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Programa

1. Introduo aos circuitos elctricos


2. Grafos e circuitos resistivos lineares
3. Circuitos dinmicos lineares
Condensadores e bobinas
Circuitos de 1 ordem
Circuitos de 2 ordem
Introduo do Modelo de Estado
4. Regime forado sinusoidal
5. Anlise no domnio da frequncia complexa
6. Circuitos resistivos no-lineares
SECOND-ORDER CIRCUITS
THE BASIC CIRCUIT EQUATION + vC

+ vR +
iL Lv
iR iC

Single Node-pair: Use KCL Single Loop: Use KVL


i S + i R + i L + iC = 0 v S + v R + vC + v L = 0
v (t ) 1t dv 1 t di
iR = ; i L = v ( x )dx + i L ( t0 ); iC = C (t ) v R = Ri ; vC = i ( x )dx + vC (t 0 ); v L = L (t )
R L t0 dt C t0 dt

v 1t dv 1 t di
+ v ( x )dx + i L (t 0 ) + C (t ) = i S Ri + i ( x )dx + vC (t 0 ) + L (t ) = v S
R L t0 dt C t0 dt
Differentiating d 2v 1 dv v diS
C 2+ + = d 2i di i dv
L 2 +R + = S
dt R dt L dt dt dt C dt
LEARNING BY DOING
WRITE THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION FOR v (t ), i ( t ), RESPECTIVELY

iS +
vS

0 t <0 di S
(t ) = 0; t > 0 VS t < 0
i S (t ) = v S (t ) =
dv S
(t ) = 0; t > 0
I S t > 0 dt
0 t >0 dt
MODEL FOR RLC PARALLEL MODEL FOR RLC SERIES
d 2v 1 dv v diS d 2i di i dv
C 2+ + = L 2 +R + = S
dt R dt L dt dt dt C dt
2 d 2i di i
d v 1 dv v L 2 +R + =0
C 2
+ + =0 dt dt C
dt R dt L
THE RESPONSE EQUATION

WE STUDY THE SOLUTIONS FOR THE


EQUATION
d2x dx IF THE FORCING FUNCTION IS A CONSTANT
2
( t ) + a1 ( t ) + a2 x ( t ) = f ( t )
dt dt A
KNOWN : x ( t ) = x p (t ) + xc (t ) f (t ) = A x p = is a particular solution
a2
xp particular solution dx p d 2 x p
A
xc complement ary solution PROOF : x p = = 2
= 0 a2 x p = A
a2 dt dt
THE COMPLEMENTARY SOLUTION
FOR ANY FORCING FUNCTION f (t ) = A
SATISIFES
A
2
d xc dxc x (t ) = + xc ( t )
2
( t ) + a1 ( t ) + a 2 xc ( t ) = 0 a2
dt dt
THE HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION LEARNING BY DOING
2
d x dx DETERMINE THE CHARACTERISTIC
2
( t ) + a1 ( t ) + a2 x ( t ) = 0
dt dt
EQUATION, DAMPING RATIO AND
NORMALIZED FORM
NATURAL FREQUENCY
2
d x dx
( t ) + 2 ( t ) + n x (t ) = 0
2
d2x dx
dt 2 n
dt 4 2 (t ) + 8 (t ) + 16 x (t ) = 0
dt dt
n (undamped) natural frequency
COEFFICIENT OF SECOND DERIVATIVE
damping ratio
MUST BE ONE
CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION
d2x dx
s 2 + 2 n s + n2 = 0 2
( t ) + 2 (t ) + 4 x (t ) = 0
dt dt
a2 = n2 n = a2 CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION
a
a1 = 2 n = 1 s2 + 2s + 4 = 0
2 a2
DAMPING RATIO, NATURAL FREQUENCY
d2x dx
2
( t ) + 2 (t ) + 4 x (t ) = 0
dt dt
2 n n2 n = 2

= 0.5
ANALYSIS OF THE HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION
NORMALIZED FORM CASE 1 : > 1 (real and distinct roots)
d2x dx x (t ) = K1e s1t + K 2e s2 t
2
( t ) + 2 n ( t ) + n x (t ) = 0
2
CASE 2 : < 1 (complex conjugate roots)
dt dt
x (t ) = Ke st
is a solution iff x (t ) = K1e s1t + K 2e s2t
s = n j n 1 2
s 2 + 2 n s + n2 = 0 x (t ) real K 2 = K1*
s = j d
Iff s is solution of the characteristic d = damped oscillatio n frequency
equation = damping factor
dx st d x
2 x (t ) = e t ( A1 cos d t + A2 sin d t )
PROOF : (t ) = sKe ; = s 2
Ke st
dt dt 2 HINT : e st = e ( n j d ) t = e n t e m j d t
d2x dx e m j d t = cos d t m j sin d t
( t ) + 2 n (t ) + n x (t ) = ( s + 2 n s + n ) Ke
2 2 2 st

