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SYSTEM OF NORMATIVE DOCUMENTS IN CONSTRUCTION

CODE OF REGULATIONS
ON DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION

DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF


PILE FOUNDATIONS
SP 50-102-2003

STATE COMMITTEE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION


ON CONSTRUCTION AND HOUSING-UTILITY COMPLEX
(GOSSTROY OF RUSSIA)

MOSCOW

2004

FOREWORD
1 HAS BEEN DEVELOPED by the State Federal Unitary Enterprise Scientific-Research,
Design-Survey and Construction-Technological Institute of Bases and Underground Structures
named after N.. Gersevanov (NIIOSP) of Gosstroy of Russia.
HAS BEEN INTRODUCED by the Department of Technical Rating, Standardization and
Certification in Construction and ZHKH (Housing and Utilities Services) of Gosstroy of Russia.
2 HAS BEEN APPROVED for use by Decree of Gosstroy of Russia 96 dated 21 June
2003.
3 HAS BEEN INTRODUCED FOR THE FIRST TIME
CONTENTS
Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 2
1 Sphere of Application.............................................................................................................. 3
2 Normative References ............................................................................................................. 3
3 Definitions ............................................................................................................................... 4
4 General Provisions .................................................................................................................. 4
5 Requirements to the Engineering-Geological Investigations .................................................. 6
6 Types of Piles .......................................................................................................................... 9
7 Designing of Pile Foundations .............................................................................................. 11
7.1 Main Instructions on the Calculation .............................................................................. 11
7.2 Computational Methods of Determination of the Load Bearing Capacity of the
Piles ....................................................................................................................................... 15
7.3 Determination of the Load Bearing Capacity of the Piles on the Results of the Field
Investigations ........................................................................................................................ 27
7.4 Stiffness Analysis of Piles and Pile Foundations ...................................................... 35
7.5 Peculiarities of Designing of Pile Foundations at Reconstruction of Buildings and
Structures .............................................................................................................................. 43
8 Designing of Pile Foundations .............................................................................................. 45
9 Peculiarities of Designing of Pile Foundations in Collapsible Soils....... 49
10 Peculiarities of Designing of Pile Foundations in Swelling Soils...... 53
11 Peculiarities of Designing of Pile Foundations on Undermined Territories
.................................................................................................................................................. 54
12 Peculiarities of Designing of Pile Foundations in Seismic Areas ................................ 57
13 Peculiarities of Designing of Pile Foundations of the Supports of Overhead
Transmission Lines .................................................................................................................. 60
14 Peculiarities of Designing of Pile Foundations of Low-Rise Buildings
.................................................................................................................................................. 61
15 Construction of Pile Foundations ........................................................................................ 63
15.1 General Provisions ........................................................................................................ 63
15.2 Installation of Pre-Fabricated Piles ............................................................................... 64
15.3. Piles Produced on the Construction-Site.....................................................................
15.4 Construction of Pile Foundations, While Reconstructing Buildings and
Structures ............................................................................................................................ 73
15.5 Commissioning and Quality Control of the Works on Construction of Pile
Foundations ........................................................................................................................... 75
16 Geotechnical Monitoring..................................................................................................... 77
Appendix Terms and Definitions ......................................................................................... 78
Appendix B Composition of the Pile Foundations Design ...................................................... 79
Appendix C Determination of the Scopes of the Engineering-Geological Investigations
for Designing and Construction of Pile Foundations ............................................................... 80
Appendix D Nomenclature of Driven Reinforced Concrete and Bored Piles
.................................................................................................................................................. 82
Appendix E Calculation of the Piles for the Joint Effect of the Vertical and Horizontal
Forces and the Moment .............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Appendix F Calculation of the Load-Bearing Capacity of Pyramidal Piles with the
Incline of the Lateral Edges of ip > 0,025 ................................................................................ 90
Appendix G Determination of the Settlement of the Strip Pile Foundations .... 91
Appendix H Determination of the Settlement of the Single Pile, Taking into
Consideration the Modulus in Shear ........................................................................................ 92
INTRODUCTION
The Code of Regulations on Designing and Construction of Pile Foundations has been
elaborated in development of the mandatory provisions and requirements of SNiP 2.02.03-85
and SNiP 3.02.01-87.
The Code of the Regulations shall establish the requirements to designing and construction of
different types of piles in various engineering-geological conditions and for different types of
construction.
It has been elaborated by GUP NIIOSP named after N.M. Gersevanov (Doctor of Technical
Sciences V.. Ilyichev Director of Research; Doctors of Technical Sciences: B.V. Bakholdin,
V.P. Petrukhin, .. Sorochan, L.R. Stavnitser; Candidates of Technical Sciences: Yu..
Bagdasarov, .. Dzagov, KH.. Jantimirov, V.G. Budanov, .I. Ignatova, V.. Konash, L.G.
Mariupolsky, V.V. Mikheev, Yu.G. Trofimenkov, V.G. Fedorovsky, P.I. Yastrebov).
SP 50-102-2003
CODE OF REGULATIONS ON DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION
DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF PILE FOUNDATIONS

1 SPHERE OF APPLICATION
The present Code of the Regulations (SP) shall cover the pile foundations of the newly
constructed and reconstructed buildings and structures.
SP does not cover the designing and construction of the pile foundations of the buildings and
structures to be erected on the permafrost soils, pile foundations of the machinery with dynamic
loads, as well as supports of sea oil-field and other structures to be erected on the continental
shelf at the insertion depth of the supports, exceeding 35 m.
The pile foundations of the buildings and structures to be erected in the regions with the
existence or a possibility of development of hazardous geological processes (karsts, landslides,
etc.) shall be designed, taking into consideration the additional requirements of the related
normative documents, confirmed or approved by the Gosstroy of Russia.
2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES
The present Code of the regulations contains references to the following normative
documents:
SNiP II-7-81* Construction in seismic regions
SNiP II-23-81* Steel structures
SNiP II-25-80 Wooden structures
SNiP 2.01.07-85* Loads and impacts
SNiP 2.01.09-91 Buildings and structures on undermined territories and collapsible soils
SNiP 2.02.01-83* Bases of buildings and structures
SNiP 2.02.03-85 Pile foundations
SNiP 2.03.11-85 Protection of building structures against corrosion
SNiP 2.05.03-84* Bridges and pipes
SNiP 2.06.06-85 Concrete and reinforced concrete dams
SNiP 2.06.08-87 Concrete and reinforced concrete constructions of hydraulic structures
SNiP 3.01.01-85* Arrangement of construction production
SNiP 3.02.01-87 Earth structures, bases and foundations
SNiP 3.03.01-87 Load bearing and enclosing structures
SNiP 3.04.01-87 Insulation and fit-out coverings
SNiP 11-02-96 Engineering investigations for construction. The main provisions
SNiP 23-01-99* Construction climatology
SNiP 33-01-2003 Hydraulic. The main provisions
SNiP 52-01-2003 Concrete and reinforced concrete structures. The main provisions
SP 11-102-97 Engineering-ecological investigations for construction
SP 11-104-97 Engineering-geodesic investigations for construction
SP 11-105-97 Engineering-geological investigations for construction
GOST 5686-94 Soils. Methods of Field Investigations with Piles
GOST 7473-94 Concrete mixtures. Technical conditions
GOST 9463-88 Round firwood. Technical conditions
GOST 10181-2000 Concrete mixtures. Tests methods
GOST 12248-96 Soils. Methods of laboratory determination of the strength and deformability
characteristics
GOST 14098-91 Welded connections of reinforcement bars and embedded parts of reinforced
concrete structures. Types, structures and dimensions
GOST 18105-86* Concretes. Strength control regulations
GOST 19804-91 Reinforced concrete piles. Technical conditions
GOST 19804.2-79* Piles - driven reinforced concrete one-piece solid of the square cross-
section with transversal reinforcement of the shaft with pre-stressed reinforcement. Structure and
dimensions
GOST 19804.3-80* Piles - driven reinforced concrete of the square cross-section with a round
cavity. Structure and dimensions
GOST 19804.4-78* Piles - driven reinforced concrete of the square cross-section without
transversal reinforcement of the shaft. Structure and dimensions
GOST 19804.5-83 Piles hollow of the round cross-section and shell-piles reinforced concrete
one-piece with non-stressed reinforcement. Structure and dimensions.
GOST 19804.6-83 Piles hollow of the round cross-section and shell-piles reinforced concrete
composite with non-stressed reinforcement. Structure and reinforcement
GOST 19912-2001 Soils. Methods of field tests with static and dynamic probing
GOST 20276-99 Soils. Methods of field determination of the strength and deformability
characteristics
GOST 20522-96 Soils. Methods of static processing of the tests results
GOST 25100-95 Soils. Classification
GOST 27751-88 Reliability of building structures and bases. The main provisions on the
calculation
3 DEFINITIONS
The terms with related definitions to be used in the present Code of the Regulations, are
presented in Appendix .
The names of the soils of the bases of the buildings and structures are accepted, according to
GOST 25100.
4 GENERAL PROVISIONS
4.1 Pile foundations shall be designed based on and taking into consideration the following:
a) the results of the engineering investigations for the construction;
b) the data on the seismicity of the construction area;
c) the data, characterizing the purpose, structural and technological peculiarities of the
structure and the operation conditions thereof;
d) the loads, effecting the foundations;
e) the conditions of the existing development and the influence thereupon of the new
construction;
f) the ecological requirements;
g) the technical and economical comparison of potential versions of the design concepts for
accepting the version, providing the most complete use of the strength and deformability
characteristics of the soils and physical and mechanical properties of the materials of the
foundations.
4.2 While designing, provisions shall be made for the concepts, ensuring reliability, longevity
and effectivity of the structures at all stages of the construction and operation.
While developing the works execution and the construction arrangement designs, the
requirements on provision of the reliability of the structures at all stages of the erection thereof
shall be complied with.
4.3 While designing, local construction conditions, as well as the available experience of
designing, construction and operation of structures in the similar engineering-geological, hydro-
geological and ecological conditions shall be taken into account. For such purpose, the data on
the production potentialities of the construction organization, the equipment park thereof,
expected climatic conditions for the whole construction period, etc. shall be revealed.
The data on the climatic conditions of the construction area shall be accepted, according to
SNiP 23-01.
4.4 The works on designing of the pile foundations shall be carried out, according to the
Technical Assignment for designing and the necessary initial data (4.1). The order of elaboration
of the design documentation is stated in Appendix B.
4.5 While designing, it shall be necessary to take into consideration the responsibility level of
the structure, according to GOST 27751: I - increased, II normal, III - decreased.
4.6 Engineering investigations for construction, works on designing of pile foundations and
the construction thereof shall be executed by the organization, licensed for performance of such
work items.
4.7 Pile foundations shall be designed on the basis of the results of the engineering
investigations, executed, according to the requirements of SNiP 11-02, SP 11-102, SP 11-104,
SP 11-105 and Section 5 of the present SP.
The fulfilled engineering investigations shall provide not only the study of the engineering-
geological conditions of the new construction, but also receipt of the necessary data for checking
the influence of the construction of the pile foundations over the existing buildings and structures
and the environment, as well as for designing, if necessary, strengthening of the bases and
foundations of the existing structures.
Designing of the pile foundations without related and sufficient engineering-geological
evaluation shall not be admissible.
4.8 While using for construction close to the existing buildings and structures of driven or
vibro-inserted piles, as well as piles with a pedestal, formed by the explosion, it shall be
necessary to evaluate the influence of the dynamic impacts on the structures of the existing
buildings or structures, as well as on the machinery, instruments and equipment, located inside
them and sensitive to vibration, and in necessary cases - to envisage measurements of parameters
of vibrations of the soil, structures, as well as underground communications at the pilot insertion
and production of piles.
4.9 The designs of pile foundations shall envisage carrying out of on-site measurements
(monitoring). The composition, scope and methods of the monitoring shall be established,
depending on the responsibility level of the structure and the complexity of the engineering-
geological conditions (Section 16).
On-site measurements of the deformations of the bases and the foundations shall be envisaged
also in case of application of new or insufficiently studied constructions of the structures or
foundations, as well as in case if the Design Assignment contains special requirements on
conducting the on-site measurements.
4.10 The soils, materials, items and structures to be used, while constructing the pile
foundations, shall meet the requirements of the designs, related standards and technical
conditions. Replacement of the soils, materials, items and structures, envisaged by the design and
included to the erected structure or the basement thereof, shall be admitted only at the approval
of the design organization and the Customer.
4.11 The pile foundations to be operated in the conditions of the aggressive environment,
shall be designed, taking into consideration the requirements of SNiP 2.03.11, and the wooden
structures of the pile foundations also taking into account the requirements on protection
thereof against decay, destruction and affection with timber-worms.
4.12 While designing and erecting pile foundations of cast-in-situ and precast concrete or
reinforced concrete, it shall be necessary to be governed with SNiP 52-01, SNiP 2.03.11 and
SNiP 3.04.01, as well as to comply with the requirements of the normative documents on
arrangement of the construction production, geodesic works, accident prevention, fire safety
regulations, while executing civil and erection works and protection of the environment.
While performing earth works, constructing of bases and foundations, it shall be necessary to
exercise the pre-installation inspection, as well as operation and acceptance control, being
governed by SNiP 3.01.01. Acceptance of the pile foundations shall be performed with drawing
up of the Acts of examination of the concealed works. If necessary, it shall be permitted to
mention in the design other elements to be subject to the intermediate acceptance, with drawing
up of the Acts of examination of the concealed works.
4.13 While designing, it shall be necessary to foresee a cut of the ecologically clean humus
for the further use thereof for the purposes of restoration (revegetation) of violated or low-
productive agricultural lands, planting of trees and bushed on the development area, etc.
4.14 While constructing on the plots, where, as per the data of the engineering-ecological
investigations, there are emissions of the soil gases (radon, methane, thorine), measures shall be
taken on isolation of the structures, touching the soil, in order to prevent penetration of the soil
gas into the structure, as well as other measures, facilitating the reduction of the concentration
thereof, according to the requirements of the sanitary norms.
5 REQUIREMENTS TO THE ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
5.1 The results of the engineering investigations shall contain the data, necessary for selection
of the type of the foundation, including the pile foundation, determination of the type of the piles
and the dimensions thereof, the design load, admitted on the pile, and conduct of the calculations
on the limiting states, taking into consideration the forecast of the potential changes (in the
process of the construction and reconstruction) of the engineering-geological, hydro-geological
and ecological conditions of the job-site, as well as the type and the scope of the engineering
measures on mastering thereof.
5.2 In the Technical Assignment, apart from the general information, it shall be necessary to
mention the planned type of the pile foundation, the piles length and the load per pile.
5.3 Investigations for the pile foundations in the general case shall be inclusive of the
following complex of the works:
- boring of the holes with selection of samples and description of the excavated soils;
- laboratory research of physical and mechanical properties of the soils and the underground
waters;
- probing of the soils static and dynamic;
- pressure meter tests of the soils;
- soil tests with punches (static loads);
- soil tests with sample piles and (or) soil tests with on-site piles;
- experimental works on study of the influence of construction of the pile foundations on the
environment, including on the structures located nearby (according to the special assignment of
the design organization).
5.4 Obligatory work items, regardless of the responsibility level of the construction objects
and the types of the pile foundations, shall be boring of holes, laboratory research and static,
combined or dynamic probing. Meanwhile, the most preferential probing method shall be static
or combined, in the process of which, apart from the characteristics of the static probing of the
soils, the density and humidity thereof shall be performed by means of radioactive log survey
(GOST 19912).
5.5 For objects of responsibility levels I and II, the works, mentioned in 5.4, shall be
supplemented with pressure meter and punch tests of the soils (GOST 20276), as well as with
tests with sample and on-site piles (GOST 5686), according to the recommendations of
Appendix C. At the same time, it shall be necessary to take into consideration the categories of
complexity of the soil conditions, to be established, depending on homogeneity of the soils as per
the bedding conditions and the properties (refer to Appendix C).
5.6 While applying structures of bored-screw piles (as per the special assignment of the
design organization), the structure of the works shall be inclusive of experimental insertion of the
piles for the purpose to specify the sizes of the spiral winding and the insertion mode, assigned,
while designing, as well as of the on-site tests of such piles with static loads.
While applying combined pile-plate foundations, the structure of the works shall be inclusive
of the soil tests with punches and on-site piles.
5.7 In case if, according to the design, the horizontal loads, transferred to the piles, exceed 5%
of the vertical ones, the soils shall be tested with piles for horizontal loads.
While transferring to the piles of pulling-down or sign-variable loads, the necessity of
carrying out the experimental works shall be determined in a precise case.
5.8 The load bearing capacity as per the results of the field soil tests with on-site and sample
piles and static probing shall be determined, according to sub-section 7.3.
5.9 Soil tests with piles, punches and pressure meters shall be carried out, as a rule, on
experimental plots to be selected as per the results of boring holes and probing and to be located
in the places, mostly typical as per the soil conditions, in the zones of the mostly loaded
foundations, as well as in the places, where the possibility of insertion of the piles is doubtful,
according to the soil conditions.
The soil tests with static loads shall be expedient to be carried out mainly with screw punches
with the area of 600 sm2 in the boreholes for the purpose to receive the modulus of deformation
and for revision for the soil under study of the transfer coefficients in the dependencies,
recommended by the valid normative documents, for determination of the soils deformation
modulus as per the data of the probing and the pressure meter tests.
5.10 The scope of the investigations for the pile foundations shall be recommended to be
assigned, according to Appendix D depending on the responsibility level of the construction
object and the category of complexity of the soil conditions.
While studying the varieties of the soils, occurred on the construction site within the limits of
the studied depth, special attention shall be paid to the existence, bedding depth and the thickness
of the weak soils (loose sands, weak argillaceous soils, organic and mineral and organic soils).
The existence of the mentioned soils effects the determination of the type and length of the piles,
location of the joints of the composite piles, the character of the interface of the foundation piling
with the piles, selection of the type of the pile-driving equipment. Unfavourable conditions of the
mentioned soils shall be also taken into consideration in case if the dynamic effects exist.
5.11 Location of engineering-geological mine workings (boreholes, probing points, soil tests
locations) shall be performed, proceeding from a calculation that they should be placed within
the boundaries of the outline of the designed building or under the same soil conditions not far
than within 5 m from it, and in cases of applying the piles as an enclosing structure of the
foundation pit at the distance, not exceeding 2 m from their axis.
5.12 The depth of the engineering-geological mine workings shall be at least by 5 m lower
than the designed laying depth of the pile feet when they are located in rows and when the loads
on the pile group is up to 3 N, and by 10 m lower when the area of the pile fields is up to
1010 m and the loads per one pile group exceed 3 N. When the area of the pile field exceeds
1010 m and combined pile-plate foundations are used, the depth of the mine workings shall
exceed the planned deepening of the piles at least by the width of the pile field or the plate, but
not less than by 15 m.
In case if the construction-site contains the strata of the soils with specific properties
(collapsible, swelling, weak argillaceous, organic and mineral and organic soils, loose sands and
man-caused soils), the depth of the mine workings shall be determined, taking into consideration
the necessity of excavation thereof for the entire depth of the stratum to establish the laying
depth of the underlying solid soils and to determine the characteristics thereof.
5.13 While performing investigations for the pile foundations, it shall be necessary to
determine the physical, strength and deformation characteristics, necessary for calculations of the
pile foundations on the limiting states (Section 7).
The number of determinations of the soil characteristics for each engineering-geological
element shall be sufficient for the static processing thereof, according to GOST 20522.
5.14 For the sands, taking into consideration the difficulties related to selection of samples of
the non-violated structure, probing static or dynamic shall be envisaged as the main method
to determine their density and the strength characteristics for the objects of all levels of
responsibility.
Probing shall be the main method of determining the deformation modulus of the sands, as
well as the argillaceous soils for objects of responsibility level III, and one of the methods to
determine the deformation modulus (in combination with the pressure meter and punch tests) for
objects of responsibility levels I and II.
5.15 While using the pile foundations to strengthen the bases of reconstructed buildings and
structures during the engineering-geological investigations, it shall be necessary to additionally
execute the works on examination of the bases of the foundations and instrumental geodesic
survey.
Besides, it shall be necessary to establish the compliance of the new materials of the
investigations with the archive data, if they are available, and to draw up a conclusion on the
change of the engineering-geological and hydro-geological conditions, caused by the
construction and operation of the reconstructed building or structure.
N o t e Examination of the technical state of the structures of the foundations and the building shall be
performed at the Assignment of the Customer by the specialized organization.
5.16 Carrying out of the examination of the bases of the foundations shall be preceded by:
- the visual evaluation of the state of the top structure of the building, including establishing
of the existing cracks, the size and character thereof, installation of leads on the cracks;
- revealing of the operation mode of the building for the purpose of establishing the factors,
negatively effecting the base;
- establishing the existence of the underground communications and drainage systems and
their state;
- examination of the archive materials of the engineering-geological investigations, available
on the reconstruction site.
Carrying out of the geodesic survey of the position of the structures of the reconstructed
building and the plinths shall be necessary for establishing non-uniform settlements (rolls, bends,
relative displacements).
While examining the reconstructed buildings, the state of the surrounding territory and closely
located buildings shall be also taken into consideration.
5.17 Examination of the bases of the foundations and the state of the foundation structures
shall be performed by means of excavation of exploring shafts with selection of sample blocks
directly from under the bed of the foundations and the walls of the exploring shaft. The depth of
the exploring shafts shall be by 0,5-1 m lower than the bed of the foundation to be exposed.
Under the depth of the exploring shafts, the engineering-geological structure, hydro-geological
conditions and the soil properties shall be examined by boring and probing, at the same time, the
boreholes and the probing points shall be placed along the perimeter of the building or structure
at the distance from them, not exceeding 5 m.
5.18 While strengthening the bases of the reconstructed buildings and structures by leading of
driven, jack, bored or regulated injection piles, the boring and probing depth shall be accepted as
per the instructions of 5.12.
5.19 The Technical Report on the results of the engineering-geological investigations for
designing of the pile foundations shall be drawn up, according to SNiP 11-02 and SP 11-105.
All characteristics of the soils shall be brought in the Report, taking into consideration the
forecast of potential changes (in the process of construction and operation of the building) of the
engineering-geological and hydro-geological conditions of the job-site.
In case if on-site tests of the piles have been carried out with a static or dynamic load, the
results thereof shall be presented.
In case if the job-site has underground waters with aggressive properties, recommendations on
the anti-corrosion protection of the piles shall be presented.
In case of discovery on the job-site of sub-layers or a stratum of specific soils and hazardous
geological processes (karst-suffosion, landslide, etc.), the data on the spreading thereof and
intensity of occurrence shall be presented.
5.20 During engineering-geological investigations and examination of the soil properties, for
designing and construction of the pile foundations, it shall be necessary to take into account the
additional requirements, stated in Sections 9 - 14 of the present SP.
6 TYPES OF PILES
6.1 According to the method of digging-in into the soil, the following types of the piles shall
be distinguished:
a) driven (jack piles) reinforced concrete, wooden and steel, to be submerged into the soil
without excavation thereof or into pilot holes by means of hammers, vibrating hammers,
vibrating-pressing, vibrating-shock and pressing-in devices, as well as reinforced concrete shell-
piles with the diameter of up to 0,8 m, to be buried by vibrating hammers without excavation or
with partial excavation of the soil and not filled with concrete mixture;
b) shell-piles reinforced concrete to be buried by vibrating hammer with excavation of the soil
and to be filled partially or fully with concrete mixture;
c) bored concrete and reinforced concrete to be arranged in the soil by means of laying the
concrete mixture into the boreholes, formed in the result of forced release (displacement) of the
soil;
d) bored reinforced concrete to be arranged in the soil by means of filling of the bored holes
with concrete mixture or installation inside them of reinforced concrete elements;
e) screw;
f) bored-screw.
6.2 As per the conditions of interference with the soil, the piles shall be sub-divided into
standing piles and friction piles.
The standing piles shall be inclusive of the piles of all types, resting on the rock soils, and the
driven piles, apart from it, - on soils with low compressibility.
The soils resistance forces, except for negative (reverse) friction forces, on the lateral surface
of the standing piles, shall not be taken into consideration in the calculations for the load bearing
capacity on the base soil for the compressing load.
The friction piles shall include the piles of all types, resting on compressible soils and
transferring the load to the soils of the base by the lateral surface and by the pile foot.
N o t e The soils with low compressibility shall be inclusive of macro-fragmental soils with a sand filler of
the average density and dense, as well as clays of the solid consistency in the water-saturated state with the
deformation modulus E 50 Pa.
6.3 The driven reinforced concrete piles with the size of the cross-section of up to 0.8 m
inclusively and the shell-piles with the diameter of 1 m and more shall be subdivided as follows:
a) according to the reinforcement method into piles and shell-piles with the non-stressed
longitudinal reinforcement bars with transversal reinforcement and to the pre-stressed with the
bar or wired longitudinal reinforcement (of high-tensile wire and reinforcement cables) with
transversal reinforcement and without it;
b) according to the form of the cross section into square, rectangular piles, piles of T-section
and I-section, square piles with a round cavity, hollow of the round section;
c) according to the form of the longitudinal section into prismatic, cylindrical and with
inclined lateral edges (pyramidal, trapezoidal, diamond-shaped);
d) according to the structural peculiarities into one-piece and composite (out of separate
sections) piles;
e) according to the structure of the lower end into the piles with a sharpened or flat lower
end, with flat or spatial enlargement (clavate) and into hollow piles with a closed or open pile
foot or with a pedestal.
N o t e - Driven piles with a pedestal shall be arranged by means of driving of hollow piles of the round section
with a closed steel hollow tip with further filling of the pile cavity and the tip with the concrete mixture and
arrangement by means of the explosion of a pedestal within the tip boundaries. The designs of such piles shall
envisage instructions on observation of the regulations of execution of drilling and blasting works.
6.4 Cast-in-situ piles, according to the method of arrangement, shall be subdivided into:
) cast-in-situ - to be arranged by means of insertion of inventory pipes, the foot of which
shall be closed by the bottom or concrete plug to be left in the soil, with further extraction of the
pipes as soon as the boreholes are filled with the concrete mixture;
b) cast-in-situ vibro-stamped - to be arranged in the punched holes by means of filling the
holes with solid concrete mixture, to be compressed by a vibro-stamp in the form of the pipe
with a sharpened foot and a vibrating hammer, fastened thereupon;
c) cast-in-situ in the punched bed - to be arranged by means of forging in the soil of holes of
the pyramidal or cone form with further filling thereof with concrete mixture.
6.5 Drilled piles, according to the method of arrangement, shall be subdivided into:
a) bored piles of the solid cross-section with enlargements or without them, to be concreted in
the holes, bored in argillaceous soils above the level of the underground waters without
stabilization of the walls of the holes, and in any soils lower than the level of the underground
waters with fastening of the walls of the holes with mud solution or with inventory extracted
pipe casings;
b) bored hollow of the round section - to be arranged with application of multi-sectional
vibro-core;
c) bored with compacted bottom - to be arranged by means of ramming-in of the crushed rock
into the bottom of the hole;
d) bored with a pedestal - to be arranged by means of boring of holes with further formation
of the enlargement by an explosion and filling of the holes with the concrete mixture;
e) regulated injection piles with a diameter of 0,15 - 0,25 m, to be arranged in the bored holes
by means of charging (injection) into them of fine-grain concrete mixture or cement and sand
grout, or regulated injection piles with compression of the surrounding soil by means of
processing of the hole, according to the discharge-impulse technology (RIT piles);
f) regulated injection piles to be arranged by hollow auger;
g) column piles to be arranged by means of boring holes with enlargement or without it,
laying in them of concreting cement and sand grout and insertion into the holes of cylindrical or
prismatic elements of the solid cross-section with the sides or the diameter of 0.8 m and more;
h) ready-made bored piles with expanded base with a pedestal, differing from the bored piles
with a pedestal (refer to sub-item g) by the fact that upon formation and filling of the enlarged
footing, a reinforced concrete pile shall be sunk into the hole.
Notes
1 The pipe casings can be left in the soil only in the cases, when the possibility of using other concepts of the
foundations structures is excluded (while arranging the bored piles in the strata of the soils with the speed of the
filtration flow, exceeding 200 m/day, during application of bored piles for solidification of the landslide slopes and
in other grounded cases).
2 While arranging of bored piles in water-saturated argillaceous soils, excessive water pressure can be used for
stabilizing the walls of the holes.
6.6 The nomenclature of driven reinforced concrete and bored piles is presented in Appendix
D.
6.7 Reinforced concrete and concrete piles shall be designed of heavy concrete.
For driven reinforced concrete piles with non-pre-stressed longitudinal reinforcement, for
which any state standards are absent, as well as for cast-in-situ and drilled piles, it shall be
necessary to envisage concrete of the class not lower than 15, for driven reinforced concrete
piles with pre-stressed reinforcement not lower than 22,5.
6.8 Reinforced concrete foundation grillages of the pile foundations shall be designed of
heavy concrete of the class not lower than: for cast-in-situ - 15, for precast - 20.
For the supports of the bridges, the class of the concrete of the piles and pile foundation
grillages shall be assigned, according to the requirements of SNiP 2.05.03, for hydraulic
structures - SNiP 2.06.06 and SNiP 2.06.08.
6.9 Concrete for concreting reinforced columns in the shells of the pile foundation grillages,
as well as the heads of the piles with precast strip foundation grillages shall be envisaged,
according to the requirements of SNiP 52-01, but not lower than class 15.
N o t e For the supports of bridges and hydraulic structures, the class of concrete for concreting of precast
elements of the pile foundation grillages shall be one class higher than the class of concrete of the precast elements
to be connected.
6.10. The concrete mark on frost-resistance and water-tightness of the piles and the pile
foundation grillages shall be assigned, being governed by the requirements of GOST 19804,
SNiP 52-01, for bridges and hydraulic structures - accordingly SNiP 2.05.03 and SNiP 2.06.06.
6.11. Wooden piles shall be produced of firwood logs (pine-tree, fir, larch, silver fir),
complying with the requirements of GOST 9463, with the diameter of 22-34 sm and the length
of 6,5 and 8,5 m. The natural conical shape (rise) of the logs shall be preserved.
The sizes of the cross-section, the length and structure of the built piles shall be accepted as
per the results of the calculation and according to the peculiarities of the designed object.
7 DESIGNING OF THE PILE FOUNDATIONS
7.1 MAIN INSTRUCTIONS ON THE CALCULATIONS
7.1.1 The calculation of the pile foundations and the bases thereof shall be made, according to
GOST 27751 as per the limiting states:
1) of the first group:
) as per the strength of the materials of the piles and the pile foundation grillages;
b) as per the load bearing capacity of the soil of the base of the piles;
c) as per the load bearing capacity of the soil of the bases of the pile foundations, if
considerable horizontal loads are transferred thereupon (retaining walls, foundations of the
braced structures, etc.), including seismic, if the structure is situated on the slope or close to it or
if the base is formed with steep dipping stratum of the soil;
2) of the second group:
) as per the settlements of the bases of the piles and the pile foundations from vertical loads;
b) as per the travels of the piles (horizontal and angles of rotation of the piles heads) jointly
with the soils of the bases from the effect of the horizontal loads and moments (refer to sub-item
7.4 and Appendix E);
c) as per the formation or excessive opening of the cracks in the elements of the reinforced
concrete of the pile foundations.
The calculation on the load bearing capacity, regulated by p. c for the first group, can be not
made, if the structural measurements provide the impossibility of shifting of the designed
foundation.
7.1.2 The calculations of the bases of the pile foundations shall take into consideration the
joint effect of the force factors and unfavourable influence of the environment (for example, the
influence of the ground waters over the physical and mechanical properties of the soils, etc.).
The structure and the base thereof shall be considered jointly, i.. the interference of the
structure with the base to be compressed shall be taken into consideration.
The analytical model of the system the structure the base or the foundation the base
shall be selected, taking into account the most essential factors, determining the stressed state
and deformations of the base and the constructions of the structures (static scheme of the
structure, peculiarities of the erection thereof, the nature of the soil stratification, the peculiarities
of the soils of the base, the possibility of the changes thereof in the process of the construction
and operation of the structure, etc.). It shall be recommended to take into consideration the
spatial work of the structures, geometric and physical non-linearity, anisotrophy, plastic and
rheological properties of the materials and soils, development of the spheres of plastic
deformations under the foundation.
It shall be admitted to use probabilistic methods of calculation, taking into consideration the
statistic heterogeneity of the bases, accidental nature of the loads, impacts and properties of the
materials of the structures.
7.1.3 The loads and impacts, taken into account in the calculations of the pile foundations,
reliability coefficients on the load, as well as potential combinations of the loads shall be
understood according to the requirements of SNiP 2.01.07, taking into consideration the
instructions of SNiP 2.02.01.
7.1.4 The calculation of the piles, pile foundations and the bases thereof on the load bearing
capacity shall be made for the main and special combinations of the loads, on deformations for
the main combinations.
7.1.5 The loads, impacts, their combinations and the reliability coefficients on the load, while
calculating the pile foundations of the bridges and hydraulic structures shall be accepted,
according to the requirements of SNiP 2.05.03 and SNiP 2.06.06.
7.1.6 All calculations of the piles, pile foundations and their bases shall be made with the use
of the calculated value of the characteristics of the materials and the soils.
The calculated values of the characteristics of the materials of the piles and pile foundation
grillages shall be accepted according to the requirements of SNiP 52-01, SNiP II-23, SNiP II-25,
SNiP 2.05.03 and SNiP 2.06.06.
The calculated values of the characteristics of the soils shall be determined, according to
GOST 20522, the calculated values of the soil bed coefficient z, surrounding the pile, shall be
accepted, according to Appendix E.
The calculated resistances of the soil under the pile foot R and on the lateral surface of pile fi
shall be determined as per the instructions of sub-item 7.2.
If the results of the field tests, carried out, according to the requirements of sub-item 7.3, are
available, the load bearing capacity of the soil of the base of the piles shall be determined, taking
into account the data of the static probing of the soils, soil tests with the sample piles or as per
the data of the dynamic tests of the piles. In case of carrying out the pile tests with the static load,
the load bearing capacity of the soil of the base of the pile shall be accepted as per the results of
such tests, taking into consideration the recommendations of 7.3.
For the objects, for which tests of the on-site piles with the static load have not been
conducted, it shall be recommended to determine the load bearing capacity of the soil of the base
of the pile by several of the potential methods, mentioned in sub-items 7.2 and 7.3, at the same
time taking into account the responsibility level of the structure.
7.1.7 The calculation of the strength of the material of the piles and the pile foundation
grillages shall be made, according to the requirements of SNiP 52-01, SNiP II-23, SNiP II-25,
for bridges and hydraulic structures - SNiP 2.05.03 and SNiP 2.06.06, taking into consideration
the additional requirements, stated in 7.1.6, 7.1.8 and 7.1.9 and in Appendix E.
The calculation of the elements of the reinforced concrete structures of the pile foundations on
formation and opening of the cracks shall be made, according to the requirements of SNiP 52-01,
for bridges and hydraulic structures also taking into account the requirements of SNiP 2.05.03
and SNiP 2.06.06 accordingly.
7.1.8 While calculating the piles of all types on the strength of the material, the pile shall be
considered as a rod, rigidly restrained in the soil in the cross-section, located from the footing of
the pile foundation grillage at the distance of at least l1, to be determined, according to the
formula:
2

