebellion spread to the north to Armenia, to the west to Assyria
and to the east to Sagartia and Parthia. Perhaps it could have spread further to the east, where the inhabitants
of Margiana were revolting, but satrap Hystaspes stood his ground in Parthia. During the winter, the Parthians
were preparing an assault on Hystaspes garrison, as we can read in the Behistun inscription: King Darius
says: The Parthians and Hyrcanians revolted from me, and they declared themselves on the side of Phraortes.
My father Hystaspes was in Parthia; and the people forsook him; they became rebellious. Then Hystaspes
marched forth with the troops which had remained faithful. At a city in Parthia called Vispauzatis he fought a
battle with the Parthians. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly defeated
that rebel host. On [8March521] the battle was fought by themin the spring, king Darius invaded Media and
on 8 May 521BC, he defeated Phraortes at a place called Kundurus. Darius took Ecbatana and Phraortes fled
to Parthia, hoping to find support. However, he was caught at Rhagae; Darius mutilated him and had him
crucified at Ecbatana..in the Behistun inscription: King Darius says: Then did I send a Persian army unto
Hystaspes from Ragae. When that army reached Hystaspes, he marched forth with the host. At a city in
Parthia called Patigrabana he gave battle to the rebels. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of
Ahuramazda Hystaspes utterly defeated that rebel host. On [11July521] the battle was fought by themwe do
not know what happened to Hystaspes during the next years.
521BC Livius.org2006: while Darius was occupied in Babylonia and Media, Vahyazdata proclaimed himself king,
saying that he was the real [second false] Smerdis, and gained support in Persia. He was powerful enough to
appoint a satrap to rule Arachosia (who was defeated by Darius own satrap, Vivana). We do not know much
about Vahyazdatas background, but it is possible that he was, as a Persian nobleman, in the army of
Cambyses when the latter died in July. It is possible that Vahyazdata had a better claim to the throne than
Darius (or thought so), and revolted against this new upstart king, who was not related to Cambyses.
Vahyazdata was defeated by Darius general Artavardiya on May 24 near Rakha (modern Behbehan), and a
second time on July 14 near the mountain Parga (near the modern town Forg). The usurper was captured and
crucified. He is represented on Darius monument at Behistun.
521BC The leader of the Margian insurrection was one Frada. Immediately, the satrap of Bactria, Dadarsi, advanced
against the rebels, which he defeated on December 28, 521 after a march through the Karakum desert.

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518BC Darius I takes back control over Egypt, and has the satrap executed.

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516BC Second Temple completed after 18-year delay thanks to Persian king Darius I, believed to be Esthers
Temple son. However, this Temple was a humble edifice without the Ark of the Covenant. A seven-branched
complete Menorah stood in the Holy place instead of the ten-lamp stands in Solomons Temple. Little is known of the
THE PLOT Temple built by Zerubabbel.
516BC Darius I sets out on a military campaign against the peoples of the Danube River, but is beaten.
512BC Wikipedia.org2006: Darius I undertakes a war against the Scythians. A great army crossed the Bosporus,
subjugated eastern Thrace, macedonia submitted voluntarily, and crossed the Danube. The purpose of this
war can only have been to attack the nomadic tribes in the rear and thus to secure peace on the northern
frontier of the empire. Yet the whol plan was based upon an incorrect geographical assumptionthe River
DonDarius was forced to return. The details given by Herodotus (according to him, Darius had reached the
Volga) are quite fantastic; and the account which Darius himself had given on a tablet, which was added to his
great inscription in Behistaun, is destroyed with the exception of a few wordsDarius did not meddle with their
(the Greeks) affairs. The Persian wars were begun by the Greeks themselves.
510BC The last Roman king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus is deposed. The kingdom ends and republic begins.
Roman
King-dom About the end of the Roman kingdom:
Ends & Wikipedia2007.org: [he was] enraging the people of Romehe allowed the rape of Lucretia, a patrician
Roman
Roman, at the hands of his own son. Lucretias kinsman, Lucius Junius Brutus (ancestor to Marcus Brutus),
Repub-
lic summoned the Senate and had Tarquinius and the monarchy expelled from Rome in 510BCresulted in the
Begins expulsion of most of the royal family the Senate voted to never again allow the rule of a king and reformed
Rome into a republican government in 509BC. Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, a
member of the Tarquin family andLlucretias widower, went on to become the first consuls of Romes new
government. The new government would lead the Romans to conquer most of the Mediterranean world and
would survive for the next five hundred years until the rise of Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus. Even then,
the trappings of the republic were not entirely done away with, the republic would survive in a debased form
until the Dominateafter his exile, Tarquin attempted to gain the support of other Etruscan and Latin kings,
claiming that the republicanism would spreadall effortswere in vain. Tarquin died in exilein
496BCended the time of the Kings; the Roman people would no longer trust sole power in one ruler and so a
Republic was formed.

509 The Roman Republican period begins with the overthrow of the monarchy and will last 558 years until its
subversions, through a series of civil wars, into the Roman Empire. The precise date in which the Roman
Republic changed into the Roman Empire is a matter of interpretation, with the dates of Julius Caesars
appointment as perpetual dictator (44BC), the Battle of Actium (31BC), and the date which the Roman Senate
granted Octavian the title Augustus (27BC). This is a distinction chiefly made by the modern historians and
not by the Romans of the time, however. They maintained that it still existed under the protection of their
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extraordinary powers and would eventually return to its republican form.

About the emergence of the Roman Republic (509-27BC):


Wikipedia2007.org: the ethnic origins of the Roman people are unclear. Existing on the border of
Latium and Etruria, it is debated whether the Romans were originally an ancient Italic people from the Latin
region who were influenced by the Etruscans, or etruscans with Italic influenceaccording to Virgils Aeneid
the First Romans were originally exiled Trojans looking where to establish their New Troy eventually settling in
Latium. This was a commonly accepted theory by the Romans of the time period and onward but now has
been challenged by other such theories as above. According to Francis Owen in the Germanic People, first
published in 1960, the original inhabitants of the Italian peninsula were of Mediterranean complexion, but the
Italici which settled Rome were of northern European origins. According to Owens, the evidence abvailable
from Roman literature, historical records and statuary and personal names shows that the appearance of the
Roman aristocracy differed greatly from the population in the rest of the peninsula. The records describe a
very large number of well known historical personalities as blonde. In addition, 250 individuals are recorded to
have had the name Flavius, which means blonde, and there are many named Rufus and Rutilius, meaning red
haired and reddish haired respectively. The following Roman gods are said to have had blonde hair: Amor,
Apollo, Aurora, Bacchus, Ceres, Diana, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Minerva and Venusgovernment was a
complex systemdivision of responsibilities between varius assembliesmembershipwas limited by such
factors as class, order, family, and incometwo assemblies dominatedPlebeian Assembly, and the Roman
Senatewithin the various assemblies, there were a number of magistrates, who performed specialized
functionstwo principlesannuality, the observation of a one-year term, and collegiality, the holding of the
same office by at least two men at the same timethe office of dictator was an exceptionin times of military
emergency a single dictator was chosen for a term of 6 months to have sole command of the Roman
stateDuring the early and middle Republic, the Roman Senate, highest in prestige and being composed of
the artistocraticwas predominantduring the later yearsa division developedwith two factions aring: the
Optimates and the Populares. The Optimates held to the traditional formsthe Populares were those who
used the fact that the Plebeian Assembly was the only body capable of passing binding laws on the Republic,
to pursue political influence outside the Senate. Since the Senate controlled the finances of the state, this led
to conflicts between the Senate and the Plebeian Assembly. Many ambitious politicians used these conflicts to
further their political careerthe Roman legion exhibited high levels of discipline, training and
professionalismprocedures for everythinglaid out specificallythe early republic had no standing
armylegions would be conscripted as neededtroops would be levied from Rome and its surrounding
coloniestheoretically taken only from those men who were property/land holders wealthy enough to equip
themselvesin the later republic Gaius Marius would institutereformsthe old classhad been destroyed
in warhe saw trained soldiers as far more valuable than short term conscriptstransformed into a standing
army, composed mostly of lower-class career soldiers, who would enlist for a period of 20 years, and be
rewardedfought as much for his General and his pension as for the countryin the later Republic, newly
acquired land was often partly used to settle the discharged veteransbringing Roman culture to newly
conquered peoplethe Romans first came in contact with Greek civilization through the Greek city-states in
southern Italy and in Sicilyexpansionwhich began at approximately 479BCprovided opportunities for the
Romans to gain exposure to Greek culturenot uncommon for wealthy Romans to send their sons to
Greecethe Romans distinguished two classes of godsthe original gods of the Roman state...[and] later
divinities whose cults were introduced to the citythe Romans worshipped a number of gods, among which the
triad Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus were pre-eminent. Later this triad was supplanted by the Capitoline Triad,
Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. Religious ceremonies were delegated to a strict system of priestly offices under
the governance of the College of Pontiffsflamens took care of the cults of various gods, while augurs were
trusted with taking the auspicesforeign gods were imported, especially from GreeceRomans connected
some of their indigenous deities with Greek gods and goddessesfew sources of Rome have survived which
were written before the last decades of the Republic, and none of those is completestrong reasons to believe
that many of the stories did not actually happen as they are told. Many of them are borrowed from pre-existing
Greek storiesthe early consuls took over the roles of the king with the exception of his high priesthood in the
worshipuntil the end of the Republic, the accusation that a powerful man wanted to make himselfking
remained a career-shaking chargethe relationship between the plebeians and the patricians sometimes
cames under such strain that the plebeians would secede from the cityled to social changesin 494BC,
plebeians seceded and chose two leaders to whom they gave the title Tribunesthe final secession ended in
287BC and gave the vote of the Plebeians the force of laweventually, Rome came to dominate the
Latin League, a coalition of city-states.

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500BC Jacobisrael.us2008: the Vikings were here in America when King Woden-lithi sailed the Atlantic
seventeen centuries before Christ and entered the St. Lawrence River. He established a trading post at a site
near where Toronto now stands. It became a religious and commercial center that is now known at Petroglyph
Park at Peterborough, Canada. King Woden-lithis home was in Norway. He remained in Canada for five
months, from April to September and traded his woven fabrics for copper ingots obtained from the European
settlers. He called these people Wal, which is a word cognate with Wales and Welsh. He gave these Celts his
religious beliefs, the ability to measure woven cloth and an astronomical observatory for measuring the Nordic
calendar and for determining the dates of the pagan Yale and Ishtar festivalsCelts were already herethey
wrote with the Ogam scriptletters are made by inscribing single parallel strokes placed in sets of one-to-five,
in position above, across, or below a guide linein the New England area, artifacts such as grave headstones
have been found, all with Ogam script in Gaelic script. The Celts with the Gaelic dialect came from the
highlands of Scotland. According to the Scottish Declaration of Independence written by Robert Bruce and his
noblemen, the Scotland people came from ancient Israel through the Rhineland area of France and Germany
and then through Iberia or Spainalthough the Celts were never realized as a maritime power, since they were
a people scattered over many countries, their ocean-going ships were among the best. These ships were huge
in comparison to the Roman ships. They were two thousand tons in capacity as compared to about four
hundred tons of the average Roman ship. The ships that the uncle of Jesus, Joseph of Aramathea, used to
haul lead and tin from the Glastonbury area of England for sale to the Romans were Celtic in design and
operationit was the Libyans who transcended all of the others in the span of their voyage. A Libyan, named
Erathosthenes of Cyrene, accurately calculated the earths circumference. He reasoned that the earths
oceans had to be continuous and consequently a ship could sail around the world in either direction and return
to the starting point. The date was approximately 239BC. Eratosthenes developed the system of the meridian
circles of the map of the globe. The meridian circles are simply the points on the globe where the USN is
directly overhead at noon at the local time. He set these meridian circles in a grid in such a way that a mariner
could accurately locate his position. He drew the primary meridian circle to pass through Alexandria. The
Libyans then set sail in their ocean-going vessels to prove that Eratosthenes was right. Their ships were
equipped with magnetic compasses. Their compass consisted of a ceramic bowl with the compass points
engraved around the edge. A lodestone (a strongly magnetic variety of the mineral magnetie) was floated on
the water in the bowl. Sometimes, a magnetized iron strip was suspended in the bowl. They also had a device
for navigation that was the forerunner of the modern sextant. The Libyans traveled eastward, through the Suez
Canal that King Darius had built, then sailed down the Red Sea, and then around the tip of India, through the
Indonesian straights and then into the Pacific Ocean. They arrived on the West Coast of America,
disembarked and traveled inland to Nevada. These ancient Libyans settled in the arid Nevada country
because it was very similar to their own home country. In various locations in Nevada are petroglyps, written in
Aramaic-Libyan and Celto-Gaelic which reflect their mariner skills. There is a map of North Americathe
Paiute and Shoshone tribesmen of Nevada were asked where all of the petroglyphs we now know to have
been scribed by the Libyans came from, they could tell the archaeologists and epigraphists nothing except that
neither they nor their forebears had cut themin the modern, Libyan North African region there are twofirst is
the modern Berber who is of lighter skin with obvious and European featuresbuilds his home pueblo
stylewomentattoo their chinsmencover their heads and facesshowing only their eyes to
strangerssecondis the Arabsnomadicwomenare not tattooedmen do not veil the facein the
Peabody Museum of Harvardare ancient boels madein the southwestern United States. The bowls very
clearly show a man and womanwomenj have their chins tattooed. The men have the Berber type of
scarfdisappeared in the 10th to 12th century AD, after having been here from about 500 BC. All of these
people abandoned their towns and simply vanished. The ancient Berbers were of Celto-Iberian originthe
Scottish Declaration of Independenceread that they traveled through Iberiaon their way to Scotland and
Irelandthe same Celts conducted mining operations in America and either sold or traded their metal with
Europe. But it all vanishedshen the first Celts arrived in America, they were as pagan as their brothers in
Europe. Many of the earlier inscriptions in America depicted Baal worship and classical Phallic worship. Then,
all of a sudden, there came the appearance of Christian inscriptionsthe later Christian inscriptions were
inscribed over the top of the earlier pagan writingin Cripple Creek, Colorado there is a memorial in Greek that
states, herein is the last resting place of Palladis (a priest), the servant of Godthe Christian Celts of Iberia,
Ireland, Scotland as well as the Christian Celts of America had a legal system that reflected the teachings of
the Christian Bible. The system was called the Tanistry which means the administration of law by deputies of
the king.
500BC narconon.org2009: Scythian couple die and are buried with two small tents covering censers. Attached to
 one tent stick was a decorated leather pouch containing wild Cannabis seeds. This closely matches the
stories told by Herodotus. The gravesite, discovered in the late 1940s, was in Pazryk, northwest of the Tien
Shan Mountains in modern-day Khazakstan...Hemp is introduced into Northern Europe by the Scythians.
An urn containing leaves and seeds of the Cannabis plant, unearthed near Berlin, is dated to about this time.

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500BC Pythagoras dies about this time. Pythagoras (582BC-500BC) preceded Socrates (469BC-399BC) who taught
Plato (427BC-438BC) who taught Aristotle (384BC-322BC) who taught Alexander the Great (356BC-323BC).
He was born on the island of Samos but established a school in Croton, southern Italy. Some writers say he
had taken trips to Egypt and Babylon before going to Italy. He founded a society of disciples which has
been very influential for some time. In his mind, numbers, spirits, souls, gods and the mystic connections
 between them formed one big picture. He introduced the idea of eternal recurrence into Greek thought [we
have been someone else before], which was apparently motivated by his studies of earlier Egyptian scriptures,
and it became popular. He and his disciples saw numbers in everything. He was convinced that the divine
principles of the universe, though imperceptible to the senses, can be expressed in terms of relationships of
numbers.

About Pythagoras (582-500BC), Greek philosopher, mathematician, and musician:


