Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

THE CALCULATION OF B-VALUE AND PEAK GROUND ACCELERATION USING EARTHQUAKES DATA IN INDONESIA

Group work approved by Prof. Dr. Kirbani Sri Brotopuspito

THE CALCULATION OF B-VALUE AND PEAK GROUND ACCELERATION USING EARTHQUAKES DATA IN INDONESIA Group work approved

by

Afza Afgani Setiawan

14/370482/PMU/8131

Bobby Setyawan

14/

Pradiptya Setyahadi

14/

Purwita Eka Sari

14/

Tissia Ayu Algary

14/370488/PMU/8134

MAGISTER GEO-INFORMATION FOR SPATIAL PLANNING AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

GRADUATE SCHOOL

GADJAH MADA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

2014

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

The Earth consist of many layers with different size. The main major of layers are crust, mantle, and core. The most dynamic layer in the Earth is Asthenosphere which is extends to an average depth of about 300 kilometers in

the mantle. Geologist assumed that movements of the Lithosphere is caused by inferior process, specially convection heat in the Asthenosphere. Convection heat in the asthenosphere make movements tectonic plate. It’s make earthquake.

Earthquake had clustered as three various. There are Collapse earthquake, volcanic earthquake, and tectonic earthquake. Collapse earthquake happened because of giant roks fall. Volcanic earthquake occured because of volcanoes activity. The last, tectonic earthquake occured because of subduction of two plates.

The Indonesian archipelago stradless the equator betwen the mainland of southeast asia and australia; its thousands of large and small island are situated between approximately 7 °N and 11°S latitudes. It can be divided geomorphologically into more or less cratogene areas in the wes and east and strongly tectogene areas making up the reminder of the territory (Sutarjo Sigit, 1962). The former sre characterised by epirogenetic movements, planations surfaces and shelf seas.

Plate tectonics given the morphostructures of Indonesia, it comparise three major plate system:

  • 1. The Southeast Asian (or Sunda) plate, which is essentially continental, but includes some oceanic parts in the east.

  • 2. The Indian Ocean Australian plate, comprising a subducting oceanic section in the west and a collding continental section in the east.

  • 3. The oceanic west pacific plate, which basically subducts under the asian continent, but in the region consist of a number of smaller plates.

Among these, from east to west, the caroline plate, the Philippine Sea Plate and the remains of of the north Moluccas plate affect Indonesia.

Indonesia is a confluence area of three tectonic plates, that are eurasia, Indo Australia, and pasific. This condition causing many earthquakes in Indonesia. When earthquakes occured, body wave and surface wave move in all direction from the hypocenter at the same time.

Earthquakes can occured anywhere between the Earth's surface and about 700 kilometers below the surface. For scientific purposes, this earthquake depth range of 0-700 km is divided into three zones: shallow, intermediate, and deep. Shallow earthquakes are between 0 and 70 km deep; intermediate earthquakes, 70 - 300 km deep; and deep earthquakes, 300 - 700 km deep. In general, the term deep- focus earthquakes is applied to earthquakes deeper than 70 km. All earthquakes deeper than 70 km are localized within great slabs of shallow lithosphere that are sinking into the Earth's mantle.

  • 1.2 Problems Formulation The problem in this paper is, how to find the b-value from the graph and how

to calculate Peak Ground Acceleration using Mc Guirre method.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW

  • 2.1 Geomorphology of Indonesia

Indonesia is one of the world’s most geologically active countries. Given its combination of active volcanism and tropical climate, it is home to several volcanoes which exemplify the type of dynamic interactions between the forces of the endhosphere and exosphere that are characteristics archipelago. The archipelago stradless the equator betwen the mainland of southeast asia and australia; its thousands of large and small island are situated between approximately 7 °N and 11°S latitudes. It can be devided geomorphologically into more or less cratogene areas in the wes and east and strongly tectogene areas making up the reminder of the territory (Sutarjo Sigit, 1962). The former are characterised by epirogenetic movements, planations surfaces and shelf seas.