l1 =l0 + , (7.1)
where l0 - shall mean the length of the pile section from the footing of the high pile foundation
grillage to the soil planning level, m;
- shall mean the deformation coefficient, 1/m, to be determined as per Appendix E.
If for the drilled piles and the shell-piles, buried through the stratum of the non-rock soil and
embedded into the rock soil, the ratio is as follows - (2/) > h, it shall be necessary to accept l1 =
l0 + h (where h shall mean the insertion depth of the pile or the shell-pile, to be calculated from
the pile foot to the soil planning level with a high foundation grillage and to the footing of the
foundation grillage with a low foundation grillage, the footing of which rests upon or is buried
into disperse soils, except for the soils with high compressibility, m).
While calculating the strength of the material for the regulated injection piles, cutting through
the soils with high compressibility with the deformation modulus E 5 Pa, the piles length
during the calculation for the longitudinal bend ld depending on the piles diameter d shall be
accepted as equal to:
at E 2 P ld = 25d;
at 2 < E 5 P ld = 15d.
In case if ld exceeds the thickness of the stratum of the soil with high compressibility hg, the
calculated length shall be accepted as equal to 2hg.
7.1.9 While calculating the bored and drilled piles (except for the column piles and ready-
made bored piles with expanded base) on the strength of the material, the calculated resistance of
concrete shall be accepted, taking into consideration the work conditions coefficient cb = 0.85,
according to the instructions of SNiP 52-01 and the coefficient 'cb, accounting for the effect of
the method of execution of the pile works:
) in argillaceous soils, if boring of the holes and their dry concreting is possible without
stabilization of the walls with the position of the underground waters level during the
construction period lower than the foot of the piles, 'cb = 1,0;
b) in the soils, boring of holes and concreting in which shall be executed dry with application
of extracted pipe casings, 'cb = 0,9;
c) in the soils, boring of holes and concreting in which shall be executed if water is available
therein, with application of extracted pipe casings, 'cb = 0.8;
d) in the soils, boring of holes and concreting in which shall be executed under the mud
solution or under the excessive water pressure (without pipe casings), 'cb = 0,7.
N o t e Concreting under water or under the mud solution shall be made only by the tremie method of
concreting (VPT) or by means of concrete pumps.
7.1.10 Calculations of the structures of the piles of all types shall be made for the effect of the
loads, transferred thereupon from the building or structure, and of the driven piles, besides it, for
the strains, arising in them from the proper weight, while producing, storing, transporting of the
piles, as well as while lifting them to the pile-driver by one point, located from the pile head at
the distance of 0,3l (where l shall mean the pile length).
At the same time, the strain in the pile (as in the beam) from the impact of the proper weight
shall be determined, taking into consideration the amplification factor, equal to:
1,5 in the strength calculation;
1,25 in the calculation on formation and opening of the cracks.
In such events the reliability coefficient on the load to the proper weight of the pile shall be
accepted as equal to one.
7.1.11 The single pile in the structure of the foundation and beyond its boundaries, for the
load bearing capacity of the base soil, shall be calculated, proceeding from the condition:
N Fd/k, (7.2)
where N - shall mean the calculated load to be transferred to the pile (longitudinal strain, arising
in it from the calculated loads, effecting the foundation at the most profitable
combination thereof), to be determined according to 7.1.12;
Fd - shall mean the calculated load bearing capacity of the soil of the base of the single pile,
hereinafter referred to as the load bearing capacity of the pile and to be determined,
according to sub-items 7.2 and 7.3;
k - shall mean the reliability coefficient, to be accepted as equal to:
1,2 if the load bearing capacity of the pile has been determined as per the results of the field
tests with the static load;
1,25 if the load bearing capacity of the pile has been determined by the calculation as per
the results of the static probing of the soil, as per the results of the dynamic tests of the pile,
carried out, taking into consideration the residual elasticity of the soil, as well as according to the
results of the field tests of the soils with the sample pile or the pile-probe;
1,4 if the load bearing capacity of the pile has been determined by the calculation, including
as per the results of the dynamic tests of the piles, carried out without taking into consideration
the residual elasticity of the soil;
1,4 (1,25) for the foundations of the supports of the bridges with a low foundation grillage,
on friction piles and standing piles, and with a high foundation grillage only with standing
piles, reacting the compressing load regardless of the number of piles in the foundation.
With a high or low foundation grillage, the footing of which rests on the soil with high
compressibility, and with the friction piles, taking up the compressing load, as well as with any
type of the foundation grillage and friction piles and standing piles, taking up the pulling-out
load, k shall be accepted, depending on the number of piles in the foundation:
with 21 piles and more 1,4 (1,25);
from 11 to 20 piles 1,55 (1,4);
6 10 1,65 (1,5);
1 5 1,75 (1,6).
For foundations of the single pile for the column with the load on the driven pile of the square
cross-section, exceeding 600 kN, and the cast-in-situ pile, exceeding 2500 kBN, the value of the
coefficient k shall be accepted as equal to 1.4, if the load bearing capacity of the pile has been
determined as per the results of the tests with the static load, and to 1.6, if the load bearing
capacity of the pile has been determined by other methods.
For the continuous pile fields of solid structures with the limit settlement of 30 sm and more
(with the number of piles, exceeding 100), if the load bearing capacity of the pile has been
determined as per the results of the static tests, k = 1.
Note
1 In brackets there are values of k in case, when the load bearing capacity of the pile has been determined as per
the results of the field tests with the static load or by the calculation of the static probing of the soils.
2 While calculating the piles of all types both for pressing-in and pulling-out loads, the longitudinal strain,
arising in the pile from the calculated load N, shall be determined, taking into consideration the proper weight of the
pile, to be accepted with the reliability coefficient on the load, increasing the calculated strain.
3 If the calculation of the pile foundations is made, taking into consideration the wind and crane loads, the
calculated load to be taken up by the end piles shall be admissible to be increased by 20 % (except for the
foundations of the supports of the power transmission lines).
If the piles of the foundation of the bridge support in the direction of the effect of the external
strains form one or several rows, while accounting (joint or separate) for the loads from braking,
wind, ice pressure and the berthing impact, to be taken up by the most loaded pile, the calculated
load shall be admissible to be increased by 10 % with four piles in a row, and by 20 % with eight
piles in a row and more. With an intermediate number of piles, the percent of increasing of the
calculated load shall be determined by the interpolation.
7.1.12 The calculated load per pile N, kN, shall be determined, considering the foundation as
a frame structure, taking up vertical and horizontal loads and bending moments.
For foundation with vertical piles, the calculated load per pile shall be admissible to be
determined as per the formula:
Nd M x y M y x
N= ,
n yi2 xi2 (7.3)
where Nd - shall mean the calculated compressing force, kN;
Mx, My - shall mean the calculated bending moments, kNm, in relation to the main central axes
x and y of the piles layout in the flatness of the footing of the foundation grillage;
n - shall mean the number of piles in the foundation;
xi, yi - shall mean the distances from the main axes to the axis of each pile, m;
x, y - shall mean the distances from the main axes to the axis of each pile, for which the
calculated load shall be calculated, m.
7.1.13 The horizontal load, effecting the foundation with the vertical piles of the equal cross-
section, can be accepted as evenly distributed between all piles.
7.1.14 The check of the stability of the pile foundation grillage and the base thereof shall be
carried out, according to the requirements of SNiP 2.02.01, taking into consideration the
additional horizontal reactions from the piles, applied to the shifted part of the soil.
7.1.15 The piles and the pile foundations shall be calculated on the strength of the material
and check of the stability of the foundations shall be carried out with the impact of the frost
heaving of the soils, if the base is formed by heaving soils.
7.1.16 The calculation of the piles and the pile foundations on deformations shall be made,
proceeding from the condition:
s s u, (7.4)
where s - shall mean the joint deformation of the pile, pile foundation and the structure
(settlement, displacement, relative difference of the settlements of the piles, pile
foundations, etc.), to be determined by the calculation, taking into consideration of
7.1.4, 7.1.5, on sub-item 7.4 and Appendix E;
su - shall mean the limit value of the joint deformation of the base of the pile, pile
foundation and the structure, to be established, according to SNiP 2.02.01, and for
bridges - SNiP 2.05.03.
7.2 COMPUTATIONAL METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF THE LOAD BEARING
CAPACITY OF PILES
Standing Piles
7.2.1 The load bearing capacity Fd, kN, of the driven pile, shell-pile, cast-in-situ and bored
piles, resting on the rock soil, as well as of the driven pile, resting on the soil with low
compressibility (6.2), shall be determined as per the following formula:
Fd = cRA, (7.5)
where c - shall mean the coefficient of the pile operation conditions in the soil to be accepted as
equal to 1;
R - shall mean the calculated soil resistance under the foot of the standing pile, kPa;
A - shall mean the area of the pile resting on the soil, m2, to be accepted for the piles of the
solid cross-section and hollow piles with the closed feet as equal to the area of the gross
cross-section, for the hollow piles of the round cross-section with the open pile foot and
the shell-piles as equal to the area of the net cross-section if their cavity is not filled
with concrete and equal to the area of the gross cross-section with filling of such cavity
with concrete for the height of at least equal to the three diameters thereof.
The calculated soil resistance R under the foot of the standing pile shall be accepted as
follows:
) for all types of the driven piles, resting on the rock soils and the soils with low
compressibility, R = 20000 kPa;
b) for cast-in-situ and bored piles and shell-piles, to be filled with concrete and embedded into
the unweathered rock soil (without weal interlayers) for at least by 0,5 m, - according to the
formula:

Rc , n ld
R= + 1,5 ,
g d f
(7.6)
where Rc,n - shall mean the rated value of the ultimate strength for the uniaxial compression of
the rock soil in the water-saturated condition, kPa;
g - shall mean the reliability coefficient on the soil, to be accepted as equal to 1,4;
ld - shall mean the calculated depth of embedding of the cast-in-situ and bored piles and
the shell-piles into the rock soil, m;
df - shall mean the external diameter of the part of the cast-in-situ and bored pile and the
shell-pile, embedded into the rock soil, m; c) for the shell-piles, easily rested on the
surface of the unweathered rock soil, covered with a layer of the non-rock non-
washout soils with the thickness of at least equal to three diameters of the shell-pile, -
according to the formula:
Rc , n
R=
g , (7.7)
where Rc,n, g - same, as in formula (7.6).
N o t e With the existence in the base of the cast-in-situ, bored piles and shell-piles of weathered, as well as
macerated rock soils, the ultimate strength thereof for the uniaxial compression shall be accepted as per the results
of the punch tests or as per the results of the tests of the piles and shell-piles with the static load.
Friction Driven Piles and Jack Piles and Shell-Piles, Inserted without Excavation of the Soil
7.2.2 The load bearing capacity Fd, kN, of the friction driven pile and the jack pile and the
shell-pile, inserted without excavation of the soil, and operating for the compressible load, shall
be determined as a sum of the calculated resistances of the base soils under the lower end of the
pile and on the lateral surface thereof as per the formula:
Fd = c(cRRA + ucffihi), (7.8)
where c - shall mean the coefficient of the pile operation conditions in the soil, to be acceptable
as equal to 1;
R - shall mean the calculated soil resistance under the pile foot, kPa, to be accepted as per
Table 7.1;
A - shall mean the area of the pile resting on the soil, m2, to be accepted as per the area of
the gross cross-section of the pile or as per the area of the cross-section of the enlarged
footing on its largest diameter, or as per the net area of the shell-pile;
u - shall mean the external perimeter of the cross-section of the pile shaft, m;
fi - shall mean the calculated resistance of the i-the layer of the base soil on the lateral
surface of the pile, kPa, to be accepted as per Table 7.2;
hi - shall mean the thickness of the i-th layer of the soil, touching the lateral surface of the
pile, m;
cR, cf - shall mean the coefficients of the soil operation accordingly under the foot and on the
lateral surface of the pile, taking into consideration the influence of the pile insertion
method over the calculated resistances of the soil and accepted as per Table 7.3.
In formula (7.8) it shall be necessary to sum up the soil resistances for all soil layers, passed
by the pile, except for the cases, when the design provides planning of the territory with a shear,
or washout of the soil is possible. In such cases it shall be necessary to sum up the resistances of
all soil layers, located accordingly lower than the planning (cutting) level and the bottom of the
water reservoir upon its local washout with the calculated flood.