Hypatia-lovers.com2007: one of the most influential of the Greek philosophers, as well as one of historys
most important mathematicians, and also perhaps historys first music theorist. Born in Samos, he was the
founder of the Pythagorean school, a religious and philosophical schoolinstructed in the teachings of the
early Ionian philosophers, and in his subsequent travels he also became initiated into the doctrines of the
Egyptian priests. He is said to have been driven from Samos by his disgust for the tyranny of
Polycratesabout 530BC he settled in Crotonia, a Greek colony in southern Italy, where he founded the moral
and religious school called by his namethe society became involved in the fierce struggle between the
Aristocracy and the Democracy which was raging in southern Italy; when the democratic party gained the upper
hand, it turned upon the aristocratic Pythagorean brothers in fury and burned them in their meeting places. It is
not certain whether Pythagoras himself perished in this outbreak, or whetherhe escaped only to starve
himself to death at Metapontum. The Pythagoreans remained powerful in Italy until the middle of the Fifty
Century BC, when their order was violently stamped out. The exact nature of Pythagoras own teachings is not
known with great certainlyPythagoras committed nothing to writing and his disciples sought to gain credit for
their own views by attributing them to their venerated masterthe Pythagoreans adhered to certain mysteries,
which were similar in many respects to the Orphic Mysteries. An examination as to fitness was a
qualificationobedience and silence, abstemious eating habits, simplicity in dressthe Pythagoreans believed
in the immortality and transmigration of souls, including the reincarnation of human souls into
animalsaccording to the Pythagoreans, the proportion, order, and harmony of the Universe were all closely
connected with number, which lay at the very foundation of existenceraised mathematics to a sciencefirst
proof of the hypotenuse theoremalthough the Babylonians had discovered this theorem a millennium earlier,
Pythagoras is credited with being the first to prove itfirst to look upon the earth as a globe revolving with the
other planets, including the Sun, around a central firefor a long time, the teachings of Pythagoras were kept
secret. Although the disciples of Pythagoras maintained a remarkable silence, it became known that
Pythagoras held that the soul is immortal; that it transmigrates into other kinds of animals; that the same events
repeat in cycles, nothing being truly newmay have learned at least some of them in the Eastseems to have
been the first to introduce these beliefs into GreecePythagoras maintained that for the sake of punishment
the soul is yoked to the body and buried in it as in a tombPlato later seized upon this idea, and it was
transmitted through various other doctrines-including Neo-Platonism-to the Christiansbecause it is in exile it
yearns to return to that upper region whence it came, to be released from the prison house of the body, and to
rejoin once more to the company of the gods. The effect of this new conception of the soul was to undermine
the traditional view of mans place in the Cosmos, which was quite separate from the gods, who alone possess
everlasting life, while men are but creatures of a daythey ate no meat. This was almost certaily connected
with their belief in the transmigration of soulslove of wisdom was the equivalent of the love of the
divineamazing that the ancient Greeks were able to bring geometry to its perfection, for the Greeks
possessed no algebra in our sense. They were compelled to solve algebraic problems by geometric
meansconstruction of the cosmic figures known to us today as the five Platonic Polyhedra: the tetrahedron,
the hexahedron, the octahedron, the dodecahedron, and the icosahedron. These five regular solidsthe
only five which are possibleEgyptian geometry consisted mainly in knowledge of certain practical rules which
had been discovered empiricallyit was in this form that geometry passed to Greece. Pythagoras freed
geometry from its connection with practice. In his hands geometry became a liberal study-a pursuit worthy of
free menwhen freed from practical concerns, mathematical inquiry frees the thinker from all reliance upon the
uncertain testimony of the sensesit was upon this assumption that the foundations of classical physics were
securely laid[up to this time people had been too busy trying to get something to eatnow rich kids could go
to his school and study without worry about working for a living]Pythagoras is also said to be the discoverer
of the golden section, or divine proportion, a rule of harmonious proportionality which underlay not only the best
of Greek art and architecture, but which is built into Nature itself (for example, the divine proportion is to be
found within the logarithmic spiral of Chambered Nautilus shells, or within the spiral seed patterns in
sunflowersinhuman bodiesPythagoras thought it best to avoid anger, but in the event of a dispute,
choosing instead to reason with a man to bring his soul into harmony with the world-orderthe Pythagoreans
meant this doctrine of harmony to be applied to the social order as well. Indeed, the Pythagoreans were
actively political, and the Pythagorean order amounted to not a democracy, but a virtual aristocracy (literally, a
rule of the best). Two of Pythagoras most famous sayings were, friends have all things in common, and
friendship is equality, and so, in the best spirit of communism, his disciples actually put their possessions into
one common stock. In the Pythagorean view, the principle of order is justice. But justice is founded upon
reciprocity. They thought it just that what ills a man had done he should suffer in return, and what acts of
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kindness he had done should return to him as well. This view tempered their system of aristocratic
communism, for the Pythagoreans held that the soundest basis for the distribution of wealth in a community
was by merit or virtuehowwithout sacrificing the principle of equalitythe answer was found in his theory of
proportionsarithmetic mean, the geometric mean, and the harmonic meanit was clear to him that the
geometric mean was indeed the most logical choice as the mathematical basis for the distribution of
wealthPythagoras was worshipped as a semi-deity-in fact, the reincarnation of Apollo-in part because he had
undergone a severe ritual initiation at the sacred Orphic temple on Crete. Orphism-the cult associated with
Orpheus-postulated, in a way very similar to the concept of karma, the pre-existence and indestructivility of
souls: if the human being in whom the soul temporarily resided led a sufficiently worthy life, it would return to
dwell among the gods with whom it was originally created, but if the human being failed to achieve a worthy
and enlightened death, then the sould would be forced into a further reincarnationman is not driven
inexorably by fates over which he has no control: he has a choice between good and evil, a responsibility for
determining his own fateeven music became mysticalharmony was based upon numbers the
Pythagoreans were particularly enthralled by the regular pentagon because if all of this figures sides are
extended outward until they intersect they produce a five-pointed star called a pentagram. The pentagram was
associated with the division of line in extreme and mean proportion, with the golden section or divine
proportion, and also with the fourth of the regular solids, the dodecahedron. The dodecahedron was taken as a
symbol of the Universe because its twelve regular pentagonal facets were thought to correspond with the
twelve months and twelve signs of the zodiac-not to mention the fact that three mutually-perpendicular golden
rectangles (whose length-to-width-ratio are in divine proportion) could be centered in a dodecahedron with their
twelve corners touching the centers of all of the pentagonal faces of the solid. The pentagonal faces of the
dodecahedron themselves held great interest for the Pythagoreans, for the point of intersection of two
diagonals of a pentagon divides each in the divine proportion both internally and externally. Not only that, but
the ratio of the edge-lengths of the triangular points of a pentagram to the edge-lengths of the pentagon
residing at its center are also in divine proportion. This so-called Mystic Pentagram was in fact so revered that
it became a symbol of recognition between the members of the secret pythagorean order, and was taken to be
a symbol of health. Because Pythagoreanism had three major elements in common with Druidism, it hs been
postulated that there must have been some intercourse between these two sects. The first of these
connections is the belief in reincarnation and of karmathe secondtheir code of silencethey were required
to learn their lore by heart, as was the case with the Druids. No written accounts were allowed. Several
ancient religions were secret and preserved their mysteries by select initiation, but the specific ban on written
records and the requirement to learn greats tracts of lore by heart seem to be exclusive to Pythagoreanism and
Druidism [Judaism? !]the third connectionwas that both adhered to a principle of social organization which
was quite unusualthey treated women as equals.
Wikipedia.com2006: one of the first to speculate that human life begins with a blend of male and female
fluids, or semens, originating in body partsit may have been in Egypt where he learned some geometric
principles which eventually inspired his discovery of the theorem that is now called by his nameUpon his
migration from Samos to Crotone, Pythagoras established a secret religious society devoted to the study of
mathematics that was very similar to (and possibly influenced by) the earlier Orphic cultPythagoras was
 familiar with and an admirer of Jewish customs and wisdom. Hermippus of Smyrna says about
Pythagoras: In practising and repeating these percepts he was imitating and appropriating the doctrines of
Jews and Thracians. In fact, it is actually said that that great man introduced many points of Jewish law
into his philosophyThe Pythagoreans observed a rule of silence called echemythia, the breaking of which
was punishable by death. This was because the Pythagoreans believed that a mans words were usually
careless and misrepresented him and that when someone was in doubt as to what he should say, he should
always remain silentAnother rule that they had was to help a man in raising a burden, but do not assist him in
laying it down, for it is a great sin to encourage indolencebetter to learn none of the truth about mathematics,
God, and the universe at all than to learn a little without learning allPythagoreans were divided into an
inner circle called mathematikoi and an outer circle called the akousmatikoithe mathematikoi learned the
more detailed and exactly elaborate version of this knowledge, the akousmatikoi were those which had heard
only the summary headings of his writingsthe akousmatikoilistened to lectures that Pythagoras gave out
loud from behind a veilnot allowed to see Pythagoras and they were not taught the inner secrets of the cult.
Instead they were taught laws of behavior and morality in the form of cryptic, brief sayings that had hidden
meaningsafter the murder of Pythagoras and a number of the mathematikoi by the cohorts of Cylon, a
resentful disciple, the two groups split from each other entirely, with Pythagoras wife Theano and their two
daughters leading the mathematikoibeans, black and white, were the means used in votingPherekydes
was Pythagoras most intimate teacher. Pherekydes expounded his teaching on the soul in terms of five
hidden cavitiesthe most likely origin of the Pythagorean use of the pentagram, used by them as a symbol of
recognition among members and as a symbol of inner healthPlato and Pythagoras shared a mystical
approach to the soul and its place in the material world. It is probable that both have been influenced by
Orphism [a mystery religion in the ancient Greek world founded by Orpheus] This had a great effect on future
esoteric traditions such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry.
Livius.org2007: according to legend, he left his country and studied with the wise men of Egypt, but was
taken captive when the Persian king Cambyses invaded the country of the Nile (525BC). He now became a
student of the Chaldaens of Babylon and the Magians of Persia. Some even say that he visited the Indian
Brahmans, because Pythagoras believed in reincarnation. At the end of the sixth centtury, he lived in southern
Italy, where he founded a community of philosophers. In his view, our world was governed by numbers.
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Essenes.net2007 from Life of Pythagoras by Iamblichus: After gaining all he could from the Phoenician
mysteries, he found that they had originated from the sacred rites of Egypt, forming as it were an Egyptian
colony. This led him to hope that in Egypt itself he might find monuments of erudition still more genuine,
beautiful and divine. Therefore following the advice of his teacher Thales, he left, as soon as possible, through
the agency of some Egyptian sailors, who very opportunely happened to land on the Phoenician coast under
Mount Carmet where, in the temple on the peak, Pythagoras for the most part had dwelt in solitude. He was
gladly received by the sailors, who intended to make a great profit by selling him into slavery. But they
changed their mind in his favor during the voyage, when they perceived the chastened venerability of the mode
of life he had undertaken. They began to reflect that there was something supernatural in the youths modesty,
and in the manner in which he had unexpectedly appeared to them on their landing, when, from the summit of
Mount Carmel, which they knew to be more sacred than other mountains, and quite inaccessible to the vulgar,
he had leisurely descended without looking back, avoiding all delay from precipices or difficult rocks; and that
when he came to the boat, he said nothing more than, Are you bound for Egypt? What is more, on their
answering affirmatively had gone aboard and had, during the whole trip, sat silent where he would be least
likely to inconvenience them at their tasks. For two nights and three days Pythagoras had remained in the
same unmoved position, without food, drink, or sleep, except that, unnoticed by the sailors, he might have
dozed while sitting uprightFrom all these circumstances they concluded that a veritable divinity had passed
over with them from Syria into Egypt.Reverently the sailor here assisted him to disembark; and after they had
seen him safe onto a firm beach, they raised before him a temporary altar, heaped on it the now abundant fruits
of trees, as if these were the first fruits of their freight, presented them to him and departed hastily to their
destination.
Essenes.net2007 from Life of Pythagoras by Diogenes Laertius: Pythagorashad himself initiated into the
rites and mysteries not only of Greece, but also of foreign countrieshe learned Egyptianjourneyed among
the Chaldeans and the Magi.
Essenes.net2007: it is the doctrine of the school, not the teaching of Pythagoras himself, which is known
to us through the writings of Aristotleof his disciples, Archytas, in southern Italy, and Philolaos and Lysis,
at Thebes, are the best knownwe look to the ancient Phythagorean Society, the Neo-Pythagoreans, the even
more ancient Orphic Cult for truths perceived and preserved amongst Greek speaking esoteric societies and
schools. We look to ancient Roman and Greek mystics and philosophers for the philosophical keys to
understanding the beauty, harmony, and underlining Qabbalistic and mathematical patterns that permeat the
natural and social world. In addition, we also appreciate the mystical esoteric level of the Greek Orthodox
School of nomative Christianity, even though we reject its outer manifestation based on the falsification of the
original scriptures and writings..[we] seek to explore the positive aspects of Pythagorean, Greek, Mithric and
Roman cultures and mystery cults, and to pinpoint their influence on Roman Christianityto sharply
differentiate this orthodox Christianity from the original Nazorean Gnosis that it supplanted in the westwe will
delve into the Pythagorean philosophy, trace its influence down through the centuries, and then show its
influence, and the Aristotal world view on imperfect western Christianity and civilization....
Essenes.net2007: Origen tells us that the Pythagoreans used to erect a cenotaph to those who had
apostasized from their system of philosophy, treating them as deadDiogenes Laertius declares that the
Pythagoreans practiced baptismal purification constantly to renew and maintain their sanctity, a ceremonial
which the Jewish Essenes adopted from theminitiation is accomplished through seasonal mystery plays and
ritesClement of Alexandria declares that pythagoras was a pupil of Zoroaster and a disciple of the
Brahmanas(India)Pythagoras was of the Orphic Cult. Orpheus introduced a cult blending ideas of both
deities, but the god was Dionysos. The Zagreus Story: Divine child Zagreus (primal man of Mani) was lured
and killed and devoured by Titans, but Athena (Isis in the Osiris Cult) saved his heart. Zeus destroyed Titans
by fire and ate rescued heart. Mortals arose from the ashes of the Titans. We are divine from the devoured
Zagreus, and evil from the wanton Titans. When Zeus engendered Dionysos (via Semele) a potent part of the
divine Zagreus was reborn into the new deity, or Zagreus reborn via Dionysos. According to their doctrine the
original home of the soul was in the stars. From there it fell down to earth and associated with the body. Thus,
man was a stranger on the earth, and he had to strive to liberate hiself from the ties of the flesh and return to
the souls celestial home. Orpheus is said to have traveled to Egypt, where he learned from the priests there
and became the most learned among the Greeks in all that concerns the Gods and their initiatory rites. He
excelled in the beauty of his verse and song, and was believed to have discovered mysteries and how to
achieve purification from sins, cures of diseases and means of averting divine wrath. These early rites were
said to be very similar to those of Dionysus but have also been linked to the rites of Osiris and
Isisvegetarianism was a customary religious practice in the first century. It was a characteristic of the Orphic
and Pythagorian sects among the Greeks and of the Essenes among the Jews.
Essenes.net2007: Other Pythagorean-like Sects: Pythagorean teachings influenced many later schools of
thought, including the Druze (surviving Gnostic Sect with affinities to Shia Islam & Pythagoras), Sabians and
others.
Essenes.net2007: noticed that vibrating strings produce harmonious tones when the ratios of the length of
the strings are whole numbers, and that these ratios could be extended to other instrumentsto Pythagoras
numbers had personalitiesmasculine of feminine, perfect or incomplete, beautiful or uglyten was the very
best number: it contained in itself the first four integers-one,two,three, and four (1+2+3+4=10)and these
written in dot notation formed a perfect trianglein astronomy Pythagoras taught that the Earth was a sphere
at the centre of the Universe. He also recognised that the orbit of the Moon was inclined to the equator of the
Earth and he was one of the first to realise that Venus as an evening star was the same planet as Venus as a
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morning starobjects were fundamentally composed of form and not of material substanceprescribed
certain secret cultic practicesin their ethical practices, the Pythagorean were famous for their mutual
friendship, unselfishness, and honesty [and with regard to others?].
Essenes.net2007: Herm. I.G.P. 16; Dox.655. Others then from the ancient tribe, Pythagoras and his fellow-
tribesmen, revered and taciturn, transmitted other dogmas to me as mysteries, and this is the great and
unspeakable ipscedixit: the monad is the first principle of all things. From its forms and from numbers the
elements arose. And he declared that the number and form and measure of each of these is somehow as
follows: -Fire is composed of twenty-four right-angled triangles, surrounded by four equilaterals. And each
equilateral consists of six right-angled triangles, whence they compare it to the pyramid. Air is.
Passages in Plato referring to the Pythagoreans: the saying that is uttered in secret rites, to the effect that
we men are in a sort of prison, and that one ought not to loose himself from it nor yet to run away, seems to me
something great and not easy to see through; but this at least I think is well said, that it is the gods who care for
us, and we men are one of the possessions of the godswe are dead and the body is our tomb, and that that
part of the soul where desires are, it so happens, is open to persuasion, and moves upward or downwardone
community embraces heaven and earth and gods and men and friendship and order and temperance and
righteousness, and for that reason they call this whole a universethat geometrical equality prevails widely
among both gods and men.
Passages in Aristotle referring to the Pythagoreans: all things are defined by threes; for end and middle
and beginning constitute the number of the allthe Pythagoreans, because they see many qualities of
numbers in bodies perceived by sense, regard objects as numbers, not as separate numbers, but as derived
from numbersthey construct the whole heaven out of numbersthey construct out of numbers physical
bodies out of numbers that have neither weight nor lightness, bodies that have weight and lightness-they seem
to be speaking about another heaven and other bodies than those perceived by sense.
Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: Passages in the Doxographists: Pythagorassays that the staring
point of number is the decad; for all Greeks and all barbarians count as far as ten, and when they get as far as
this they return to the monad. And again, he says, the power of the ten is in the four and the tetrad. And the
reason is this: if any one returning from the monad adds the numbers in a series as far as the four, he will fill
out the number ten (i.e. 1+2+3+4=10); but if he goes beyond the number of the tetrad, he will exceed the ten.
Just as if one should add one and two and should add to these three and four, he will fill out the number ten; so
that according to the monad number is in the ten, but potentially in the fourthe universe ia made from five
solid figurem the octahedron, and water from the icosahedron, and the sphere of the all from the
 dodecahedron.
Hebrewhistory.info2007: Pythagoras followed Thales. Like Thales, Pythagoras was not born in Greece, but
 on the island of Samos off the Anatolian coastlike Thales, Pythagoras was a merchant who spent the
first part of his life trading in Judah and Babylonia, and he likewise absorbed eastern knowledge and
wisdom during his travels. There is no question that Babylonian mathematics is the foundation of Pythagorean
mathematical constructions. As much as two thousand years before Pythagoras set foot into Babylonia the
circle had already been divided into 360 degrees and the day into twenty-four hours. Herodotus, the ancient
Greek historian, recounts this history, and informs us that the Greeks thereafter adopted the Babylonian sun
dial and water clock. The famous Pythagorean theoremwas anticipated in its basic form in Akkadian
Eshnunna, the very area into which Abraham was born more than a thousand years earlier. The other
Pythagorean theoremsare based on the then two thousand-year-old sexagesimal system practiced in
Babylonia: the division of the circle and time by multiples of six, and the mathematics by which a circles
diameter and radius subtends it into four right angles at its center. The Greeks thereafter not only adopted the
Judaic/Babylonian systems of weights nad measues, they also adopted the Judaic/Babylonian monetary units
of obol, mina and talentHermippus of Smyrna baldly accused Pythagoras of the imitation of the doctrines of
the Jews and the Thracians, which he transferred to his own philosophyJosephus, in emphasis, added a
pointed comment of his own, For it is tryly affirmed of Pythagoras that he took a great many of the laws of the
Jews into his own philosophy...Aristoxus of Tarentum, a pupil of Aristotle, concurred, stating that Pythagoras
had obtained his basic knowledge from the East. The accusation was likewise made by another Aristotle
follower, the Judaic writer Aristobolus, who stated further that Pythagoras, when speaking of the Deity,
followed Judaic book. The philosophy referred to by these ancient scribes was pantheism, the doctrine that
holds that God is not human-like, but is a pervasive manifestation of all the laws, forces and attributes of the
natural universe, clearly a concept which evolved out of Judaic universalist principles. The strands from which
pantheistic theory was woven were brought to Athens by Easterners and by those Greeks who traveled in the
East. They are responsible for making the Athen school of philosophy and science what it became.
 Judaic/Babylonian science is preserved in the surviving writings of those individuals, the body of literature
which formed the basis for ancient Greek science.
Livius.org2006: A very late source, Iamblichus (c.245-330AD), tells us that among the slaves was the
Greek philosopher Pythagoras, who was forced to spend twelve years in Babylon before he was allowed to
return to his own country.

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The Golden Rectangle in Divine Proportion1/1.6180

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Maenads, from wikipedia.com2006: In Greek mythology, Maenads were female worshippers of Dionysus,
the Greek god of mystery, wine and intoxication, and the [equivalent] Roman god Bacchus. The word literally
translates as raving ones. They were known as wild, insane women who could not be reasoned with. The
mysteries of Dionysus inspired the women to ecstatic frenzy; they indulged in copious amounts of violence,
bloodletting, sexual activity, self-intoxication, and mutilation. They were usually pictured as crowned with vine
leaves, clothed in fawnskins and carrying the thyrsus, and dancing with wild abandonThe Maenads were also
known as Bassarids (or Bacchae or Bacchantes) in Roman mythology, after the penchant of the equivalent
Roman god, Bacchus, to wear a fox-skin, a bassaris.
ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/-perlman/myth/lecture19: Outline for Lecture Nineteen: I.Study Guide 1. The Homeric
Hymn to Dionysus presents a theme common to many myths involving the god Dionysus-the failure of mortals
to recognize his divinity. We will think some about this theme. 2. The vase painting on the cover of the Homeric
Hymns was inspired by the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus. 3. Compare the description of Dionysus in the Homeric
Hymn with the description of Dionysus in Euripides, The Bacchants, lines 233-241. 4. Next session we will
encounter Dionysus as the god who crosses boundaries. I mean this in a sense quite different from Hermes,
the boundary crosser. Dionysus is a god who fuses opposites (e.g. male/female, native born/intruder and so
on). In the Reader you will read a description of a pre-Lenten festival celebrated today on the Greek island of
Scyros. The festival clearly combines aspects of the ancient worship of Dionysus with the Greek Orthodox
holiday. The figure called the geros or Old Man in the festival is a modern version of the god Dionysus. As you
read the description, look for features in the festival which suggest the fusion of opposites (e.g. the procession
of men dressed in womens clothing).

500- Jacobisrael.us2008: in their early days they [Carthage] were much stronger than Rome and imposed a
480BC treaty on Rome, which basically forbade them from sailing in the Western Mediterranean and telling them
where they could sail their shipsthey kept them out of the Atlantic Oceanbut the Greeks did record some
 informationin the sea outside the pillars of Herculesan island was found by the Carthagenians, a
wilderness having wood of all kinds, and navigatable rivers; remarkable for various kinds of fruit, many sailing
distance day away. When the Carthagenians, who were the masters of the western ocean, observed that
many traitors and other men were attracted by the fertility of the soil and the pleasant climate, they frequensted
it. And some resided there. They feared that knowledge of the land would reach other nationsover against
Africa, on the other side of Africa lies a very great island in the vast ocean. Many days sail westward of
Libyait was the secret of Cartages wealthHeroticus a Greek historian records that, the Carthagenians
sent an expedition westward from Gibraltar, which included 30,000 men and women, sixty ships, in a
time frame of 500-480BCin Barry Fells bookcoins have been found in Colorado, New York, Alabama,
Connecticut and Nevada..Cartage was Israelite in its inception. However, in later years they became a
pyelograph people, they became very degeneratethey became extremely evil, indulging in child sacrifice,
mass sacrifices of human beingseven in that second Tunic War Cartage came very close to exterminating
Rome from off the face of the earth. When Hannibal, who was named after Baal, took an army into the Italian
areawhen Cartage fell in the middle of the 2nd century BC, where did its people go? Since some of the
historians talk about the population of Cartage being some 600,000, it also relates that only a few thousand
stayed to fight the Romans to the bitter end. Some of them probably sought a new life in Cartages secret
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territories in AmericaBaal worshippersgotten degeneratelikely died out in wars, intermarriage with the
Indians and possibly from VD from their wild sexual practrices, which their monuments testify to.
500- narconon.org2009: Hemp spreads throughout northern Europe.
100BC