ASSUME K1 = ( A1 + jA2 ) / 2
2
dt dt
CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION
s + 2 n s + n = 0
2 2
K 2 = K1*
s = j d
[
x (t ) = 2 Re K1e ( + j d ) t ]
( s + n ) 2 + ( n2 2 n2 ) = 0 CASE 3 : = 1 (real and equal roots)
s = n
s = n n n
2 2 2
x (t ) = (B1 + B2 t )e n t
s = n n 2 1 HINT : te st is solution iff
(modes of the system) ( s 2 + 2 n s + n2 = 0) AND ( 2 s + 2 n = 0)
LEARNING EXTENSIONS DETERMINE THE GENERAL FORM OF THE SOLUTION

d2x dx d2x dx
2
( t ) + 4 (t ) + 4 x (t ) = 0 4 2 (t ) + 8 ( t ) + 16 x ( t ) = 0
dt dt dt dt
Divide by coefficient of second derivative
CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION
d2x dx
s2 + 4s + 4 = 0 2
( t ) + 2 (t ) + 4 x (t ) = 0
dt dt
n2 = 4 n = 2 2 n = 4 = 1 2 n = 2 = 0.5
n2 = 4 n = 2
s 2 + 4 s + 4 = 0 ( s + 2) 2 = 0
s 2 + 2 s + 4 = ( s + 1) 2 + 3 = 0 s = 1 j 3
Roots are real and equal Roots are complex conjugate
d
this is a critically damped (case 3) system underdamped (case 2) system

x (t ) = ( B1 + B2 t )e st = n = 1; d = n 1 2 = 2 1 0.25 = 3
x (t ) = ( B1 + B2 t )e 2 t
x (t ) = e t ( A1 cos d t + A2 sin d t )
x (t ) = e t (A1 cos 3t + A2 sin 3t )
Form of the solution LEARNING EXTENSIONS
RLC SERIES CIRCUIT WITH
RLC PARALLEL CIRCUIT WITH
R = 2; L = 1H , C = 0.5F ,1F ,2 F
R = 1, L = 2 H , C = 2 F

Classify the responses for


HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION the given values of C
d 2 v 1 dv v d 2i di i
C 2 + + =0 L 2 + R + = 0 : / L & replace values
dt R dt L dt dt C
d 2 v dv v d 2i di i
2 2 + + =0 2 s 1 1 3 + 2 + =0
dt dt 2 s + + = ( s + )2 + = 0 dt 2
dt C
2
2 4 4 16 1
d v 1 dv v n = ; 2 n = 2 = C
+ + = 0 =
1
; =
1
=
1
C
dt 2 2 dt 4 n
2
n
4 2 C=0.5 underdamped
1 1 1 3
= d = n 1 2 = 1 = C=1.0 critically damped
4 2 4 4 C=2.0 overdamped
t
3 3
vc (t ) = e 4 A1 cos t + A2 sin t 4
discrimina nt = 4
4 4
C
THE NETWORK RESPONSE

DETERMINING THE CONSTANTS


NORMALIZED FORM
d2x dx
2
( t ) + 2 n ( t ) + 2
n x (t ) = A
dt dt
A
x (t ) =
A
+ K1e s1t + K 2e s2 t x ( t ) = + e n t
( A1 cos d t + A2 sin d t )
n2 2
n

A A
x (0 + ) = K1 + K 2 x (0 + ) = A1
n2 n2
dx dx
(0+) = s1K1 + s2 K 2 (0+) = n A1 + d A2
dt dt
A
x (t ) = + (B1 + B2 t )e n t
n2
A
x (0 + ) = B1
n2
dx
(0+ ) = n B1 + B2
dt
LEARNING EXAMPLE R = 2, L = 5 H , C = 1 F i L (0) = 1A, vC (0) = 4V
5
Exemplo 1