1. The load bearing capacity of the driven clavate piles shall be determined as per formula (7.8), meanwhile, the
perimeter and on the section of the shaft, the perimeter of the cross-section of the pile shaft shall be accepted, on
the enlargement section the perimeter of the cross-section of the enlargement. The calculated resistance fi of the
soil on the lateral surface of such piles on the enlargement section, and in the sands and on the shaft section shall be
accepted as same as for the piles without enlargement; in argillaceous soils the resistance fi on the shaft section,
located above the enlargement, shall be accepted as equal to zero.
2. The calculated resistances of the soils R and fi in formula (7.8) for loess soils with the depth of insertion of the
piles, exceeding 5 m, shall be accepted as per the values, mentioned in Tables 7.1 and 7.2 for the depth of 5 m.
Besides, for such soils in case if there is a possibility of soaking thereof, the calculated resistances R and fi,
mentioned in Tables 7.1 and 7.2, shall be accepted with the liquidity index, complying with the complete water
saturation of the soil.
7.2.3 For the driven piles and jack piles, the foot of which rests on loose sands or on
argillaceous soils with the liquidity index IL > 0,6, the load bearing capacity Fd, kN, shall be
determined as per the results of the static tests of the piles.
7.2.4 The load bearing capacity of the pyramidal, trapezoidal and diamond-shaped piles,
cutting through the sand and argillaceous soils, Fd, kN, with an incline of the lateral edges ip
0,025, shall be determined as per the formula:
Fd = c[RA + hi(uifi + u0,iipEikir)], (7.9)
where yc, R, A, hi, fi - shall mean the same as in formula (7.8);
ui shall mean the external perimeter of i-th section of the pile, m;
u0,i shall mean the sum of the sizes of the sides of i-th cross-section of the pile, m, which are
inclined to the pile axis;
ip shall mean the incline of the lateral edges of the pile, unit fraction;
Ei shall mean the deformation modulus of the soil layer, surrounding the lateral surface of
the pile, kPa, to be determined as per the results of the compression tests;
ki shall mean the coefficient, depending on the type of the soil and to be accepted as per
Table 7.4;
r shall mean the rheological coefficient to be accepted as equal to 0,8.
Notes
1 With diamond-shaped piles, summing up of the soil resistances on the lateral surface of the sections with the
reverse incline in formula (7.9) is not performed.
2 The calculation of the pyramidal piles with the incline of the lateral edges ip > 0,025 shall be admissible to be
made, according to the requirements of Appendix E with the existence of the results of the pressure metering tests,
and in the absence thereof according to formula (7.9), accepting the value of equal to 0,025.
7.2.5 The load bearing capacity Fdu, kN, of the friction driven pile and the jack pile and the
shell-pile, inserted without excavation of the soil, operating for the pulling-out load, shall be
determined as per the following formula:
Fdu = cucffihi, (7.10)
where u, cf, fi, hi - shall mean the same as in formula (7.8);
c - shall mean the coefficient of the pile operation conditions in the soil (for the
piles to be submersed into the soil for the depth of less than 4 , c = 0,6, for the
depth of 4 m and more c = 0,8 for all buildings and structures, except for the
supports of the overhead transmission lines, for which the coefficient shall be
accepted, according to Section 13).
N o t e In the foundations of the bridge supports, operation of the piles for pulling-out shall not be admissible
with the effect of only permanent loads.
T a b l e 7.1
Calculated resistances under the lower end of the driven piles and jack piles and shell-piles, inserted
Insertion depth without excavation of the soil, R, kPa
of the lower of sands of average density
end of the pile, gravelly large-grain - average-grain fine-grain dusty -
of argillaceous soils with the liquidity index IL, equal to
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6
6600 3100 2000
3 7500 3000 1100 600
4000 2000 1200
6800 3200 2100
4 8300 3800 1250 700
5100 2500 1600
7000 3400 2200
5 8800 4000 1300 800
6200 2800 2000
7300 3700 2400
7 9700 4300 1400 850
6900 3300 2200
7700 4000 2600
10 10500 5000 1500 900
7300 3500 2400
8200 4400
15 11700 5600 2900 1650 1000
7500 4000
Calculated resistances under the lower end of the driven piles and jack piles and shell-piles, inserted
Insertion depth without excavation of the soil, R, kPa
of the lower of sands of average density
end of the pile, gravelly large-grain - average-grain fine-grain dusty -
of argillaceous soils with the liquidity index IL, equal to
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6
4800
20 12600 8500 6200 3200 1800 1100
4500
25 13400 9000 6800 5200 3500 1950 1200
30 14200 9500 7400 5600 3800 2100 1300
35 15000 10000 8000 6000 4100 2250 1400
Notes
1 Above the line there are values of R for sands, under the line for argillaceous soils.
2 In Tables 7.1 and 7.2 the driving depth of the pile foot and the average depth of insertion of the pile foot and
the average depth of location of the soil layer, while planning the territory with cutting, filling, inwash of up to 3 m
shall be accepted from the natural relief cutting, and while cutting, filling, inwashing from 3 to 10 m from the
conditional elevation, located accordingly by 3 m higher than the cutting level or by 3 m lower than the filling level.
The insertion depth of the pile foot and the average depth of location of the soil layer in the water reservoir shall
be accepted from the bottom level after the total washout by the calculated flood, in marshes from the marsh
bottom level.
While designing overpasses across hollows with the depth of up to 6 m for the piles to be driven by hammers
without washout or arrangement of pilot holes, the depth of insertion into the soil of the pile foot in Table 7.1 shall
be accepted from the level of the natural relief in the foundation construction location. For hollows with the depth,
exceeding 6 m, the piles driving depth shall be accepted as for the hollows with the depth of 6 m.
3 For intermediate depths of driving of the piles and the intermediate values of the liquidity index IL of
argillaceous soils, the values of R and fi in Tables 7.1 and 7.2 shall be determined by the interpolation.
4 For dense sands, the density of which has been determined as per the static probing data, the values of R as per
Table 7.1 for the piles, submerged without the use of the washout or pilot holes, shall be increased by 100 %. While
determining the density of the soils as per the data of other types of the engineering investigations and in the absence
of the static probing data for dense sands, the values of R as per Table 7.1 shall be increased by 60 %, but not more
than up to 20000 kPa.
5 The values of the calculated resistances R as per Table 7.1 shall be admissible to be used provided that burying
of the piles into the non-washed-out and non-cut soil amount to at least, m:
4,0 for bridges and hydraulic structures;
3,0 for buildings and other structures.
6 The values of the calculated resistance R under the foot of the driven piles with the cross-section of 0,15 0,15
m and less, used as foundations for the internal partitions of one-floor production buildings, shall be admissible to be
increased by 20 %.
7 For loamy sands with the plasticity index lp 4 and the porosity coefficient e < 0,8, the calculated resistances
R and fi shall be determined as for the dusty sands of the average density.
8 For argillaceous soils, having the humidity extent in the natural state Sr < 0,8, the liquidity index shall be
calculated for the water saturated soil according to formula (9.1).
T a b l e 7.2
Calculated resistances on the lateral surface of the driven piles and jack piles and shell-piles, kPa
of the sands of average density
Average depth large- and
fine-
of location of the average- dusty - - - - - -
grain
soil layer, m grain
of argillaceous soils with the liquidity index IL, equal to:
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0
1 35 23 15 12 8 4 4 3 2
2 42 30 21 17 12 7 5 4 4
3 48 35 25 20 14 8 7 6 5
4 53 38 27 22 16 9 8 7 5
5 56 40 29 24 17 10 8 7 6
6 58 42 31 25 18 10 8 7 6
8 62 44 33 26 19 10 8 7 6
10 65 46 34 27 19 10 8 7 6
15 72 51 38 28 20 11 8 7 6
20 79 56 41 30 20 12 8 7 6
25 86 61 44 32 20 12 8 7 6
30 93 66 47 34 21 12 9 8 7
35 100 70 50 36 22 13 9 8 7
Notes
1 While determining the calculated soil resistance on the lateral surface of the piles fi , it shall be necessary to
take into consideration the requirements, stated in Notes 2, 3 and 8 to Table 7.1.
2 While determining the calculated resistance of the soils on the lateral surface of the piles fi , the soil strata shall
be divided into homogenous layers with the thickness, not exceeding 2 m.
3 The values of the calculated resistance of the dense sands on the lateral surface of the piles fi shall be increased
by 30 % in comparison to the values, brought in the Table.
4 The calculated resistances of the loamy sands and sandy loams with the porosity coefficient e < 0.5 and clays
with the porosity coefficient e < 0.6 shall be increased by 15 % as compared to the values, presented in Table 7.2,
with any values of the liquidity index.
T a b l e 7.3
Coefficients of the soil operation
conditions, while calculating the
Methods of insertion of the driven piles and jack piles and shell-piles, inserted
load bearing capacity of the piles
without excavation of the soils
under the pile on the lateral
foot cR surface cf
1 Insertion of solid and hollow piles with the closed pile foot by mechanic 1,0 1,0
(suspended), steam-air and diesel hammers
2 Insertion by driving and pressing-in into the preliminary bored pilot holes
with burying of the feet of the piles by at least 1 lower than the hole bottom
with the following diameter thereof:
) equal to the side of the square pile 1,0 0,5
b) by 0,05 m less than the side of the square pile 1,0 0,6
c) by 0,15 m less than the side of the square pile or the diameter of the pile 1,0 1,0
of a round cross-section (for the supports of the power transmission lines)
3 Insertion with underwashing into the sandy soils, provided the piles are 1,0 0,9
afterdriven at the last stage of insertion without application of underwashing by
1 m and more
4 Vibro-insertion of the shell-piles, vibro-insertion and vibro-pressing-in of the
piles into the soils:
) sands of the average density:
of large- and average-grain 1,2 1,0
fine-grain 1,1 1,0
dusty 1,0 1,0
b) argillaceous with the fluidity index IL = 0,5:
loam sands 0,9 0,9
sandy loams 0,8 0,9
clays 0,7 0,9
c) argillaceous with the fluidity index IL 0 1,0 1,0
Coefficients of the soil operation
conditions, while calculating the
Methods of insertion of the driven piles and jack piles and shell-piles, inserted
load bearing capacity of the piles
without excavation of the soils
under the pile on the lateral
foot cR surface cf
5 Insertion by hammers of hollow reinforced concrete piles with the open pile
foot:
) with the diameter of the piles cavity of less than 0,4 m 1,0 1,0
b) same, from 0,4 to 0,8 m 0,7 1,0
6 Insertion by any method of hollow piles of the round cross-section with the
closed pile foot for the depth of 10 m and more with further arrangement in the
pile feet of an enlarged footing in the sandy soils of the average density and in
the argillaceous soils with the fluidity index IL 0,5 with the enlargement
diameter, equal to:
) 1,0 m regardless of the mentioned types of the soil 0,9 1,0
b) 1,5 m in the sands and loamy sands 0,8 1,0
c) 1,5 m in the sandy loams and clays 0,7
7 Insertion by pressing-in of the piles: 1,1 1,0
) into the sands of the average density, large-grain, large- and fine-grain 1,1 0,8
b) into dusty sands 1,1 1,0
c) into argillaceous sands with the fluidity index IL < 0,5 1,0 1,0
d) same, IL 0,5
N o t e The coefficients cR and cf on position. 4 for argillaceous soils with the fluidity index 0,5 > IL > 0 shall
be determined by the interpolation.
T a b l e 7.4
Soils Coefficient ki
Sands and loamy sands 0,5
Sandy loams 0,6
Clays:
at Ip = 18 0,7
at Ip = 25 0,9
N o t e For the clays with the number of plasticity 18 < Ip < 25, the values of the coefficient ki shall be
determined by the interpolation.
Friction Cast-In-Situ and Bored Piles and Shell-Piles, To Be Filled with Concrete
7.2.6 The load bearing capacity Fd, kN, of the cast-in-situ and bored piles with and without
the enlarged footing, as well as the shell-pile, inserted with excavation of the soil and to be filled
with concrete, operating for the compressing load, shall be determined as per the formula:
Fd = c(cRRA + ufihi), (7.11)
where c - shall mean the coefficient of the pile operation conditions; in case if it rests on the
argillaceous soils with the humidity extent Sr < 0,9 and on the loess soils, c = 0,8, in
the remaining cases - c = 1;
cR - shall mean the coefficient of the soil operation conditions under the pile foot; cR = 1 in
all cases, except for the piles with the enlarged footing and regulated injection piles RIT
(as per 6.5, ), for which this coefficient shall be accepted as equal to 1,3, and the shell-
piles with an enlarged footing, to be concreted by the underwater method, for which cR
= 0,9, as well as for the supports of the overhead transmission lines, for which the
coefficient shall be accepted, according to Section 13;
R - shall mean the calculated soil resistance under the pile foot, KPa, to be accepted as per
7.2.7; for the cast-in-situ pile to be produced, according to the technology, mentioned in
6.4, , b as per Table 7.1;
A - shall mean the pile resting area, m2, to be accepted as equal:
for cast-in-situ and bored piles without enlarged footing to the area of the cross-
section of the pile;
for cast-in-situ and bored piles with the enlarged footing to the area of the cross-
section of the enlarged footing in the place of the largest diameter thereof;
for shell-piles, to be filled with concrete, - to the gross area of the cross-section of the
shell;
u - shall mean the perimeter of the cross-section of the pile shaft, m;
cf - shall mean the coefficient of the soil operation conditions on the lateral surface of the
pile, depending on the method of formation of the hole and the concreting conditions to
be accepted as per Table 7.5;
fi - shall mean the calculated resistance of the i-th soil layer on the lateral surface of the pile
shaft, kPa, to be accepted as per Table 7.2;
hi - shall mean the same as in formula (7.8).
Note
1 The resistance of the sands on the lateral surface of the pile with the enlarged footing shall be taken into
consideration on the section from the planning level to the level of the crossing of the pile shaft with the surface of
the imagined cone, having, as the generatrix, a line, touching the surface of the enlarged footing under the angle I/2
to the pile axis, where I shall mean the averaged (as per the layers) calculated value of the internal friction angle
of the soil, lying within the boundaries of the mentioned cone. The resistance of the argillaceous soils shall be
admissible to be taken into account on the entire length of the shaft.
2 The perimeter of the cross-section of the shaft u for the regulated injection piles shall be accepted as equal to
the perimeter of the hole to be bored during production thereof.
The bearing area of the RIT regulated injection pile shall be accepted, according to the area of
the cross-section of the enlarged footing, and the perimeter of the cross-section of the shaft
proceeding from the average value of the diameters dji of the pile, which shall be determined as
per the scope of the concrete mixture, spent for filling the j-th discharge-impulse enlargement in
the i-th layer of the soil. The enlarged footings of the RIT piles, provided in the design, shall be
revised, while manufacturing the pilot piles in the precise soil conditions.
T a b l e 7.5
Coefficient of the pile operation conditions
cf
Piles and their arrangement methods
in loamy in sandy
in sands in clays
sands loams
1. Cast-in-situ as per 6.4, while driving an inventory pipe with a tip 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,7
2. Cast-in-situ vibro-stamped 0,9 0,9 0,9 0,9
3. Bored, including with enlarged footing, to be concreted:
) in the absence of water in the hole (by dry method), as well as 0,7 0,7 0,7 0,6
while using inventory pipe-casings
b) under water or under the mud solution 0,6 0,6 0,6 0,6
c) with solid concrete mixtures, to be laid by means of poker 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,7
vibration (by dry method)
4. cast-in-situ, hollow round, to be arranged in the absence of water in 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,7
the hole by means of vibro-core
5. Shell-piles, inserted by vibration with excavation of the soil 1,0 0,9 0,7 0,6
6. Column piles 0,7 0,7 0,7 0,6
7. Regulated injection piles, to be manufactured under protection of the 0,9 0,8 0,8 0,8
pipe casings or bentonite drilling mud with the pressing tests by the
pressure of 200 - 400 kPa (2 - 4 atm.)
8. Regulated injection piles 1,3 1,3 1,1 1,1
7.2.7 The calculated resistance R, kPa, of the soil under the pile foot shall be accepted as
follows:
) for macro-fragmental soils with a sandy filler and the sands in the base of the cast-in-situ
and bored piles with and without enlarged footing, of the shell-pile, inserted with the full
removal of the soil core, - according to formula (7.12), and of the shell-pile, inserted with
preservation with the soil core of the mentioned soils for the height of 0.5 m and more, -
according to formula (7.13):
R = 0,754(1'1d + 231h); (7.12)
R = 4(1'1d + 231h), (7.13)
where 1, 2, 3, 4 - shall mean the dimensionless coefficients, to be accepted as per Table 7.6
depending on the calculated value of the internal friction angle of the base
soil;
'1 - shall mean the calculated value of the specific soil weight, kN/m3, in the
base of the pile (with water-saturated soils, taking into account the water
uplifting effect);
1 - shall mean the averaged (as per the layers) calculated value of the specific
weight of the soils, kN/m3, situated above the pile foot (with water-saturated
soils, taking into consideration the water uplifting effect);
d - shall mean the diameter, m, of the cast-in-situ and bored piles, the diameter
of the enlarged footing (for piles with enlarged footing), of the shell-pile or
the diameter for the column pile, concreted in the soil with cement-sand
slurry;
h - shall mean the laying depth, m, of the pile foot or the enlarged footing
thereof, to be calculated from the natural relief or the planning level (at
planning with cutting), for supports of bridges from the bottom of the
water reservoir upon its total washout during the calculated flood;
b) for argillaceous soils in the base as per Table 7.7.
Notes
1 The instructions of 7.2.7 shall be related to the cases, when provision is made for burial of the piles into the
soil, accepted for the base of their pile feet, at least for the diameter of the pile (or the enlarged footing for the pile
for the pile with enlarged footing), but at least by 2 m.
2 The values of R, calculated as per formulas (7.12) and (7.13), shall not be accepted above the values, presented
in Table 7.1 for the driven piles of the same length and in the same soil conditions.
T a b l e 7.6
Calculated values of the internal friction angle of the soil I, degrees
Coefficients
23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39
1 9,5 12,6 17,3 24,4 34,6 48,6 71,3 108,0 163,0
2 18,6 24,8 32,8 45,5 64,0 87,6 127,0 185,0 260,0
3 at h/d, equal to:
4,0 0,78 0,79 0,80 0,82 0,84 0,85 0,85 0,85 0,87
5,0 0,75 0,76 0,77 0,79 0,81 0,82 0,83 0,84 0,85
7,5 0,68 0,70 0,71 0,74 0,76 0,78 0,80 0,82 0,84
10,0 0,62 0,65 0,67 0,70 0,73 0,75 0,77 0,79 0,81
12,5 0,58 0,61 0,63 0,67 0,70 0,73 0,75 0,78 0,80
15,0 0.55 0,58 0,61 0,65 0,68 0,71 0,73 0,76 0,79
17,5 0,51 0,55 0,58 0,62 0,66 0,69 0,72 0,75 0,78
20,0 0,49 0,53 0,57 0,61 0,65 0,68 0,72 0,75 0,78
22,5 0,46 0,51 0,55 0,60 0,64 0,67 0,71 0,74 0,77
25,0 and more 0,44 0,49 0,54 0,59 0,63 0,67 0,70 0,74 0,77
4 at d, equal to, m:
0,8 and less 0,34 0,31 0,29 0,27 0,26 0,25 0,24 0,23 0,22
4,0 0,25 0,24 0,23 0,22 0,21 0,20 0,19 0,18 0,17
N o t e For intermediate values of I, h/d and d, the values of the coefficients 1, 2, 3, and 4 shall be
determined by the interpolation.
T a b l e 7.7
Calculated resistance R, kPa, under the pile foot of the cast-in-situ and bored piles with and
without enlarged footing and of the shell-piles, inserted with excavation of the soil and to be filled
Laying depth of
with concrete, with argillaceous soils, except for collapsible soils, with the liquidity index IL,
the pile foot h, m
equal to
0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6
3 850 750 650 500 400 300 250
5 1000 850 750 650 500 400 350
7 1150 1000 850 750 600 500 450
10 1350 1200 1050 950 800 700 600
12 1550 1400 1250 1100 950 800 700
15 1800 1650 1500 1300 1100 1000 800
18 2100 1900 1700 1500 1300 1150 950
20 2300 2100 1900 1650 1450 1250 1050
30 3300 3000 2600 2300 2000 - -
40 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 - -
N o t e For the pile foundations of the supports of the bridges, the values, brought in the Table, shall be:
) increased (in case if the supports are situated in the water reservoir) by the value, equal to 1,5whw, where w
shall mean the specific weight of the water - 10 kN/m3; hw shall mean the water layer depth in the water reservoir
from the level thereof at the calculated flood to the level of the water reservoir bottom, and with the washout
possibility to the bottom level upon the total washout;
b) reduced with the soil porosity coefficient e > 0,6, meanwhile, the decrease coefficient m shall be determined
by the interpolation between the values of m = 1,0 at e = 0,6 and m = 0,6 at e = 1,1.
7.2.8 The calculated resistance R, kPa, of the soil under the pile foot of the shell-pile, inserted
without removal of the soil or with preservation of the soil core with the height of at least three
diameters of the shell at the last stage of the insertion thereof and not to be filled with concrete
(provided that the soil core is formed of the soil, having the same characteristics, as the soil,
accepted for the base of the foot of the shell-pile), shall be accepted as per Table 7.1 with the
coefficient of the soil operation conditions, taking into consideration the method of insertion of
the shell-piles, according to pos. 4 of Table 7.3, meanwhile, the calculated resistance in the
mentioned case shall be related to the net area of the cross-section of the shell-pile.
7.2.9 The load bearing capacity Fdu, kN, of the cast-in-situ and bored piles and of the shell-
pile, operating for the pulling-out loads, shall be determined as per the following formula:
Fdu = cucffihi, (7.14)
where c - same as in formula (7.10);
u, cf, fi, hi - same as in formula (7.11).
Screw Piles
7.2.10 The load bearing capacity Fd, kN, of the screw pile with the blade diameter d 1,2 m
and the length l 10 m, operating for the compressive or pulling-out load, shall be determined as
per formula (7.15), and with the blade diameter d > 1,2 m and with the length of the pile l > 10
only as per the data of the tests of the screw pile with the static load:
Fd = c[(a1c1 + a21h1)A + ufi(h - d)], (7.15)
where c - shall mean the coefficient of the pile operation conditions, which depends on the type
of the load, effecting the pile, and the soil conditions, and which shall be determined as
per Table 7.8;
a1, a2 - shall mean the dimensionless coefficients, to be accepted as per Table 7.9, depending
on the calculated value of the internal friction angle of the soil in the working zone I
(the working zone shall mean a soil layer with the thickness, equal to d, adjacent to the
blade);
c1 - shall mean the calculated value of the specific cohesion of the soil in the working zone,
kPa;
1 - shall mean the average calculated value of the specific weight of the soils, lying above
the pile blade (with water-saturated soils, taking into consideration the water uplifting
effect), kN/m3;
h1 - shall mean the laying depth of the pile blade from the natural relief, and while planning
the territory with cutting from the planning level, m;
A - shall mean a projection of the blade area, m2, if calculated on the external diameter,
with operation of the screw pile for the compressing load, and a projection of the
working area of the blade, i.. with the deduction of the shaft cross-section area, with
the operation of the screw pile for the pulling-out load;
u - shall mean the perimeter of the cross-section of the pile shaft, m;
fi - shall mean the calculated resistance of the soil on the lateral surface of the screw pile
shaft, kPa, to be accepted as per Table 7.2 (the averaged value for all layers within the
boundaries of the pile insertion depth);
h - shall mean the length of the shaft of the pile, submersed into the soil, m;
d - shall mean the pile blade diameter, m.
Notes
1 While determining the load bearing capacity of the screw piles with the effect of the pressing-in loads, the soil
characteristics in Table 7.9 shall be related to the soils, lying under the blade, and while operating for pulling-out
loads above the blade of the pile.
2 The laying depth of the blade from the planning level shall be at least 5d with argillaceous soils and at least 6d
with sands (where d shall mean the blade diameter).
T a b l e 7.8
Coefficient of the operation conditions of the screw piles
Soils c with the following loads:
compressing pulling-out alternating-sign
1. Clays and sandy loams:
) solid, semi-solid and tough 0,8 0,7 0,7
b) soft 0,8 0,7 0,6
c) high plasticity 0,7 0,6 0,4
2. Sands and loamy sands:
) low-humid sands and solid loamy sands 0,8 0,7 0,5
b) humid sands and low-plasticity loamy sands 0,7 0,6 0,4
c) water-saturated sands and instable loamy sands 0,6 0,5 0,3
T a b l e 7.9
Coefficients Calculated value of the Coefficients
Calculated value of the internal
internal friction angle of the
friction angle of the soil in the
1 2 soil in the operating zone I, 1 2
operating zone I, degrees.
degrees.
13 7,8 2,8 24 18,0 9,2
15 8,4 3,3 26 23,1 12,3
16 9,4 3,8 28 29,5 16,5
18 10,1 4,5 30 38,0 22,5
20 12,1 5,5 32 48,4 31,0
22 15,0 7,0 34 64,9 44,4
Bored-Screw Piles
7.2.11 The load bearing capacity of the bored-screw pile Fd, kN, shall be determined,
according to the following formula:
Fd = c(cRRA + ucffihi), (7.16)
where c - shall mean the coefficient of the pile operation conditions in the soil to be accepted as
equal to 1;
R - shall mean the calculated resistance of the soil under the pile foot, kPa, to be
determined as per formula (7.17);
A - shall mean the area of the cross-section of the pile shaft, gross, m2;
u - shall mean the perimeter of the cross-section of the shaft of the pile, m;
fi - shall mean the calculated resistance of the i-th layer of the base soil on the lateral
surface of the pile, kPa, to be accepted as per Table 7.2;
hi - shall mean the thickness of the i-th layer of the soil, touching the lateral surface of the
pile, m;
cR - shall mean the coefficient of the soil operation conditions under the pile foot, to be
accepted as equal to 0,8;
cf - shall mean the coefficient of the operation conditions of the soil on the lateral surface
of the pile, to be accepted as equal to 1,1 while submersing the pile from the soil
surface into the non-violated soil mass; as equal to 0,8 while submersing the pile into
the soil mass, loosened by the prior boring, and equal to 0,6 while submersing the
pile into the pilot hole.
The calculated resistance of the soil under the pile foot of the bored-screw pile shall be
determined as per the following formula:
R = 11 + 21h, (7.17)
where 1, 2 - shall mean the dimensionless coefficients to be accepted as per Table 7.9
depending on the calculated internal friction angle of the soil I of the pile base;
c1 - shall mean the calculated value of the specific cohesion of the soil of the pile base,
kPa;
1 - shall mean the averaged calculated value of the specific weight of the soils, kN/m3,
lying above the pile foot (with water-saturated soils, taking into consideration the
water uplifting effect);
h - shall mean the pile insertion depth, m.
7.2.12 The thickness of the wall of the bored-screw piles shall be checked by the strength
calculation, while transferring to the pipe of the maximum torsion torque, developed by the
mechanism, used for insertion of piles.
Account for the Negative (Reverse) Friction Forces of the Soil on the Lateral Surface of the
Piles
7.2.13 The negative (reverse) friction forces, arising on the lateral surface of the piles during
settlement of the soil around the piles and directed vertically downwards, shall be taken into
consideration in the following cases:
planning of the territory by additional filling with the thickness, exceeding 1,0 m;
loading of the floor of the warehouses with the useful load, exceeding 20 kN/m2;
loading of the floor near the foundations with the useful load from the equipment, exceeding
100 kN/m2;
increase of the effective strains in the soil at the account of removal of the water uplifting
effect, while decreasing the level of the underground waters;
incomplete consolidation of the soils of modern and man-caused deposits;
solidification of non-cohesive soils at dynamic effects;
sagging of the soils at soaking;
at construction of a new building near the existing buildings.
N o t e Account for the negative friction forces, arising in collapsible soils, shall be performed, according to
the requirements of Section 9.
7.2.14 The negative friction forces shall be accounted for to the depth, at which the value of
the settlement of the soil near the piles upon erection and loading of the pile foundation exceeds
a half of the limit state of the settlement of the foundation. The calculated resistances of the soil fi
shall be accepted as per Table 7.2 with the sign minus, and for peat, silt, sapropel - minus 5
kPa.
If within the boundaries of the length of the submersed part of the pile, the peat strata lie with
the thickness, exceeding 30 sm, and the planning of the territory by means of additional filling or
another loading thereof, equivalent to the additional filling, is possible, the calculated resistance
of the soil fi, situated above the footing of the lowest (within the boundaries of the length of the
submersed part of the pile) of the peat layer, shall be accepted:
) at additional fillings with the height of less than 2 m for the soil additional filling and the
peat layers as equal to zero, for mineral non-made-up soils of the natural formation as
positive values as per Table 7.2;
b) at additional fillings with the height from 2 to 5 m for the soils, including the additional
filling, - as equal to 0,4 of the values, mentioned in Table 7.2, but with the sign minus, and for
peat as minus 5 kPa (negative friction forces);
c) at additional fillings with the height, exceeding 5 m for the soils, including the additional
filling, - as equal to the values, mentioned in Table 7.2, but with the sign minus, and for peat -
minus 5 kPa.
Within the boundaries of the lower part of the piles, where the settlement of the soil near the
piles upon erection and loading of the pile foundation for less than a half of the limiting value of
the settlement of the pile foundation, the calculated resistances of the soil fi shall be accepted as
positive, according to Table 7.2, and for peat, silt, sapropel as equal to 5 kPa.
7.2.15 In case when the soil consolidation from the additional filling or surcharging of the
territory by the moment of the beginning of the erection of the surface part of the buildings or
structures (including the pile foundation grillage) has been completed or the potential value of
the settlement of the soil, surrounding the piles, upon the mentioned moment in the result of the
residual consolidation does not exceed a half of the limiting value of the settlement for the
designed building or structure, the soil resistance on the lateral surface of the pile shall be
admissible to be accepted as positive, regardless of the existence or absence of the peat
interlayers. For the peat interlayers, the value fi, shall be accepted as equal to 5 kPa.
If the values of the consolidation coefficients and the deformation modulus of the peats, lying
within the boundaries of the length of the buried part of the pile, are known, and the value of the
settlement of the base from the effect of the surcharging of the territory for each soil layer can be
determined, while determining the load bearing capacity of the pile, it shall be admissible to take
into consideration the soil resistance forces with the negative sign (negative friction forces) not
from the level of the base of the lower peat layer, but starting from the top level of the peat layer,
the value of the additional settlement of which from the surcharging of the territory (determined,
starting from the moment of transfer to the pile of the calculated load) amounts to a half of the
limiting value of the settlement for the designed building or structure.