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499BC Darius I learns of a revolt among the Ionian Greeks that would last for several years.
jtink Jews on Jews Teaching Greeks:
hebrewhistory.info2007: It is commonly assumed by historians, Judaic scholars among them, that the Jews
obtained a knowledge of science as students and translators of ancient scientific Greek works into Arabic, Latin
and other languages. It is true that Judaic savants such as Maimonides immersed themselves in the body of
Greek scientific works, and became major transmitters of the hoard of knowledge contained in them to the
Islamic and Christian worlds. But that is not the whole story. A new dimension to the origin of rationalism
unfolds when we week the answer to the question: From whom did the ancient Greeks get their literacy,
mathematics, science, architecture, and, for that matter, democratic precepts? We find that the translation of
Greek works represents but the completion of a cycle in which the Jews and their Babylonian progenitors
provided the fountain from which the Greeks obtained their knowledge. The attibution of the birth of rationalism
to the Greeks is a classic example of the propositions that: 1. History is based essentially on what survived,
and not necessarily on what actually existed. 2. Surviving physical evidence is largely what conquerors
allowed to survive or was unknown to or overlooked by them. 3. Surviving recorded history was largely
written by rulers, or was allowed to survive, or was unknown to or overlooked by them. We are left, therefore
to interpolate the truth of past events from surviving records, whether true or fabricated, and from
archaeological artifacts. In interpolating the birth and development of scientific rationalism from such records
and relics, we should first take note that science can be said to have begun with the greatest intellectual leap
the human mind ever took: the Biblical attribution of the creation of the universe to a single, undefinable force.
Jews could no longer accept the existence of a multitude of mystical, supernatural beings [NOTICE NO
MENTION OF JEWS BELIEF IN DEMONS], and therefore could not look to them for answers to the mysteries
of natural processes. The Jews were empirically obliged to rely on reason [NOTICE NO MENTION OF
JEWS BELIEF IN RITUAL SUCH AS WASHING HANDS TO REPEL DEMONS]. That revolutionary Judaic
concept formed the foundation for the extraordinary magnitude of Judaic creativity [NOTICE NO MENTION
OF GOD GIVING THIS GIFT TO THE JEWS] throughout the ages. The credit for this universal concept, and
for the rationalism which stems from it, is often wrested from the Jews and credited to undeserving sources.
For example, the commentators on two Public Boardcasting system programs, one on Einstein and the other
on The Creation of the Universe, credited the concept that the universe was created by a single universal force
as the foundation of scientific thought. Each commentator repeated several times that that revolutionary view
of existence originated as a Judeo-Christian and Moslem concept! What gal!! What right do the Christians and
Moslems have to share credit for originating the most progressive precept that mankind ever produced? The
Bible documented that uniquely Judaic principle at least eight hundred years before the advent of Christianity,
and no less than fourteen hundred years before Mohammed launched his bloody march to fame. [NO
MENTION OF THE BLOODY MARCH INTO CANAAN] The TV commentators quoted no Christian nor Islamic
reference for the mental leap from primitive concepts of creation to that of modern science. Instead they
quoted the distinctly Judaic Genesis, which begins: And the earth was without form and void and goes on to
describe how everything in existence evolved from the void in a cataclysmic event that took place on The first
day. [NOTICE NO MENTION OF GOD] The Jews alone arrived at this proto-scientific concept of creation
three thousand years before Maxwell, Einstein, and the modern theory of The Big Bang. Whether or not one
believes that a supernatural intelligence was responsible for the incomprehensible event, that three thousand-
year-old, fundamental concept is the one almost universally accepted by the scientific community. [science
mentioned 8 times; God 0 timesbringing together non-believing and believing Jews into just plain Jews]
Both PBS commentators went on to credit the Greeks with the atomic theory. They were repeating a standard
rendition of ancient western history which, until recently, was almost entirely derived from Greek and Roman
sources. West historiography, limited by these parameters, commonly starts with homer, who was illiterate.
Greek philosophers and their followers deserve the worlds everlasting gratitude for gathering knowledge from
savants in Babylonia, for codifying the information obtained, for employing the principles of reason to expand
on the knowledge gained, and for making it available to posterity. But just as the subsequent translators of that
body of works cannot be accredited with its origination, so must we recognize that the fountain of Green
science and reason lay to the east.
Livius.org2006: [Hystaspes, father of Darius] is mentioned in the founding inscription from the royal palace
which Darius built at Susa after 520BC: King Darius says: Ahuramazda, the greatest of the gods created me,
made me king, bestowed upon me this kingdom, great, possessed of good horses, possessed of good men.
By the favor of Ahuramazda my father Hystaspes and Arsames my grandfather were both living when
Ahuramazda made me king in this earth. In another inscription, which was added when the palace was
finished, Hystaspes is no longer mentioned; he must have died before the building was complete. The Greek
Author Ctesias, who is not known for his reliability, tells a strange story about the death of Hystaspes:
together with his first wife, he wanted to visit the tomb that their son Darius [Jews say Darius was Esters
son which would make him Jewish] had ordered to be cut in the rocks at Naqs-I Rustam, but when they
were hoisted up, something went wrong, and they fell to their deaths. There are some indications that this
incident took place in 495BC, which means that Hystaspes reached the venerable age of more than seventy
years. His younger brother Pharnaces, the treasurer of Darius, seems to have died two years before.
494BC Darius I suppresses the Ionian revolt in Asia Minor, but campaign plans for mainland Greece set for the
following years do not succeed.

Phoenicia.org2007: the Ionian cities in Asia Minor revolt against Persia. The revolt spreads to Caria and
 the island of Cyprus. Darius orders the Phoenician cities to assemble a fleet. Ships are sent to Cilicia to
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transport Persian troops to Cyprus. The fleet anchors in the bay opposite Salamis, Cyprus, facing the Ionian
fleet already there. This is the very first encounter at sea between Phoenicians and Greeks. The
Phoenicians lost the battle but Persian land forces gain a victory over the Cypriotes. Hatred flares up between
the Phoenicians and the Greeks for the Greeks in the Aegean are a serious threat to Phoenician domination of
the commercial sea lanesa series of rebellions follow. Sardis is taken and burned to the ground by Athenian
and Ionian forces. Next the Greek cities in Asia Minor rebel against Persia. Herodotus (5.106) tells us that in
his anger Darius commands one of his attendants to repeat to him three times whenever he sits down to dine:
 Master, remember the Atheniansthe decisive battle between the Ionian Greeks and Persia occurs at sea in
= the Naval battle of 494 near the island of Lake opposite Miletus, the Persians with the Phoenician fleet defeat
SPY the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor. Darius is pleased with the outcome of the battle and realizes that the
conquest of mainland Greece will not present much difficulty. He decides to lead his army through Thrace and
Macedonia with the ultimate goal of punishing Athens. Herodotus (3.136) tells us that he has already sent a
spying mission of Persian nobles in Phoenician ships to the coast of Greece.

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Xerxes, son of King Darius I and Atossa, daughter of Cyrus II the Great, becomes ruler of Babylonia, second
in Persia only to his father the king.
492BC Phoenicia.org2007: The Phoenician cities furnish a large part of the fleet led by the Persian general
Mardonius in the year 492 but heavy losses occur when the ships are dashed against the rocks of Mount Athos
 and most of the fleet sinks.
Hebrewhistory.info2007: Intercontinental trade was pioneered by Persian Jews who pioneered the Silk
 Route to the heart of China in the fifth century BCEJudaic savants were largely responsible for the
invention and development of the instruments and astronomical tables which thereafter facilitated
world-girdling sea voyages.
490BC Persian King Darius I sends an expedition against Athens. They were met, however, by Miltiades, who
THE PLOT had been an outstanding soldier in the Persian army but ran for his life when he angered Darius I. Unlike other
Athenians, he knew the Persian army and he knew its tactics. The two armies, with the Athenians led by
Miltiades, met at Marathon in Attica and the Athenians defeat the invading Persians at this battle of
Marathon, the single most important battle in Greek history. Had the Athenians lost, the Persians
would have installed Persian government and culture as the norm in Greece long before the classical
period in Greek history.
486BC Persians control all of Mesopotamia and the world from Macedon northeast of Greece to Egypt, from Palestine
 and the Arabian peninsula across Mesopotamia and all the way to India. An insurrection breaks out in Egypt
taking all the attention of Darius I who dies and is succeeded by his son Xerxes I (r.486-465BC).

About the death of Darius I the Great:


Livius.org2008: the last letter from Babylon that is dated to the reign of Darius was written on
17November486, and the first one from the reign of his son and successor Xerxes on 1December. In the two
weeks between these dates, Darius died after thirty days of illness, about sixty-four years oldhis succession
had been carefully prepared. As early as 495, a frieze showing the king and the crown prince [Xerxes] had
been placed near the northern stairs of the Audience hall where everyone who came to celebrates the New
Years festival could see the intended successornobody objected. Strangely, this is the only commentary
on the death of Darius on the internet.

About Persian king Xerxes I (aka Achashverosh, Ahasuerus)(r.485-465BC):


Lexicorient.com2006: He depleted the wealth of Persia by building a great number of palaces and
monuments.
Wikipedia.org2006: in the Book of Ezra and in Book of Esther, the Persian king Axasweros aka
Ahasuerus) probably corresponds to Xerxes I. .Xerxes, son of Darius the Great and Atossa, the daughter of
Cyrus the Great, was appointed King of Persia by his father in preference to his elder half-brothers, who were
born before Darius had become king. After his accession in October 485BC he suppressed the revolts in Egypt
and Babylon which had broken out in 486BC, appointed his brother Achaemenes as governor or satrap over
Egypt bringing Egypt under a very strict rule. His predecessors, especially Darius, had not been successful in
their attempts to conciliate the ancient civilizations. This probably was the reason why Xerxes in 484BC took
away from Babylon the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the legitimate king of
Babylon had to seize on the first day of each year, and killed the priest who tried to hinder him. Therefore
Xerxes does not bear the title of King in the Babylonian documents dated from his reign, but King of Persia and
Media or simply King of countries. This proceeding led to two rebellions, probably in 484BC and 479BC.
The clergies of that period try to incorporate the doctrines of previous belief systems in Zoroastrianism. The
religions of Mithra and Anahita become popular and King Xerxes is worshiping Mithra and Anahita next to Ahur
Mazda.
THE PLOT Contrary to the behavior of Darius and Cyrus the Great, when Xerxes initially prevailed over Greece, due to
the recommendations of clergies, he ordered his soldiers to set fire to palaces and temples in Athens.
This compelled Alexander of Macedonia to set fire to Persopolis and libraries after the defeat of the
Achamenedae.

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484BC Herodotus (484BC-425BC) of Halicarnassus is born. He is a Dorian Greek historian who is regarded as the
father of history by most and the father of lies by some.
484BC Xerxes I subdues a rebellion In Egypt with extreme methods. Xerxes I abolishes the kingdom of Babel
and removes the gold statue of Marduk.

About Marduk:
Lexicorient.com2006: The supreme god of Babylonian and Assyrian religion, originally the god of
thunderstorms with the Amonites. His period as a great god lasted from the 18th century BC until perhaps
484BC when the Persian king Xerxes I had his gold statue removed. Marduk was associated with, or
represented by, a selection of sacred animals. These were horses, dogs and a dragon with a forked tongue.
Marduk is often represented either walking or on his war chariot. In his hand he holds a sceptre, and he carries
either a bow, a spear, a net or a thunderbolt. There were several accounts on who was Marduks wife. The
most popular was that it was the goddess the Zarpanitu. In the epic Enuma Elish, Marduk defeats Tiamat and
Kingu, the gods that challenged the stability of cosmos. With these victories, Marduk is lifted up to the supreme
position among the gods. Following his victory, Marduk created heaven and earth, arranged the planets and
stars and created the human race. He was adorned with 50 titles, of which Bel, meaning lord was the highest.
As the supreme god of Babylong, he was simply called Bel. The explanation of why Marduk was lifted up to
the supreme god, replacing Ea and Enlil must be read as a reflection of the power struggle of Mesopotamia,
where the Amorites conquered the region. Their supreme god was Marduk. Upon taking control over
Babylonia, they needed legitimacy for transferring power to them. A reflection myth was the result, the Enuma
Elish. Marduk was at times challenged by the cult of Enlil, but he would always regain his position. After about
1000BC, Assyrias supreme god Anshur would challenge, but Marduk kept his strong position in the south of
Mesopotamia. Marduk would be honored also by Assyrian and Persian kings. Some of the Persian rulers had
some of his temples rebuilt. Marduke had two chief temples in Babylon, Exagila and Etemenanki. In Esagila
temple, the Enuma Elish was recited during the important New Year Festival. The Etemenanki was a ziggurat
with a Marduk shrine on the top.
483BC Siddhartha Gautama dies. He was a spiritual teacher from ancient India and the historical founder of
Buddhism. He is universally recognized by Buddhists as the historical founder of Buddhism and as the
Supreme Buddha of our age.
483- Wikipedia.org2006: Darius had left to his son the task of punishing the Athenians, Naxoans and Eretrians for
480BC their interference in the Ionian revolt and the victory of Marathon. From 483 Xerxes prepared his expedition
with great care: a channel was dug through the isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos; provisions were
stored in the stations on the road through Thrace; two bridges were thrown across the Hellespont. Xerxes
concluded an alliance with Carthage, and thus deprived Greece of the support of the powerful monarchs of
Syracuse and Agrigentum. Many smaller Greek states, moreover, took the side of the Persians, especially
Thessaly, Thebes and Argos.
Phoenicia.org2007: forces are drawn from every quarter of the Persian empire. Two bridges are thrown
across the Hellespont, the narrow straight that divides Europe from Asiaa lofty seat of white stone is carved
out on the hilltop to enable Xerxes to look down on the seashore where his army and fleet are assembled. A
race of ships is organized in his honor and the ships of Sidon win, to the kings great pleasure. Xerxes shows

 a marked preference for Phoenician vessels, the Sidonian ones in particular. Rding in his chariot, the king
drives past the men of each nation, foot soldiers and cavalry, questioning them while his scribes write down the
answers. Then the king alights from his chariot and, according to Herodotus (7.100) boards a ship of Sidon,
sitting under a golden canopy. He sails past the prows of all the ships assembled before him, questioning the
seamen and ordering that their answers be written down. The loss of the fleet in the previous expedition off the
rocky coast of Mount Athos prompts Xerxes to order that a canal be dug through the isthmus to allow his ships
to pass in safety. No sooner this is done, however, the sides cave in. Phoenician engineers, Herodotus (7.23)
writes, rescue the projectXerxes, at the head of his army, marches into Thessaly and quarters his troops at
Therma, Macedonia. There he embarks on a ship of Sidon to reconnoiter by sea. After the Persian victory at
Thermopylae, Xerxes gives orders to proceed to Artemisium, where the Greeks await him
480BC The Battle of Salamis was won by the Athenians

About the Battle of Salamis (September 28, 480BC):


Wikipedia.org2006: In the spring of 480BC, Xerxes set out from Sardis. At first Xerxes was victorious
everywhere. The Greeks were beaten at Thermopylae, Athens conquered, the Athenians with Sparta driven
back to their last line of defense at the Isthmus of Corinth and in the Saronic Gulf. At Artemisuem the battle
was indecisive as large storms destroyed ships from both sides. The Battle was also stopped prematurely as
the Greeks caught news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated. But Xerxes was induced by the astute
message of Themistocles (against the advice of Artemisia of Halicarnassus) to attck the Greek fleet under
unfavourable conditions, instead of sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the
dissolution of the Greek armament. The Battle of Salamis (September 28, 480) was won by the Athenians.
Having lost his communication by sea with Asia, Xerxes was forced to retire to Sardis; the army which he left in
Greece under Mardonius was in 479BC beaten at Plataea. The defeat of the Persians at Mycale roused the
Greek cities of Asia.
Phoenicia.org2007: Xerxes, at the head of his army, marches into Thessaly and quarters his troops at
Therma, Macedonia. There he embarks on a ship of Sidon to reconnoiter by sea. After the Persian victory at
Thermopylae, Xerxes gives orders to proceed to Artemisium, where the Greeks await him. A fierce battle
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ensues. The Athenians and Sidonians fight bravely. But the decisive battle is yet to come. Before throwing
his troops into battle at Salamis, Greece, Xerxes holds a council of war. His high esteem for the king of Sidon
is seen by the place assigned to him at the meeting. Herodotus (8.67) tells us First in place is the king of
Sidon and next the king of Tyre. Among the kings and princes of Phoenicia who sail with Xerxes, Herodotus
(7.98) records, are Tetramnestus, son of Anysus of Sidon, and Matten, son of Sirom (Hiram) of Tyre. Xerxes
has one woman admiral. She is Artemedia, a widow, in command of the naval contingents of Halicarnassus,
Cos, Nisyra and Calydna in Asia Minor. She is the only one to object to plans for a battle at sea, claiming that
the Greeks are far superior to the Persians in naval matters. On Mount Aegaleos Xerxes surveys the naval
 engagement from his silver footed throne. The narrowness of the straights at Salamis and the fact the Greeks
are fighting in home waters leads to the defeat and flight of the Phoenician ships. When some of the
THE PLOT captains appear before him to furnish explanations, Xerxes has them executed on the spot. Other Phoenician
commanders become so alarmed that they desert the fleet and sail away. This is perhaps the reason
why for the next fifteen years there is no record of Phoenician contingents in the service of Persias
kings.

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480BC Xenophanes of Colophon in Asia Minor, dies.

About Xenophanes (570-480BC), Greek poet, religious reformer, and philosopher of Colophon in Asia Minor:
Hypatia-lovers.com2007: Greek poet, religious reformer, and philosopher of Colophon in Asia Minor.
Xenophanes wandered the Earth as a minstrel for many years before settling permanently in Elea, in Southern
Italy, around 536BC. There, he is said to have founded the Eleatic School of philosophyin the history of
philosophy, Xenophanes is considered as an interesting and influential critic of established ideasXenophanes
fearlessly attacked the gods, pointing out repeatedly that the true origin of the gods lay in the
anthropomorphism of Nature (in other words, in the attribution of human form or personality to Nature, and then
calling it God)Xenophanes felt that the gods as described by Homer and Hesiod were not worthy of worship,
and that the stories of them were scientifically absurd. Instead of accepting the existence of such gods, he
postulated a god who was singular, immovable, and omnipresent. Because his god was an impersonal god,
Xenophanes views may be considered the historys first non-mystical expression of pantheism (the doctrine-
later held by Spinoza and Einstein-that equates God with the Laws and forces of the Universe.) In the natural
philosophy of Xenophanese the rain cycle theory appears for the first timewater vapors rise, etcit was
believed that it rained because the gods made it rainXenophanes believed that a mixing of earth and sea is
taking place, and that in time earth will be dissolved by moisture. As proofshells are found inlandleaf has
been found deep in the rockIn Xenophanes view, all men are destroyedafter which there is a new
beginningchange takes place within each reincarnation of the cosmosevidence to show that this had
happened beforefossil remainsIf the founders of the Ionian tradition were aware of these implications, they
gave no sign of itquestion of the existence of the gods was passed over in silenceXenophanes was a
monotheist-more properly, a pantheist-whose god was in no way similar to mortals either in body or in mindit
is the god of the philosophers, born of reflection upon the nature of thingsnot the product of poetic
imagination or religious dogma, but the product of Reason [!?]cosmos exists in innumerable incarnations, but
they do not overlap. The world-order must come to an end before a new one can arise. But god is eternal and
does not come into being or pass awayone god is not an entity, as it is to monotheists, but in pantheistic
fashion, is instead suffused throughout the cosmos-it is the active principle of order itselfmoral orderthe
cosmos itself can endure only as long as the opposites make reparation to one another for their injustice.
Justice, therefore, is of the very nature of the divineHomer and Hesiod attributed to the gods all manner of
atrocitiesas have also been attributed to the God of the Jews, Christians, and MoslemsThus,
Xenophanese concluded, the gods of popular beliefare unworthy of the respect due to the divineonly
through patient inquiry does the truth become known; and there are limits, even then, to what men may
knowwinter would seem less cold but for the heat of summer. It is in this sense that human knowledge is
relativeman was only capable of approximations of the truththese natural laws and forces, in the view of
the pantheist, are the real God.
479BC Confuscius (551-479BC) dies. He was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher, whose teachings and
philosophy have deeply influenced Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese thought and life. His
philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and
sincerity.
475BC Heraclitus, Greek philosopher, dies.

About Heraclitus of Ephesus (540-475BC), Greek philosopher of noble birth:


Hypatia-lovers.com2007: there was no permanent reality except the reality of change; permanence was
but an illusion of the senses. He taught that all things carried with them their opposites, that death was
potential in life, that being and not-being were part of every wholehe believed fire to be the underlying
substance of the Universe, and thought all other elements to be transformations of itno man had a soul of
his own, but shared in a universal soularound 500BC, Heraclitus wrote a book of which well over a
hundred fragments have come down to us. The tone of these fragments is striking; they reveal a proud and
passionate nature, harsh in judgment, impatient of the views of others, yet it is redeemed by a clear, intense,
and perhaps even profound vision of realitysometimes reminds us of a Hebrew prophet: The learning of
many things teacheth not understanding, else would it have taught Hesiod and Pythagoras, and again
Xenophanes and Hekataios. It is better to understand the one thingwisdomrejected the
anthropomorphism of popular religion, but what is peculiar to Heraclitus is the sheer sweep of his vision: All
things come into being through opposition, and are in flux like a river. This world-order, the same for all, no
god made, nor any man, but always was, and is, and will be an ever-living fire. In other words, Heraclitus held
the cosmos to be un-created and everlastingthe tension of opposing forces which Anaximander calls
injustice are part of the cosmic process itself, without them there would be no alteration of summer and winter.
These injustices which the opposites commit against each other are as essential to the well-being of the whole
as the reparation which they make to one anoterHeraclitus presumed that god, whose perception is absolute-
notrelative-is not bound by the relativity of our perceptionsNot only Homer, but Hesiod too, lamented strife,
saying that fishes devour one another because they do not have justice. Heraclitus maintained that this view
fails to consider the fact that if fishes were not eaten by other fishes, and these by other fishes again, the
balance of life in the sea would be completely disruptedappliestothe cosmosWar is the father of all
things and king of allWar, too, is justice; in the eyes of god, what men call injustice and what men call
justice are one and the sameHeraclitus entreats us always to look at the big picturemaintained that the
souls of men slain in battle are purer than those that die of diseasemen who die in battle are cut off in the
prime of life, when they are most active, and their souls most fiery[!?]Heraclitus was an aristocrat, not a
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democrat. His low opinion of democracy stemmed from his low regard for the mediocre masses, whom he felt
lacked the understanding to make wise laws and decisions. He maintained that the man who desires to live in
conformity with the logos will speak the truth, and that the law of the city should be but a reflection of the logos
which runs through all things, but that law-making could hardly be entrusted to the ignorant massesIn
Heraclitus rather jaundiced view of democracy, the mediocre masses tend to want the law to express
the will of all, not realizing that it is not number that determine what is right or wrong, but intelligence.
And one man of intelligence is worth more than all the ignorant ones put together.
 Livius.org2006: Heraclitus was a rich man from Ephesus [on the coast of Asia minor] and lived c.500BC,
during the Persian occupation of his home town. Part of Heraclitus activities may have been directed
against the Persian Magians, whom he calls wanderers of the nightClement of Alexandria: against
the wanderers of the night, the Magians, the Bacchantes, the Maenads and initiates. Heraclitus threatens them
with tortures after death, he threatens them with fire, for what they believe to be initiations in the mysteries
are in fact impious ritesHis philosophical work consists of a series of cryptical pronouncements that force a
reader to think: war is the father of all things, all things are in a state of flux and nothing is permanent, the
road up and down is one and the same. Unfortunately, a great part of his work is lost, which makes it very
difficult to reconstruct Heraclitus ideas. It seems certain, however, that he thought that the basic principle of
the universe was the logos, i.e. the fact that it was rationally organized and therefore understandable. Bipolar
oppositions are one form of organization, but the sage understands that these oppositions are just aspects of
one reality. Fire is the physical aspect of the perfect logos.
Trincoll.edu2006: his surviving work consists of more than 100 epigrammatic sentences [ad hoc citations
by authors from the period AD100-300}, complete in themselves and often comparable to the proverbs
characteristic of wisdom literatureeverything is in flux, like the constant flow of a riverunity consists of
opposites; remove day, and night goes toounless people reflect on their experience and examine
themselves, they are condemned to live a dream-like existence and to remain out of touch with the
formula that governs and explains the nature of thingsfire constitutes and symbolizes both the processes
of nature in general and also the light of intelligenceexceptional in the explicit contempt he expresses for
such hallowed authorities as Homer and Hesiod, and also for the contemporary intellectuals Xenophanes,
Hecataeus and Pythagoras. He may have been on bad terms with his fellow citizens for politcal reasons,
including perhaps support he received from King Darius of Persia, and it is likely that he was opposed to the
democratic constitutions some Greek communities were beginning to adopt.
Iep.utm.edu: Heraclitus does not reveal or conceal, but produces complex expressions that have encoded
in them multiple messages for those who can interpret them.
En.wikipedia.org2007: conflict is necessary for change to occur and to argue against Homer: War
is the father of all and the king of all and Every animal is driven to pasture with a blow.