The archipelago is affected by two continental masses, Asia in the nothern

hemisphere and Australia in the nothern of hemisphere. Dutch geologist and seceral scientists believe that friction between the tectonic plate of these two continent has created these folded arcs of island in Indonesia, with active mounain building, volcanism and periodic seismik upheavals. Plate tectonics govern the morphostructures of Indonesia, it comparise three major plate system:

  • 1. The Southeast Asian (or Sunda) plate, which is essentially continental, but includes some oceanic parts in the east.

  • 2. The Indian Ocean Australian plate, comprising a subducting oceanic section in the west and a collding continental section in the east.

  • 3. The oceanic west pacific plate, which basically subducts under the asian continent, but in the region consist of a number of smaller plates. Among these, from east to west, the caroline plate, the Philippine Sea Plate and the remains of of the north Moluccas plate affect Indonesia.

The

complexity

of

plate

tectonics

in

Indonesia

is

reflected in the

morphostructures. While in the southwest and south the conventional concept of a

brittle plate subducting along an inclined zone of high seismicity applies, the complex situation in the eastern and central part of the country can be accounted for only by assuming a more elastic configuration and, at places, vertical subsidence. The implication of this problem are various types of natural hazard and natural disaster, such as earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption and the associated hazards, landslides, flood. The earthquake, tsunami, volcanic disaster are related to the position ofIndonesia that located on collision between India- Australia and Eurasia plate, between Pacific and Eurasia plate. Historically, Indonesia has stricken by earthquake and tsunami several times. The relatively new of earthquake (the magnitude: 8.9 RS) and tsunami occurred at Aceh in 26 December 2004, and recent earthquake (the magnitude: 5.9 RS) at Bantul, Yogyakarta and Klaten, Central Java in 27 May 2006. The casualties of the earthquake and tsunami at Aceh: 165.708, while the earthquake at Yogyakarta and Central Java: 5.760 (National Technical Team, 2007). Both areas are high risk in nature to disaster because of the location at collision zone and subduction zone of India-Australia and Eurasia plate. The susceptible area to tsunami can be approached by landform unit, while the susceptible area to earthquake can be analyzed the position to subduction zone and geological structures.

CHAPTER III DISCUSSION

  • 3.1 Earthquake Data

Earthquake data obtained from the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, with area 20° N - 20° S and 90 ° - 150°E. This area covers the entire territory of Indonesia. This data was taken from January 1st, 1973 until September

9, 2014. The earthquake data obtained 17.007, it means earthquakes occured 17.007 earthquakes that recorded by seismic observation stations.

CHAPTER III DISCUSSION 3.1 Earthquake Data Earthquake data obtained from the USGS National Earthquake Information Center,

Picture 3.1 Representated location of local seismic data acquisition

  • 3.2 Charts and Data Process

Software is used to process data, the sofware are Ms. Office Excel, Arc Gis 10.1 and any variety of softwares such as notepad and Ms. Office Word which help the data process. Here is the overview of the data process.

Picture 3.2 The Data collecting using NEIC USGS earthquake data search Data obtained from the USGS

Picture 3.2 The Data collecting using NEIC USGS earthquake data search

Data obtained from the USGS NEIC. After downloaded the data, then stored it in CSV format, the next steps are:

Input query data in Microsoft Excel

Sorting Data

Convert value to the Richter magnitude scale (Ms)

calculating and graphing Calculate the value of PGA

  Make correlation between the magnitude of the earthquake position

The result of data process is grouped into process databased on the frequency of earthquakes

From the data, we can classify according to the depth and magnitude. After classifying the data based on the magnitude, so frequency of earthquakes can be represented like the tabel 1 below.

