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Flux Density Calculator for Plain Disc Magnets

Directions: Fill in the shaded boxes with the Br for the magnet
material, the dimensions of the magnet, and the distance
from the magnet to the sensor element. The dimensions
can be in any units. The resulting field strength at the sensor
element, at a temperature of 25C, is calculated.

Br (Select from Table Below) 3250

L (Length of Magnet) 4.00


R (Radius of Magnet) 3.00
X (Distance from face of magnet to sensor element) 25.40
0.225 kA/m
Field Strength at Sensor Element (Oe *) 2.823 Oe
* In air (o = 1), Gauss = Oe

Br for Disc Magnet Materials


Magnet Material Br
Ceramic 1 2200
Ceramic 5 3300
Ceramic 8 3250
NdFeB 35 12300
NdFeB 39H 13000
NdFeB 42 13200
NdFeB 45 13300
NdFeB 48 13800
Samarium 18 8600
Samarium 24 9600
Samarium 26 10600
Samarium 32 11000
Sensor

L X
magnetic field strength unit conversion table
Name of unit unit symbol SI unit conversion factor

magnetic Oersted Oe
field
(H) Ampere/meter A/m 1kA/m=12.54Oe

Name of unit unit symbolSI unit conversion factor


Gauss Gs,G
flux density
B
Tesla T 0.1mT=1G

conversion table
Reading G mT
1 G Gauss 0.1
1 mT milli Tesla 10
1 Oe Oersted 1 0.1
1 kA/m
kilo Ampere per meter 12.54 1.254
Oe kA/m
1 0.0798
10 0.7977
0.0798
12.54
Reference : Magnetic Field Unit
Magnetic field strength is defined by vector field which has a direction and a magnitude
(or strength).
The number of magnetic flux lines which go through the unit area perpendicular to
magnetic field is called Flux density B.
The relation between Magnetic strength H and flux density B can be defined by B = H.
in this case is permeability, the unit of magetizability.
In the air, is usually about 1, except special case, and 1 Gauss 1 Oersted.
Usually, magnetic field strength is defined by the unit of OeA/m ( Oersted
Ampere/meter ).
And when it is defined by flux density, the units of G (Gauss) or T (Tesla) are used.
This means that flux density B is a value which includes magnetizability and magnetic flux
H does not include magnetizability.
In many cases, Residual magnetic flux density (Br) and Magnetic coercive force (Hc) are
used to define properties of permanent magnets.
Oe (Oersted) is used to define Magnetic coercive force as it is the strength of magnetic
field to reverse the direction of magnetic pole.
Electrical Conductivity and Resistivit
Resistivity at 295K
Magnetic Domains
Themicroscopic orderingof electron spins characteristic
offerromagneticmaterials leads to the formation of regions of
alignment called domains.

The main implication of the domains is that there is already a


of magnetization in ferromagnetic materials within individual d
that in the absence of external magnetic fields those domains
oriented. A modest applied magnetic field can cause a larger d
alignment of the magnetic moments with the external field, gi
multiplication of the applied field.
These illustrations of domains are conceptual only and not me
an accurate scale of the size or shape of domains. The micros
evidence about magnetization indicates that the net magnetiz
ferromagnetic materials in response to an external magnetic fi
actually occur more by the growth of the domains parallel to t
field at the expense of other domains rather than the reorient
domains themselves as implied in the sketch.
Some of the more direct evidence we have about domains com
imaging of domains in single crystals of ferromagnetic materia
sketches above are after Young and are adapted from magnifi
domain boundaries in single crystals of nickel. They suggest th
of external magnetic fields is to cause the domain boundaries
favor of those domains which are parallel to the applied field.
how this applies to bulk magnetic materials which are polycry
in mind the fact that the internal magnetic fields which come
range orderingof the electron spins are much stronger, somet
hundreds of times stronger, than the external magnetic fields
produce these changes in domain alignment. The effective mu
the external field which can be achieved by the alignment of t
often expressed in terms of therelative permeability.
Domains may be made visible with the use of magnetic colloid
suspensions which concentrate along the domain boundaries.
boundaries can be imaged by polarized light, and also with th
electron diffraction. Observation of domain boundary moveme
influence of applied magnetic fields has aided in the developm
theoretical treatments. It has been demonstrated that the form
domains minimizes the magnetic contribution to the free ener
Iron, nickel, cobalt and some of the rare earths (gadolinium, dys

parallel with each other in a region called


adomain. Within the domain, the magnetic field
is intense, but in a bulk sample the material will
usually be unmagnetized because the many
domains will themselves be randomly oriented
with respect to one another. Ferromagnetism
manifests itself in the fact that a small externally
imposedmagnetic field, say from asolenoid, can
cause the magnetic domains to line up with each
other and the material is said to be magnetized.
The driving magnetic field will then be increased
by a large factor which is usually expressed as
arelative permeabilityfor the material. There are
many practicalapplicationsof ferromagnetic
materials, such as theelectromagnet.
some extent after being subjected to an external
magnetic field. This tendency to "remember their
magnetic history" is calledhysteresis. The
fraction of the saturation magnetization which is
retained when the driving field is removed is
called theremanenceof the material, and is an
important factor in permanent magnets.

All ferromagnets have a maximum temperature where the ferro

Ferromagntic materials will respond mechanically to an impress