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Parmenides of Elea was a younger contemporary of Heraclitus of Ephesus, but he lived at the opposite end of
the Greek world in Italy.

Livius.org2007: the endless variety and eternal changes were just an illusionchange was impossiblewe
had to distrust our senses and rely solely on our intellectthis idea was to prove one of the most influential in
western culture.
About the Story of Esther and Purim:

First Jewish version: In Shushan, capitol of Persia, during the reign of Xerxes I (aka Achashverosh,
Ahasuerus, r.486-465BC), Haman, descendent of Amalek the eternal enemy of Israel [Judah1!], top
minister of the Persian King Achashverosh convinces the King to have the remaining Persian Jews
massacredhe used the usual reasons about Jews having different customs, being aliens, not loyal. Haman
th
decided it would be done on the 13 day of the Hebrew month of Adar. Using the Amalekite philosophy that
everything happens by chance, Haman throws lots to determine the 13th day. God delivers up a deliverer in
Esther, the Jewish Queen of Persia. Esther was at first reluctant to expose her Jewish identity to help her
people. Mordecai, her cousin and advisor, was forced to remind her that God would raise another if she failed

 to respond. So she did. Haman is exposed and hanged [why?], Mordecai is promoted, and the Jews in all of
the Persian Empire are allowed to defend themselves against their enemies. And so the day of destruction
was turned into a day of deliverance for the diaspora Jews. This is the Jewish holiday Purim when Jews get
drunk, wear masks so they cant tell differences, nothing is what it seems and nothing happens by chance.
Rabbis say While all other Festivals may be annulled, Purim will never pass away. Purim happens every
th th
year on the 14 and 15 day of Adar, the last month of the Jewish calendar. Adar usually corresponds with the
month of March. In the Synagogues and Temples, the Megillah, or Book of Esther, is read aloud. When the
name of Haman, the Jews enemy, is pronounced, children and adults alike, whistle, shake rattles,
noisemakers, and stomp their feet to blot out the name. The children have costume parties and the women
 bake Hamantaschens, which are small pastries shaped like Hamans three cornered hat. Darius II, who is
believed to be Esthers son, succeeds Achashverosh. Darius II allows the Jews the job of finishing the
temple. Jews say during Purim, Jews are always going to have a way out, so that they can
accomplish their mission in this world and that means rebuilding the temple.
Second Jewish version, Aish.com2006: In Persia, the new king is Achashverosh [considered by many to be
Xerxes I] , and he is married to Vashti, the sole survivor of the blood bath in the royal palace of Belshazzar
during the Persian invasion. Achashverosh throws a party reminiscent of the one that Belshazzar had thrown
some years before. He, too, has been calculating and he has decided that the 70 years allotted in Jeremiahs
prophecy for the Jews to regain the land of Israel is up. To this feast, Achashverosh invites the Jews and,
unbelievably, they come-to celebrate their own endthey gradually developed into a positive enjoyment of the
pagan way of life and its pleasuresafter drunken revelrythe king orders his wife to appear wearing
nothingshe refuseshe has her executedthe king send his scouts to round up all the eligible womenthis
is how Esther gets nabbed for the palace. No one knows she is Jewish, and her uncle Mordechai tells her to
keep her identity secret. The king falls in loveEsther becomes queenAchashveroshs top minister is a man
named Haman HaAgagiAgag was the king of the nation of Amalek whom King Saul neglected to kill as
commanded. Haman is an Amalekite, and he harbors a pathological hatred of the Jewish peopleHaman gets
the king to agree to issue a secret decree to annihilate the Jews of Persia on the 13th day of Adarhow he
decides on the best datethrows lots-called purimWhy? It is part of Amalekite ideology that everything is a
random occurrence-everything happens by chance. There is no GodExpecting honors from the king, Haman
finds himself forced to bestow these honors on his arch-enemy MordechaiInvited along with the king to the
queens feast, Haman is preening with pride, only to discover that the queen is Jewish. And that now he is
accused of plotting to murder her along with her people. Begging for mercy, he throws himself onto the
queens bed only to be caught by the kingand accused of attempted rapehe himself is sentenced to death.
And the Jewsare given the kings permission to annihilate their enemiesthe Book of Esther is the ultimate
story of God putting the cure before the disease. Everything thats a seeming disaster, in hindsight works
outThis is why on Purim Jews get drunk so they cant tell the difference between Blessed be Mordechai and
Cursed Be Haman... Everything is not what it seems, which is why on Purim it is a custom to wear
masksDarius II, believed to be Esthers son, succeeds Achashverosh as King of Persia and he allows the
Jews to finish the job that had started under Cyrus [rebuilding the temple].
Wikipedia.org2006: Xerxes is understood to be Ahasucrus the King in the biblical Book of Esther. In this
book, Ahasucrus dismisses his Queen consort Vashti because she refused to obey his command of appearing
as queen of his empire at a feast he was having for his princes and then after sending forth a decree to gather
the fair young virgins from throughout his empire, chooses the Jewish esther as his queen. The kings minister
Haman, an Agagite (a nation that was decreed by God to be destroyed), feeling insulted by Esthers uncle
Mordecai because he would not bow down to Haman, convinces Ahasuerus to decree the destruction of all the
Jews in the Persian Empire, but Mordecai and Esthe manage to reverse ttheir fate with the king who had tried
to kill them. The works of Josephus suggest that Vashti and Esther existed. However, the works of Herodotus,
suggest that Xerxes had a Queen consort named Amestris, daughter to Otanes.
jthink
Buffalo-israel-link.org2007: Next we have the story told in the Book of Esther about Judeophobia in Persia
during the fourth Century BC. In that story we have many of the classical elements of anti-Semitism: The Jews
are described as separating themselves from the rest of the population while being quite successfully
integrated in the royal administration: There is a certain people dispersed and scattered among the peoples in
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all the provinces of your kingdom whose customs are different from those of all other people and who do not
obey the kings laws; it is not in the kings best interest to tolerate them. (Esther 3:8) The latter success breeds
envy. This envy to one particular Jews is projected on the Jewish people. The Judeophobic Hamman wishes
to kill all Jews, men, women and children just for being Jews. kill and annihilate all the Jews-young and old,
women and little children-on a single day (Esther 3:13) Moreover, Jews are distinct by being dispersed
throughout the empire-a small minority unlike most other nationals. Finally, assimilation does not help a Jew to
escape the consequences of Jew-hatred. Do not think that because you are in the kings house you along of
all the Jews will escape. (Esther 4:13)Jews have been unique in two aspects: They kept their cultural identity
and were outstandingly ingenious and productive wherever they went. There is hardly any other nation like the
Jews in this respect. Fifty years after the first exile to Babylon the Jews were permitted by King Cyrus to return
to their homeland. However, only a relatively small number of people returned, while the majority continued to
live in exile spreading all over Mesopotamia and Persia and reached high positions in the Persian courtthe
Babylonian diaspora was politically strong enough to revolt against Persian rule (359BC), and was later affluent
enough to provide substantial material support to the Hashmonean Kingdom of Judea. The Jewish military
colonies in southern Egypt played a major role in the history of that country.

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Wikipedia.org2006: Of the later years of Xerxes little is known. He sent out Satapes to attempt the
 circumnavigation of Africa, but the victory of the Greeks threw the empire into a state of slow apathy, from
which it could not rise again. The king himself became involved in intrigues of the harem and was much
dependent upon courtiers and eunuchs. He left inscriptions at Persepolis, where he added a new palace to
that of Darius, at Van in Armenia, and on Mount Elvend near Ecbatana. In these texts he merely copies the
words of his father.
465BC Phoenicia.org2007: In 465BC, however, the victorius Athenians threaten Cyprus. The Phoenician fleet
appears in support of the Persians once again as many of the cities of Cyprus are Phoenician colonies. From
465 to 390BC they protect Cyprus from the Athenians and more than once fight them off. During the Persian
 period Phoenicians find the time to do a bit of business on the side and exploit mines on the island of Thasos.
Herodotus (6.47) claims to have seen them: A whole mountain has been turned upside down in the search of
gold.
465BC Xerxes I is murdered at Persepolis together with his oldest son by a captain of the palace guard. He is
succeeded by his son, Artaxerxes I (465-425BC)

About the murder of Xerxes I:


?
About Persian king Artaxerxes I:
Lexicorient.com2006: there are few accounts of important achievement. But as there were no territorial
losses, only rebellions from local rulers, it could be deducted that Artaxerxes period was a fairly good and
stable one for his subjects. One indicator of this might be from Jewish sources, from which we learn that he
allowed them to rebuild Jerusalemborn of Xerxes I and Queen Amestris.
Leucippus was among the earliest philosophers of atomism, the idea thqt everything is composed entirely of
various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.

About Leucippus and Democritus:


Hebrewhistory.info2007: purportedly the founder of the atomic school of Greek philosophy. He was born
in Miletus, on the southern Anatolian coastin the arena at Miletus an inscription was found that designated
that sector of the theater as The Place of the Jews. And yes! Leucippus acknowledged that it was on his
sojourn in Babylonia that he learned the basic principles from the eastern philosophers, which he outlined in his
worlds The Great World System and On Mind. It was among those unnamed, and presumably Judaic
philosophers that Leucippus learned the elements of the atomic theory. Democritus followed Leucippus, and is
commonly but mistakenly credited in place of Leucippus as the initial promulgator of the atomist theory.
Democritus like all the Greek merchant/philosophers mentioned above, was likewise not born on the Grecian
peninsula but in the town of Abdera in Thrace between 470-450 BCE. It should be recalled that Hermippus
reported that Pythagoras learned his basics from the Thracians and the Jews. But where did Democritus, the
Thracian, obtain his education? Not in his native land but in Babylonia. The Chambers Biographical
Dictionary records that [Democritus] traveled in the East, showed ceaseless industry in collecting the works of
other philosophers. In fact we know About Democritus only from fragments of voluminous notes he
tookneither he, nor any other Greek ever credited by name the eastern mentors whose works or teachings
they collected. We may readily assume that the knowledge obtained by Greek merchants while conducting
their business in the East was common wisdom in the Judaic/Babylonian society at the time.
Wikipedia.org2007: There are no existing writings which we can attribute to Leucippus, since his writings
seem to have been folded into the work of his famous student Democritus.
460BC After 500BC, the Pythagorean Society expanded rapidly, became political in nature and also split into a number
of factions. In 460BC the Society was violently suppressed. Its meeting houses were everywhere sacked and
burned; mention is made in particular of the house of Milo in Croton, where 50 or 60 Pythagoreans were
surprised and slain.
460BC heroinhelper.com: The great Greek physician, Hippocrates (the father of medicine), writes about the
 usefulness of opium in curing a number of diseases, especially diarrhea.
459BC Ezra, a priestly scribe, leads about 5,000 Israelite exiles living in Babylon to their home city of Jerusalem.
He is a cohen and hears that the Jewish community is floundering with neither king nor prophet. So he takes
with him men with leadership abilities and comes to the rescue. Ezra condemns all the men who had married
non-Jewish wives. Through his efforts, those mixed marriages are dissolved. All men and women are
gathered in Jerusalem, and the Torah is read out loud. All present pledge not to intermarry and uphold the
Torah (Nechemiah 10:30-31).
*******The Great Assembly / Sanhedrin (Jewish Supreme Court)*******
aish.com2006: Realizing that the Jewish people were growing weaker spiritually, a group of wise leaders
came together-expanding the Sanhdrin, the Jewish Supreme Court, from 70 to 120 members-with a special
aim of strengthening Judaism. Initially gathered together by Ezrathey defined Judaismwhen prophecy was
all but gone from the Jewish peopleAmong them we count the last of the prophets Haggai, Zecharizh and
jthink Malachi, as well as the sages Mordechai (of the Purim story)the Talmud has not yet been compiled.
Knowing how to live a Jewish life depends on knowing the commandments of the Torah and their
interpretations which have been passed down orally-in short, knowing what is known as the Written Torah
and the Oral Torah, both of which date back to Moses teachings at Sinai. It is impossible to understand the
Written Torah without its Oral complement. For example, when the Written Torah states: And these words

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which I command you today shall be upon your heartand you shall write them upon the door-posts of your
house and upon your gateways, it is the Oral Torah that explains which words the Written Torah is referring to,
and that these words should be penned on a small scroll and affixed to the door frameaccurate transmission
of this oral tradition becomes essential. And here is where the Men of the Great Assembly make the greatest
contributionthe Men of the Great Assembly decide which of the multitude of Jewish holy writings
should be in the Bible. The Jewish people have produced hundreds of thousands of prophertsWhich of
their writings should be preservedThe Men of the Great Assembly make this decision and give us what is
known as the Hebrew Bible today-or the Tanach (acronum which stands for Torah, Prophets, Writings). This
is what the Christians call the Old Testament but educated Jews never call it thatJews deny that God
would ever change His mind after promising the Jews they would be His eternal nationthey find that
term insulting. The Hebrew Bible consists of the five books of the Torah, eight books of the prophets (the last
of which consists of twelve short books) and eleven books of various writings, which include the Psalms
(largely attributed to King David), the writings of King Solomon (Song of Songs, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes), the
books of Job, Ruth, Esther and Daniel etc. The last thing that the Men of the Great Assembly do is
nd
formalize prayer. They actually begin a process which is not finished until the 2 century AD, after the
destruction of the Second TempleDuring the First Temple period, there was no formalized Jewish prayer
liturgy, because the people had such a close, intense, personal relationship with Godaccomplished through
 the offering of sacrificesthe times of the formalized prayer are designed to correspond to times when things
were done in the TempleThe centerpiece of each selectionisthe Eighteen Blessingsrooted in Torah
and Kabbalahit helped the Jewsthat the Persians were such benevolent dictators.

WHAT DID THE PERSIANS GET FROM THE JEWS THAT MADE THEM SO BENEVOLENT? WHAT COMES IN SMALL PACKAGES?
458BC From The Controversy of Zion by Douglas Reed:

The small Palestinian tribe of Judah (earlier disowned by the Israelites) produced a racial creed. The
master race was set up as the Law. The impulse which at that remote time set many men searching for a
universal, loving God produced this fierce counter-idea of an exclusive, vengeful deity. The idea of the one-
God of all men was known long before the tribe of Judah even took shape. But every Jewish child is taught
 that Judaism was the first universal religion and all universal religions descended from it. Judaism was above
all else the denial of the one-God. The sect which attached itself to and mastered the tribe of Judah took this
rising concept of one God of all people and embodies it in its Scriptures only to destroy it and to set up the
creed based on its denial. It is denied subtly, but with scorn, and as the creed is based on the theory of the
master-race this denial is necessary and inevitable. The creed which was given force of daily law in Judah
in 458 BC was then and still is unique in the world. It rested on the assertion, attributed to the tribal deity
(Jehovah), that the Israelites (in fact, the Judahites) were his chosen people who, if they did all his statues and
judgements, would be set over all other peoples and be established in a promised land. Out of this theory,
whether by forethought or unforeseen necessity, grew the pendent theories of captivity and destruction. If
Jehovah were to be worshipped, as he demanded, at a certain place in a specified land, all his worshippers
had to live there. Obviously all of them could not live there, but if they lived elsewhere, whether by constraint or
their own choice, they automatically became captives of the stranger, whom they had to root out, pull down and
destroy. Given this, it made no difference whether the captors were conquerors or friendly hosts. Their
ordained lot was to be destruction of enslavement. In 458BC. the Levitical priests read aloud to the people
their first written version of the Law, fresh from the pens of the priests in Babylon and All the people
wept when they heard the words of the Law (Nehemiah 8:9)at this stage when word-of-mouth
tradition became written Scripture, the perversion occurred. The surviving words of the earlier
Israelites show that their tradition was a widening one of neighborliness under a universal God. This
was changed into its opposite by the itinerant priests who segregated the Judahites and established
the worship of Jehovah as the god of racialism, hatred and revenge.

From The Union Jack:

British Israel means a World State (Government) Commonwealth Earthly KingdomTo teach the world
through Christianity that the mission of the Messiah is to unify the world in a material and political sense is the
false hope of Jew-Phariseeism and is as much to their own damnation as it is to that of professing Christians
whom they have deceived. It [Fundamentalist Christianity] is Zionism.

From aish.com (2006): We must remember that the Jewish people are arguably the oldest surviving people
on the Planet Earth, and because they have been spread out throughout the world, when we learn Jewish
history we have to pay attention to all of human history.
Jewish financiers are active in Babylonia who operate under a system of credit introduced by them whereby
 interest-bearing capital was offered for private enterprise and for governmental purposes.

Hebrewhistory.info2007: From the eighth century BCE, when the Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pieser departed
13,150 Israelites to Persia (according to the conqueror himself), to modern times, Jews have been at the
forefront of international trade. The subsequent Babylonian exile added many thousands of Judahite families
to the Persian/Babylonian milieu. Persia became the pivotal point from which trade between the eastern and
the western worlds evolved. The Jews were the common denominator between those worlds. Jewish bankers
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made finance capital a factor of Persian industrial development and initiated a system of credit that Jewish
traders wove into the world economy. The surviving records of two Jewish banking families are among the
most revealing documents of the Persian period. They supplied the credit and capital for the expanding
economy of the region. Albert Olmstead, author of the authoritative History of the Persian Empire, took special
note that: Without any doubt, the most important economic phenomenon was the emergence of the private
banker and the consequent expansion of credit. Previously, until the seventh century BCE, credit was
available in Persia mainly on a local basis as temple loans to dependents, to be repaid in kind or equivalent, or
as advances of graines or other food-stuffs from landlords to their peasant tenants in off season, to be repaid at
harvest time. Such loans were generally interest-free, albeit a penalty amounting to as much as twenty-five per
cent was imposed if payment was not made when due. By the mid-seventh century BCE, soon after the
deportation of the Israelites to the area, financiers appeared who instituted a reformed system of credit
whereby interest-bearing capital was offered for private enterprise and for governmental purposes.
Most important among the new institutions engaged in such enterprise were the Jewish banking houses of
Murashu and Sons, and of Egibi and Sons. They expanded the scope of credit from agrarian assistance to the
energizing of industry and commerce. The records of both powerful banking houses reveal astouncingly
sophisticated functions. They document credits issued, loans granted, bills of exchange, the founding and
financing of commercial enterprises, the purchase of goods, and the acquisition, management, and sale of
tracts of land. The Murashu family stemmed from Judahite deportees. After rooting in Nippur, a commercially
important city southeast of Babylon, they became a leading banking family of Mesopotamia The family was
central to the regions economy for at least a century and a halfthe surviving records of the Murashu
business houses are mostly of three sons and three grandsons of the founder, covering a half century between
455 and 403 BCE. They make clear that the firm had long been a vital factor in the economy of the region, and
continued to be so thereafter. The records provide a piercing view into the Persian/Babylonian economy of the
times, as well as of the vital role of Jewish artisans and entrepreneurs active within itTel Abib was one of the
twenty-eight such Jewish settlements in the immediate nippur area alone that are featured in the Murashu
records. The documents attest to the wide spread of activities of the erstwhile exiles. Included are deeds for
land acquisitions, contracts and conveyances of all kinds, insurance, the provision of capital for specific
projects. Even securities for imprisoned debtors were dealt with by the prestigious Murashu house. The
Murashus managed estates for absentee landlords, hiring labor, paying taxes to the exchequer, and remitting
the profits to the landlords. They provided small farm collectives eking out a living along the irrigation canals
with equipment for raising water to their farms. They supplied farmers with animals, seed, and implements.
The Murashu documents make evident that many forms of producers collectives existed. In addition to
agrarian cooperatives, the system encompassed various groups of artisans, for example, carpenters, tanners,
ferrymen and shepherds, as well as merchants, scribes, and so on. Jews are prominently featured as
recipients of this assistance. Some owned land. Others were employed by high-placed Persians and
Babylonians or were servants of the crownmany Jews assumed Babylonian names, as is inevitably the case
in a Diaspora. Nonetheless, eight per cent of the clients of the banking families can be identified as Jews
from their names alone. This percentage corresponds roughly to the proportion of Jews among the official
population, which, before the influx of the deportees from Jerusalem and Judah, amounted to over six per cent
of the total. The Aramaic form of many other names and suggestive facts indicate that the actual percentage
was far higher. For example, a certain Jesaiah mortgaged his land to the Murashu banking house at an annual
fee of thirty thousand liters of barley. Three years later, Jedaiah in association with other partners expanded
his holdings, paying three times the amount in rent. In 419BCE, Jedaiahs son, Eliada, formed a partnership
with a person with a Persian name to become the agents of the steward of the royal domains in the Nippur
area. Most of the Jews referred to in the Murashu documents were of the lower classses. Some were slaves.
They come to our attention because slaves of those times were not treated as mere property without rights, but
as persons who retained private privileges as well as responsibilities to their owner. They could independently
enter into legal agreements that did not compromise the responsibilities to their lordEgibiwas brought into
questio because of the name of the head of the firm, Ittl-Marduk-balatushown to be a fashionable acceptance
of Babylonian norms without religious overtonesit is clear that although the Egibi and Murashu families were
wealthy Jews, and while other Jews did well at court and in the service of the hierarchy, most Jews were busy
at agriculture, crafts, and various enterprisesall fourteen canal managers known to us by name through these
documents were Jewssome Jews participated in the military establishmentJews were concentrated in the
fertile canal-laced heart of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. This region, and in particular the
Jewish enclaves within the region, formed the hub of a network of trade routes that fanned out across Asia to
the East and West. Jewish merchants and artisans established colonies at strategic points along those routes.