Tabel 3.1 tabel class magnitude and earthquake frequency

 

CLASS MAGNITUDE

FREQUENCY

 

5.00<M<6.00

11179

6.00<M<7.00

757

7.00<M<8.00

108

8.00<M<9.00

7

From the data

we made a histogram with

a magnitude as the

X

axis and

earthquakes frequency as the Y axis.

Grafik Magnitude VS Frequency

7+ 5+ 12000 10000 8+ 6+ 0 -2000 -4000 8000 6000 4000 2000 Frequency
7+
5+
12000
10000
8+
6+
0
-2000
-4000
8000
6000
4000
2000
Frequency

Magnitude

Series1 Linear (Series1)
Series1
Linear (Series1)

y = -3416.5x + 11554

R² = 0.6539

Picture 3.3 Histogram magnitude vs frequency

From the histogram it can be seen that most earthquakes that occurred in Indonesia in the class magnitude from 5.00 to 6.00.

  • 3.3 B value Study of the b-value has actually been done changes over time, one of the

goal to prove the appropriateness serve as precursors of earthquakes both in scale short-term, medium-term or long-term.

Some studies indicate that large earthquakes in the medium-term scale is often preceded by an increase in the b-value and then followed by a decline in the

weeks or months before the earthquake occurrence. Research conducted by Molchan (1999) both the regional and global catalogs to find that the B-value of the initial earthquakes down to 50% before major earthquakes.

Tabel 3.2 Tabel class magnitude, frequency, cumulative frequency(N) and log N

Class

Frequency

Magnitude

N (Cummulative

Log N

Magnitude

Frequency)

5.00<M<6.00

11179

5+

12051

4.081023086

6.00<M<7.00

 
  • 757 6+

872

2.940516485

7.00<M<8.00

 
  • 108 7+

115

2.06069784

8.00<M<9.00

7

8+

7

0.84509804

b Value Graph

3.5 1 2 5 3 4 0 Log N 0.5 1 0 3 2.5 1.5 4.5
3.5
1
2
5
3
4
0
Log N
0.5
1
0
3
2.5
1.5
4.5
2
4

Magnitude

Series1

Series1

Linear (Series1)

y = -1.0588x + 5.1287

 

R² = 0.9966

Picture 3.3 B-value graph

From the chart, we get the result of b value is -1.0588. b-value represents a statistical measurement of the relative abundance of large and small earthquakes in the group. A higher b-value means that a smaller fraction of the total earthquakes occur at the higher magnitude, whereas a lower b-value implies a larger fraction.

Experts say high b-value means earthquakes are predominantly small in size and, thus, land in the region has a low level of resistance. Conversely, a low value

indicates the number of large and small seismic movements are relatively the same, which means the land is more powerful.

  • 3.4 Peak Ground Acceleration

The Peak Ground Accleration (PGA) is the maximum amplitude of the ground acceleration in time-history. Peak Ground acceleration values can be determined either directly or indirectly. Determination of the value of the acceleration is directly through in situ measurements by using a special tool that is strong motion seismograph or accelerometer. One of the disadvantages of this calculation is incomplete accelerograf network deployment. Therefore, the developed method of calculating the value of the ground acceleration indirectly using empirical equations that have been discovered by experts and has been tested for validity and reliability. Determination the value of the peak ground acceleration by using the empirical equation, requires historical data or data seismicity as input parameters. In its formulation, the experts analyze a case of earthquake occurrence in a particular area by taking into account several parameters, such as; sources of earthquake occurrence, the geological conditions and geotechnical character. In this work, we use the Mc Guirre (1977) method to calculate the Peak Ground Acceleration.

McGuirre attenuation equation is one of the empirical equation that can be used in calculating the value of the ground motion acceleration. This equation is based on the attenuation relationship by using the data of earthquakes that occurred in the western United States. In the calculation of the attenuation equation, the factor of local conditions is excluded. Here, McGuirre attenuation equation is like.