iL iC
iR

i R + i L + iC = 0

v 1t dv To determine the constants we need


+ v ( x )dx + i L (0) + C =0 dv
R L0 dt v (0+ ); (0+ )
dt
d 2v 1 dv 1 STEP 1 IF NOT GIVEN FIND vC (0), i L (0)
+ + v = 0 MODEL
dt 2 RC dt LC v (0+ ) = vC (0+ ) = vC (0) = 4V
ANALYZE
CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION STEP 2 KCL AT t = 0 + CIRCUIT AT
s 2 + 2.5 s + 1 = 0 n = 1; = 1.5 vC ( 0 + ) dv t=0+
+ i L (0 + ) + C (0 + ) = 0
R dt
2.5 ( 2.5) 2 4 2.5 1.5 STEP 3
s= = ROOTS
dv 4 (1)
2 2 (0 + ) = = 5
dt 2(1 / 5) (1 / 5)
v ( t ) = K1e 2 t + K 2e 0.5t STEP 4 K1 + K 2 = 4
FORM OF K1 = 2; K 2 = 2
SOLUTION 2 K1 0.5 K 2 = 5
v ( t ) = 2 e 2 t + 2 e 0 .5 t ; t > 0
STEP 5: FIND CONSTANTS
USING MATLAB TO VISUALIZE THE RESPONSE

%script6p7.m
%plots the response in Example 6.7
%v(t)=2exp(-2t)+2exp(-0.5t); t>0
t=linspace(0,20,1000);
v=2*exp(-2*t)+2*exp(-0.5*t);
plot(t,v,'mo'), grid, xlabel('time(sec)'), ylabel('V(Volts)')
title('RESPONSE OF OVERDAMPED PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT')
LEARNING EXAMPLE R = 6, L = 1H , C = 0.04 F i L (0) = 4 A; vC (0) = 4V
Exemplo 2

+ vL +
vR vC NO SWITCHING OR
v R + v L + vC = 0
+ DISCONTINUITY AT t=0.
USE t=0 OR t=0+

di 1t TO COMPUTE
di
(0 + ) v L (t ) = L
di
Ri ( t ) + L (t ) + i ( x )dx + vC (0) = 0 (t )
dt C0 dt dt
di di
d 2 i R di 1 L ( 0 ) = Ri ( 0 ) v ( 0 ) (0+) = 20
+ ( t ) + i ( t ) = 0 model dt
C
dt
dt 2 L dt LC
di
d 2i di ( t ) = 3i (t ) + e 3t (4 A1 sin 4t + 4 A2 cos 4t )
2
+ 6 (t ) + 25i (t ) = 0 dt
dt dt
n = 25 n = 5 @ t = 0 : 20 = 3 ( 4) + 4 A2 A2 = 2
2

Ch. Eq. : s + 6 s + 25 = 0
2
2 n = 6 = 0.6 i (t ) = e 3t (4 cos 4t 2 sin 4t )[ A]; t > 0
6 36 100
roots : s = = 3 j 4 d di 1t
2 vC (t ) = Ri (t ) L (t ) = vC (0) + i ( x )dx
3 t
dt C0
Form: i ( t ) = e ( A cos 4 t + A sin 4 t )
vC (t ) = e 3t (4 cos 4t + 22 sin 4t )[V ]; t > 0
1 2

i (0) = i L (0) = 4 A A1 = 4
%script6p8.m USING MATLAB TO VISUALIZE THE RESPONSE
%displays the function i(t)=exp(-3t)(4cos(4t)-2sin(4t))
% and the function vc(t)=exp(-3t)(-4cos(4t)+22sin(4t))
% use a simle algorithm to estimate display time
tau=1/3;
tend=10*tau;
t=linspace(0,tend,350);
it=exp(-3*t).*(4*cos(4*t)-2*sin(4*t));
vc=exp(-3*t).*(-4*cos(4*t)+22*sin(4*t));
plot(t,it,'ro',t,vc,'bd'),grid,xlabel('Time(s)'),ylabel('Voltage/Current')
title('CURRENT AND CAPACITOR VOLTAGE')
legend('CURRENT(A)','CAPACITOR VOLTAGE(V)')
LEARNING EXAMPLE R1 = 10, R2 = 8, C = 1F , L = 2 H vC (0) = 1V , i L (0) = 0.5 A
Exemplo 3
Ch. Eq. : s 2 + 6 s + 9 = 0 = ( s + 3) 2
n = 3, 2 n = 6 = 1 v (t ) = e (B1 + B2 t )
3 t