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Hebrewhistory.info2007: The Jewish traders of the Persian period were finally exemplified by the
 Rhadanites, whose name probably stemmed from the district of Radhan near Baghdad. The Rhadanites were
not mere adventurers. They were Talmudic students and the religious, cultural and social liaison
between the world-wide-spread Jewish communities. They were entrusted with the collection of
communal donations for delivery to the Geonim of Palestine and Babylonia, halachic scholars who
headed great centers of learning to which all Jews aspired to send their sons. The Rhadanites brought
sheltot, queries to the sages on law, ritual, and textual exegesis. They returned with teshuvot, the
responsa. These mercantile messengers created the first world-wide credit system. They became the
conduits of credit through which many nations conducted business through time and space. Letters of Credit
issued on one continent would be surely and securely honored months later. They were worldly-wise
couriers who had entre into royal courts and were commissioned by kings to carry out royal
diplomatic missions. The Rhadanites set the standard for Jewish international traders everywhereJewish
traders left for China laden with western wares and returned with a variety of exotic eastern products. A
geographic treatise, The Book of Roads and Kingdoms written by Ibn Khurdadhbih, manager of the postal and
information service in the province of Media, describes some itineraries taken and products carried by the
Rhadanites: They speak Arabic, Persian, Frankish, Andalusian, and Slavonic. They travel from East to West
and from West to East by both land and sea. From the West they bring adult slaves, boys and girls, brocade,
beaver, pelts, assorted furs, sables and swords. They sail from the land of the Franks on the Western Sea and
set out for a-Faruma 9a port on the easternmost branch of the Nile). There they transport their merchandise by
pack-animal to al-Qulzum [on the Red Sea], 25 parasangs away. From al-Qulzum they set sail for al-Jar
[Medina] and Jidda [the present port for Mecca], after which they proceed to Sind [the Indus River valley], India
and China. From China they bring musk, aloeswood, camphor, cinnamon, and other products as they make
their way back to al-Qulzum. Age-old communities of Jews were ensconced along these routes. In the Red
Sea, for example, lies the island of Yotab [now Jijban]. In the fifth century Arabia owned half the island, which
was occupied by an Arab prince and his tribe. The other half was a Jewish Free State that had been there
from time immemorial.
Hebrewhistory.info2007: Jewish/Persian entrepreneurs penetrated the massive Chinese market and tapped
 its resources from the fifth century BCE forward. Glass trade beads appear to be among the earliest trade
goods employed for the purpose. Such beads were recovered from Chinese tombs at Lo-Yang, the capital of
China in late Zhou timesvariety of glass beads was recovered. Among them were the ubiquitous eye-beads
of the same technique, design, and composition that had been produced in Judah and exported through Tyre
and Sidon throughout the Mediterranean. These unique beads were composed of concentric circles of
diffeently colored glass, producing a startling impression of staring eyes. Six such eyes were usually clustered
round a center eyewide distributionnumerous sites across southern Russia, the Mediterranean and
Europea favorite Chinese taleconcerns the boast of tradersthey could imitate precious colored stones
by melting together certain secret minderalsemperorgranted them permission to obtain whatever minerals
they neededglass beads and amulets continued to serve as prime trade goods throughout the agesglass
beads were recovered from a Canaanite vessel that foundered off the coast of Turkey at the end of the 14th
century BCE. The colonization of the world was accomplished largely by means of barrels of beads
brought to appreciative primitive peoplesthe provenance of the beads in the Chinese tombs could only have
been the Near East, for glass production was then confined to that area. Glassmaking was as yet unknown
west of Asiafirst mention of glassware in Greek literaturereported in 425BCE.
450BC After years of tension, Athenians attack the Persian territory of Cyprus.
450BC Hebrewhistory.info2007: Nor was astronomical [astrology?!] science original with the Greeks. Herodotus,
referred to as the First Historian, visited Babylonia about 450BCE. He accurately reported that it was there that
the Greeks had learned the science of astronomy. Herodotus was one of many ancient historians who
testified to the Greek absorption of philosophy and, by inference, science, specifically from among the
Jews of Babylonia.
448BC Peace is achieved between Persia and Athens.
430BC narconon.org: Herodotus reports on both ritual and recreation use of Cannabis by the Scythians
 (Herodotus The Histories 430 BC trans. G. Rawlinson).
430- Herodotus writes The Histories:
424BC First six books of a total of nine deal broadly with the growth of the Persian Empire.
In the first of the first six books, the tale begins with an account of the first western monarch to enter into
conflict with an eastern people: Croesus of Lydia attacked the Greek city-states of Ionia, and then
THE PLOT (heedlessly misinterpreting a cryptic oracle), also attacked the Persians. Croesus was defeated by Cyrus
the Great, founder of the Persian Empire, and Lydia became a Persian province.
The second of the first six books forms a lengthy digression concerning the history of Egypt, which Cyrus
successor, Cambyses, annexed to the Empire.
The next four of the six books deal with the further growth of the Empire under Darius, the Ionian Revolt, and
the burning of Sardis. The last of those describes the very first Persian incursion into Greece, an attack upon
those who aided the Ionians and a quest for retribution following the attack upon Sardis, which ended with the
defeat of the Persians in 490BC at the Battle of Marathon, near Athens.
The last three of the nine describe the attempt of the Persian king Xerxes to avenge the Persian defeat at
Marathon and to finally absorb Greece into the Empire. The Histories end in the year 479BC, with the Persian
invaders having suffered both a crushing naval defeat at Salamis, and near utter-annihilation of their ground

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forces at Plataea. The Persian Empire thus receded to the Aegean coastline of Asia Minor.
His remarkable book also contains ethnographic descriptions of the peoples that the Persians have
conquered, fairy tales, gossip, legends, and a very humanitarian moral: livius.org2006

About Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484BC-425BC), Dorian Greek Historian:


Wikipedia2006: He is almost exclusively known for writing The Histories, a collection [written between 430
and 424BC] of inquiries which passed into Latin and took on its modern connotation of history about the
places and peoples he encountered during his wide-ranging travels around the Mediterranean littoral and into
Mesopotamia. The theme for this work was the conflict between the ancient Greeks and the Persians or
Medesmost of what is known of the life of Herodotus has been gleaned from his own work. He was exiled
from Halicarnassus after his involvement in an unsuccessful coup detat against the ruling dynasty, and that he
then withdrew to the Island of Samoshe appears to have been very proud of his native city and its queen,
Artemisiajourneys took him to Egyptto Babylon, to the Ukraine, and to Italy and Sicilyhis work was
originally presented orally, and was designed to have an almost theatrical element to ithe made tours of the
Greek citieswhere he offered performances and expected payment. In 431BC, the Peloponnesian War
broke our between Athens and Sparta. It may have been that conflict that inspired him to collect his stories into
a continuous narrative. Centering as they do on the theme of Persias imperial progress, which only a united
Athens and Sparta had managed to resist, they may be seen as a critique ofthe war-mongering that
threatened to engult the entire Greek worldAs the work progresses, it becomes apparent that Herodotus is
fulfilling his opening desire-to prevent the great and wonderful actions of the Greeks and the Barbarians from
losing their due meed of glory, and to put on record what causes first brought them into conflict. Indeed, it is
only from this perspective that his opening discussion of ancient wife-stealing is comprehensiblehe is
attempting to discover who first made the west and the east mutual antagonists, and myth is the only
source he can delve into for information on the subject.

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424- Persian King Artaxerxes I dies and is succeeded by Xerxes II. After a reign of 45 days, Xerxes II was
423BC assassinated by his brother Sogdianus, who in turn would be murdered by Darius II. Darius II becomes king
of Persia.

About Persian King Xerxes II (r.424BC):


Answers.com2006: Xerxes apparently succeeded to the throne but two of his illegitie brothers claimed it for
themselves. The first was Sogdianus, son by concubine Alogyne of Babylon. The second was Darius II [aka
Ochus], son by concubine Cosmartidene of Babylon. He was married to their common half-sister Parysatis,
daughter of Artaxerxes I and his concubine Andia of Babylon. Xerxes was apparently only recognized in Persia
and Sogdianus in Elam. Ochus first inscription as Darius II can be dated to January 10, 423BC. He was
already satrap of Hyrcania and was soon recognized by Media, Babylonia and egypt. Xerxes II only ruled 45
days. He was reportedly murdered while drunk by Pharnacyas, and Menostanes on Sogdianus orders.
Sogdianus apparently gained the support of his regions. Sogdianus would be killed a few months laterHe is
known primarily from the writings of CtesiasXerxes II was reportedly the only legitimate son of Artaxerxes I
and his Queen Damaspia.
About Persian King Sogdianus (r.424-423BC):
Wikipedia.com2006: He was reportedly an illegitimate son of Artaxerxes I by his concubine Alogyne of
Babylon. The last inscription mentioning Artaxerxes I being alive can be dated to December 24, 424BC. His
death resulted in at least three of his sons proclaiming themselves Kings. The first was Xerxes II, was was
reportedly his only legitimate son by Queen Damaspia and was formerly Crown Prince. He was apparently
only recognized in Persia. The second was Sogdianus himself, possibly recognized in Elam. The third was
Ochus, son of Artaxerxes I by his concubine Cosmartidene of Babylon and satrap of Hyrcania. Ochus was
also married to their common half-sister Parysatis, daughter of Artaxerxes I and his concubine Andia of
Babylon. The first inscription of Ochus as Darius II can be dated to January 10, 423BC. He seems to have
been recognized by Media, Babylonia and EgyptXerxes II only ruled for forty-five days. He was reportedly
murdered while drunk by Pharnacyas and Menostanes on Sogdianus orders. Sogdianus apparently gained
the support of his regions. He was himself killed by Arbarios, commander of the cavalry. He had only reigned
for six months and fifteen days. Darius II became the sole ruler of the Persian Empire and would reign until
404BC.
About Persian King Darius II aka Ochus (r.423-404BC):
Answers.com2006: sometimes called Darius Nothus (Darius the bastard). His rule was not popular or
successful, and he spent most of his reign in quelling revolts in Syria, Lydia (413BC), and Media (410BC). He
lost Egypt (410BC), but through the diplomacy of Pharnabazus, Tissaphernes, and Cyrus the Younger he
secured much influence in Greece in the Peloponnedian War.
Lexicorient.com2006: It appears as if he was quite dependent on other people of the court, his eunuchs
and especially his wife and half-sister Parysatis. The result was corruption, suppression, much dissatisfaction
around the empire and many revoltsdefeats his full brother Arsites, who tried to usurp Darius newly won
throne.
413BC Darius II enters into a war with Athens, trying to win back territory lost in 448BC.
409BC Darius II quickly suppresses a rebellion in Media.
405BC Darius II defeats Athens, concluding a 27-year war and resulting in all Greek cities reverting to Persian control.
404BC Persian King Darius II dies and is succeeded by his oldest son, Artaxerxes II, but the succession is
challenged by Cyrus the Younger.

About Persian King Artaxerxes II (r.404-358BC):


Lexicorient.com2006: almost 50 years in power were marked by numerous tensions inside the empire, and
no advances into new territorycame to exercise much impact on Zoroastrianism because he reintroduced
cults of the older Iranian gods, Anahita and Mithra.
401BC Artaxerxes II defeats his brother, Cyrus, who had rebelled.
400BC The Greek state of Sparta breaks with Persia, and invades Anatolia. Persia gets a number of other Greek
states as allies.
399BC Socrates is forced to drink hemlock and dies.

About Socrates (469-399BC), Greek philosopher and educational reformer:


Newadvent.org:catholic encyclopedia2005: born at Athensafter having received the usual Athenian
education in music (which included literature), geometry, and gymnastics, he practised for a time the craft of
sculptoradmonished, as he tells us, by a divine call, he gave up his occupation in order to devote himself to
the moral and intellectual reform of his fellow citizensnever left the City of Athens except on two
occasionsone of which wasa public religious festivalthe most unconventional of teachers and the least
tactful. He delighted in assuming all sorts of rough and even vulgar mannerisms, and purposely shocked the
more refined sensibilities of his fellow citizens. The opposition to him culminated in formal accusations of
impiety and subversion of the existing moral traditionas. He met these accusations in a spirit of
defianceaffirmed his innocence of all wrongdoingcondemned to drink hemlock and, when the time came,
met his fate with a calmness and dignity which have earned for him a high place among those who suffered
unjustly for conscience sakeabove all things, a reformer. He was alarmed at the condition of affairs in
Athens, a condition which he was, perhaps, right in ascribing to the Sophists. They taught that there is no
objective standard of the true and false, that that is true which seems to be true, and that that is false which
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seems to be false. Socrates considered that this theoretical scepticism led inevitably to moral anarchyup to
this time morality was taught not by principles scientifically determined, but by instances, proverbs, and
apothegms. He undertook, therefore, first to determine the conditions of universally valid knowledge, and,
secondly, to found on universally valid moral principles a science of human conduct. Self-knowledge is the
starting point, because, he believed, the greatest source of the prevalent confusion was the failure to realize
how little we know about anything, in the true sense of the word knowthe Socratic method of teaching
included two stages, the negative and the positiveapproaching his intended pupil in an attitude of assumed
ignorance, he would begin to ask a question, apparently for his own information. He would follow this by other
questions, until his interlocutor would at last be obliged to confess ignorance of the subjectSocrates would
proceed to another series of questions, each of which would bring out some phase or aspectat the endthe
answers were all summed up in a general statementknowledge is virtueignorance is viceinterested in the
question of the existence of GodWhatever exists for a useful purpose must be the work of an
intelligencenever wrote anything-we are obliged to rely on these writers [Plato and Xenophon] and on a few
references of Aristotle.
Wikipedia.com2006: an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for
Western philosophyhe was born and lived in Athens, where he spent most of his time in enthusiastic pursuit
of wisdom (philosophy)as an old man, he fell into grave disrepute with the Athenian state powers, and was
commanded to stop his public disputes, and his associations with young aristocrats. He carried on as usual.
Finally, he was arrested and accused of corrupting the youth, inventing new deities, and disbelieving in the
divine (atheism). According to traditional accounts, he was sentenced to die by drinking poison. Presented
with an opportunity to leave Athens, he believed it would be more honorable to stay in his home country.
Therefore, at the age of 70, he drank the hemlock and died. Most of what is known about Socrates is derived
fromcontemporary sourcesanything Socrates wrote himself has not survived.Socrates came to the
conclusion that he was wise only in so far as he knew that he knew nothingaccording to Platos account,
Socrates was in no way subtle about his particular beliefs on government. He openly objected to the
democracy that ran Athens during his adult life. It was not only Athenian democracy: Socrates objected to any
form of government that did not conform to his ideal of a perfect republic led by philosophersAs depicted in
the dialogues of Plato, Socrates often seems to manifest a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the
mystery religions; however, this is generally attributed to PlatoSocrates claimed to have a daimosmall
daemon, that warned him against mistakes but never told him what to do or coerced him into following
ANOTHER it. He claimed that his daimon exhibited greater accuracy than any of the forms of divination practiced
VISION at the time.
Webspace.ship.edu2007: he married, but had a tendency to fall in love with handsome young men, in
particular a young soldier named Aleibiades. He was, by all accounts, short and stout, not given to good
H grooming, and a lover of wine and conversationhe even placed individual conscience above the law-quite a
dangerous position to take!...his unorthodox religious views (that there was only one god behind the variety of
Greek gods) gave the leading citizens of Athens the excuse they needed to sentence him to death for
corrupting the morals of the youth of the city.
Livius.org2007: ...it was his axiom that no one would knowingly do a bad thing [no mention of his queer
tendencies].

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395BC Athenian general Thucydides (460-395BC) dies. He wrote History of the Peloponnesian War, the history of the
wars fought between Athens and Sparta in the years 431-404BC.
 Phoenicia.org2007: in the early fourth century BC a very important political development takes place.
Tripolis in north Lebanon is founded by Aradus, Sidon and Tyre. These cities are united by federal bonds.
A historian living in the first century BC Diodorus Siculus (16.41,1-2) records that they convene a common
council or parliament in Tripolis, the first to be held in the East Mediterranean world.
394BC The Spartan navy is defeated and destroyed by the Persians at Cnidus.
390BC The Gauls from the modern Po Valley defeat the Roman legions and sack Rome, requiring a huge ransom to
avoid completely destroying the city.
386BC A final peace agreement is signed with the former ally, Athens, called the Kings Peace, defining rights to the
lands of the border zone between the Greeks and Persia.
385BC Artaxerxes II launches a military campaign against Egypt that ends in failure.
384BC Aristotle is born.
380BC Democritus of Abdera dies.

About Democritus of Abdera (470-380BC), greek philosopher:


Scienceworld.wolfram.com2007: ...a pupil of Leucippus and extended his mentors atomic theoryhe
maintained that the Milky Way galaxy was a conglomeration of stars.
377BC Hippocrates dies. Hippocrates (460-377BC) made frequent mention of the poppy as being used in medicinal
 preparations. He distinguishes between the white, fire-red, and black poppy. In regard to its therapeutic
qualities he mentions the unripe, ripe, and baked poppy. Hippocrates mentions poppy juice as a hypnotic,
narcotic, and styptic drug; also as a cathartic. Finally, he mentions the hypnotic poppy, and the great nutritive
property of its seeds.
374BC Artaxerxes II launches a second campaign against Egypt which also ends in failure.
366BC A revolt among local rulers, or satraps, of Anatolia breaks out against the Persians. But the satraps were not
unified, and the Persians used distrust to destroy one after another.
366BC Phoenicia.org2007: pharaohs of the twenty-ninth and thirtieth dynasties stir rebellions in Cyprus against the
 Persians. Repeated attempts by the Persian king to regain Egypt, conquered earlier by Cambyses, fail. The
Phoenicians and the kings of Cyprus now show open contempt of the Persians. In 366 the Phoenician cities
join dissident satraps who wish to break away from the empire.
365BC Antisthenes, Athen philosopher, dies.

About Antisthenes (445-365BC), Athenian philosopher:


Livius.org2007: In the decade after the death of Socrates, Antisthenes was the most important Athenian
philosopherhe was convinced that it was not possible to establish really good definitionsone also had to be
strong enough to pursue what was goodrecommended physical training of all kinds, and wanted his students
to refrain from luxury. His most famous pupil was Diogenes of Sinope.
360- Macedonian king Phillip II seizes the throne in the winter and after a decisive victory over the northwestern
359BC tribes in 358BC, he captures Amphipolis in 356 which was the site of gold and silver.
358BC Artaxerxes II dies and is succeeded by his son Artaxerxes III who launches a campaign to have all his
relatives killed.