7.3 DETERMINATION OF THE LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF PILES BY THE


RESULTS OF THE FIELD INVESTIGATIONS
7.3.1 The load-bearing capacity of piles may be determined in the field conditions in the
following ways: by the static tests of piles, dynamic tests of piles, soil tests by the sample pile,
by the pile-probes tests, soil tests by static probing.
N o t e For the precast friction piles more than 12 m long it is allowed to perform the tests by a pile-probe
with a diameter of 127 mm, the structure of which provides separate measuring of soil resistance under the pile foot
and at the lateral surface section (friction coupling) instead of the soils testing by a test pile.
7.3.2 Piles testing by static and dynamic loads and soil testing by the sample pile shall be
performed according to the requirements of GOST 5686, and soil testing by static probing shall
be performed according to the requirements of GOST 19912. Soil testing by a pile-probe shall be
performed in accordance with the requirements of GOST 5686 with reference to the type
sample pile.
It is recommended to assume the scope of the field investigations in accordance with
Appendix C.
7.3.3 The load-bearing capacity Fd, kN, of piles by the results of their testing by indenting,
pulling-out and horizontal static loads and by the results of their dynamic testing shall be
determined by formula
Fd = cFu,n/g, (7.18)
where c - shall mean a coefficient of a pile operation conditions; in case of indenting or
horizontal loads c = 1; in case of pulling-out loads c is assumed by 7.2.5;
Fu,n - shall mean a normative value of the limiting resistance of a pile, kN, determined in
accordance with the 7.3.4 - 7.3.7;
g - shall mean a soil reliability factor, assumed according to the directions of 7.3.4.
N o t e The results of the piles static testing by horizontal loads may be used for the direct determination of
the design load, permissible for a pile, if the test conditions conform to the actual conditions of a pile operation in a
building or structure foundation.
7.3.4 In case if the number of piles, tested in the same soil conditions, is less than six, the
normative value of the limiting resistance of a pile in formula (7.18) shall be assumed equal to
the least limiting resistance, obtained from the tests results, i.e. Fu,n = Fu,min, and soil reliability
factor g = 1.
In case if the number of piles, tested in the same conditions, equals to six and more, Fu,n and
g shall be determined on the basis of results of the statistical treatment of particular values of the
limiting resistances of piles Fu, obtained by the tests data, according to the requirements of
GOST 20522 with reference to the methods, specified therein for determination of a temporary
resistance at the confidence probability value = 0.95. At that, the requirements of 7.3.5 at the
indenting, 7.3.6 at the pulling-out and horizontal loads and 7.3.7 at the dynamic tests shall be
observed for determination of particular values of the limiting resistances.
7.3.5 If a load at the static indentation test of piles is carried to the load, causing continual
growth of their settlement s without load increment (at the s 20 mm), such load shall be
assumed as the particular value of the limiting resistance Fu of the tested pile.
In other cases for the buildings and structures foundations (except for bridges and
waterworks) a particular value of the pile Fu limiting resistance to the indenting load shall be a
load, under effect of which the tested pile gets a settlement, equal to s and determined by formula
s = su,mt, (7.19)
where su,mt - shall mean the limiting value of the average settlement of a designed building or
structure foundation, established according to SNiP 2.02.01;
- shall mean the coefficient of transfer from the limiting value of the average settlement
of a building or structure foundation su,mt to the settlement of a pile, obtained at the
static tests with a conditional stabilization (attenuation) of the settlement.
The value of coefficient shall be assumed equal to 0.2 in cases, when a piles test is
performed at the conditional stabilization, equal to 0.1 mm in 1 h, if sandy or argillaceous soils
with a consistency from solid to tough lie under the pile foot, and in 2 h, if argillaceous soils
from soft to fluid consistency lie under the pile foot. It is allowed to ascertain the value of
coefficient by the results of the settlement surveys of the buildings, constructed on pile
foundations in the same soil conditions.
If the settlement, determined by formula (7.19), is more than 40 mm, a particular value of the
limiting resistance of a pile Fu shall be assumed as a load, corresponding to s = 40 mm.
For bridges and waterworks the limiting resistance of a pile Fu at the indenting loads shall
correspond to a load one degree less than the load, at which the following takes place:
) increment of the settlement in one loading stage (at the general value of the settlement
more than 40 mm), five and more times exceeding the increment of the settlement, obtained
during the previous stage of loading;
b) the settlement, not attenuating during 24 hours and more (at its general value more than 40
mm).
If at the maximum load achieved at the tests, which equals or exceeds 1.5Fd [where Fd shall
mean the load-bearing capacity of the pile, designed by the formulas (7.5), (7.8), (7.9), (7.11),
(7.15) and (7.16)], the settlement of pile s at tests is less than the value, determined by formula
(7.19), and for bridges and waterworks less than 40 mm, in such case it is allowed to assume
the maximum load, obtained at the tests for a particular value of the limiting resistance of pile Fu.
Notes
1 In separate cases it is allowed to assume the maximum load achieved at the tests equal to Fd at the with
required substantiation provided.
2 Loading stages at the piles tests by static indenting loads shall be set equal to 1/10 - 1/15 of the anticipated
limiting resistance of a pile Fu.
7.3.6 At the piles tests by static pulling-out or horizontal load, a load one degree less than the
load, without increment of which the displacements of the pile continuously increase, shall be
assumed as a particular value of the limiting resistance Fu (7.3.4) according to the schedules of
the displacements-loads dependencies.
N o t e The results of horizontal loads static tests of piles may be used for direct determination of the design
conditions of the system pile - soil, applied in the calculations according to Appendix E.
7.3.7 At the dynamic tests of precast reinforced concrete and wooden piles up to 20 m long,
the particular value of the limiting resistance Fu, kN, (7.3.4) according to the data of their driving
at the actual (measured) residual failures sa 0.003 m, shall be determined by formula
AM 4 Ed m1 + 2 (m2 + m3 )
Fu = 1+ 1
2 Asa m1 + m2 + m3 . (7.20)
If the actual (measured) residual failure sa < 0,003 m, the design of the pile foundation shall
provide application of a hammer for piles driving with the greater striking energy, at which a
residual failure equals sa 0.003 m, and in case of impossibility to replace the pile-driving
equipment and in the presence of the pile refusal meters, the particular value of the limiting
resistance of pile Fu, kN, shall be determined by formula

1 2 sa + sel 8Ed (sa + sel ) m4


Fu = 1+ 1.
2 sa + sel (2sa + sel ) m4 + m2
2
(7.21)
In the formulas (7.20) and (7.21):
- shall mean the coefficient, assumed according to the Table 7.10 depending on a pile
material, kN/m2;
A - shall mean an area, limited by the external outline of solid or hollow cross-section of a
pile shaft (irrespective of presence or absence of a pile foot), m2;
M - shall mean the coefficient, assumed at the pile driving with hammers of the impact
effect equal to one, and at the vibratory pile driving according to Table 7.11
depending on the type of the soil under the pile foot;
Ed - shall mean a design striking energy of hammer, kJ, assumed according to Table 7.12, or
a design silent pile driver energy - according to Table 7.13;
sa - shall mean an actual residual failure, equal to the value of a pile driving at one strike of
the hammer, and at the using of silent pile drivers at their operation during 1 min, m;
sel - shall mean a pile refusal (elastic displacement of the soil and pile), determined using the
pile refusal meter, m;
m1 - shall mean the weight of the hammer or the silent pile driver, t;
m2 - shall mean the weight of a pile and a pile cap, t;
m3 - shall mean the weight of a dolly (at vibratory pile driving m3 = 0), t;
m4 - shall mean the weight of the striking part of the hammer, t;
- shall mean the restitution coefficient; at the driving-in of reinforced concrete piles with
impact effect hammers using a cap with a wooden bush 2 = 0.2, and at silent pile driver
2 = 0;
shall mean the coefficient, 1/kN, determined by formula