KVL

v (0+ ) = vc (0+ ) = 1V
KCL NO SWITCHING OR DISCONTINUITY
AT t=0. USE t=0 OR t=0+

KCL AT t = 0 +
dv
v ( 0) dv ( 0) = 3
i ( 0) = i L ( 0) = + C ( 0) dt
R2 dt
v (0) = 1 = B1
di v (t ) dv
L (t ) + R1i (t ) + v (t ) = 0 i (t ) = + C (t ) dv
dt R2 dt (0) = 3v (0) + B2 = 3 B2 = 6
dt
1 dv d 2v v (t ) dv
L (t ) + C 2 + R1 + C (t ) + v (t ) = 0
R2 dt dt R2 dt v ( t ) = e 3t (1 + 6t ); t > 0
d 2v 1 R1 dv R1 + R2
2
( t ) +
+
( t ) + v (t ) = 0
dt R2C L dt R2 LC
d 2v dv Ch. Eq. : s 2 + 6 s + 9 = 0
2
( t ) + 6 ( t ) + 9v ( t ) = 0
dt dt
USING MATLAB TO VISUALIZE RESPONSE
%script6p9.m
%displays the function v(t)=exp(-3t)(1+6t)
tau=1/3;
tend=ceil(10*tau);
t=linspace(0,tend,400);
vt=exp(-3*t).*(1+6*t);
plot(t,vt,'rx'),grid, xlabel('Time(s)'), ylabel('Voltage(V)')
title('CAPACITOR VOLTAGE')
LEARNING EXTENSION FIND i ( t ), t > 0 d 2i 3 di 1
2
( t ) + ( t ) + i (t ) = 0
dt 2 dt 2
Exemplo 4
Ch.Eq. : s 2 + 1.5 s + 0.5 = 0 t

t
roots : s = 1,0.5 i (t ) = K1e + K 2e 2 ; t > 0
To find initial conditions use steady state
analysis for t<0
vR

+ i L ( 0) = 2 A
+

vL

vC vC (0) = 0V
+ di di
vC = C (0+ ) = 0
dt dt
+ And analyze
=0 circuit at t=0+
=2
Once the switch opens the circuit is RLC i (0 + ) = 2 A KCL at t = 0 +
series
di t 2 = K1 + K 2
3i ( t ) + 2 (t ) + vC (0) + i ( x )dx = 0
t
dt 0
1
0 = K1 K 2 i (t ) = 2e t + 4e 2; t >0
2
LEARNING EXTENSION FIND v0 ( t ), t > 0 To find initial conditions we use steady
state analysis for t<0
Exemplo 5

+
vC (0) = 0
KVL

i L ( 0 ) = 2 A

i (t )

v0 ( t ) = 2i ( t ) And analyze circuit at t=0+
i ( 0 + ) = 2 A di
vC (0 + ) = C (0+ ) = 0
For t>0 the circuit is RLC series dt
1 di 1 t i (0+ ) = 0 K1 + K 2 = 2
K2 = 1
2 / 3 0
(t ) + i ( x )dx + vC (0) + 2i (t ) = 0
2 dt di
( 0 + ) = 0 K1 3 K 2 = 0 K1 = 3
2
d i di dt
2
(t ) + 4 (t ) + 3i (t ) = 0
dt dt i (t ) = 3e t + e 3t ; t > 0
Ch. Eq. : s 2 + 4 s + 3 = 0
( )
v0 (t ) = 2 3e t + e 3t ; t > 0
roots : s = 1,3
i (t ) = K1e t + K 2e 3t ; t > 0
LEARNING EXTENSION DETERMINE i0 ( t ), v0 ( t ); t > 0 v0 (t ) = 18i0 ( t ) + 12(V )
Exemplo 6
Steady state t<0


i L ( 0)
KVL +
24V v C ( 0)
24V

v C ( 0) = 0 i L ( 0) = 0.5 A
1 t di
4+
1 / 36 0
i ( x ) dx + v C ( 0 ) + 2
dt
( t ) + 18i ( t ) + 12 = 0
Analysis at t=0+
2
d i di i0 (0+ ) = i L (0+ ) = 0.5( A)
2
( t ) + 9 (t ) + 18i ( t ) = 0
dt dt di di
+ v L (0 + ) v L (0 + ) = L L (0 + ) = L 0 (0 + )
Ch. Eq. : s 2 + 9 s + 18 = 0 dt dt
+ 4 + v L (0+ ) + 18i L (0+ ) + 12 = 0 v L (0+ ) = 17
roots : s = 3,6
vC (0 + ) = 0 di0
i0 ( t ) = K1e 3 t
+ K 2e 6 t
;t >0 (0+ ) = 17 / 2 = 3 K1 6 K 2
dt
11 3t 14 6 t i0 (0+) = 0.5 = K1 + K 2 Second
i0 ( t ) = e + e ;t >0 11 14
6 6 K1 = ; K 2 = Order
6 6