About Persian King Artaxerxes III aka Ochus (r.358-338BC):


Lexicorient.com2006: considered to have been both very efficient and extremely cruel. He killed all close
relatives in order to protect his throne, and 40,000 inhabitants of the Phoenician city of Sidon committed
 suicide rather than submit again to the kind of retaliations that Artaxerxes had once imposed on them after
they tried to break free from Persia a few years before. Artaxerxes also took back control over Egypt, and
destroyed much property and plundered its temples.
Phoenicia.org2007: in 358 Artaxerxes III (Ochus) ascends the throne of Persia. He feels he cannot deal
with any rebellion until he conquers Egypt. His failure to do so brings forth the great Phoenician revolt led by
Tennes, king of Sidon. The Persian kings satraps and generals dwell in Sidon. Nearby is a beautiful royal
park, where the kings of Persia hunt called the Paradeisos in Greekthe first hostile act of the Sidonians is to
cut down and destroy the royal park, then they burn the fodder for the horses. Next they arrest Persian
officials. Ambassadors are sent to Egypt to seek aid from the pharaoh. In return, King Tennes receives four
thousand Greek mercenaries. Adding these men to his own forces, Tennes defeats the satraps and drives
them out of Phoenicia.
H About homosexuality in ancient Greece:
Jesus-is-saviour.com: most men seemed to be more interested in pursuing and having sexual relations
with young boys-a practice known as pederasty-than they were with pursuing womenAristophanes portrays
homosexuality as a common and normal aspect of human existence and sexuality. Theocrites, Achilles
Tatius, and Solon also condone homosexuality. Solon writes in his poem Boys and Sport: Blest is the
man who loves and after early play Whereby his limbs are supple made and strong Retiring to his
house with wine and song Toys with a fair boy on his breast the livelong day!two of Platos works, The
Phaedrus and The Symposium, paint a brilliant picture of what the attitude toward pederasty was at the time.
In the opening pages of The Phaedrus, Phaedrus and Socrates are discussing a speech that lysias-a popular
orator of the day-has written; a speech that designed to win the favor of a handsome boy. Socrates

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seems to understand why one would write a speech on this subject, and even states that man cannot have a
less desirable protector or companion than the man who is in love with him. The Symposium goes into even
greater detail about pederasty. The setting is a symposium-a type of dinner party that only included males as
guests, and had entertainment, wine, and discussion of politics and philosophy-in which several men are
gathered and all give speeches about why a love of boys is a good thing. Phaedrus-the first to give his speech-
states, For I cant say that there is a greater blessing right from boyhood than a good lover or a greater
blessing for a lover than a darling (young boy). What people who intend to lead their lives in a noble and
beautiful manner need is not provided by family, public honors, wealth, or anything else, so well as by love.
Pausanias-the second speaker-adds even more to this argument when he states Aphrodite only inspires love
among men for young boys, and not women. Those inspired by Aphrodite are naturally drawn to the male
because he is a stronger and more intelligent creatureSpartadeveloped institutinalized homosexuality in its
military training, while other cities considered homosexuality illegal. These were usually cities far to the north of
Greece, and were looked at as being inferior to most cities, especially Athens. Pausanias for example, in The
Symposium, denounces these other cities as being ruled by barbarians for considering these acts shameful by
lawSociety in Athens only condemned pederasty when it was sought after in a dishonorable way. Only when
it was not pursued honorably according to laws and customs was pederasty frowned upon. There were also no
laws against two middle-aged men having intercourse, but nonetheless, this does not appear to have been
regarded as acceptable behaviorthere were two roles in sex: the active and passive. The active role was
reserved to that of the male citizen and considered the honorable role. The party ctly on the receiving end of
the sexual act played the passive role, and it was considered a dishonor for that party to be a citizenmany of
their religious stories involved homosexualitythis was not the way the myths were originally compoased, and
probably evolved during the classical age to include stories of Zeus irresistible passion for his young boy
cupbearer, Garrymede; and that of Zeus causing of the first homosexual act among men to occur in ancient
Athensthe public sphere was the place where a man was to pursue politics and gain prestige, while the
private was where the women, children, and slaves were to remain. A form of punishment would actually be for
a man to be banned from the public spherewomen were looked down upon as less than citizens not much
higher on the social ladder than slaves, and would be a dishonor to their husband if they were to leave the
house. In respect to sexual courting, it did not really matter if a woman left the house of not, because having
sex with another mans wife, daughter, mother, sister, or concubine was one of the only offenses that was
punished by executionthe female could not be guilty in regard to any sexual crimes. Plus, it was nearly
impossible to court young women because of the fact that they had pre-arranged marriages-usually by the age
of fourteen. Women were also almost never outside, and zealously guarded until they were marriedout of
door with no women to court and nowhere to direct their sexual energyprostitutes and slavesnot really any
kind of competitionthe only public sexual competition had to be directed to young boysthe armythe
gymnasiuma symposiumthe older man who was to be the pursuer, and the boy that was supposed to be
shy and not readily willing to succumb to the mans advancesthis was an honorable way of pursuing
pederasty and was thought of as educational and good for the younger boy by the philosophers of the day.
..once a man had wooed his darling, it was his job to make the boy into a woman. Since it was dishonorable
for any man to be passive, the boy-who would someday be a man-had to be seen as a womanboys,
incapable of emitting semen-hence boys before adolescence, were not really viewed as male, so it was not all
that difficult to portray them as female. This had to be quite an emotionally strain, however, on the young boy.
In this situation a boy who is trying to advance as a man, is also playing the role of a woman so it can be all
right for what his lover is doing to him. The male in this system is all part of a cycle. At one point in his life he
is the pursued darling, and at another point, he becomes the pursuing adult lover. Once this practice became
established, it is understandable that it became quite secute and commonplace in societysince men ran the
culture and were the only members of society who were looked at as being fully human it only makes sense
that they would want to pursue their equal. Another major reason the structure of society in the ancient world
helped cause pederasty is the fact that all marriages were arranged. There was no romance involved in
marryingwomen were uneducated and in the eyes of men had little or no intellectual capacityit appears
that pederasty began to decline by the end of the Hellenic period, but homosexuality certainly lived on. With
the Hellenistic Age came an increased status of women as well as an increase in heterosexual relationships as
the main focus of romantic endeavors. Both of these factors seemed to cause a decline in homosexual
relationships, however, they did indeed live on in the Hellenistic world and even went on to Rome.
Homosexuality survived into the days of the Roman Empire where it finally became widely shunned when the
emperor Justinian eventually banned it. The establishment of the church likely had the greatest influence in
trying to eliminate homosexuality.
Atschool.eduweb.co.uh: Males were desirable only between the onset of puberty and the arrival of the
beard. Prostitution in Athens was not an especially secretive or scandalous affairthe city of Athens collected
a special tax from the earnings of male and female prostitutes.

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356BC Alexander the Great is born to Macedonian king Philip II (360-336) and queen Olympias. The traditional
powers are all in decline. Persia had temporarily lost Egypt and faced a civil war after 353BC. The Greek
powers are in decline. Sparta had lost Messenia, its economic base. Thebes was fighting the Third Sacred
War (357-346BC). Athens had founded a second empire, but was struggling to overcome some rebellious
allies who were invoking Persian help. Alexander is to grow up in a society that is permanently at war.

Philip Arridaeus is born to Macedonian king Philip II and a Thessalian woman named Philinna.

About Macedonian king Philip II (360-336BC):


Livius.org2006: Not even his better known son Alexander has done so much to change the course of Greek
history. Philip reorganized his kingdom, gave it access to the sea, expanded its power so that it could defeat
the Achaemenid Empire, and subdued the Greek city-states, which never regained their independence again.
To achieve this, he modernized the Macedonian economy, improved the army, and concluded several marital
alliances. The result was a superpower with one weakness: it was as strong as its king. When Philips son
Alexander died, the institutions were too weak, and Macedonia never recovered. When Philip was born in 382,
Macedonia was not a very strong powerking Amyntas II, Philips father, found it difficult to defend his
countryIn 370, Amyntas died and was succeeded by Philips elder brother Alexander II, who was forced to
send his brother as a hostage to the Illyrians[later] to theTheban[s]Philiplearned a lot about warfare,
about city life, and the importance of Persia, a Theban ally. Meanwhile, king Alexander II had been
assassinated by a man named Ptolemaeus of Aloros (perhaps the lover of the queen-mother Eurydice). The
new king was a brother of Alexander II, Perdiccas III, who was one year older than philip, but still too young to
be a ruler. Ptolemaeus was his regent. In 365, when Perdiccas was old enough, he became king, and
immediately killed Ptolemaeus. His younger brother returned to Macedonia, which was still a weak
kingdomPerdiccas knew how to play the diplomatic gameinvited the Athenian Callistratus to reform the
Macedonian economy.in the last weeks of 360, his army was defeated by the Illyrian king Bardylis.
Perdiccas and 4,000 others died in action. He left a very young son, Amyntas, and Philip became
regentAthens opened secret negotiationshe paid the Thracians and Paconianstrained a new
armyspring of 358Paeonians were subduedBardylissawhis own menmassacred. The [gold]
mines of Damastion were from now on Macedonian. Shortly beforeArtaxerxes II Mnemon of Persia died and
was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes II Ochuswhose main aim was to reconquer Egyptneeded to control
the sea, and he therefore had to take action against Athens, which had a navy and had supporte Egyptthe
satrap of Caria was able to provoke a revolt among the Athenian alliesthe Social War (357-355BC).
Immediately, Philip [acquired] Pydna, an important portIn the same year 357, Philip married
OlympiasPhila of Elymiotisand Audata of Illyria. The three marriages secured Macedonias western
borderin 356, Philip was invited to become the protector of a city named Crenidesaccess toprevious
oresthe mines were exploitedMacedonia was to become a full-bown monarchyPhilip copied several
Persian institutions, like the office of spasaka, a man who controlled the towns on behalf of the king, and the
royal pages, the sons of the noblemen, who received an education at court and guaranteed, as hostages, their
fathers conductOlympias gave birth to a son who was called Alexander, and his wife Philina became mother
of Arridaeusnext year, he started to besiege Methonethe city fell in 354. During the siege, Philip lost an
eyethe Third Sacred War had broken out in the south, the greatest disturbance in the history of
GreeceArtaxerxes III Ochus knew that his Egyptian enemies would receive no support, and Philip knew he
could consolidate his conquests352 had been a good year for Philip. He had now united Macedonia and
Thessaly in a personal unionwhich gave him membership in the panhellenic organizations. He was no
longer a barbarianHis whereabouts in 351 are unreported, but there was a rumor that he was illa peace
treat was concludedThird Sacred War was overThe historian Diodorus of Sicily states that by now, Philip
was already thinking about an invasion of the Achaemenid EmpireYet, war was not to break out yetPersian
envoys visited the Macedonian court, and received a warm welcome from the young prince Alexanderthe
next couple of years are poorly documentedIn the winter of 341/340, Philip started to besiege Perinthus and
ByzantiumArtaxerxes III Ochus ordered direct Persian intervention in Europethe Persian king had no
alternative. The Macedonians threatened the use of the straitsthe normal policy of Persian kings against the
Greeks had been to set up others against them. But now, Philip was allied to all Greeksthe Persians invaded
Thracethe Athenians were in a state of shock, because they imported food from the Black Seathey
declared war. Now, the Macedonian king had to give up the siege of PerinthusArtaxerxescould play the
old gamePhilip of Macedoniaaccepted the lossfor something better: war in the southin 338he finally
descended upon Greecethe final battle took place in August 338, near Chaeroneahis victory was never in
doubtmuch was made of the face that crown prince Alexander, eighteen years old, had led the decisive
chargehe was luckyDuring the first years of hiss reign, the Greek powers in the south simply
understimated the manone of Philips greatest ambitions (and successes) was organizing an army that was
loyal to the king, and not to the Macedonian aristocratshe created new noblemen, so that the privileges
became more commonthe old aristocrats were compensated with dubiouis new privileges and landin one
of the newly conquered partsamong the privileges was the right to send ones sons to the royal courtthey
served as hostageson a massive scale, he gave out land and military officesthe people who received land
were to serve as cavalryPhilip used these men for frontal attackscasualties among Macedonian officers
were highernon-aristocrats fought in the Macedonian phalanx of heavily armed infantrythe result was
Europes first profesional army: large, well-trained, heavily armed, fast, and invincible.summarized his policy
with the famous words that walls could also be scaled with gold [threaten to attack and hire a traitor]one of
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the results of this concentration of power was the impossibility to find reliable generals, who might have
independent commandshe had found only one, Parmenionit had one fatal flaw.people remained loyal to
the king and not to an abstract stateMacedonia had to expand or implodePhilip pursued a friendly
policythe Persian king had died and was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes IV Arsesthere never had been a
betteer opportunityrebellions had started in Babylonia, Egypt, and ArmeniaGreek townsorganizedthe
Corinthian leaguePhilip was elected as leader of a common army. This office was to be reserved for the
Macedonian kingPhilip announced that he wanted to invade Persia, because almost a century and a half
before, the Persian king Xerxes had invaded Greece and pillaged the temples in Athens. This was a
pretextbut no one really cared. There was a lot of bootythe supreme commander of the Persian forces in
western Asia, Mentor of Rhodes, was dead too satrap had a daughter of a marriable age, and Philip
promised her the hand of his mentally deficient son Arridaeuscrown prince Alexander was not happyhe
sent an envoy to Halicarnassus that declared that he was willing to marry the girl too. Pixodarus was delighted,
but Philip was not, and ordered Alexanders advisers (Erigyius, Laomedon, Harpalus, Ptolemy, and Nearchus)
to leave MacedoniaPhilip announced that he wanted to marry again, with a girl named Cleopatra, the
daughter of a brother of Attalus, an important courtier. During the wedding banquet, Attalus prayed that the
Cleopatra might give birth to a legitimate son worthy of the throne. Queen Olympias and prince Alexander felt
insulted, decided to leave Macedonia and went to the court of Olympias brother, Alexander of Molossis. In the
winter of 337/336Alexander allied himself to several Illyrian leaders and threatened to invade Macedonia.
Now, Philip understood that things were going wrong, and he reconciled himself with his son, saying that he
had sent Attalus away from court. This was true. In the spring of 336, Attalus and general Parmenion were
leading the Macedonian advance force to Asia; Philip was to join them during the autumn. When Alexander
had returned, Philip decided to organize a great festivalheinvited Olympias brother, king Alexander, to
come to Macedonia, and accept the hand of princess Cleopatrathe marriage took place, and there was a big
festival in the theater of Aegae, but Philip was murdered by a man named Pausaniasthere were whispers
that he was not the only conspiratorAlexander succeeded his father and executed several
opponentsParmenion saw to the assassination of Attalus.
About Macedonian queen Olympias (375-316BC):
Livius.org2006: daughter of Neoptolemus, the king of the Molossiansin Greece. During
Neoptolemus reign, the tribe became more sedentary; urbanization started and we hear about scribes
and other administrative officials. In 358, the Molossians became the allies of the Macedonian king Philip;
the alliance was strengthened by a diplomatic marriage. In 357, Olympias became Philips wifePhilip and
Olympias also had a daughter CleopatraIn338he married to a woman named Cleopatra, a relative of a
Macedonian aristocrat named Attalus. This caused great tensions between the king, Olympias and the crown
prince. Olympias went into voluntary exile, staying at the Molossian court of her brother Alexander. Her son
Alexander and his friends (e.g. Ptolemy and Nearchus) were briefly expelled, but returned soon after.
Olympias was further isolated when Philip married Olympias own daughter Cleopatra to Alexander of Molossis
(336): she could no longer count on her brothers support. However, Philip was killed during the wedding in
October 336. Many suspected Olympias and her son Alexander. The fact that after her return to Macedonia
she ordered philips wife Cleopatra and her child to be murdered, did not improve her reputation. However, her
son was now king, and her position was safe. During Alexanders campaigns, she kept in touch with himShe
probably confirmed the claim, made by her son during his visit to Egypt, that Alexander was the son not of
Philip, but of the god Zeus Ammonalthough the relations with Alexander were cordial, he kept her far away
from politics. Macedonia was ruled by Antipater, one of Philips most reliable commanders and diplomats and
the man who had helped Alexander become king. It seems that he and Olympias were not on speaking terms,
and the queen-mother must have been glad that she could go back to Molossis in 330: her brother had died
during a campaign in southern Italy, and she served as regent for her cousin AeacidasAlexander diedhis
wife Roxane was pregnant of a son, who was born a few months later and was called Alexander. He and
Alexanders brother Philip Arridaeus, who was mentally unfit to rule, were subject to the regency of Perdiccas,
Alexanders vizier. He tried to strengthen his position by a marriage with Antipaters daughter Nicaea.
However, Olympias offered him the hand of her daughter Cleopatra, a full sister of Alexander the
GreatPerdiccas accepted this marriage, Antipater felt insulted, and the result was a civil war in which
Antipater was victorioius. He was the new regent of the royal family. However, he died almost immediately
(319BC). His successor as regent was an old general named Polyperchon. However, Antipaters son
Cassander, who had taken Philip Arridaeus captive, forced him out of Macedonia. Polyperchon had to flee to
Epirus, taking Roxane and the baby Alexander with him. Until then, Olympias had refused to support any side
in the conflict, but now she realized that if Cassander were to rule, her grandson would definitely loose the
crown. So she took the army of Aeacidas, joined the remains of Polyperchons army and invaded Macedonia
(317BC). At the border, she captured Philip Arridaeus, who was executed immediately (October). Many
supporters of Cassander were massacred as well. However, Cassander was approaching and besieged
Olympias in Pydna, a harbor town at the foot of the holy mountain Olympus. Although both Polyperchon and
Aeacidas tried to relieve her, she was forced to surrender. Cassander promised to save her life, but had her
executed (316). Roxane and the baby Alexander were killed in secret.
Phoenicia.org2007: Philip IImarries Olympias, the wild, witch-like daughter of the king of Epirus.
According to Plutarch in his Life of Alexander (2.3-4) when newly wed, Philip comes upon his wife asleep with a
serpent by her side. He is filled with revulsion and fears her as an enchantress.
About Alexander the Great as a boy and young man:
Livius.com2006: Phillip wanted his son to be educated in the arts of war and peace. In antiquity, this meant
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that he had to read the legendary poet Homer, who was regarded as the father of scholarship and all
sciencesAmong the other authors whose books the young man read, must have been Herodotus of
Halicarnassus and Xenophon, both writers of books about wars against the PersiansPlutarch tells a strange
anecdote about Persian envoys who visited Macedonia and were questioned about their homeland by the
crown princehe had met Artabazus, the Persian exile, and his children Pharnabazus and Barsine [7 or 8
years younger than Alexander]. In 342, Artabazus was recalled and appointed in high functions; he and his
children were to play an important role in the next decades.
About Artabazus (389-325BC):
Artabazus was a Persian nobleman who played a very important role during the war between Alexander the
Great and the Achaemenid empire.
Livius.org2006: Artabazus was born as the younger son of Pharnabazus, the satrap of Hellespontine
Phrygia, i.e., the northwest of what is now Turkey. The family descended from Pharnaces, the chief economic
official of king darius I the Great (522-486BC), who happened to be Pharnaces nephew. Pharnaces owned
large possession in Hellespontine Phrygia and his son, who was also called Artabazus, and knew the country,
was appointed satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia in 477BC. From that moment on, the country was always ruled
by a descendant of Pharnaces. In 360s, several satraps in te west rebelled against king Artaxerxes II Mnemon.
The revolt was started in 367 by Ariobarzanes, one of the Pharnacids; soon, the satraps maussolus of Caria,
Orontes of Armenia, Autophradates of Lydia and Datames-who was already leading a rebel army in northern
Turkey-joined him. In 362BC, the rebels were defeated; Ariobarzanes was betrayed by his son Mithradates
and crucified. Now Artabazus, a young brother of Ariobarzanes and Mithradates, became satrap of
Hellespontine Phrygia. Although he must have known about his brothers fate, he also decided to revolt,
probably in 358, after the death of king Artaxerxes II Mnemon. It is unclear why Artabazus revolted, especially
since his army was not particularly strong. He made use of the services of an Athenian armyshort of money
and therefore willing to serve as mercenaries. With Athenian help, Artabazus defeated a Persian army in 355
in a battle that was celebrated in Greece as a second Marathonking Artaxerxes III Ochussent a letter to
Athens in which he demanded the recallAthens acceptedand Artabazus was again left without army. He
tried to hire 5,000 Thebans in 353, but was defeated before they had arrived. Artabazus fled to Macedonia,
where he stayed at the court of king Philip II for ten years. Here, he met the young crown prince Alexander
and, possibly, the philosopher Artistotle of Stagira. As satrap, he was succeeded by Arsites, who probably was
not a member of the Pharnacid family. Artabazus owed his recall and his second career in the Achaemenid
empire to his son-in-law. Among the Greek mercenaries in his service were two brothers from Rhodes, Mentor
(385-340BC) and Memnon (380-333BC); Artabazus had married their sister and Mentor was married to
Artabazus daughter Barsine [their marriage was not consumated yet, because Barsine was too young].
Memnon joined Artabazus [and Barsine] in his Macedonian exile, but Mentor managed to receive a pardon
from king Artaxerxes III and rendered important services during Artaxerxes Egyptian war. When the king
asked Mentor how he could express his gratitude, the Rhodian asked for the recall of his brother and his father-
in-law. The king pardoned the former rebels, and they returned to Persia in 342BC. Barsine and her husband
met each other again in 342; she was then 21. Mentour would die two years later. As far as we know, the
couple had only one child, a daughter. Artabazus gave the king invaluable information about the plan of Philip
to attack Persia, which was to be executed as soon as he had subdued the Greek cities. It is not known what
Artabazus did during the next twelve years, but we know something about his family life: his son-in-law Mentor
died in 340 and Barsine remarried to her husbands brother Memnon, who died in 333BC. We can make some
guesses about Artabazus political lifeArrian of Nicomedia tells usDarius III Cocomannus was arrested by
his courtier Bessus in July 330BC. Bessus had received the royal salte fromall the Persiansexcept
Artabazus and his sonsand the Greek mercenarieswhomade for the hills on their own, refusing to take
any part it proves that Artabazus and his family remained loyal to Dariusstrongly suggests a more personal
tie between Darius and Artabazusboth men came from the northwestern parts of the empirGreek
mercenarieshad been transferred to Syriatheliaison officer who was responsible for the
communicationsmust have been ArtabazusA few weeks later, Artabazus surrendered to Alexanderthe
Greek mercenaries surrendered immediatelyAt Alexanders court, Artabazus met his daughter Barsine again.
When her husband Memnon had left for his command in the Aegean Sea, she had stayed with king Darius,
perhaps as a hostage. After the battle of Issus in 333, she was taken captive by the Macedonians, and
Alexander had fallen in love with herArtabazus became one of the most influential Persian advisers of
Alexander: after all, he was bilingual, had gained the trust of the Greek mercenaries, was an experienced
governor, knew Macedonia well, and was the father of Alexanders loverAlexander rewarded Artabazus by
making him satrap of Bactriain 327BC, Artabazus asked to be relieved of the satrapy on account of his age;
he was probably 62. Alexander accepted the request and made him governor of a fortress in SogdiaOn this
Sogdian rock, Alexander had met Roxane, with whom he married. This must have been a very deep
disappointment for Artabazus and Barsine-who had just given birth to Alexanders first-born son, Heracles-but
they are not known to have entertained resentments. It is not known what became of Artabazus. However, it is
certain that his sons were honored by Alexander and received important positions: Cophen was a member of
the Macedonian elite regiments and Pharnabazus became a cavalry commander. In 324, Artabazus daughter
Artacama married to Alexanders friend Ptolemy and his daughter Artonis married Eumenes, the royal
secretary. An anonymous granddaughter, child of Mentor and Barsine, married to Nearchus, Alexanders
admiral.
About Parmenion (400-330BC):
 Livius.org2006: Parmenion was the son of a nobleman from Upper Macedonia called Philotas. The initial
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stages of his career are unknown to us, but he is known to have served under king Philip II (360-336BC). In
356, Parmenion defeated the Illyrians in a great battle (remembered because Philip received the news on the
birthday of his first-born son, Alexander)In 336, Philip sent Parmenion and an army of 10,000 men to Asia, as
the vanguard of a larger army.
About Philip Arridaeus (356-317BC):
Livius.org2006: the mentally deficient and epileptic brother of Alexander the great who succeeded him as
king of the Macedonian empire in 323BC, but had several regents, who all used their pupil for their own
purposeshe was of about the same age as Alexander; however, Alexanders mother was Philips lawful wife
Olympias, and therefore, Alexander was recognized as the crown prince. His position was secure, but he did
not really feel that way, and when the satrap of Caria, Pixodarus, wanted to engage his daughter to Arridaeus,
Alexander intervened (c.337?). During Alexanders reign (336-323BC), Arridaeus was more or less isolated. It
is not even known where he was staying during his brothers campaigns, although it is reasonable to assume
that he stayed behind in Macedonia, where Antipater, the supreme commander of the Macedonian forces in
Europe, would oversee the behavior of the mentally unstable and epileptic prince. Wherever he may have
been during the reign of Alexander, he certainly was at Babylon when the king died on 11 June.