1n n m4
= p + f 2 g ( H h) ,
4 A Af m4 + m2
(7.22)
here A, m4, m2 - shall mean the same as in formulas (7.20) and (7.21);
np, nf - shall mean the coefficients of transfer from the dynamic (including viscous
resistance of the soil) to the static resistance of the soil, assumed
correspondingly equal to: for the soil under a pile foot np = 0.00025 cm/kN
and for the soil on the lateral surface of a pile nf = 0.025 cm/kN;
Af - shall mean the area of the lateral surface of a pile, adjoining the soil, m2;
g - shall mean the acceleration of gravity, equal to 9.81 m/s2;
H - shall mean the actual height of the fall of the striking part of the hammer, m;
h - height of the first rebound of striking part of diesel hammer, assumed
according to the Note 2 for Table 7.12, for other types of hammers h = 0.
Particular values of the limiting resistance at the dynamic tests of reinforced concrete piles of
more than 20 m long, and steel piles of any length by the measured residual and refusal at their
driving-in with hammers shall be determined using computer programs, the methods of driving-
in of piles design in which are based on the wave theory of a strike.
Notes
1 At the driving of piles in the soil, subject to removal at the foundation pit excavations, or in the soil of the
waterway bottom, the value of the design failure shall be determined based on the bearing capacity of piles,
calculated taking into account not removed soil or that subjected to possible erosion, and in places of probable
appearance of the negative frictional force taking into account the bearing capacities.
2 In case of 1.4 times more difference of the values of bearing capacities of piles, determined by formulas (7.20)
- (7.22), with the bearing capacity, determined by the calculation in accordance with the requirements of the
Subsection 7.2, it is necessary to verify the bearing capacity of piles additionally by the results of piles static probing
or static tests.
T a b l e 7.10
Calculation case Coefficient , kN/m2
Piles test by driving-in and afterdriving (and in case of failures determination) at the
following types of piles:
Reinforced concrete piles with a cap 1500
Wooden piles without dolly 1000
with dolly 800
Control of the piles bearing capacity according to the results of industrial driving-in at
the value of Ed/sa, kN:
1000 and less 2500
2000 1500
4000 950
8000 and more 700
T a b l e 7.11
Soil under the pile foot Coefficient M
1. Coarse with sandy aggregate 1.3
2. Medium-grain sands, medium density large-grain sands and solid loamy sands 1.2
3. Fine-grain sands of medium density 1.1
4. Dusty sands of medium density 1.0
5. Plastic loamy sands, solid sandy loams and clays 0.9
6. Semi-solid sandy loams and clays 0.8
7. Tough sandy loamy and clays 0.7
Notes
1 At the compact sands the values of coefficient in pos. 2 - 4 shall be raised by 60 %.
2 It is recommended to specify the values of coefficient M according to the results of static tests of piles,
deepened by silent pile drivers.
T a b l e 7.12
Design energy of the strike
Type of hammer
of the hammer Ed, kJ
1. Power hammer or single-acting hammer GH
2. Kick-atomizing pile hammer 0,9GH
3. Rod diesel hammer 0,4GH
4. Diesel hammer at the check afterdriving by single strikes without fuel feed G(H - h)
Notes
1 G shall mean the weight, kN, and H shall mean the height of the fall (m) of the striking part of the hammer;
2 In pos. 4h shall mean the height of the first rebound of the striking part of the diesel hammer of an air spring
cushion, determined by the metestick, m. It is allowed to assume: for rod diesel hammers h = 0.6 m, for kick-
atomizing pile hammers h = 0.4 m for preliminary calculations.
T a b l e 7.13
Equivalent design energy of a vibrating pile driver strike,
Exciting force of the vibrating pile driver, kN
kJ
100 45.0
200 90.0
300 130.0
400 175.0
500 220.0
600 265.0
700 310.0
800 350.0
7.3.8 The load-bearing capacity Fd, kN, of the friction driven pile, working for the
compressive load, according to the results of the soil tests with the sample pile, pile-probes or by
static probing shall be determined by formula (7.18), in which c = 1 shall be assumed.
At that the normative value Fun shall be determined on the basis of the particular values of the
limiting resistance of pile Fu, kN, in a place of the soils testing with the sample pile, pile-probe
or by probing, determined in accordance with the requirements of 7.3.9, 7.3.10 or 7.3.11.
The reliability coefficient with reference to soils g shall be determined on the basis of the
statistical treatment of the particular values of the limiting resistance of piles Fu in accordance
with 7.3.4.
7.3.9 The particular value of the limiting resistance of a precast pile in a place of the soils
testing with the sample piles Fu, kN, shall be determined:
) at the soils testing with sample piles of a type I (GOST 5686) by formula
Fu = sp(u/usp)Fu,sp, (7.23)
where sp - shall mean a coefficient, assumed equal to 1.25 at a pile deepening in compact sands
regardless off of their size or macro-fragmental soils and equal to 1.0 for other soils;
u, usp - shall mean the perimeters of the cross-section of the pile and the sample pile; Fu shall
mean a particular value of the limiting resistance of the sample pile, kN, determined
according to the results of tests by static load in accordance with 7.3.5;
b) at the soils testing with the sample piles of types II or III (GOST 5686) by formula
Fu = cRRspA + cffspuh, (7.24)
where cR - shall mean a coefficient of the operation conditions under the pile foot of a full-
scale pile, assumed according to Table 7.14 depending on the limiting resistance of
the soil under the pile foot of Rsp;
Rsp - shall mean the limiting resistance of the soil under the pile foot of the sample pile,
kPa;
A - shall mean the area of the cross-section of a full-scale pile, m2;
cf - shall mean the coefficient of the operation conditions on the lateral surface of full-
scale pile, assumed according to Table 7.14 depending on fsp;
fsp - shall mean the average value of the limiting resistance of the soil on the lateral surface
of the sample piles, kPa;
h - shall mean the driving depth of a full scale pile, m;
u - shall mean the perimeter of the cross-section of the pile shaft, m.
N o t e Compliance of the sum of the limiting resistances of the soil under the pile foot and along the lateral
surface of the sample pile with its limiting resistance shall be checked on application of the sample pile type II. If
the difference between them exceeds 20 %, the calculation of the limiting resistance of the full-scale pile shall be
performed as for sample piles of I type.
T a b l e 7.14
Coefficient of cR
Coefficient of cf depending on fsp for Coefficient of cf
depending on Rsp fsp, fps,i,
Rsp, kPa sample piles of II and III types depending on fps,i
For sample For sample piles, kPa
for a pile-probe
piles, type II type III at sands at argillaceous soils
2000 1.15 1.40 20 2.00 1.20 0.90
3000 1.05 1.20 30 1.65 0.95 0.85
4000 1.00 0.90 40 1.40 0.80 0.80
5000 0.90 0.80 50 1.20 0.70 0.75
6000 0.80 0.75 60 1.05 0.65 0.70
7000 0.75 0.70 80 0.80 0.55 -
10000 0.65 0.60 120 0.50 0.40 -
13000 0.60 0.55 - - - -
Note
1 For intermediate values Rsp and fsp the values of cR and cf shall be determined by interpolation.
2 In case if sands and argillaceous soils lie along the lateral surface of a pile, the coefficient cf shall be
determined by formula
cf hi + cf hi
cf = ,
h
where h'i, h"i - shall mean the total thickness of sands and argillaceous soils layers correspondingly;
'cf, "cf - shall mean the coefficients of the operation conditions of the sample piles and pile-probes
correspondingly in sands and argillaceous soils.

7.3.10 The particular value of the limiting resistance of a driven pile in a place of pile-probes
testing Fu, kN, shall be determined by formula
Fu = cRRpsA + ucffps,ihi, (7.25)
where cR - shall mean the coefficient of the operation conditions of the soil under the pile foot,
assumed equal to 0.8;
R - shall mean the limiting resistance of the soil under the pile-probe foot, kPa;
cf - shall mean the coefficient of the operation conditions of the i-th layer of the soil
along the lateral surface of a pile, assumed according to Table 7.14 depending on
fps,i;
fps,i - shall mean the average value of the limiting resistance of the i-th layer of the soil
along the lateral surface of a pile-probe, kPa;
hi - shall mean the thickness of the i-th layer of the soil, m;
A and u - shall mean the same as in the formula (7.24).
7.3.11 The particular value of the limiting resistance of the driven pile at the probing point Fu,
kN, shall be determined by formula
Fu = cRRsA + cffhu, (7.26)
where Rs- shall mean the limiting resistance of the soil under the pile foot according to the
probing data at the considered point, determined by formula (7.27), kPa;
cR - shall mean the coefficient of the operation conditions of the soil under the pile foot,
assumed equal to 0.4;
f - shall mean the average value of the limiting resistance of the soil along the lateral
surface of the pile according to the probing data at the considered point, kPa,
determined by formula (7.28) or (7.29);
h - shall mean the driving depth of a pile from the soil surface, m;
u - shall mean the perimeter of the cross-section of the pile shaft, m;
cf - shall mean the coefficient of the operation conditions of the soil along the lateral
surface of a pile, assumed equal to 0.8.
T a b l e 7.15
1 coefficient of transfer from qc to Rs i - coefficient of transfer
2 coefficient
from fsi to f for a probe of II
For screw piles under load of transfer from
qc, kPa For driven fs, fsi, kPa type
fs to f for a
piles at argillaceous
compressive pulling-out probe of I type at sands
soils
1000 0.90 0.50 0.40 20 0.80 0.75 1.00
2500 0.80 0.45 0.38 40 0.75 0.60 0.75
5000 0.65 0.32 0.27 60 0.70 0.55 0.60
7500 0.55 0.26 0.22 80 0.65 0.50 0.45
10000 0.45 0.23 0.19 100 0.60 0.50 0.40
15000 0.35 - - 120 0.50 0.50 -
20000 0.30 - - - - - -
N o t e For screw piles in water-saturated sands, the values of coefficient 1 shall be halved.
The limiting resistance of the soil under the driven pile foot Rs, kPa, according to the probing
data at the considered point shall be determined by formula
Rs = 1qc, (7.27)
where 1 - shall mean the coefficient of transfer from qc to Rs, assumed according to Table 7.15
irrespective of a type of probe (GOST 19912);
qc - shall mean the average value of the soil resistance, kPa, under the probe cone, obtained
from the experiment at section, located within one diameter d above and four diameters
below the pile foot mark (where d shall mean the diameter of a circular section or a
side of the square section, or the greater side of the rectangular cross section of a pile,
m).
T a b l e 7.16
qc, Mpa
Index
1 2.5 5 7.5 10 12
fi, kPa 20 30 45 60 70 80
1 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.20 0.20
The average value of the limiting resistance of the soil along the lateral surface of the driven
pile f, kPa, according to the soils probing data at the considered point shall be determined:
) on application of probes of I type by formula
f = 2fs; (7.28)
b) on application of probes of II type - by formula
f = ifsihi/h, (7.29)
In formulas (7.28) and (7.29) 2, i shall mean the coefficients, assumed according to Table
7.15;
fs - shall mean the average value of the soil resistance along the lateral surface of a probe,
kPa, determined as a quotient of division of the total measured soil resistance along the
lateral surface of the probe by the area of its lateral surface within the limits from the soil
surface at the point of the probing to the level of pile foot location in the selected bearing
course;
fsi - shall mean the average resistance of the i-th soil layer along the lateral surface of a
probe, determined by friction coupling, kPa;
hi - shall mean the thickness of the i-th soil layer, m.
7.3.12 The load-bearing capacity of a screw pile, working for the compressive and pulling-out
loads, according to the results of static probing shall be determined in accordance with 7.3.8, and
the particular value of the limiting resistance of a pile at the point of probing by formula (7.26),
where the depth is assumed reduced to a value of the blade diameter. The limiting resistance of
the soil under (over) a pile blade according to the soils probing data at the considered point shall
be determined by formula (7.27). In this case 1 shall mean the coefficient, assumed according
to Table 7.15 depending on the average value of the soil resistance under a probe tip in the
working area, assumed equal to a pile blade diameter. The average value of the soil limiting
resistance along the lateral surface of the screw pile shaft, according to the soil probing data at
the considered point, shall be determined by formula (7.28) or (7.29).
7.3.13 The load-bearing capacity of a pile at the point of probing Fdu, kN, determined without
resort to data about the soil resistance on the friction coupling of the static probing plant, shall be
calculated by formulas:
) for the griven pile
Fdu = 1qcA + ufihi, (7.30)
where 1 - shall mean the coefficient of the soil (cohesive and non-cohesive) operation
conditions under the pile foot, assumed according to Table 7.16;
qc - shall mean the resistance of the probe cone at the pile foot level, determined at the
section of one diameter above and four diameters below the pile foot;
hi - shall mean the thickness of the i-th soil layer, m;
fi - shall mean the average value of the resistance of the i-th soil layer, kPa, assumed
according to Table 7.16 depending on the resistance of a probe qc (MPa) in the middle
of the design section;
u - shall mean the perimeter of the cross-section of the pile shaft, m;
A - shall mean the area of the pile foot, m2;
b) for the drilled pile, arranged in accordance with 6.5, , working for the compressive load
Fdu = RA + ucf fihi, (7.31)
where R - shall mean the soil design resistance under the pile foot, kPa, assumed according to
Table 7.17 depending on the average resistance of a probe cone qc, kPa, at the section,
located within the limits of one diameter above and up to two diameters below the pile
foot;
A - shall mean the area of the pile foot, m2;
fi - shall mean the average value of the design soil resistance along the lateral surface of
the pile, kPa, at the design section hi of a pile, determined according to the probing
data in accordance with Table 7.17;
hi - shall mean the thickness of the i-th soil layer, that shall be assumed no more than 2 m;
cf - shall mean the coefficient, depending on the pile fabrication method and assumed:
) on application of piles, dry concreted, equal to 1;
b) at the concreting under water, under mud solution, and using inventory pipe casing, equal
to 0.7.
7.3.14 The load-bearing capacity Fd, kN, of piles according to the results of their calculation
by formulas (7.30) and (7.31), based on the data of the static cone probing, shall be determined
as the average value of the particular values Fdu for all the probing points.
T a b l e 7.17
Design resistance of the soil under the Average value of the design resistance
Resistance of a probe cone qc,
drilled pile foot R, kPa along the lateral surface of pile, fi, kPa
kPa
Sands Argillaceous soils Sands Argillaceous soils
1000 - 200 - 15
2500 - 580 - 25
5000 900 900 30 35
7500 1100 1200 40 45
10000 1300 1400 50 60
12000 1400 - 60 -
15000 1500 - 70 -
20000 2000 - 70 -
Notes
1 Values R and fi for intermediate values qc shall be determined by interpolation.
2 Values R and fi specified in the Table shall refer to the drilled piles with the diameter of 600 - 1200 mm, set in
the soil not less than 5 m deep. In case of the potential negative friction appearance on the lateral surface of the pile
the values fi for settling layers are assumed with the minus sign.
3 A the values R and fi assumed in the Table, the settlement of a pile does not exceed 0.03d at the design load Fd.
7.3.15 It is recommended to perform a calculation in accordance with Sub-section 7.2
simultaneously with the pile load-bearing capacity calculation according to the results of static
probing, taking into consideration the high loads, transmitted to the drilled piles. In case of
difference in the obtained values of the pile load-bearing capacity by more than 25 %, at least
two piles shall be put to the static test.
7.3.16 At the presence of 3 - 5 driven piles in the similar soil conditions in the area of these
indentation tests by static load, and the results of static probing (six tests and more), and if the
results of the calculations differ one from another by not more than 25 %, the load-bearing
capacity shall be determined by formula
Fd = Fu/ngs, (7.32)
where Fu/n - shall mean the average value of the limiting resistance of a pile;
gs - shall mean the reliability coefficient according to the soil, determined according to
the results of probing by formula
gs = 1 + Vs, (7.33)
where Vs - shall mean the coefficient of variation of the particular values of the limiting
resistance of a pile, calculated according to the probing data, determined according to
GOST 20522.
7.4 STIFFNESS ANALYSIS OF PILES AND PILE FOUNDATIONS
7.4.1 Settlement of the foundation of friction piles may be determined as the settlement of the
tentative foundation on the foundation soil in accordance with 7.4.2 and 7.4.3.
At the homogeneous foundation soils or those improving with the depth in terms of the
physical and mechanical properties, it is recommended to perform the calculation of a pile
foundation settlement according to the methods, considering the piles interference in a group
(7.4.4 - 7.4.9).
It is recommended to calculate the settlement of combined pile and slab foundations
according to 7.4.10 - 7.4.14.
It is allowed to determine the settlement of pile strip foundations in accordance with the
Application .
The values of the pile foundation settlement obtained in accordance with the calculation shall
not exceed the limiting value according to condition (7.4).
The stiffness analysis of the pile foundations of piles working as standing piles, single friction
piles, perceiving pulling-out loads out of group, and the pile groups, working in the effect of
pulling-out loads, is not required.
Settlement Calculation of a Pile Foundation as the Tentative Foundation
7.4.2 The settlement calculation of the foundation of the friction piles, performed as for the
tentative foundation on the natural foundation soil, shall be performed in accordance with the
requirements of SNiP 2.02.01.
The limits of the tentative foundation (refer to Drawing 1) shall be determined in the
following way:
from below - by the plane , passing through the piles feet;
from sides by the vertical planes and , located apart from the external sides of
extreme rows of the vertical piles at the distance htg(II,mt/4) (Drawing 1, ), but not more than
2d in cases, when the argillaceous soils with the flow index IL > 0.6 (d diameter or a side of a
pile cross-section) lie under the piles feet, and in the presence of batter piles passing through
these piles feet (Drawing 1, );
from above - by the surface of the soil layout ;
here II,mt - shall mean the averaged design value of the angle of internal friction of the soil,
determined by formula
h
II,i hi
0
,
II,mt = hi (7.34)
where II,i - shall mean the design values of the angles of internal friction for separate soil layers
with thickness hi traversed by piles, degrees;
h - shall mean the depth of the pile driving in the soil, m.
The settlement calculation of the tentative foundation shall be performed for the additional
vertical pressure, transmitted to the basis by the tentative foundation base, i.e. with the deduction
of the vertical load from the dead weight of the soil at this base level, at that the dead weight of
the tentative foundation shall include the weight of the piles, grillage and soil in the tentative
foundation scope.
7.4.3 If the territory layout by additional filling (depositing) by more than 2 m high and
another permanent (long-term) territory loading equivalent to the additional filling is provided at
the construction, and within the limits of piles driving-in peat or silt layers of more than 30 cm
thick lie, the value of the settlement of a pile foundation of the friction piles shall be determined
taking into account the downsizing of the tentative foundation, which in such case, on
application of vertical, as well as of raking piles, is assumed limited from the sides by the
vertical planes, located apart from the external sides of the extreme rows of the vertical piles at
the distance hmttg(II,mt/4), where hmt shall mean the distance from a pile foot to the base of the
peat or silt layer more than 30 cm thick.
Drawing 1 Determination of the limits of the tentative foundation in the settlement calculation
of the pile foundations
Settlement Calculation of a Pile Foundation Taking into Account the Piles Interference in
the Group
7.4.4 It is necessary to determine the settlement of a single pile for the settlement calculation
of a pile foundation taking into account the interference of piles in the group.
Settlement s, m, of a single friction pile shall be determined by formula
s = PIs/(ESLd), (7.35)
where P - shall mean a pile load, kN;
Is - shall mean the settlement influence coefficient, depending on:
for a stiff pile on the ratio l/d, for a compressible pile on the ratio l/d and on the
relative pile stiffness = Ep/ESL, where Ep shall mean the modulus of elasticity of a
pile material, kPa;
ESL - shall mean the modulus of deformation of the soil at a pile foot level, kPa;
d - shall mean the diameter or a side of a square pile, m;
l - shall mean the length of a pile, m.
7.4.5 The settlement influence coefficient Is in formula (7.35) for a stiff pile shall be
determined by formula
Is = 2,6/l/d + 4. (7.36)
The values of the coefficient Is for the compressible pile are specified in Table 7.18.
T a b l e 7.18
Values Is at , equal to
l/d
100 1000 10000
10 0.19 0.16 0.15
25 0.18 0.10 0.08
50 0.17 0.06 0.05
7.4.6 At the determination of the modulus of deformation of the soil ESL it is necessary to take
into account that its most reliable value may be obtained according to the results of the piles field
test (at the presence of more than 100 piles at site).
Using the results of static probing, it is recommended to assume the following minimum
values ESL depending on the resistance to probing q:
- in sands ESL = 6qc;
- in argillaceous soils ESL = 10qc.
7.4.7 The settlement of a group of piles sG, , at the distance up to 7d between the piles,
taking into account the interference of the piles in a group shall be determined on the basis of the
numerical solution, taking into consideration the increase of the settlement of a pile in the group
against settlement of a single pile at the same load, flexibility l/d and stiffness of the piles, by
formula
sG = s1Rs, (7.37)
where s1 - shall mean the settlement of a single pile at the assumed load on it, determined by
formula (7.35);
Rs - shall mean the settlement increase coefficient (7.4.8).
7.4.8 Using the settlement of a single pile for designing of pile groups and fields, it is
necessary to take into account that the settlement of a group of piles as the result of their
interference in a pile foundation will increase, what shall be accounted for by the settlement
increase coefficient Rs (Table 7.19).
The general number of piles n shall be determined, taking into consideration the compliance
with two conditions: settlement of the group of piles sG shall be within the limits of the
acceptable one, and the load on a single pile P1 shall conform to the load, determined by formula
(7.35) at the settlement, equal to s1 = sG/Rs.
7.4.9 Table 7.19 is drawn for piles, joint with a stiff grillage, located above the soil surface or
on the layer relative to the soft surface soils, when a grillage practically has no effect on the
settlement of the group of piles.
At a low grillage with piles for separate columns (pile cluster), not joint with a common slab,
the values Rs in Table 7.19 may be reduced due to work of the grillage, located upon the soil,
depending on the ratio of distance a between the piles axes to their diameter d:
at a/d = 3 - to 10 %;
at a/d = 5 - 10 - to 15 %.
Verification of the design resistance of the pile grillage base soil shall be performed in
accordance with SNiP 2.02.01.
Settlement Calculation of the Combined Pile and Slab Foundations
7.4.10 For reduction of the general and uneven settlement of structures with a heavy load on
the foundation a variant of arrangement of a combined pile and slab (CPS) foundation shall be
considered at the designing.
Bored piles with diameter 0.8 1.2 m are the most used in practice; driven piles with a square
section also may be used.
The length of the piles shall be assumed from 0.5B to B (B the width of the foundation), the
distance between the piles axes a = (5 - 7)d and more.
T a b l e 7.19
Values of coefficient Rs
Number
l/d = 10; = 100 l/d = 25; = 1000 l/d = 50; = 10000
of piles
a/d a/d a/d
n
3 5 7 10 3 5 7 10 3 5 7 10
4 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.10 2.45 2.00 1.80 1.70 2.75 2.25 2.00 1.80
9 2.25 2.00 1.90 1.80 3.90 3.25 2.90 2.65 4.35 3.55 3.15 2.85
16 2.85 2.50 2.35 2.25 4.90 4.10 3.65 3.30 5.50 4.50 4.00 3.60
25 3.30 3.00 2.75 2.60 5.60 4.75 4.25 3.90 6.50 5.25 4.70 4.25
36 3.70 3.30 3.10 2.90 6.40 5.35 4.80 4.30 7.20 5.85 5.25 4.70
49 4.00 3.55 3.30 3.15 6.90 5.75 5.10 4.70 7.75 6.35 5.60 5.10
100 4.70 4.20 4.00 3.70 8.20 6.80 6.10 5.50 9.20 7.50 6.70 6.00
196 5.40 4.80 4.50 4.25 9.35 7.75 7.00 6.35 10.50 8.60 7.65 6.90
400 6.15 5.50 5.10 4.85 10.60 8.85 7.90 7.20 12.00 9.80 8.70 7.80
1000 7.05 6.30 6.00 5.55 12.30 10.00 9.15 8.25 13.80 11.25 10.05 9.00
Notes
1 In every column at other values of n, the coefficient Rs shall be determined by formula Rs(n) = 0.5Rs(100)lg n.
2 The Table is drawn for square pile clusters. For rectangular pile clusters the number of piles n is assumed equal
to the square of the number of the piles according to the short side of the foundation.
The method of the settlement calculation of such foundations is based on the joint
consideration of the piles and slab stiffness. In this calculation, when the slab is engaged in the
operation, approximately 85 % of total load on the foundation are assumed for the piles, 15 % -
for the slab.
7.4.11 The settlement calculation of CPS foundation shall be performed on the basis of
determination of particular values of stiffness of all the piles and grillage, coefficient of their
interference and coefficient of the whole foundation stiffness:
) stiffness of all the piles Kp shall be determined by formula
Kp = K1n/Rs, (7.38)
where K1 - shall mean the stiffness of a single pile, determined as the ratio of the load on a pile to
its settlement
K1 = P1/s1 = ESLd/Is (refer to formula (7.35);
n - shall mean the total number of piles in the foundation;
Rs - refer to Table 7.19;
b) shall mean the stiffness of slab Kc to be determined by formula
Es A
Kc = ,
(1 v 2 )m0 (7.39)
where Es - shall mean the average modulus of deformation of the soil at the depth up to B, m (B
is the width of the slab), kPa;
A - shall mean the area of the slab (A = BL, where L shall mean the length of the slab, m),
m2;
v - shall mean the Poisson's ratio of the soil;
m0 - shall mean the area coefficient, depending on the ratio L/B:
L/B 1 2 3 5 10
m0 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.77 0.67
c) the general stiffness of the CPS foundation Kf shall be calculated by formula
Kf = Kp + Kc. (7.40)
7.4.12 The settlement of the CPS foundation shall be calculated by formula
sf = P/Kf. (7.41)
At that a part of the load, perceived by the piles, equals to
Pp = (Kp/Kf)P, (7.42)
And the part of the load, perceived by the slab, equals to
Pc = Kc/KfP, (7.43)
7.4.13 Determination of the design indices of the CPS foundation shall be performed by the
method of successive approximations:
) having the area of the grillage of the building A and being given a distance between the
piles a of the order (5 - 7)d, we will find the number of piles in the foundation
n = A/a2; (7.44)
b) at the maximum permissible settlement of the pile foundation s the design settlement of
the single pile s1 equals to
s1 = s/R's, (7.45)
where at the first approximation the value R's shall be assumed according to Table 7.19,
having values n and a at the l/d = 25 and = 1000;
c) the design load on the pile P1 shall be determined by formula
P1 = ESLds1/I's, (7.46)
where the value I's is assumed according to Table 7.18, which at the first approximation at the
assumed value R's equals to I's = 0,10;
d) the design load on a single pile of a pile foundation P1 from the external design load on
foundation (P) is determined. At that it is assumed that piles perceive 85 % P
P1 = 0,85P/nR's. (7.47)
The obtained discrepancy between the values P1 and P1 indicates the direction of the design
refinement mainly due to change of the value n with inclusion in the design of the actual values
l/d and .
It is recommended to verify the performed calculations of the settlement of the CPS
foundation additionally for the settlement as of the tentative foundation.
7.4.14 At the designing of the CSP foundation of a stiff grillage it is necessary to take into
account that as the result of the re-distribution of the loads, the load on the extreme rows of the
piles, especially on the corner ones, significantly exceeds the average load on a pile in the
foundation, what may cause significant bending moments on the edges and in the grillage
corners.
For buildings and structures of the II and III levels of responsibility it is allowed to assume
loads on piles in the grillage depending on the average load on a pile in the foundation P: in
extreme rows - P = 2P, including on the corner piles - P = 3P.
Design of the Pile Foundations Rolls
7.4.15 The roll of a rectangular pile foundation i shall be determined by formulas:
) for rectangular foundation
M
2
,
i = 8i0(1 - v2) f EL b (7.48)
where i0 - shall mean a dimensionless coefficient, established according to Table 7.20 depending
on 2h/L (h shall mean the depth of the piles driving-in, m) and on the ratio L/b;
v - shall mean the Poisson's ratio;
M - shall mean the moment, having effect on the foundation, kNm;
f - shall mean the reliability coefficient according to load;
E - shall mean the deformation modulus of the soil at the piles base, kPa;
L and b - shall mean the length and the width of the foundation, m;
T a b l e 7.20
Values i0 at L/b, equal to
Values 2h/L
0.5 2.4 5
0.5 0.37 0.36 0.28
1 0.32 0.30 0.25
3 0.30 0.22 0.18
b) for circular foundation
M
3
,
i = i0(1 - v2) f Er (7.49)
where i0 shall be determined according to Table 7.21 depending on the ratio h/r (r shall mean
the foundation radius, m);
v, M, f, E - shall be the same as in formula (7.48).
T a b l e 7.21
h/r 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0
i0 0.36 0.26 0.23 0.23
Calculation of the Piles Horizontal Displacement
7.4.16 The stiffness analysis of piles for the joint effect of the vertical and horizontal forces
and the moment shall be performed in accordance with Appendix E.
For structures of the II and III levels of responsibility, the calculation of horizontal
displacements of the pile cluster at the piles rigidly built-in in the grillage may be performed as
shown below (7.4.17 - 7.4.21).
The calculation shall be performed separately for cohesive and non-cohesive soils by the
bearing capacity and deformations.
7.4.17 The calculation shall provide the compliance with conditions (7.50) and (7.51):
Fh H; (7.50)
S, (7.51)
where Fh - shall mean the design horizontal load on the pile cluster, kN;
H - shall mean the design resistance of a pile cluster, determined by formula (7.55), kN;
- shall mean the design horizontal displacement of a pile at the grillage foot level, m;
S - shall mean the maximum permissible value of a pile horizontal displacement,
established in the technical assignment, m.
7.4.18 At the piles calculation in cohesive soils it is necessary to determine:
1) The load-bearing capacity of the piles for the horizontal load H, kN, depending on a pile
shaft bending stiffness factor by formula
H = cud2c, (7.52)
where cu - shall mean the design average value of the soil non-drain shear resistance, determined
in accordance with 7.4.21 for the section from the soil surface to the depth 10d, kPa;
d - shall mean the diameter or the width of a pile shaft, m;
c - shall mean the dimensionless coefficient of the pile shaft stiffness, determined
according to Table 7.22 depending on the dimensionless index mc and type of
embedment of the pile head
mc = Mp/cud3, (7.53)
where Mp - shall mean the design bending moment of the pile shaft, kNm, determined depending
on the size and reinforcement of a pile; for the standard reinforced concrete driven
piles, assumed according to the series 1.011.1-10 (Appendix D) taking into account the
vertical load on a pile at its presence;
cu and d - shall mean the same as in formula (7.52).
T a b l e 7.22
Coefficient c at mc, equal to
Pile
2 4 10 20 40 100 200
With embedded head 5.1 7.9 12.7 20.7 32.4 51.3 77.1
With unfixed head 4.1 5.9 8.9 13.9 21.2 34.7 55.6
2) Displacement of the head of pile uk, m, - by formula
I uf
H,
uk = E s d (7.54)
where H - shall mean the same as in formula (7.52);
Iuf - shall mean the coefficient of displacement of the head of the pile, depending on the ratio
Ep/Es and determined according to Table 7.23.
T a b l e 7.23
Ep/Es 100 1000 10000
Iuf 0.35 0.23 0.14
Iup 0.50 0.35 0.24
Here Ep and Es - shall mean correspondingly the modulus of the pile elasticity and the soil
deformation, kPa; Es shall be assumed equal to the average value from the surface to the depth
10d.
3) The design resistance of a pile cluster at stiff embedment of a pile in the grillage by
formula
H = HnKBB, (7.55)
where H - shall mean the same as in formula (7.52);
n - shall mean the number of piles;
KBB - shall mean the dimensionless coefficient of the piles interference, specified in Table
7.24.
T a b l e 7.24
Value of coefficient KBB at the distance between piles a, equal to
Number of piles n
3d 4d 5d 6d
4 0.68 0.71 0.80 0.86
9 0.59 0.62 0.71 0.78
16 0.47 0.57 0.65 0.74
20 0.45 0.55 0.64 0.73
7.4.19 At the calculation of piles in non-cohesive soils it is necessary to determine:
1) The load-bearing capacity of the pile for the horizontal load depending on the pile shaft
bending stiffness factor by formula
H = k2p1d3n, (7.56)
where kp - shall mean the coefficient of passive lateral earth pressure, equal to k = (1 + sin )/(1 -
sin );
1 - shall mean the design value of the specific weight of the soil (at the water-saturated
soils taking into account the water uplifting action), kN/m3;
n - shall mean the dimensionless coefficient, determined according to Table 7.25
depending on the dimensionless index mn, calculated by formula
mn = Mp/k2pId4. (7.57)
Mp - shall mean the same as in formula (7.53).
T a b l e 7.25
Coefficient n at mn, equal to
Pile
2 4 10 20 40 100 200 400
With embedded head 3.3 4.2 6.5 9.1 13.5 23.6 36.5 56.9
With unfixed head 1.6 2.5 4.8 7.4 11.8 21.9 34.8 55.2
2) Displacement of the head of an embedded pile by formula (7.54).
3) Design resistance of the pile cluster H, kN, - by formula (7.55) using Table 7.24.
7.4.20 Horizontal displacement , m, of group of embedded piles at the grillage foot level in
cohesive and non-cohesive soils shall be determined by formula
= RFHavh1, (7.58)
where RF - shall mean the coefficient of displacement of piles with embedded heads, determined
by formula (7.59);
Hav - shall mean the average load on a pile in group, kN;
h1 - shall mean a horizontal displacement of a single pile with unfixed head, m/kN, at a
unit load (H = 1), determined by formula (7.60);
RF = 1/KBB, (7.59)
where KBB - shall mean the same as in formula (7.55);
h1 = Iup/Esd, (7.60)
where Iup - shall mean the coefficient of displacement of the unfixed pile head, depending on
Ep/Es and determined by Table 7.23.
Using formula (7.60), it is necessary to determine such an average design resistance of a pile
in cluster Hav, at which the requirements of displacements (7.51) and (7.54) are complied with,
and the required load-bearing capacity margin of a pile Hav < H is provided: in cohesive soils
by formula (7.52), in non-cohesive soils by formula (7.56).
7.4.21 Non-drained shearing resistance of the argillaceous soil cu, kPa, shall be determined by
laboratory tests (GOST 12248) or depending on the design values of the drain shear properties I
and c1 (GOST 12248) by formula
c1ctg I
cu = kc ,