= 472,3

× 10 0,278 M × ( + 25) 1,301

with

value

of

peak

ground

acceleration

(gal), M

is

the

magnitude

and

hypocenter is the distance to the station (km).

In this work we use earthquake data that occurred in Indonesia with the reference point is Graduate School curve building, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The PGA map is shown by the picture below.

Picture 3.4 PGA distribution map in Indonesia From the map we can see that the highest

Picture 3.4 PGA distribution map in Indonesia

From the map we can see that the highest PGA value in Graduate School, Gadjah Mada University is come from calculation that using Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 because the reference area is close with the earthquake epicenter so the PGA is high too. So, because we use earthquake data that occurred in Indonesia with the reference point is Graduate School curve building, Gadjah Mada University, the farther a point of reference to the epicenter, the less the value of its PGA, and the PGA value distribution is too wide because of that matter, so the color scale its not that good because the class of PGA distribution is too wide. The PGA value is between 0.3 170 gal.

Next, we try to make correlation map between magnitude and epicentrum use earthquake data that occurred in Indonesia. The purpose of grouping data according its position is to determine where the earthquake happened and to determine the number of earthquakes that occur in an area. To make the corelation needed latitude and longitude based on magnitude of the earthquake which is obtained from the initial data downloaded from the USGS NEIC. Correlation data processing using Ms. Office Excel 2007 To make this corelation we need latitude

as Y axis and longitude as X axis on the score and the score of magnitude. With the same process, we also make correlation map between depth and epicentrum.

as Y axis and longitude as X axis on the score and the score of magnitude.

Picture 3.5 Correlation map between magnitude and epicenter

From the map we get information that many earthquakes occur in 5.00-6.00 richter scale. As we know the area is the convergention of plate tectonics.

Picture 3.6 Correlation map between depth and epicenter From the correlation map above, we can see

Picture 3.6 Correlation map between depth and epicenter

From the correlation map above, we can see that average earthquake depth that occurred in Indonesia is between 3 km until 74 km.

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSSION

Earthquake data is gotten from USGS National Earthquake Information center, using some softwere like ArcGis 10.1, Ms. Office Excel 2010 and Ms.Office Word 2010. The data from 20° LU 20° LS and 90° 120 BT°. From the data processing, we get some result as:

  • 1. The score of b value is -1.0588, which is high b-value means earthquakes are predominantly small in size and, thus, land in the region has a low level of resistance.

  • 2. The PGA value is between 0.3 170 gal, because we use earthquake data that occurred in Indonesia with the reference point is Graduate School curve building, Gadjah Mada University, the farther a point of reference to the epicenter, the less the value of its PGA, and the PGA value distribution is too wide because of that matter, so the color scale its not that good because the class of PGA distribution is too wide.

  • 3. Many earthquakes occurred in Indonesia is have magnitude between 5,0 6,0.

  • 4. Many earthquakes occurred in Indonesia is have depth between3 km - 74 km.

REFERENCES

Mc Guirre, R. K. and Arabasz, W. J. An Introduction to Probabilistik Seismic Hazard Analysis, in: Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, edited by:Ward, S. H., Society of Exploration Geophysicist, 1, 333-353, 1990.

Verstappen

H.Th.

2000.Outline

Enschede. The Netherlands.

of

the

Geomorphology

of

Indonesia. ITC.

ERDC/CHL CHETN-VI-41 December 2005.

G. M. Molchan et al. / Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 111 (1999)

229-240.

Not Hazard Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 865-878, 2009.

ScieTech 2013. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 423 (2013) 012067. IOP Publishing. doi: 10. 1088/1742-6596/423/1/012067.

Standar Nasional Indonesia (2002), Tata Cara Perencanaan Ketahanan Gempa untuk Bangunan Gedung (SNI 03-1726-2002), Badan Standardisasi Nasional.

Gutenberg, B., Richter, C.F., ’Seismicity of the Earth’, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1954.