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Livius.org2006: In the century before his [Alexander the Greats] reign, the satraps of the western half of
the Achaemenid empire had adapted themselves to the Greek culture of which Alexander was an exponent
too. At the same time, the Macedonians had been pupils of the Persians. Many aspects of Macedonian
society are best understood as imitations of Persian customs. East and west were already starting to
resemble each other; Alexander was nothing more and nothing less than the man who united two cultures
that would have been united anywayAlexander ruined his own country, draining its human
resourcesMacedonia never regained its former power. The Persian culture suffered severe blows, tooIn
Zoroastrian texts, Alexander is called the accursed because many people were killed and the religious
traditions were in great peril. It is interesting to note that the rams horns that are shown on Alexanders coins,
became an attribute of the Persian god of evil, Ahriman. Later they were to influence the western iconography
of the devilAlexander could show clemencybut he was harsh towards people that were of no military
valueAlexander never learned Persian or Aramaicthe Greeks were the beneficiaries of Alexanders
campaigns. Their culture spread over the Near East. For example, archaeologists have excavated a town in
northeastern Afghanistan that was in nearly all its aspects Greek. On one of its temple walls, one could read
the wisdom maxims from the oracle of Delphi. Antioh and Alexandria succeeded Babylon as the worlds
cultural capital. Unlike Athens, Sparta, Corinth and Thebes, these cities were cosmopolitan. A Greek from
Antioch or Alexandria could meet people from other cultures. The famous Alexandrian library contained
translations of the Jewish Bible, ancient Egyptian texts and Babylonian scientific publications. The Greeks
became increasingly aware of the achievements of other civilizations. That would have happened anyway, but
Alexander speeded up the processPlutarch of Chaeronea believed that Alexander had been the greatest
civilizer in world historyPlutarchs image of Alexander as the philosopher-king who civilized the Savage
Babylonians, Egyptians and Persians has been very influenctial in Antiquity and the Renaissance. The idea
can also be found in the rabbinical treatise Genesis Rabbah, where we can read a story about Alexander
visiting the king of the legendary country Kasiah, because he wants to know how he administers the public
interestDroysenarguedthat the Macedonian king wanted to unify mankindwanted to create one large
world empireAfter 1939-1945, the idea that war could be waged for the benefit of mankind, was considered
nave.
356BC Artaxerxes III orders all the satraps of Persia to dismiss their mercenaries, in order to secure the central power.
355BC Artaxerxes III forces Athens to conclude peace and to acknowledge the independence of its neighbors.
354BC Mentor and Memnon of Rhodes are unable to repel the Persian army that Artaxerxes sends in the first months
of 354BC. Artabazus, Barsine and Memnon flee to Macedonia. Mentor flees to Egypt, which was at that time
independent. Pharaoh Nechtanebo II, who expected a Persian invasion, was glad to receive an experienced
mercenary commander who knew the Persian way of war.
354BC Athenian historian Xenophon dies. He wrote Hellenica, a greek history beginning at the point where History of
the Peloponnesian War breaks off.

About Xenophon (430-354BC), Athenian historian:


 Livius.org2007: When he was still a young man, this student of Socrates took part in the campaign of the
Persian prince Cyrus the younger against his brother, king Artaxerxes II Mnemon. Xenophons fascinating
account of the expedition, the Anabasis, is his masterpiece. Among his other works are a vie romancee of
king Cyrus the Great, a Symposium, and a book on horses.
353BC Maussolus, satrap of Caria between 377 and 353BC dies and is put to rest in the Mausoleum of
Halicarnassus, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and the model for the Freemason temple on 16th
Street in Washington, D.C. Maussolus was the son of Hecatomnus, a Carian aristocrat who had in 392
obtained the satrapy of Caria from the Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II Mnemon. Maussolus was succeeded by
his sister (and wife) Artemisia, who had invited the greatest Greek artists of the time to decorate the
Mausoleum.
351BC Artaxerxes III launches an attack on Egypt, but his army is crushed. Witnessing the Persian weakness, the
cities of Phoenicia and the princes of Cyprus revolt against Persian supremacy. Pharaoh Nectanebo II
sends Mentor to the Phoenician town of Sidon. He commands 4,000 Greek mercenaries and supports Sidons
king Tennis.
  Phoenicia.org2007: in 358 Artaxerxes III (Ochus) ascends the throne of Persia. He feels he cannot deal
with any rebellion until he conquers Egypt. His failure to do so brings forth the great Phoenician revolt led by
Tennes, king of Sidon. The Persian kings satraps and generals dwell in Sidon. Nearby is a beautiful royal
park, where the kings of Persia hunt called the Paradeisos in Greekthe first hostile act of the Sidonians is
to cut down and destroy the royal park, then they burn the fodder for the horses. Next they arrest Persian
officials. Ambassadors are sent to Egypt to seek aid from the pharaoh. In return, King Tennes receives four
thousand Greek mercenaries. Adding these men to his own forces, Tennes defeats the satraps and drives
them out of Phoenicia. The year is 351BC. Artaxerxes III is in Babylon and hastily assembles a large army.
News of its great size reaches Tennes. Fearing that his forces cannot hold them off, the king of Sidon
treacherously decides to come to secret terms with the Persians in order to save his own life. Without the
knowledge of his people, Tennes sends Thettalion, a faithful attendant, to the Persians with a promise he will
betray Sidon. Tennes will also assist the Persian king defeat Egypt, for according to Diodorus, he is familiar
with the topography of Egypt as well as the land places along the Nile. Thettalion returns to Sidon and reports
on the success of his missionPersian envoys are sent to the cities of Greece for
reinforcements...Artaxerxes does not wait for them to arrive and, at the head of his troops, marches on Sidon.
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The Sidonians dig triple ditches and raise high fortificationsthere is an important number of Greek
mercenaries available ready to fightTennes in secret confides to Mentor, the commander of the Greek
mercenaries in Sidon, that he plans to hand over the city to the Persians. Leaving him in control behind, the
king at the head of five hundred citizens, leaves the city pretending he is going to meet with the kings of other
Phoenician citieshe also takes with him one hundred of the citys most distinguished citizens to serve as
advisors. Upon approaching the Persian camp, Tennes and the one hundred Sidonians are suddenly seized
and handed over to the king. Artaxerxes welcomes Tennes as a friend but has the dignitaries executed as
the instigators of the plot. Then come the five hundred Sidonian notables carrying olive branchesthey too
one by one are shot downTennes assures the Persian king that he will now deliver Sidonheld by Mentor
and the Greek mercenaries. They allow the Persians inside the city wallsnow that Tennes is of no further
use to him, Artaxerxes at once has him put to deaththe Sidonians burn all their shipswhen the
Sidonians see the myriads of soldierstheyset their homes on fireabout forty thousand perish in the
flamesnewsspreads far and wide. The remaining Phoenician cities, panic stricken, go over to the
PersiansArtaxerxes marches towards Egypt.

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350BC Phoenicia.org2007: Pharaoh picks up all his possessions and flees to Ethiopia. Artaxerxes installs a Persian
satrap in Egypt and starts the long march back to Babylon.
THE PLOT A young Alexander the Great entertains ambassadors from Persia.

Livius.com2006: Plutarch tells anecdotes like the followingWhile he was yet very young, he entertained
the ambassadors from the King of Persia, in the absence of his father, and entering much into conversation
with them, gained so much upon them by his affability, and the questions he asked them, which were far from
being childish or trifling (for he inquired of them the length of the ways, the nature of the road into inner Asia,
the character of their king, how he carried himself to his enemies, and what forces he was able to bring into the
field), that they were struck with admiration of him, and looked upon the ability so much famed of Philip to be
nothing in comparison with the forwardness and high purposes that appeared thus early in his son.
s About Slavery and Religion from wikipedia.org2007:
 Judaism: The Old Testament sets rules that allows slavery, while at the same time forbidding one to return a
runaway slave. Hebrew slaves must be freed after six years of servitude. Non-Hebrews were slaves for life.
If a master beat his male or female slave so severely that the slave is killed immediately, the master is to be
punished. If the master had beat the slave but the slave lives one or two days, the master can go
unpunished. It is also against Jewish Law to have, or permit, a sex slave. This was expanded upon in
Exodus with the guidelines for Jewish soldiers who went to war in foreign lands and saw a beautiful woman
who they wished to marry. She was to be in mourning for her lost parents for one month, after which the
soldier was then free to marry herslaves were considered money (property). If a male Hebrew slave was
given a wife, his wife and children became the permanent property of the slave owner. Hebrews could sell
their daughters into slavery. Forced sex with female slaves was not punished. Hebrews slaves were not to
be ruled over severely, but that rule only applied to Hebrew slaves. Hebrews did take slaves during
warJehovah your God also will certainly give it into your hand, and you must strike every male in it with the
edge of the sword. Only the women and the little children and the domestic animals and everything that
happens to be in the city, all its spoil you will plunder for yourself.
 Christianity: Jesus in Luke said he had come to end slavery: The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he
hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach
deliverance to the slaves, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised.
However the other New Testament writers admonish slaves to obey their masters, and in other places tells
slaves to care not for their slavery. The prophets and apostles urged kindness to slaves. Protestant
churches have differently interpreted these passages to be either anti- or pro-slavery, with some regarding
these passages to consist of the Bible reporting existing social customs and lawws, and others as a moral
endorsement of the institution of slavery. In regards to the Catholic Church, the early Church tolerated
slaverySt. Augustine affirmed that for it is with justice, we believe, that the condition of slavery is the result
of sin. Slavery was integrated into the official Corpus Iuris Canonici, upon the Decretum Gratiani. This
became official Church law since Pope Gregory IX who reigned as Pope from 1227 to 1241. In 1454, Pope
Nicholas V authorized the King of Portugal to enslave all the Saracen and pagan people his armies could
capture. The position of the Church became more firmly anti-slavery in later years. In 1435 Pope Eugene IV
promulgated the papal bull Sicut Dudum condemned the slavery of black natives in Canary Islands by
Spanish. In 1462 Pope Pius II declared slavery to be a great crime. In 1537, Pope Paul III forbade the
enslavement of the Indians and other people with the papal bull Sublimus Dei, while Pope Urban VIII forbade
it in 1639, and Pope Benedict XIV in 1741. Pope pius VII in 1815 demanded that the Congress of Vienna
suppress the slave trade, and Pope Gregory XVI condemned it in 1839. In the Bull of Canonization of the St.
Peter Claver, Pope Pius IX branded the supreme villainy of the slave traders. Pope Leo XIII, in 1888,
addressed an encyclical to the Brazilian villainy of the slave traders. Pope Leo XIII, in 1888, addressed an
encyclical to the Brazilian bishopsexhorting them to banish the remnants of slavery from their country.
 Islam: In certain circumstances, Islam allows for slavery. Such slaves may in some cases be able to
purchase or acquire their freedom in various ways. The prophet Muhammad owned several slaves himself.
One of them bore him a son who died as an infant. The slavery endorsed by the Quran limited the source of
slaves to those captured in war and those born of a slave. The Quran provides for emancipation of a slave
as a means (or in one case, a requirement of) demonstrating remorse for the commission of certain sins.
Proclamations of emancipation and repudiations of participation in slave trafficking did not occur in Muslim
lands until after the Christian-European Colonial era-as late as 1962 in Saudi Arabia, 1970 in Oman and
Yemen, and 1981 in Mauritania. Islamic slavery in the fasion multigenerational hereditary slavery (in
Mauritania) is still evident today. In Chad, child enslavement with the aspect of forced conversion to Islam
has been documented.
 Hinduism: The Caste system in India has often been compared to slavery or slave-like practices. In ancient
and medieval times, lower case Hindus (dubbed Untouchables or, more recently Dalits) have had reduced
social statuses similar to slaves. Lower Caste Hindus lives incorporated rigid segregation and bonded labor
practices. Justification for such acts was often provided through the use of careful selection of scripture from
the vast plethora of hindu religious literature. However, mainstream Hinduism never condoned or accepted
outright slavery..British colonialists, in the 19th century, exploited these divisions by mistranslating
scripture in Hinduismand attaching undue weight to its importance over other more normative
religious scripture in the religion in order to foster sectarian divisions among Hindus as part of the
Divide and rule strategy employed by the crownHindu reformers aggressively campaigned against any
slavery of the lower castes. In contemporary times, allegations of apartheid are often drawn against Hindus
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by partisan political activists. These charges are debunked by academics and scholars, given Indias
commitment to affirmative action.

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Babylonian astrology begins to firmly enter western culture.

About Astrology Entering Europe and Middle East:


A  Wikipedia2007: The history of astrology in Europe and the Middle East are inextricably linked, with each
region contributing to astrological theories and continually influencing each other over time. Bouche-Leclercq,
th
Cumont and Boll hold that the middle of the 4 century BC is when Babylonian astrology began to firmly enter
western culture. This spread of astrology was concomitant with the rise of a genuine scientific phase of
astronomy in Babylonia itself. This may have weakened to some extent the hold that astrology had on the
priests and the people. Another factor leading to the decline of the old faith in the Euphrates Valley may have
been the advent of the Persians, who brought with them a religion which differed markedly from the
Babylonian-Assyrian polytheism (Zoroastrianism). The spread of astrology beyond Babylonia is thus
concomitant with the rise of a truly scientific astronomy in Babylonia itself, which in turn is due to the intellectual
impulse afforded by the contact with new forms of culture from both the East and the West. In the hands of the
Greeks and of the Egyptians both astrology and astronomy were carried far beyond the limits attained by the
Babylonians.
347BC Plato dies.

First there was Pythagoras (582BC-500BC) then Heraclitus (540-480BC) then Socrates (470BC-399BC) who
taught Plato (428BC-347BC) who taught Aristotle (384BC-322BC) who taught Alexander the Great (356BC-
323BC). Plato advocated a Philosopher King and proclaimed that was the only solution to the problems that
face mankind: Until philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of
philosophy, and political greatness and wisdom meet in oneand then only will this our State have a possibility
of life and behold the light of day.

THE PLOT Radioliberty.com: Plato advocated a world ruler, and the intent of the Mystery Religions would be to
establish a world government under the rule of one man. Adepts of the occult believe that when the
capstone, the symbol of all the secret societies, is lowered onto the top of the incomplete pyramid, the
plan of the ages will be complete: the Novus Ordo Seclorum or New World Order will be established
and the` world ruler will be installed.

About Plato (428BC-347BC):