ctg I + I
2 (7.61)
where kc - shall mean the correction factor, determined depending on c1 according to Table
7.26.
T a b l e 7.26
c1, kPa 20 25 30 35 40
kc 1.2 1.4 1.9 2.2 2.5
At the presence of static probing data it is possible to determine non-drained shearing
resistance cu depending on the cone resistance qc by formula
cu = qc/20. (7.62)
At that the value qc, kPa, shall be assumed average for the considered design section of a pile:
at the horizontal load calculation from the surface to the depth 10d, at the determination of
resistance under the pile foot at section 1d above and 4d below the pile foot.
It is recommended to assume the lesser value cu of those determined by formulas (7.61) and
(7.62) in practical calculations.
7.5 PECULIARITIES OF DESIGNING OF PILE FOUNDATIONS AT
RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES
7.5.1 Application of pile foundations at the reconstruction of buildings and structures is the
most expedient at the significant increment of the load on the base and at the presence of soft
soils in the base.
The following types of piles may be used for pile foundations: driven, jack piles, bored piles,
regulated injection piles and bored screw piles.
At the reconstruction work in the conditions of the existing development it is recommended to
use jack piles, bored piles, regulated injection piles and screw-bored piles.
7.5.2 Pile foundations shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of the present
subsection and subsections 7.1 - 7.4 at the reconstruction of buildings and structures. The initial
data for designing, in addition to those specified in 4.1, shall contain the results of the works of
examination of bases, foundations, and structures of the reconstructed building, and in the
conditions of the existing development also data of buildings and structures, located in the
reconstruction influence area.
7.5.3 Geological engineering surveys for reconstruction shall be performed in accordance
with the requirements of Section 5 of the present SP.
7.5.4 In the designs of reconstruction of bases and foundations of buildings and structures
such concepts shall be accepted, at which the existing structures of the foundations and the
bearing capacity of the soils are exploited to the maximum.
7.5.5 Foundations of driven piles, designed for reconstruction in the conditions of the existing
development, shall be checked for safety according to the condition of dynamic impacts on a
structure of closely located buildings and structures in accordance with the requirements 4.8, and
for safety according to the condition of the soil displacement around the piles to be sunk.
A safe distance according to the condition of dynamic impact r, m, from the driven piles to
buildings or structures, as a rule, shall be assumed not less than 25 m.
7.5.6 If the distance r from the nearest driven piles is less than 25 m, the permissible safe
distances shall be established based on a condition, that the design speed of the vertical
oscillations of the foundation V, cm/s, at the distance r from the driven pile shall not exceed the
maximum permissible value for this building or structure, that shall be established depending on
the structural properties of the building or structure and the category of their state. The
permissible values of the speed of the oscillation may be determined by Table 7.27. As required,
the permissible safe distances shall be considered on the basis of instrumental measurement of
the oscillation parameters of the soil and structures at the sample piles driving.
N o t e Reduction of the negative dynamic impact of driving-in of piles on the existent buildings and
structures may be performed by the way of piles driving into pilot holes, application of hydro-hammers with a
heavy-weighted striking part at the low lifting height, vibratory pile driving, etc.
T a b l e 7.27
Permissible speeds of oscillation, cm/s, at the foundation soils
Sands
Structures of buildings Compact Average compaction Loose
Argillaceous soils at the fluidity index
IL < 0.5 0.5 IL 0.75 IL > 0.75
Cast-in-situ reinforced concrete and 6.0 4.5 1.5
skeleton-type with steel framework
Skeleton-type with framework of cast-in-situ 4.0 2.0 0.7
reinforced concrete
Brick block and panel 3.0 1.5 0.5
Values of the speed of oscillation V, cm/s, of buildings and structures shall be calculated by
formula
V = 2, (7.63)
where and - shall mean correspondingly an amplitude and oscillation frequency, determined
experimentally at the sample piles driving.
7.5.7 In cases when application of driven piles close to the existing buildings and structures is
impossible due to the condition of dynamic impacts, jack piles, driven by special piles indenting
plants or using jacks, may replace them.
It is allowed to determine the minimum required effort F, kN, for piles indentation by formula
F KvFd, (7.64)
where Kv - shall mean the coefficient of operation conditions, assumed at the speed of pile
driving up to 3 m/min, equal to 1.2;
Fd - shall mean the bearing capacity of a pile at different depths of its driving, kN.
On application of piles indentation for reinforcement of a foundation of building under
reconstruction, their foundations and underground structures shall be checked for a possibility to
perceive the indenting effort F and reinforced, as required.
7.5.8 On application of foundations of bored piles for buildings and structures under
reconstruction it is necessary to carry out an evaluation of possible technological settlement at
drilling-out of pile wells, which may cause settlement of the closely located foundations, and to
provide measures of reduction of the technological settlement due to application of machines,
equipped with inventory pipe casing.
7.5.9 For reinforcement or arrangement of foundations of buildings and structures under
reconstruction screw-bored piles may be used instead of bored piles. In this case unloading and
loosening of the soils, required at the driving of bored piles shall be excluded.
7.5.10 For reinforcement of bases and foundations in the crowded conditions of
reconstruction, and in case of need of deepening of the underground part of the building or
arrangement of underground structures close to it, regulated injection piles with the diameter of
100 - 250 mm shall be used.
7.5.11 At the reinforcement of pile foundations of buildings under reconstruction by
underpinning of additional piles under their existing grillages, the latter shall be checked for
strength in connection with the change of loads and places of their application. In case of
insufficient strength of the grillages, it is necessary to design their reinforcement.
7.5.12 Additional settlements of the bases of buildings and structures under reconstruction,
caused by reconstruction, shall not exceed the maximum additional values, which shall be
established depending on the level of responsibility of the structure and the category of the state
of its structures, taking into account the existing normative documents.

8 DESIGNING OF PILE FOUNDATION


8.1 Depending on the effective loads, pile foundations shall be designed in the form of:
) single piles under detached supports;
b) pile rows under building and structure walls in order to convey the loads distributed
along the walls with piles being placed in one, two or more rows;
c) pile clusters under columns with piles being located in the layout at the plot of square,
rectangular, trapezoidal and other shape;
d) continuous pile field under heavy structures with piles being located uniformly under the
whole structure and joined by a solid grillage, its bottom resting on the soil.
8.2 Depending on the building structure, strip grillages, shell grillages and plate grillages shall
be applied.
8.3 Strip grillages shall be applied, as a rule, for buildings with load-bearing walls. The
grillage width depends on the number of piles in the cross-section and on the load-bearing wall
width.
The grillage overhang value measured from the piles edge shall be assumed, taking into
account the allowable pile decline in the layout in accordance with the recommendations given
in sub-section 15.5.
The grillage height shall be determined by calculation in accordance with the requirements of
52-01. The grillage shall be calculated as a reinforced concrete multi-span beam.
Reinforcement of the grillage shall be made by means of spatial prefabricated reinforcement
cages, which are, as a rule, made of Class -III (400) reinforcement bars. As a rule, for
grillages concrete with the strength of classes B15 or B20 shall be used. The grillage shall be
placed upon Class 7,5 foundation mattress.
8.4 Grillages of shell type consisting of a plate part and a column base, namely, of shell part,
shall be applied in buildings with prefabricated reinforced concrete framework.
Dimensions of the grillage in the layout shall be assumed divisible by 30 cm, and as for the
height, divisible by 15 cm. The designed grillage height shall be set 40 cm more than the column
base shell depth. The grillage parameters shall take into account the bending (the plate part, the
shell part) and depression (depression of the column and of the corner pile in accordance with
the requirements of 52-01. Reinforcement of the grillage shall be made by flat nets (the
plate part) and by spatial frameworks (shell walls), as a rule, made of Class -III (400)
reinforcement bars. For the grillages strength, class 15, 20 concrete shall be applied. The
grillage shall be placed upon Class 7,5 foundation mattress.
8.5 Plate grillages shall be applied for buildings with framework made of cast-in-situ
reinforced concrete or with metal framework. At that the grillage height shall be determined,
taking into account the required starter bars or anchor bolt embedding.
As a rule, for heavy buildings and structures with framework, large-size plate grillages shall
be used (if the dimensions in the layout are 10 10 m and more). At that, the plate grillage
height shall be determined, taking into account the calculation of transverse forces-taking ability,
provided transverse (vertical) reinforcement has not been installed.
Plate grillages shall be designed, using the PC software.
Plate grillages shall be reinforced with upper and bottom nets made of Class -III (400)
reinforcement wire; these nets shall be placed upon supporting frameworks. Large-size plate
grillages shall be made of the strength class 25 concrete placed upon Class 7,5 foundation
mattress.
8.6 When elaborating the piles foundations design, it is necessary to take into consideration
the following data: construction diagram of the designed building or structure; dimensions of the
load-bearing structures and the material they are designed of; availability and overall dimensions
of approximation of the buried premises to the construction axes of the building or structure and
of their foundations; the loads applied onto the building foundation by building structures;
location of the technological equipment and the loads conveyed from it onto the building
structures and onto the floors, as well as requirements as regards ultimate settlement and rolls of
the building structures and of the foundations under the equipment..
8.7 The number of piles in the foundation and their dimensions shall be set, taking into
consideration the maximal strength both of the pile material and of the foundation soil, provided
the assumed load allowed per each pile, taking into account the permissible overload applied
onto corner piles in the foundations, complies with the requirements of sub-section 7.1.11.
Selection of the piles structures and pile shall be fulfilled, taking into account the values and
directions of the loads applied onto foundations (technological loads included), as well as
building and structure construction technology.
When placing piles in the layout, it is necessary to strive for the minimal number of piles in
each cluster (group) or for the maximally possible spacing of the piles in the rows, and to try to
achieve the maximal utilization of the pile load-carrying capacity assumed in the design. It is not
recommended to underexploit the pile load bearing capacity for more than 15%, or to overexploit
the piles continuously or protractedly for more than 5%, and as regards short-term loads for
20%.
8.8 It is allowed to design either free resting or rigid connection of the pile grillage with piles.
The grillage free resting upon the piles shall be taken into account in the calculations
conditionally as hinged joint, and if the grillage is a cast-in-situ one, it shall be accomplished by
means of the pile head embedding into the grillage for the depth of 5 - 10 cm.
Rigid connection of the pile grillage with piles shall be designed in the following cases:
) pile shafts are located in the soft soil (loose sand, argillaceous soils of unstable consistency,
silt, peat, etc.);
b) in the connection place the compressive load conveyed to the pile, is applied to it with the
eccentricity going beyond its section core;
c) freely supported piles bear horizontal loads, the values of their displacement turn out to
exceed the allowed ultimate values for the designed building or structure:
d) there are inclined or composite vertical piles in the foundation;
e) the piles operate for the pulling-out loads.
8.9 Rigid connection of reinforced concrete piles with a cast-in-situ reinforced concrete
grillage shall be designed with the pile head embedding into the grillage for the depth equal to
the length of the reinforcement anchoring, or with embedding into the grillage of the starter bars
for the length of their anchoring in accordance with the requirements of 52-01. In the
latter case in the head of pre-stressed piles unstressed reinforcement framework shall be
provided, and this reinforcement framework shall further be used as anchoring reinforcement.
It is also allowed to arrange a rigid connection by means of embedded steel elements welding
provided the required strength is maintained.
Note
1 Anchoring of the grillage and of the piles operating for pulling-out loads (see 8.8, d), shall be foreseen with the
pile reinforcement embedding into the grillage for the depth set by pile pulling-out calculation.
2 If the existing foundations bases are to be strengthened by means of regulated injection piles, then the length of
the piles embedding into the foundation shall be assumed in accordance with the calculation or it shall be set as per
the construction norms, namely, equal to five pile diameters; if this condition cannot be met, then widening of a pile
shaft in the place of its abutment to the grillage shall be arranged.
8.10 Rigid connection of piles with a precast grillage shall be provided by means of bell-
shaped pile tops. If the grillage is precast, it is allowed to concrete the piles into the holes
especially designed in the grillage for this purpose.
N o t e : - If ressing-in loads are not very big (up to 400 ), it is allowed to arrange free resting of the grillage
onto the pile head surface leveled by concrete mortar.
8.11 Piles in the cluster of the eccentrically loaded foundations shall be placed in such a way,
that the resultant of the continuous loads applied to the foundations should run as near to the
piles layout centre of gravity as possible.
8.12 In order to bear vertical loads and moments as well as horizontal loads (depending on
their values and directions), it is allowed to design vertical, inclined and gantry piles.
The pile inclination shall not exceed the values given in Table 8.1.