Moses Hadas would comment in Hellenistic Culture, Fusion and Diffusion, (1959), that many aspects of
orthodox Judaism were apparently derived from Sparta, through the baneful political influence of Plato.
Livius.org2006: The Athenian philosopher Plato is usually called a pupil of Socrates, but his ideas are no
less inspired by Parmenides of Elea. Plato accepted the world of the phenomena as a mere shadow of the
real world of the ideas. When we observe a horse, we recognize what it is because our soul remembers the
THE PLOT idea of the horse from the time before our birth. In Platos political philosophy, only wise men who understand
the dual nature of reality are fit to rule the country. He made three voyages to Syracuse on Sicily to establish
his ideal state, both times without lasting results. Platos hypothesis that our soul was once in a better
H place and now lives in a fallen world made it easy to combine platonic philosophy and Christianity,
which accounts for the popularity of Platonism in Late Antiquity. One element, however, was not acceptable:
the idea of platonic love-a homosexual relation with pedagogical [relating to a teacher or education]
aspects.
Bluepete.com2005: Plato was born in Athens. Coming from a noble family, he aspired to a political career,
but soon became upset with the tyrannic democracy of Athens, especially when it put his teacher, Socrates
(469-399BC) to death. Plato turned to philosophy in search of an alternative to the stable and unjust public life
of the timebelieved that there was another world beyond this changeable and destructible one in which we
live, one consisting of unchanging eternal forms. He asserted that what we see and touch are only very
distantly related to the ultimate realities that existno perfect circlesno absolutely perfect examples of
courage or justice; we can only imagine perfectly moral standardsdrawing a distinct line of demarcation
between the Ideal and the actual world, defines the dualistThere was, in this world, to be no perfect state
and no perfect men in it, one can only strive for the ideal. The dark side of this Platonic view comes when we
consider his view of the role that man must play to one another in society. To Plato, there was no natural
sense on how men ought to live, education was to be the key to the construction of a better society; from the
educated would arise the elite to rule society. Plato thought it essential that a strict threefold class division be
maintained. In addition to the rulers, the Philosopher-kings, there were to be Auxiliaries (soldiers, police and
civil servants) and the workers (the rest of us). Platos view of society was pinned by the belief that
philosophers are capable of knowing the absolute truth about how to rule society and thus are justified in
wielding absolute power. Such a view is in striking contrast to that of his principal teacher, Socrates (469-
399BC), who was always conscious of how much he did not know, and claimed superiority to unthinking men
only in that he was aware of his own ignorance where they were not. Putting it mildly, Platos view was that we
are ineradicably social, and that the individual person was not, and could not, be self-sufficient. In fact, Plato
parceled up humans like so many animals that could do nothing for themselves unless they had constant and
detailed direction from those who were to be their leaders: and even in the smallest manner[one] should
stand under leadership. For example, he should get up, or move, or wash, or take his mealsonly if he has
been told to do so. In a word, he should teach his soul, by long habit, never to dream of acting
independentlyThere will be no end to the troubles of states, or of humanity itself, till philosophers become
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kings in this world, or till those we now call kings and rulers really and truly become philosophers, and political
power and philosophy thus come into the same hands. (The Republic.) Incidentally, Plato took a dim view of
democracy. To Plato, it made no sense that we should proceed to put people in charge who have shaky, or,
worse yet, no philosophical positions. A democratic system turns up people to govern on the basis of what the
majority of the voters say, a majority which when compared to the number of citizens (non-voting included) is
likely in fact to be a minority of people who have no plans, no answers other than that necessary to get
themselves elected. Plato may have been right in his views on democracy; the difficulty is Platos avowed and
stated belief that men were unequal to one another. I say unequal, but that is putting it on a too charitable
basis. To Plato society was to break down to those few who were to be the philosopher kings, and the rest of
us, who were to be treated like labouring beasts of the field. The Platonic view of man is one that is in
complete accord with the view of the socialist. Now, I think most would agree, a stable and efficient society is
important; but one should wonder about a society that will use force (legislation) to make the individual give in
to the desires of those who have set themselves as knowing what is best for everyone. Those who subscribe
to the theory that we should be ruled by those who really know best, subscribe, whether they know it or not, to
Platos theory of man. It is this theory upon which, in these times, our society rests. The theory,-so attractive in
its statement-is that the community is to permit government to use persuasion and force with a view to unite all
citizens and make them share together the benefits which each individually can confer on the community for
the benefit of the community; it is a false theory. When, in its legislation, in its use of force, government
suppresses the welfare of the individual; when its efforts are aimed to foster the attitude that one should not
proceed to please oneself, government commits a fatal error in the achievement of its laudable object, the
betterment of the whole. The essential problem in proceeding in this manner is that individuals cannot
contribute to the whole, indeed will be a drain on the whole, unless they are allowed to be free and productive,
that is to say allowed to suit themselves. Men did not evolve into robots; they did not come to possess the
independent spirit, so characteristic of man, by serving others; man came to be the superior being, that he
clearly is, because of the exercise of free choice, one of the essential ingredients in the evolutionary
processPlato: I do believe that there are gods, and that in a far higher sense than that in which any of my
accusers believe in them.
Newadvent.org2005/catholicencyclopedia: when about twenty years old he met Socrates, and the
intercourse, which lasted eight or ten years, between master and pupil was the decisive influence in Platos
philosophical careerafter the death of Socrates he joined a group of the Socratic disciples gathered at
Megara under the leadership of Euclid. Later he traveled in Egypt, Magna Graecia, and Sicilyno doubt that in
Italy he studied the doctrines of the Pythagoreans. His three journeys to Sicily were, apparently, to influence
the older and younger Dionysius in favor of his ideal system of government. But in this he failed, incurring the
enmity of the two rulers, was cast into prison, and sold as a slave. Ransomed by a friend, he returned to his
school of Philosopy at Athensdevoted himself unremittingly to writing and teaching until his eightieth year,
when, as Cicero tells us, he died in the midst of his intellectual labors. It is practically certain that all Platos
genuine works have come down to us. The lost works ascribed to him such as the Divisions and the
Unwritten Doctrines, are certainly not genuine. Of the thirty-six dialogues, someare undoubtedly genuine,
othersof doubtful authenticitythe use of the myth in the dialogues has occasioned considerable difficulty to
the commentators and critics. When we try to put a value on the content of a Platonic myth, we are often
baffled by the suspicion that it is all meant to be subtly ironical, or that it is introduced to cover up the inherent
contradictions of Platos thought. I any case, the myth should never be taken too seriously or invoked as an
evidence of what Plato really believedSocrates had taught that the only true knowledge is a knowledge by
means of concepts.. The concept, he said, represents all the reality of a thingIt was taken up by Plato as a
principle of Being. If the concept represents all the reality of things, the reality must be something in the ideal
order, not necessarily in the things themselves, but rather above them, in a world by itself. For the concept,
therefore, Plato substitutes the Ideathe foundation and justification of scientific knowledgethe Eleatics,
following Parmenides, held that there is no real change or multiplicity in the world, that reality is
onePlatosupposes a world of Ideas apart from the world of our experience, and immeasureably superior to
itof all the ideasthe beautiful shines outthe beginning of all philosophical activity is the love and
admiration of the BeautifulDialectic: we know that some men are just. But both in the actions and in the
persons designated as just there exist many imperfections; they are only partly just. In the world above us
there exists justice, absolute, perfect, unmixed with injustice, eternal, unchangeable, immortalthe idea of a
horsethe world of our experience, which we take to be real, is only a shadow world. The real world is the
world of Ideas, which we reach not by sense-knowledge, but by intuitive contemplationtowards the end of his
life, Plato leaned more and more towards the Pythagorean number-theory, and, in the Timeaeus especially,
he is inclined to interpret the Ideas in terms of mathematics. His followers emphasized this element unduly,
and, in the course of neo-Platonic speculation, the ideas were identified with numbers. There was much in the
theory of Ideas that appealed to the first Christian philosophersto render the world of Ideas more acceptable
to Christians, the Patristic Platonists from Justin Martyr to St. Augustine maintained that the world exists in the
mind of God, and that this was what Plato meant. On the other hand, Aristotle understood Plato to refer to a
world of Ideas self-subsisting and separate. Instead therefore, of picturing to ourselves the world of Ideas as
existing in God, we should represent God as existing in the world of Ideas Phenomena [what we beasts do
and make] has no scientific interest for Plato. The knowledge of it is not true knowledge, nor the source, but
only the occasion of true knowledge. The phenomena stimulate our minds to a recollection of the intuition of
Ideas, and with that intuition scientific knowledge begins.view of the world as animated with a World-Soul,
which, conscious of its process, does all things for a useful purpose, or, rather, for the best, morally,
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intellectually, and aestheticallyPlato held the soul to be immortalHis description of the future state of the
soul is dominated by the Pythagorean doctrine of transmigration. Here, again, the details are not to be taken
as seriously as the main fact, and we can well imagine that the account of the soul condemned to return in the
body of a fox or a wolf is introduced chiefly because it accentuates the doctrine of rewards and punishments,
which is part of Platos ethical systemthe soulconsists of three partsrationalirascible
appetitivethree parts really distinctLike all the Greeks, Plato took for granted that the highest good of
man, subjectively considered, is happinessthe meanspractice of virtue and the acquisition of
wisdomvirtue is order, harmony, the health of the soul; vice is disorder, discord, disease. The State is, for
Plato, the highest embodiment of the Idea. It should have for its aim the establishment and cultivation of
virtuein order, however, that virtue may be established systematically and cease to be a matter of chance or
haphazard, education is necessary, and without a social organization education is impossible.ideal state is
modelled on the individual soul. It consists of three orders: rulers (corresponding to the reasonable soul),
producers (corresponding to desire), and warriors (corresponding to courage).The State, he maintains,
exercises unlimited power. Neither private property nor family institutions have any place in the Platonic state.
The children belong to the state as soon as they are born, and should be taken in charge by the State from the
beginning, for the purpose of education. They should be educated by officials appointed by the State, and
according to the measure of ability, which they exhibit, they are to be assigned by the State to the order of
producers, to that of warriors, or to the governing class. These impractical schemes reflect at once Platos
discontent with the demagogy then prevalent in Athens and in his personal predilection for the aristocratic form
of government. Indeed, his scheme is essentially aristocratic in the original meaning of the word; it advocates
government by the (intellectually) best. The unreality of it all, and the remoteness of its chance to be tested by
practice, must have been evident to Plato himself. For in his Laws he sketches a modified scheme which,
though inferior, he thinks, to the plan outlined in the Republic, is nearer to the level of what the average state
can attain. Platos school, like Aristotles, was organized by Plato himself and handed over at the time of his
death to his nephew Speusippus, the first scholarch, or ruler of the school. It was then known as the Academy,
because it met in the groves of Academus. The Academy continued, with varying fortunes, to maintain its
identity as a Platonic school, first at Athens, and later at Alexandria until the first century of the Christian era. It
modified the Platonic system in the direction of mysticism and demonology, and underwent at least one period
of skepticism. It ended in a loosely constructed eclecticism. With the advent of neo-Platonism founded by
Ammonius and developed by Plotinus, Platonism definitely entered the cause of Paganism against
Christianity. Nevertheless, the great majority of the Christian philosophers down to St. Augustine were
Platonists. They appreciated the uplifting influence of Platos psychology and metaphysics, and recognized in
that influence a powerful ally of Christianity in the warfare against materialism and naturalism. These Christian
THE PLOT Platonists underestimated Aristotle, whom they generally referred to as an acute logician whose philosophy
favoured the heretical opponents of orthodox Christianity. The Middle Ages completely reversed this verdict.
The first scholastics knew only the logical treatises of Aristotle, and as far as they were psychologists or
metaphysicians at all, they drew on the Platonism of St. Augustine. Their successors, however, in the twelfth
century came to a knowledge of the psychology, metaphysics, and ethics of Aristotle, and adopted the
Aristotlean view so completely that before the end of the thirteenth century the Stagyrite occupied in the
Christian schools the position occupied in the fifth century by the founder of the Academythe Renaissance
brought a revival of Platonism.
Webspace.ship.edu2007: According to Plato, the phenomenal world strives to become ideal, perfect,
complete. Ideals are, in that sense, a motivating force. In fact, he identifies the ideal with God and perfect
goodness. God creates the world out of material and shapes it according to his plan or blueprint-ideas or the
ideal. If the world is not perfect, it is not because of God or the ideals, but because the raw materials were not
perfect. I think you can see why the early Christian church made Plato an honorary Christianrather than
bad being sin, it is considered a matter of ignorance. So, someone who does something bad requires
education, not punishmentwe gradually move closer and closer to God through reincarnation as well
THE PLOT as in our individual lives. Our ethical goal in life is resemblance to GodIn The Republic, he designsthe
peasants are the foundationthey till the soil and produce goodswarriors represent the spirit and courage of
the societythe philosopher kings guide the society, as reason guides our liveseveryones children are
raised together and membership in one of the three levels of society is based on talents, not on ones birth
parents! [Jews included?] And Plato includes women as mens equals in this system
Atlantia.de: Solonstarted the historical myth of Atlantis. From 571 to 561BC, he visited Egypt and its
neighbouring countries. In Saiis, former capital of Lower Egypt and cultural centre of the ancient world, the
priest and temple recorder Sonchis told Solon about a story of the sunken empire and continent of Atlantis that
was recorded there. In Athens, authorized persons were told by Solon this secret knowledge from the temples
of Egyptwe owe the story of Atlantis to the Greek philosopher Platowho wrote it down in his dialogues
Timaeus and Critias. This report revolves around a conversation in honor of the acian moon goddess Bendis
which was held by SocratesHermocrates, Timaeus and Critias and which dealt with the subject of Atlantis as
introduced by Solon. Plato added this topic to his work Politeia which concerns the ideal state. The Atlantis
report, known as the Timaeus-Critias Dialogue, consists of two parts. The first part, the Timaeus, deals with
the early history of Greece and a military conflict with Atlantis. The second part, the Critias, is concerned with
a description of Atlantis. Originally, Plato intended to add a third part but he never did. This additional material
might have helped to shed light on the phenomenon of Atlantis, for the second part concludes shortly before
the doom of Atlantis with the following words:..Zeus, the god of gods, who rules according to law, and is able to
see into such things, perceiving that an honorable race was in a woeful plight, and wanting to inflict punishment
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on them, that they might be chastened and improve, collected all the gods into their most holy habitation,
which, being placed in the centre of the world, beholds all created things. And when he had called them
together, he spake as follows. [the rest has been lost]
Plato and the Kabbalah by David Livingstone: Throughout the centuries, leading Jewish mystics and
Kabbalists regarded Plato as a student of their doctrinesother Kabbalistsbelieved Plato to have been a
K disciple of Jeremiah in Egyptgreat groups of students follow him, as is well known to anyone who has served
the sage of the academy and entered their studies, which are found in every land.Greek philosophy can be
demonstrated to be an appropriation of the ideas of the Babylonian Magi, who in turn were influenced
by early Jewish Kabbalistic ideasthe subject of Persian or Babylonian influences has been a contentioius
onethe idea has yet to penetrate into mainstream circles, because of a xenophobia which insists on the
unique genius of the Greeks [insert Jews for Greeks and you have J think]. Although Kabbalists make claims
of a much older tradition, the Kabbalah was incepted in Babylon, when the Jews were held there in captivity,
in the sixth century BC. A faction chose to reclaim their former status in the Promised Land, and achieve the
world domination they believed was promised to them, through the practice of magic. Magic is, however,
forbidden in Judaism, and therefore, not to reveal their apostasy, they created an interpretation of the religion,
which is now called Kabbalah. And, having rejected the Jewish God, their secret interpretation involved
reverence for his enemy, the dying-god of ancient fertility rites. The dying-god was associated with the
Underworld, where he was said to sojourn in the winter, and from which he was subsequently resurrected in
spring, by his sister, the goddess. As twins, the dying-god and the goddess were interpreted to represent
dual aspects of a single androgynous deity. Therefore, both came to be symbolized by the planet
Venus, whose original Latin name was Lucifer. These Kabbalists, however, were confused by ancient
historians with the chief priests of the Babylonians, known as the Chaldeans, and with the priests of the
religion of Zoroasterknown as Magi. The ancient cult practices of magic and sex-rites that figured in the cult
of the dying-god were incorporated by these Magi, who developed the Mysteries of Mithras, the ancient god of
the Persianspointed out byFranz Cumontthose Magi with whom the Greeks were most familiar were
these heretical Zoroastrians, which he called Magussaeansthe heretical leanings of these Magi were
derived from the principal tenets of the Kabbalah including dualism, the worship of a dying-god and the
four elements, astrology, pantheism, numerology, and the belief in reincarnation, which were falsely
attributed to Zoroaster..Zaehner commented that in many cases the Magi were sorcerers, or demon-
worhippers, who were condemned by orthodox ZoroastriansThe practice of worshipping the demons is also
referred to by Clement of Alexandria: The Magians, he says, worship angels and demons.Xerxes, in
suppressing the deava cult, caused a large-scale emigration of dissident Magians. These, after absorbing
much of Babylonian speculation, transported their beliefs to Asia Minor; and from them arose the Graeco-
Roman religion of Mithra. With the expansion of the Persian Empire in the sixth century BC, the ideas of the
Kabbalistic Magi were cultivated in different parts of the world, mainly in Egypt, and in India, where they went
on to influence Buddhism, and most importantly Greece There were already important hints of Jewish
influence in Greece long before the sixth century BC. However, there are no specific references to Jews by the
Greeks until the third century BC. Therefore, Herodotus does not mention them, but discusses the Phoenicians
and the Syrians of Palestine who practiced circumcision. In classical times, the Greeks recognized three great
divisions among themselves: Acolian, Ionian, and Dorian. According to Greek mythology, the Ionians and
Dorians both derived their origin from foreign sources, the Phoenicians. An important branch of the
Greeks traced themselves back to Cadmus, the son of Phoenix, from whom the name Phoenician is derived.
 The other great branch were known as the Danaans, descended from Danaus, who came from Egypt, but who
was originally believed to have been a Phoenician. Heccataeus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the fourth
century BC, set out his view that the stories of Danaus and Cadmus were traditions were related to the
Israelite Exodus. Referring the the Egyptians he said: The natives of the land surmised that unless they
removed the foreigners their troubles would never be resolved. At once, therefore, the aliens were
driven from the country and the most outstanding and active among them banded together and, as some
say, were cast ashore in Greece and certain other regions; their teachers were notable men, among them
being Danaus and Cadmus. But the greater number were driven into what is now called Judea, which is not far
from Egypt and at that time was utterly uninhabited. The colony was headed by a man called Moses.the
Dorian Invasion, which took place in the twelfth century BC, may be connected with the devastation throughout
the Middle East wrought by the controversial Sea Peoples. Among the Sea Peoples were the Denyen, which
scholars have equated with the Israelite Tribe of Dan, as well as the Danaans. A measure of the broader
impact of these conquests is provided by the renaming of territories after varioius groups of Sea Peoples. After
the invasion of Cyprus, its name was changedisle of the Danunians/Danaoi/Denyenthe Dorian Invasion
was often termed The Return of the Heraklids, their calling themselves Heraklids being a claim, not only of
descent from Hercules, the Greek version of the Phoenician Baalultimately, as related by Herodotus, the
Persians traced the ancestry of Hercules to Perseus, whom they believed to be an Assyrian. He maintained:
if we trace the ancestry of the Danaewe find that the Dorian chieftains are genuine Egyptians. This is the
accepted Greek version of the genealogy of the Spartan Royal House; the Persians, however, maintain that
Perseus was an Assyrian who adopted Greek nationality; his ancestry, therefore, was not Greek; and the
forebears of Acrisius were not related to Perseus at all, but were Egyptian, which accords with the Greek
version of the story It may have been on this basis that, sometime around 300BC, Areios, King of
 Sparta, wrote to Jerusalem: To Onias High Priest, greeting. A document has come to light which
shows that the Spartans and Jews are kinsmen descended alike from Abraham. Both books of
Maccabees of the Apocrypha mention a link between the Spartans and Jews. Maccabees 2 speaks of certain
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Jews having embarked to go to the Lacedaemonians (Spartans), in hope of finding protection there because of
then kinship. In Maccabees 1, It has been found in writing concerning the Spartans and the Jews that they
are brethren and are of the family of Abraham. Contact between the Greeks and the Magi was effected
through the Persian conquest of the Greek city-states of Ionia in Asia Minor. Greek interest in Oriental
teachings resulted in the production of a curious set of pseudoepigraphical works, written in Greek, and
attributed to Zoroaster, his disciple Osthanes, and to his patron Hystaspes. Osthanes, a supposed disciple of
Zoroaster, known as the prince of the Magi, was said to have accompanied the Persian Emperor Xerxes on his
campaign against Greece as his chief magus. Osthanes, mentioned Pliny, was the first person to write a book
on magic, meaning the art of the Magi, or the Kabbalah: and nurtured the seeds, as it were, of this
monstrous art, spreading the disease to all corners of the world on his way. However, some very thorough
researchers place another Zoroaster, who came from Proconnesus, somewhat before Osthanes time. One
thing is certain. Osthanes was chiefly responsible for stirring up among the Greeks not merely an appetite but
a mad obsession for this art. The influence of Mithraic cult of the Magi was adapted by the Greeks as the cult
of Dionysus, or Latin Bacchus. Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher of the sixth century BC, equated the rites of the
Bacchants with those of the Magi, and commented: if it were for Dionysus that they hold processions and sing
hymns to the shameful parts (phalli), it would be a most shameless act; but Hades and Dionysus are the same,
in whose honor they go mad and celebrate the Bacchic rites, and of the Nightwalkers, Magi, Bacchoi, Lenai,
and the initiated, all these people he threatens with what happens after death: for the secret rites practiced
among humans are celebrated in an unholy manner. The female worshippers of Bacchus, called Maenads,
were supposed to re-enact the tearing and eating of Dionysus by the Titans, by shipping themselves into a
frenzy, and tearing a live bull to pieces with their bare hands and teeth, for the animal in some sense was an
incarnation of the god. Several descriptions of the rites of the Dionysians are available from ancient authors.
Clement of Alexandria reports: The raving Dionysus is sorshipped by Bacchants with orgies, in which they
celebrate their sacred frenzy by a feast of raw flesh. Wreathed with snakes, they perform the distribution of
portions of their victims, shouting the name Eva (Eua), that Eva through whom error entered into the world; and
a consecrated snake is the emblem of the Bacchic orgies. The legendary founder of the rites of Dionysus was
known to have been Orpheus. Artapanus, a Jewish philosopher of the third century BC, declared of Moses that
as a grown man he was called Musaeus by the Greeks. This Musaeus was the teacher of Orpheus.
Aristobulus, another Jewish philosopher from the same century, claimed that Orpheus was a follower of Moses,
and quoted the following from an Orphic poem: I will sing for those for whom it is lawful, but you uninitiate,
close your doors, charged under the laws of the Righteous one, for the Divine has legislated for all alike. But
you, son of the light-bearing moon, Musaeus (Moses), listen, for I proclaim the Truth. [?!?!] Moses was of
course not the source of a magic cult that was developed in Babylon in the sixth century BC. Spurious
attributions is the nature of the Kabbalah. It is interesting, however, to note that these writers at least
recognized the Jewish origin of these ideas. The great exponent of the orphic tradition in ancient Greek
philosophy was Pythagoras. According to F.M. Cornford, whether or not we accept the hypothesis of direct
influence from Persia on the Ionian Greeks in the sixth century, any student of Orphic and Pythagorean thought
cannot fail to see that the similarities between it and Persian religion are so close as to warrant our regarding
them as expressions of the same view of life, and using the one system to interpret the other. Though
Pythagoras was born on the island of Samos, his father was a Phoenician from Tyre. It was apparently
following a suggestion by Thales that Pythagoras had traveled to Egypt, at which point, according to Apuleius,
in his Apology, he was captured by the Persians and taken back to Babylon along with other prisoners. In
Babylon, maintained Porphyry, Pythagoras was taught by Zaratas, a disciple of Zoroaster, and initiated into the
highest esoteric mysteries of the Zoroastrians. According to Iamblichus, Pythagoras traveled to Phoenicia,
where he conversed with the prophets who were descendants of Moschus (Moses) the physiologist, and with
many others, as well as with the local hierophants. Of his ideas, maintained Hermippus, a Greek writer who
lived about 200 BC, Pythagoras practiced and taught these in imitation of the beliefs of the Jews and the
Thracians, which he had appropriated to himself. Josep