b l e 8.1
Piles Diameter, m Inclination
Driven piles < 1,0 1:1
Bored and shell-piles 1,0 - 1,2 4:1
1,6 5:1
2,0 6:1
3,0 7:1
8.13 The distance between the axes of driven and jack friction piles shall not go under 3d
(where d shall mean the diameter of the round, or the side of the square, or the longer side of
rectangular cross-section of the pile shaft), and for standing piles not less than 1,5d.
The clear distance between the shafts of bored piles, cast-in-place piles, bored-screw piles and
shell-piles as well as between the boreholes of column piles shall not be less than 1,0 m, and the
distance between the bored and regulated injection piles axes shall not be less than three
diameters of their cross-section; the clear distance between the enlargements made in hard and
semi-hard argillaceous soils shall be 0.5 m, and in other kinds of dispersible soils 1.0 m.
The distance between the inclined piles or between the inclined and vertical piles at the level
of the grillage bottom shall be assumed subject to the design peculiarities of the foundations and
provision of their reliability as far as embedding into soil, reinforcing and grillage concreting are
concerned.
8.14 When applying screw-bored piles, the distance from the pile axes to the external edges of
the building structures of the buildings and the structures placed nearby shall not be less than
0.5d + 20 cm (where d shall mean the pile diameter).
8.15 The pile lengths shall be selected depending on the soil types at the construction-site, on
the level where the grillage bottom is located, taking into account the capacities of the existing
equipment to be used for arrangement of the pile foundation. The piles feet shall, as a rule, be
embedded into the strong soil, cutting through softer soil bedding; at that embedding of the
driven piles into the soil accepted as the foundation soil shall be accomplished into macro-
fragmental soils, gravelly, large-grain sandy and argillaceous soils with the fluidity index IL 0,1
not less than 0.5 m, and into other kinds of dispersible soils - not less than 1.0 m.
8.16 The piles grillage bottom depth shall be set depending on the design concepts of the
building or structure underground part (availability of the basement or crawlway) and on the
design of the territory leveling (either by means of cutting, or by means of filling), as well as on
the grillage height, which shall be defined by calculation.
For foundations of bridges, the grillage bottom shall be located beyond or under the water
area surface, its bottom or the ground surface, provided computed load-bearing capacity and
foundation longevity are provided, taking into account the local climatic conditions, peculiarities
of the foundation design, the necessity to maintain shipping and timber rafting requirements,
reliability of pile protection measures to be accomplished, which shall protect the piles
effectively against the unfavorable impact of alternating environment temperature values, ice
floating, abrasive impact of moving bottom sediments, and other factors.
In the course of construction upon heaving soils it is required to arrange measures, preventing
or diminishing influence of the frosty soil heaving on the pile grillage.
8.17 In regions with the average air temperature of the coldest five-day period under minus 40
for bridge foundations in the zone with alternating temperature values piles and piles-columns
with a solid cross-section and with a protective concrete layer at least 5 cm thick (down to the
working reinforcement surface) shall be applied. In regions with temperature values beyond
minus 40 it is allowed to use solid cross-section piles, hollow piles and shell-piles with a
protective concrete layer not less than 3 cm out of the zone of the water area, provided measures
are taken to prevent cracking in them. In the zone with a varying level of continuous water flows,
as a rule, it is not recommended to apply bored and cast-in-situ piles and shell-piles filled with
concrete.
For cast-in-situ piles the protective concrete layer applied in bridge foundations shall be at
least 10 cm thick.
In the zone of positive temperature values (at least 0.5 m under the level of the season soil
frost penetration or of ice layer bottom) it is allowed to apply any kinds of piles without
limitations as regards the concrete frost resistance characteristics.
8.18 When elaborating designs for pile foundations, it is necessary to take into account the
possibility of uplifting (rebound) of the ground surface in the course of pile driving; this can
happen, as a rule, in the following cases:
) the construction-site consists of argillaceous soils of soft plasticity and fluid plasticity
consistency or of water-saturated dusty and fine-grain sands;
b) piles are driven in at the foundation pit bottom;
c) the structure of the pile foundation is set in the shape of a pile field or of pile clusters, and
at that distance between their end piles is less than 9 m.
The average value of the ground surface uplifting h, m, shall be calculated as per the
following formula:
h = kVp/Ae, (8.1)
where k shall mean the coefficient assumed to be equal to 0.6 provided the soil humidity level is
beyond 0.9;
Vp shall mean the volume of all the piles embedded into the soil, m3;
Ae shall mean the surface of the piles embedding or the surface of the foundation pit bottom,
m2.
8.19 Reinforcement of bored, bored-secant and regulated injection piles shall be made by
means of spatial frameworks; in order to maintain rigidity of such frameworks their longitudinal
reinforcement bars shall be joined not only by collars, but also by tubular rings fastened by
welding along the framework length, the interval between them being not more than 5 diameters
of the framework. In order to maintain the protective concrete layer between the soil and the
reinforcing rods of the framework, the latter shall be equipped with latches and cross-shaped
anchors inserted at the bottom end of the framework to exclude its lifting when pipe casings are
extracted.
8.20 As a rule, it is recommended to reinforce next nearest intersecting pile, and intersected
piles shall be left just made of concrete, without any reinforcement.
When using bored-secant piles as the foundation pit fencing, the fencing structure shall
include the upper guiding walls, which shall be reinforced; they shall be 300 mm thick and from
500 up to 750 mm high, depending on the pile diameter; and they shall be embedded into the
soil, which shall be sufficiently strong.
8.21 If regulated-injection piles with a diameter of 150 - 160 mm are used to strengthen the
existing building foundations under loads up to 200 , it is allowed to reinforce them with
single bars, provided the whole longitudinal force formed by the load effecting the pile is
conveyed onto them. At that, the resistance of concrete used in this case only to protect the
reinforcement bars against corrosion and to increase the resistance of the pile against the
longitudinal bend shall not be taken into consideration.
8.22 Reinforcement of regulated-injection piles coming through the soil with the deformation
modulus less than 5 MPa and having bending moment in the pile shaft, by single bars is not
allowed.
8.23 The feet of standing piles of all kinds, excluding driven piles, jack piles and screw piles,
shall be embedded into unweathered rock (not containing soft layers) for not less than 0.5 m, and
at the same time for not less than 30 diameters of their reinforcement.
8.24 When designing pile cap foundation, it is recommended to maintain the required load-
bearing capacity of the piles by means of their length increase, not by means of their cross-
section increase.
8.25 When making construction estimate of foundation pile cap grillage plate, it shall be taken
into account that a rigid grillage providing the equal settlement of all the piles, will ensure
redistribution of the load onto piles, and as a result, the load applied onto the utmost piles rows,
especially onto the corner piles, shall exceed the average ones; this may cause significant
bending moments at the grillage edges and corners.
8.26 The depth of the foundation pile cap grillage bottom shall be set depending on the design
of the subsurface building or structure part (availability of the basement, technical crawlway
premises or underground floors), the soil conditions and territory leveling design, as well as the
grillage height defined by calculation.
8.27 It shall be taken into account that if there are vertical piles, pile cap foundation
settlement does not depend on the system of piles connection with the grillage, either rigid or
hinged one, which shall be selected in the design due to the constructive reasons. It is possible to
make a combined connection of piles with the plate grillage in the central part without starter
bars, and along the perimeter with starter bars.
8.28 In piles foundations made of wooden piles butt-jointed by length butts of logs or skids
shall be made very close to straps made of metal strips or ducts. Butts in packet piles shall be
placed in staggered rows, at the distance of at least 1.5 m from each other.
8.29 When designing piles foundations, it is necessary to take into account the additional
requirements described in Paragraphs 9 - 14.
9 PECULIARITIES OF DESIGNING OF PILE FOUNDATIONS
IN COLLAPSIBLE SOILS
9.1 When accomplishing engineering and geological investigations at construction-sites
consisting of collapsible soils, it is recommended to define the type of the soil conditions as
regards the collapsibility characteristics, and to indicate the particular and maximal possible
values of the soil settlement due to their own weight (if additional filling is required, the weight
of the added soil shall be taken into consideration).
Along with the hole boring, it is necessary to foresee prospect-hole driving with the ground
block sampling. The distance between excavations shall not exceed 50 m; the number of
excavations for a separate building or structure shall be at least four.
When surveying the hydrogeological underground water conditions at the territory to be
developed and forecasting its fluctuations in the course of the building or structure construction
and operation, it is necessary to forecast the possibility of the soil wetting as a result of various
factors.
Physical and mechanical as well as strength and deformation characteristics of the collapsible
soil shall be determined for the state of natural humidity and at complete water saturation.
9.2 When designing pile foundations for the soil conditions of type II as regards the
collapsibility, which means possible settlement of the soils over 30 cm due to their own weight,
it is recommended, as a rule, to foresee measures for transformation of type II soil conditions
into type I by means of the soil cutting or by means of compaction using preliminary wetting,
wetting by explosion, soil piles and by other methods. The said methods shall provide
elimination of the soil strata settlement caused by its own weight within the boundaries of the
area occupied by the building or structure, and at the distance equal to the half of the subsiding
strata around it.
9.3 If the possibility of the soil wetting exists, then pile foundations in the territories with
collapsible soils shall be arranged in such cases, when piles can go through all the layers of the
collapsible soils with the strength and deformation characteristics, which worsen due to wetting.
The feet of piles shall be embedded, as a rule, into rock, into dense or average-density sands,
or into argillaceous soils with the fluidity index for water-saturated state as follows:
IL < 0.6 for all kinds of piles in type I soil conditions;
IL < 0.4 for driven piles and IL < 0.2 for cast-in-situ piles at ssl,g su in type II soil conditions;
IL < 0.2 for driven piles and IL 0 for cast-in-situ piles at ssl,g su in type II soil conditions
(where ssl,g shall mean the settlement of the soil caused by its own weight, taking into account
the additional filling weight or other kind of the surcharge on its surface).
Embedding of piles into the above-said soils shall be arranged in accordance with the
calculation by means of checking the condition that the pile settlement does not exceed the
ultimate settlement su, and the condition that the required load-bearing capacity of the pile is
maintained. At that the maximal value of the pile embedding depth out of calculated ones shall
be assumed.
Note
1 If driving piles through the said soils in some certain cases is not expedient from the economic point of view,
then in type I soil conditions as regards settlement for buildings and structures of the IIIrd responsibility level, it is
allowed to arrange piles (excluding shell-piles) with embedding of the feet down for the depth of at least 1 m into
the soil layer with relative settlement sl < 0.02 (at pressure of at least 300 Pa and not less than the pressure
corresponding to the pressure produced by the soil own weight and by the load effecting its surface) provided that in
this case the load-bearing capacity of piles is maintained and total values of the possible foundation settlement and
setting do not exceed the ultimate values for buildings and structures if the soil has been wetted unevenly. At that
the load-bearing capacity of piles and piles foundations shall be maintained, and possible impermissible setting and
settlement of the soils shall be excluded by means of taking additional measures against it.
It is allowed to rest the feet of 2 piles-columns of one-storey buildings having the IIIrd responsibility level in
type I soil conditions upon the soils with sl 0.02, if the load-bearing capacity of piles is confirmed by tests.
9.4 If upon the results of the engineering investigations it was set that embedding of the
driven piles into the collapsible soils is difficult to accomplish, then arrangement of pilot
boreholes shall be foreseen in the design; their diameter in I type soil conditions shall be set less
than the diameter of the pile section (up to 50 mm), and for type II soil conditions it shall be set
equal to the pile section or less (up to 50 mm). In the last case the pilot borehole depth shall not
exceed the thickness of the soil layer collapsible due to wetting.
9.5 Calculation of the piles load-bearing capacity, these piles being applied in type I soil
conditions, shall be accomplished in accordance with the indications given in Subsection 7.2 and
Appendix E, taking into account that the soil resistance under the pile foot R and at the side
surface ft of the pile (Tables 7.1, 7.2 and 7.7), proportionality co-efficient K (see Appendix E),
deformation modulus E, internal friction angle and specific adhesion c shall be calculated as
follows:
) at full soil water-saturation, if the soil wetting is possible, at that designed table parameters
shall be assumed at the flow index calculated as per the following formula:
0,9e w / s w p
IL = ,
wL w p (9.1)
where E shall mean co-efficient of the soil porosity for the soil of natural formation;
w shall mean the water specific weight; w = 10 /m3;
s shall mean the solid particles specific weight, /m3;
wp, wL shall mean the values of the soil humidity at the limit of rolling and at liquid limit, parts
of unit;
At value IL < 0.4 calculated by formula (9.1), IL shall be assumed equal to 0.4;
b) at humidity w and at the fluidity index IL for the soil in the natural state (when w < wp, wp is
assumed), if the soil wetting is impossible.
9.6 The load-bearing capacity of piles in a stamped bed used in the Ist type soil conditions
shall be set in accordance with the requirements given in 7.2.4 , the same as for driven piles with
inclined edges, provided additional requirements given in 9.5 are observed.
9.7 The load-bearing capacity of piles applied in the Ist type soil conditions upon the results
of their static tests accomplished with local soil wetting within the limits of the whole pile length
according to GOST 5686, shall be determined in compliance with the requirements of 7.3.
Under the Ist type soil conditions, provided there is experience of construction
accomplishment in the territory to be developed and if the results of the pile static tests
accomplished earlier in analogous conditions are available, then it is allowed not to accomplish
pile testing.
It is not allowed to determine the load-bearing capacity of piles and of shell-piles arranged in
collapsible soils basing on the results of their dynamic testing; and it is not allowed to determine
the rated resistance of the collapsible soils under the pile foot R and at the side surface of pile fi
basing on the results of the field tests of those soils by means of dynamic probing. It is allowed
to apply static probing under the boundary of the collapsible soils strata, when selecting the soil
layers in order to rest the piles upon them and to determine the negative friction force of the
collapsible soils at the side surface of the pile in accordance with 9.10.
9.8 In the Ist type soil conditions apart from the piles mentioned in Section 6, cast-in-situ
concrete piles and reinforced concrete piles arranged in drilled boreholes with the mining face
compacted by means of crushed stone rammed down to the depth of not less than 3d (where d
shall mean the borehole diameter) shall be applied, or cone-shaped driven abutment shall be
arranged.
In the IInd type soil conditions it is recommended to apply piles with anti-friction shells
placed upon the shaft part, which shall be located within the limits of the collapsible strata.
9.9 As regards the load-bearing capacity of the foundation soils, piles in type II soil conditions
shall be calculated, taking into account the negative friction forces, on the basis of the following
condition:
N Fd/k - cPn, (9.2)
where N shall mean the designed load, , per one pile;
Fd shall mean the load-bearing capacity of the pile, , determined in accordance with
9.11;
k shall mean the reliability co-efficient assumed as per 7.1.11;
c shall mean the co-efficient of pile operational conditions; its value shall be assumed
depending on the possible value of the soil settlement ssl: at ssl = 5 cm c = 0; at ssl
2su c = 0.8; for intermediate values ssl c it shall be determined by interpolation;
Pn shall mean the negative friction force determined in accordance with 9.10.
Note
1 Value Pn shall be determined, as a rule, for fully water-saturated soil (at possible soil wetting from above).
2 As regards material strength, piles shall be calculated for load N + Pn.
9.10 Negative frictional force Pn in water-saturated soils and P'n in the soils with natural
humidity which effects the pile side surface, , shall be assumed equal to the biggest ultimate
resistance of the pile with length hsl in accordance with the results of tests by pulling-out load
complying to G 5686 respectively in water-saturated soils and in the soils with natural
humidity.
Before the pulling-out test accomplishment it is allowed to calculate value Pn as follows:
) as per formula
h sl
u i hi ,
Pn = 0 (9.3)
where u shall mean the perimeter, m, of the part of the pile shaft with the length hsl;
hsl shall mean the designed depth, m; down to that depth side friction forces of the
collapsible soil layers shall be summarized; this depth shall be assumed to be equal to
the depth where the value of the soil settlement due to its own weight and determined
in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 2.02.01, is equal to 0.05 m;
i shall mean the rated resistance, kPA, determined down to the depth h = 6 m as per
formula
i = zgtgI + cI, (9.4)
here shall mean the co-efficient of the side pressure assumed to be equal to 0.7;
zg shall mean the vertical tension caused by the own weight of water-saturated soil, P;
I and cI shall mean the rated values of the internal friction angle, degrees, and of specific
adhesion, averaged at the depth hsl and determined in accordance with G 12248
by method of consolidated drained shear;
hi shall mean the thickness, m, of the ith layer of the collapsible soil setting when being
wetted and contacting the pile side surface.
At the depth of 6 m < h hsl the value i shall be assumed constant and equal to the value i at
the depth of 6 m;
b) as per the results of static probing of water-saturated soils and of the soils with natural
humidity for designed depth hsl in accordance with 7.3.
9.11 The load-bearing capacity Fd, , of piles in the IInd type soil conditions as regards
settlement, which work for the compressing load, shall be determined as follows:
) upon the results of the piles static tests with local wetting as the difference between the
load-bearing capacity of piles with length l at pressing-in load and the load-bearing capacity of
piles with the length hsl at pulling-out load;
b) by calculation in accordance with the instructions given in 9.5 under conditions of the full
soil water-saturation within the soil layers beneath the depth hsl.
9.12 It is obligatory to accomplish static tests of piles in the IInd type soils as regards their
settlement, provided the data gathered at such tests is not available.
9.13 For the most important structures and in case of mass development in the areas with
unexplored soils it is recommended to test piles with long-term wetting of the bottom in order to
let settlements reveal fully in accordance with the program elaborated for the specific conditions;
for this purpose a specialized scientific and research organization shall be engaged.
9.14 If at the side surface of piles it is possible to observe appearance of negative friction
forces, the settlement of the pile foundation made of friction piles shall be determined as for the
tentative foundation (sub-section 7.4), which shall be assumed to be limited at the sides by the
vertical planes, which shall be located at some distance from the external edges of ultimate rows
of the vertical piles, this distance being calculated as per formula hmttg(II,mt/4), where hmt shall
mean the distance from the foot of the pile down to the depth hsl, II,mt , which shall be the same
as in formula (7.34), determined within the limits of layers down to the depth hmt.
When calculating the loads, the negative friction forces calculated as per formula (9.3) at the
perimeter value u, m, being equal to the grillage perimeter within the limits of its height and to
the perimeter of the cluster measured along the external piles edges, shall be added to the
tentative foundation own weight.
9.15 Unevenness of piles foundation settlements in collapsible soils for calculation of
buildings and structures design shall be determined, taking into account the forecasted
fluctuations in hydrogeological conditions at the developed area and the possible most
unfavorable kinds and locations of the wetting source with respect to the foundation calculated
or to the structure on the whole.
9.16 Application of pile foundations does not exclude the necessity of accomplishment of
water protecting measures. At that in the IInd type soil conditions as regards settlement, division
of buildings into blocks of plain configuration by settlement joints shall be foreseen, too.
Besides, in workshops of industrial plants equipped with cranes, strucrural measures shall be
provided, which shall envisage the possibility of crane track straightening for the double value of
the pile foundations rated settlement, but not less than the half of the soil settlement due to its
own weight.
9.17 When the soil subsides due to its own weight for more than 30 cm, the possibility of
horizontal movements of pile foundations located within the limits of the settlement crater
curvilinear part shall be taken into account.
9.18 In the IInd type soil conditions when determining the loads effecting the pile foundation,
negative friction forces shall be taken into account; those forces may appear on the side surfaces
building or structure parts embedded into the soil, these side surfaces being located beyond the
bottom of the pile grillage.
9.19 When using pile foundations, leveling fillings of the soil over 1 m high in the territories
consisting of collapsible soils, shall be allowed only upon special feasibility study.
9.20 When designing pile foundations arranged in the II type soil conditions reliability co-
efficient per assignment (7.1.3) shall not be taken into account.
10 PECULIARITIES OF DESIGNING OF PILE FOUNDATIONS IN SWELLING SOILS
10.1 While designing pile foundations in swelling soils, it is allowed to foresee both full
cutting through the whole strata of the swelling soils by piles (at that the pile feet shall be resting
on unswelling soils), and partial cutting through (at that the pile feet shall be resting immediately
in the strata of the swelling soils).
10.2 When calculating the load-bearing capacity of piles in swelling soils, it is recommended
to assume values of the swelling soil rated resistance under the pile foot R and at the side surface
fi of a pile or of a shell-pile on the basis of the static test results; those tests shall be accomplished
on piles and piles-stamps in swelling soils with wetting at the construction-site or at the adjacent
area with analogous soils. If there are no results of the said static test, then it is allowed to
assume the rated resistance of the swelling soils under the pile foot R and at the side surface fi of
piles and shell-piles with the diameter of less than 1 m as per Tables 7.1, 7.2 and 7.7 with
introduction of the additional coefficient for conditions of the pile work in the soil c = 0.5; this
coefficient will be taken into account irrespective of other working conditions coefficients given
in Tables 7.3 and 7.5.
10.3 When calculating pile foundations in swelling soils as regards deformation, (sub-section
7.4) additional estimate shall be done in order to determine the piles lifting values in case of the
soil swelling in accordance with the requirements of 10.4 - 10.6.
10.4 Lifting hsw,p, m, of driven piles embedded into the pilot boreholes drilled earlier, of cast-
in-situ piles without enlargement as well as of shell-piles, which are not cutting the swelling soil
zone, shall be determined as per formula
hsw,p = (hsw - h'sw,p) + h'sw,p - 0,001/uN, (10.1)
where hsw shall mean the lifting of the swelling soil surface, m;
h'sw,p shall mean the lifting of the soil layer at the level of embedding of the pile foot (in case
of cutting through of the swelling soil zone h'sw,p = 0);
, shall mean the coefficients determined as per Table 10.1, at that depends on index ,
which characterizes reduction of deformation all over the solid depth when the soil
swells, and it is assumed for swelling clays: for sarmat clays 0.31 m-1, aral 0.36 m-
1
and hvalyn 0.42 m-1;
u shall mean the pile perimeter, m;
N shall mean the rated load per each pile, , determined with the reliability coefficient as
regards load f = 1.
b l e 10.1
Coefficient , m-1,at values
Pile embedding depth, m Coefficient , m2/
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
3 0.72 0.62 0.53 0.46 0.40 -
4 0.64 0.53 0.44 0.36 0.31 1.5
5 0.59 0.46 0.36 0.29 0.24 1.1
6 0.53 0.40 0.31 0.24 0.19 0.7
7 0.48 0.35 0.26 0.20 0.15 0.5
8 0.44 0.31 0.22 0.17 0.13 0.4
9 0.40 0.27 0.19 0.14 0.11 0.3
10 0.37 0.24 0.17 0.12 0.09 0.2
11 0.34 0.21 0.15 0.10 0.08 0.2
12 0.31 0.19 0.13 0.09 0.07 0.1
The limit values of structures lift as well as the value of the swelling soil surface lifting hsw
and the values of the soil layer lifting at the level of piles feet location hsw,p shall be determined
in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 2.02.01.
10.5 When cutting by piles through the swelling soil layers and embedding them into
unswelling soils, lifting of the pile foundation shall be practically excluded, provided the
following condition is observed:
N Fsw - Fdu/k, (10.2)
Where N shall mean the same as in formula (10.1);
Fsw shall mean the resultant force of rated lifting forces, , effecting side surface of piles
and determined upon the results of their field tests in swelling soils, or determined on
the basis of the data given in Table 7.2 taking into account the reliability co-efficient
as regards the load for the soil swelling forces f = 1,2;
Fdu shall mean the load-bearing capacity of the pile part, , located in unswelling soil
under the impact of the pulling-out load;
k shall mean is the same as in formula (7.2).
10.6 Lifting of piles with the diameter over 1 m, which do not cut through the swelled soil
layers shall be calculated as for the foundation resting on the natural bottom in accordance with
the requirements of SNiP 2.02.01. At that, lifting of piles with enlargement shall be set at the
impact of load Fu, which is equal to
Fu = N + IIVg - Fsw, (10.3)
where N, Fsw shall mean the same that in this formula (10.2);
II shall mean the rated value of the soil specific weigh, /m3;
Vg shall mean the volume of the soil preventing the pile from lifting, m3, and assumed
equal to the volume of the soil within the expanding truncated cone with height h,
with the bottom (smaller) diameter equal to the diameter of enlargement d, nd the
upper diameter d' = h + d (here h shall mean the distance from the natural soil
surface to the middle of the pile enlargement).
10.7 When designing pile foundations in swelling soils, a gap between the soil surface and the
bottom plane of the grillage shall be arranged; the size of this gap shall be equal or overcome
maximal value of the soil lifting when it is swelling.
When the swelling soil layer thickness is less than 12 m, it is allowed to arrange the grillage
resting immediately onto the soil, provided the condition described in (10.2) is observed.
11 PECULIARITIES OF DESIGNING OF PILE FOUNDATIONS
ON UNDERMINED TERRITORIES
11.1 When designing pile foundations in undermined territories except for the requirements of
these norms, the requirements of SNiP 2.01.09 shall be observed, too; at that along with the
results of the engineering research for pile foundation designing the data obtained in the course
of mining and geological survey and the data related to the expected earth surface deformations
shall be used.
11.2 The assignment for designing of pile foundations in undermined territories shall contain
the following data obtained upon the results of the surveying calculation: the data about expected
maximal earth surface deformations at the construction-site, including setting, inclination,
relative horizontal tensions and compression deformations, earth surface curvature radius, bench
height.
11.3 The calculation of piles foundations for buildings and structures to be built in the
undermined territories shall be accomplished as per the limiting states for a special load
combination set taking into account the impacts caused by the bottom deformed in the course of
the undermining.
11.4 Depending on the characteristics of the pile heads and grillage connection and of the
foundation and the bottom soil interaction in the course of development of horizontal
deformations in it due to undermining of the territory, the following pile foundations schemes
shall be distinguished:
) rigid type when rigid embedding of pile heads into the grillage is accomplished by means
of anchoring of pile starter bars or by means of immediate embedding of the pile head itself in
the grillage in accordance with the requirements described in 8.9;
b) compliant type in case of condionally hinged connection of the pile with the grillage,
which is accomplished by means of embedding of its head into the grillage for 5 10 cm, or
connection by means of slipping joint.
11.5 The calculation of pile foundations and of their bottoms in the undermined territories
shall be accomplished taking into account the following:
) changes of the physical and mechanical soil properties caused by the territory
underworking in accordance with the requirements of 11.6;
b) redistribution of the vertical loads on certain piles caused by inclination, bending and bench
formation of the earth surface in accordance with requirements of 11.7;
c) additional loads in the horizontal plane caused by relative horizontal deformations of the
base soils in accordance with the requirements of 11.8.

11.6 When undermining the territory, the load-bearing capacity of the soil at the bottom of all
kinds of piles Fcr, , working for the compressing load shall be determined as per the following
formula:
Fcr = crFd, (11.1)
where cr shall mean the co-efficient of the operation conditions, taking into account the changes
in the physical and mechanical properties of the soils, and the redistribution of the
vertical loads, while undermining the territory: for standing piles in the foundations of
any buildings and structures cr = 1; for friction piles in the foundations of compliant
buildings and structures (for example, for one-storey framework buildings with pivoted
supports) cr = 0.9; for friction piles in the foundations of rigid buildings and structures
(for example, of multi-storey buildings without frameworks and with rigid junctions;
for grain-storage sections ) cr = 1.1;
Fd shall mean the load-bearing capacity of the pile, , determined by calculation in
accordance with sub-section 7.2 or determined upon the results of field research (tests
of piles by dynamic or static load, soil probing) in accordance with the requirements
stated in sub-section 7.3.
N o t e If there are steeply pitching strata, in formula (11.1) the additional coefficient cr = 1/(1 + 100h)
depending on the value of the relative horizontal deformation h, / shall be also taken into account .
11.7 Additional vertical loads N applied to piles or to shell-piles of buildings and structures
with rigid construction scheme shall be determined depending on rated values of piles vertical
movements caused by inclination, bending, and bench formation on the earth surface as well as
horizontal deformations of the soil at the bottom under the following conditions:
) piles foundations made of friction piles and their bottoms shall be replaced in accordance
with 7.4.2 by the tentative foundation placed on the natural base;
b) the base of the tentative foundation shall be assumed as a line deformed one with the
constant deformation modulus and the co-efficient of along the building (structure) length or
premises with the deformation modulus and the coefficient of the soil bed, which are constant
along the whole building (structure) length or premises assigned in this building.
Determinaton of the additional vertical loads shall be accomplished relative to the
longitudinal and transverse axes of the building.
11.8 In calculations of pile foundations to be built in undermined territories, additional efforts
appearing in piles shall be taken into consideration: those additional efforts are caused in piles
due to their work for bending, which is affected by the horizontal base soil movements taking
place in the course of the territory undermining, as regards the designed piles layout.
11.9 During the territory undermining, the rated horizontal soil movement ucr, mm, shall be
calculated as per formula:
ucr = fchx, (11.2)
where f, c shall mean the reliability coefficients respectively for the load and for the operation
conditions for relative horizontal deformations assumed in accordance with SNiP
2.01.09 ;
h - shall mean the expected value of relative horizontal deformation determined upon
the results of the surveying calculation, mm/m;
x - shall mean the distance from the axis of the considered pile to the central axis of the
building (structure), with the grillage, for the whole building (modulus) or to the
rigid unit of the framework building (module) with the grillage arranged for certain
columns, m.
11.10 Pile foundations for buildings and structures to be built in undermined territories shall
be designed, proceding from the conditions of the necessity to convey minimal loads from the
piles to the grillage, which appear as a result of the earth surface deformations.
In order to meet this requirement, it is necessary to foresee the following in the design:
) cutting of the building of a structure into parts, in order to diminish the influence of the
horizontal base soil movements;
b) mainly friction piles for buildings and structures with rigid constructive scheme in order to
reduce the forces which appear additionally in the vertical plane due to the base bending;
c) piles of the least possible rigidity, for example, prismatic, of the square or rectangular
cross-section, at that piles with the rectangular cross-section shall be located their smaller side
being placed along the longitudinal direction of the building compartment;
d) mainly compliant structures connecting piles with the grillage, stated in 11.4;
e) leveling of buildings by means of lifting-jacks or other leveling devices.
When cutting buildings or structures into compartments, it is necessary to design gaps
(movement joints) between them in the grillage, the sizes of those gaps shall be determined as
the same as for bottom building units of the buildings and structures, in accordance with the
requirements of SNiP 2.01.09.
11.11 Pile foundations shall be applied, as a rule, in the undermined territory including I - IV
groups, too:
) with friction piles in the territories of I - IV groups for any kinds and building units of
buildings and structures;
b) with standing piles in the territories of III IV groups for buildings and structures
designed with compliant construction scheme of the building in case of the base bending, and
for groups IV for buildings and structures designed with rigid construction scheme, too.
Note
1 Division of undermined territories into groups is assumed in accordance with SNiP 2.01.09.
2 As a rule, it is allowed to apply shell-piles, both cast-in-situ and drilled piles, with diameter over 600 mm and
other kinds of rigid piles only in pile foundations with compliant scheme, connecting them with the grillage through
the slipping joint (11.4).
3 Embedding of piles into the soil in undermined territories shall not be less than 4 m, excluding the cases when
piles a resting upon rock.
11.12 In undermined territories of groups I - IV with possible bench formation as well as at
the sites with geological disturbances application of pile foundations is allowed only if special
feasibility study is available.
11.13 The structure connecting the piles with the grillage shall be set depending on the
meaning of the expected horizontal base soil movement, at that the limit values of the horizontal
movement for piles shall not exceed the following limits, being connected with the grillage
(11.4), cm:
2 - rigid;
5 compliant, conditionally swinging;
8 compliant through the slipping joint.
N o t e : In order to reduce the values of the forces appearing in the piles and in the grillage due to the impact of
the horizontal base soil movements, as well as to maintain the spatial stability of the pile foundations (structure)
generally piles of the pile field in the zone of the impact of small soil movements (up to 2 cm) shall be designed
with rigid connection, and others with compliant (swinging or connection through the slipping joint).
11.14 Pile grillages shall be calculated for eccentric tension and compression as well as for
twisting due to the impact conveyed to them by the horizontal support reactions from piles
(transversal force and bending moment) caused by the side pressure of the base soil deformed in
the course of the undermining.
11.15 When using pile foundations with a high grillage in concrete floors or in other rigid
structures arranged upon the soil surface, it is recommended to make a gap along the whole
perimeter of piles at least 8 cm wide for the whole thickness of the rigid structure. The gap shall
be filled with plastic or elastic materials, which do not form rigid support for the piles when they
are effected by the horizontal base soil movements.

12 PECULIARITIES OF DESIGNING OF PILE FOUNDATIONS IN SEISMIC AREAS


12.1 While designing of pile foundations in seismic areas, it shall be necessary to observe not
only these norms but also the requirements of SNIP II-7; thereat in addition to the materials of
the engineering investigations microseismic zoning of the construction-site shall be used for
designing of pile foundations.
12.2 While determination by the limiting states of the first class on the basis of seismic loads
for pile foundations of buildings and structures, these foundations shall be calculated for the
specific combination of loads. Thereat the following items shall be considered:
a) determination of the pile load-bearing capacity by the pressure load and pulling-out load in
accordance with requirements specified in sub-section 7.2;
b) the soil stability testing by condition of the pressure limitation, which shall be transmitted
on the soil from the lateral areas of the piles, in accordance with the requirements specified in
Appendix F;
c) determination of piles by the material strength against the combined action of the
calculated forces (axial load, bending moment and crosswise load), the values of which shall be
determined in accordance with Appendix F depending on the calculated values of the seismic
loads.
With calculations, which were given in sub-items a c, the requirements specified in 12.3
- 12.8 shall be observed.
N o t e : While determining the calculated values for seismic loads, effecting the building or structure, a high
pile grillage shall be considered as a framework soil floor.
12.3 While determining of the piles load-bearing capacity by the pressure load and pulling-out
load Feq , R and fi values (sub-item 7.2) shall be multiplied by the reductive factors of the base
soil operation conditions eq1 and eq2, which are given in Table 12.1.
R values shall be multiplied by the operation conditions factor eq3, accepted to be equal to 1
at l 3 and to 0.9 at l < 3, where l shall mean the reduced length of the pile, which shall be
determined according to Appendix F.
In addition, the soil resistance fi at lateral area of the pile up to rated depth hd (12.4) shall be
assumed to be equal to zero.
12.4 The rated depth hd, up to which the soil resistance at the pile lateral area is not
considered, shall be calculated by formula (12.1), but shall be accepted as not more than 3/
a1 ( H + a3 M )
hd = ,
a2
bp I tg I + cI
(12.1)
where a1, a2, a3 shall mean the non-dimentional factors, which are equal to 1,5; 0,8 and 0,6
respectively with a high foundation grillage and for a separate pile; to 1,2; 1,2 and
0 with the pile rigid embedding into a low foundation grillage:
T a b l e 12.1
Operation conditions factor eq2 for
Operation conditions factor eq1 for correction of R values
correction of fi values with the following
Rated with the following soils
soils
seismicity
argillaceous argillaceous
of dense sands and sands of
dense sands sands of average density soils with the soils with the
buildings average density
fluidity index fluidity index
and
structures, humid 0 0,75
and water humid and water IL < 0 IL humid and water IL <
points IL IL
light- saturated light-humid saturated 0 0,5 light-humid saturated 0
0,75 < 1
humid
1 0,9 0,95 0,8 1 0,95 0,95 0,9 0,95 0,85 0,75
7
0,9 - 0,85 - 1 0,9 0,85 - - 0,8 0,75
0,9 0,8 0,85 0,7 0,95 0,9 0,85 0,8 0,9 0,8 0,7
8
0,8 - 0,75 - 0,95 0,8 0,75 - 0,8 0,7 0,65
0,8 0,7 0,75 0,9 0,85 0,75 0,7 0,85 0,7 0,6
9 -
0,7 - 0,6 0,85 0,7 0,65 - 0,65 0,6 -
Notes:
1 eq1 and eq2 values, indicated above the line, are related to driven piles, below the line to cast-in-situ piles.
2 Values of eq1 and eq2 factors are to be multiplied by 0,85, 1,0 or by 1,15 for buildings and structures,
constructed on areas with frequency of occurrence 1, 2, 3 respectively (except transport and hydraulic engineering
structures).
3 The load-bearing capability of standing piles supported on rocky or macro-fragmental soils shall be determined
without application of additional operation conditions factors eq1 and eq2.
H, M - shall mean the rated values of the horizontal load () and the bending moment
() respectively, applied to a pile at the ground level with specific combination of
loads, accounting for seismic loads;
- shall mean the deformation factor (1/), which shall be determined by Appendix F;
bp - shall mean the relative width of pile (), which shall be determined by Appendix F;
1 - shall mean the rated value of the soil gravity (/3), which shall be determined for
water-saturated soils, taking into account the uplifting action of water;
I, cI - shall mean the rated values of the angle of the soil internal friction (deg.) and the
specific cohesion of the soil (kPa) respectively.
12.5 Determination of the rated depth hd with exposure to seismic loads shall be made,
accepting the values of the rated angle of the internal friction I, which were reduced for the
rated seismicity of 7 points by 2, for 8 points - by 4, for 9 points - by 7.
12.6 While determining of pile foundations for bridges, the effect of the seismic load on
conditions of the piles embedding into water-saturated dusty sands and argillaceous soils with
the fluidity index IL > 0,5 shall be considered by means of reduction of proportionality factors K
on 30%, which are given for such soils in Appendix F.
12.7 The pile load-bearing capacity Feq (), acting for the vertical pressure load and pilling-
out loads, after getting the field tests results shall be derived accounting for the seismic loads by
the following formula:
Feq = keqFd, (12.2)
where keq - shall mean the factor considering reduction of the pile load-bearing capacity with
seismic loads, and shall be determined by calculation as the ratio of the pile load-
bearing capacity value, derived in accordance with 12.2 - 12.4, taking into
consideration the seismic loads, to the pile load-bearing capability value, derived in
accordance with the requirements specified in sub-item 7.2 without consideration of
the seismic loads;
Fd - shall mean the pile load-bearing capacity () determined by the results of static and
dynamic tests or by the data of the soil static probing in accordance with sub-item 7.3
(without consideration of the seismic loads).
12.8 The piles calculation in collapsible soils or in swelling soils for a specific combination of
loads with consideration of seismic loads shall be made with natural humidity (if watering of the
soil is impossible) and with completely water-saturated soil, the fluidity index of which shall be
derived by formulae (9.1) (if watering of the soil is possible); thereat determination of the piles
load-bearing capacity in the soil conditions of II type by settlement shall be accomplished
without consideration of the possibility of negative frictional loads development in the soil.
N o t e : T h e p iles calculation for seismic loads doesnt exclude the necessity of the calculation thereof in
accordance with sections 9 - 11.
12.9 For pile foundations in seismic areas it is necessary to use piles of all types except piles
without lateral reinforcement and clavate piles.
Usage of bored piles is allowed only in stable soils, not requiring fixing the hole walls; in this
case the pile diameters shall be not less than 40 cm, and the ratio between the pile length and its
diameter shall not more than 25.
N o t e : As exclusion, it is allowed to shear water-saturated soils with cast-in-situ piles and drilled piles using
removable pipe casing.
12.10 While designing of pile foundations in seismic areas, it is necessary to specify resting of
the pile feet on rocky, macrofragmental soils, dense sands and sands of average density sands
and argillaceous soils with the fluidity index IL 0,5.
Resting of the pile feet on loose water-saturated sands, argillaceous soils with the fluidity
index IL > 0,5 is not allowed.
12.11 Driving of piles into the soil in seismic areas shall be not less than 4 m, and with
existence of water-saturated sands at the base of the pile feet it shall be not less than 8 m. It is
allowed to reduce the depth of pile driving with adequate feasibity study, obtained as a result of
piles field tests with simulated seismic loads.
For single-story agricultural buildings, not containing valuable equipment and in case, when
the piles rest on rocky soils, their depth of driving shall be accepted as in nonseismic areas.
12.12 The grillage of the pile foundation under the bearing walls of the building shall be
continuous and placed on one level within one section. The top pile feet shall be fixed into the
grillage for the depth determined by the calculation with consideration of seismic loads.
It is not allowed to construct pile foundations without grillages for buildings and structures.
12.13 With an adequate feasibility study (TEO) it is possible to use pile foundations with
intermediate bed manufactured of granular materials (crushed rock, gravel, dense sand and sands
of average density). Such foundations shall not be used in organomineral, organic and collapsible
soils of II type, on undermined areas, geologically unstable sites (where landslides, mudflows,
karsts etc. exist or may appear) and on sites of nonstabilized soils.
For pile foundations with intermediate bed it is necessary to use the same types of piles as for
nonseismic areas.
12.14 Calculation of piles, composing a pile foundation with intermediate bed for horizontal
loads, may not be made. The load-bearing capability of such piles, acting on the pressure load
with consideration of seismic loads, shall be determined in accordance with the requirements
specified in 12.3; thereat it is necessary to consider the soil resistance along the whole lateral
area of a pile, that is hd = 0, and the operation conditions coefficient of the pile foot with seismic
loads must be accepted as eq1 = 1,2.
12.15 While determining of pile foundations with the intermediate bed by deformations, the
settlement of the foundation shall be derived as a sum of the tentative foundation settlement,
which shall be determined in accordance with the requirements of sub-item 7.4, and the
settlement of the intermediate bed.
13 PECULIARITIES OF DESIGNING OF PILE FOUNDATIONS OF THE SUPPORTS
OF OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES
13.1 For pile foundations of supports of overhead transmission lines (OTL) and open
distribution systems (ODS) of electric power substations, different piles types shall be used
(section 6). It is not allowed to use clavate, pyramidal and diamond-shaped piles for pile
foundations of OTLs supports.
13.2 The depth of driving the piles into the soil, which are under pulling-out or horizontal
loads, shall be not less than 4,0 m, and for foundations of wooden supports it shall be not less
than 3,0 m.
N o t e : Wooden piles for foundations of wooden supports are allowed for usage regardless of the presence and
the position of subsurface water. Thereat in the zone of varying humidity it is necessary to specify an increased
protection of wood against decay.
13.3 The load-bearing capacity of driven friction piles, cast-in-situ piles and drilled piles,
which are under the compression load, shall be determined by formulas (7.8) and (7.11)
respectively considering the directions given in 13.5 and 13.6; thereat the operation conditions
coefficient c in formulas (7.8) and (7.11) shall be accepted as follows: for normal interior
supports as 1,2, and in all other cases as 1,0.
13.4 The load-bearing capacity of cast-in-situ and driven piles, acting for pulling-out, shall be
calculated by formulas (7.10) and (7.14), considering the additional directions given in 13.5 -
13.7; thereat the operation conditions coefficient c in formulas (7.10) and (7.14) shall be taken
for supports as follows:
normal interior supports .......................................................................... 1,2;
anchor and angle supports....................................................................... 1,0;
long bays:
if the retention force of the piles weight and the grillage
is equal to the design pulling-out load .......................................... 1,0;
if the retention force amounts to 65 % and less
of the design pulling-out load........................................................ 0,6;
in all other cases .................................................................................... by interpolation.
13.5 The rated soil resistances under the foot of driven piles R and driven piles design
strengths at lateral area fi in the foundations of OTLs shall be taken from Tables 7.1 and 7.2,
thereat in the foundations of normal supports rated values fi for argillaceous soils with the
fluidity index equal to IL 0,3 shall be increased by 25 %.
13.6 The soil design resistances at lateral area of driven piles, calculated in accordance with
the requirements of 13.5, shall be multiplied by the additional operation conditions coefficients
c, given in Table 13.1.
13.7 While calculating by pulling-out loads for the pile, acting in a pile cluster of four piles
and less, it is necessary to reduce the design pile load-bearing capacity by 20 %.
13.8 For the piles which are under pulling-out loads, it is allowed to specify their driving into
pilot holes, thereat the difference between the pile cross dimension and the pilot hole diameter
shall be not less than 0.15 m.
T a b l e 13.1
Additional operation conditions factors c with
pile length equal to
Foundation type, the soil characteristic and loads
l < 25d and with ratio of
l 25d
H/N 0,1 H/N = 0,4 H/N = 0,6
1 Foundation for normal interior support, while determining of:
a) single piles by pulling-out loads:
in sands and loamy sands 0,9 0,9 0,8 0,55
in clays and sandy loams with IL 0,6 1,15 1,15 1,05 0,7
the same, with IL > 0,6 1,5 1,5 1,35 0,9
b) single piles for compression loads and piles as a part of a
cluster for pulling-out loads:
in sands and loamy sands 0,9 0,9 0,9 0,9
in clays and loamy sands with IL 0,6 1,15 1,15 1,15 1,15
the same, with IL > 0,6 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5
2 Foundation for anchor, angle end support, for supports of long
bays, while calculating of:
a) single piles by pulling-out loads:
in sands and loamy sands 0,8 0,8 0,7 0,6
in clays and sandy loams 1,0 1,0 0,9 0,6
b) piles as a part of a cluster for pulling-out loads:
in sands and loamy sands 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8
in clays and sandy loams 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0
c) for compression loads in all soils 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0
Notes
1 In Table 13.1 the following symbols are used:
d shall mean a diameter of the round section, pile square section side or the longest side of the pile rectangular
section: H is a horizontal component of the rated load; N is a vertical component of the rated load.
2 While driving a single pile, battered to the side of the horizontal component of the operation load and with
deflection angle from the vertical line of more than 10, the additional operation conditions coefficient shall be
accepted as for the vertical pile acting as a part of cluster (by position 1.b or 2.b).
14 PECULIARITIES OF DESIGNING OF PILE FOUNDATIONS OF LOW-RISE
BUILDINGS
14.1 The peculiarities of pile foundations designing shall cover low-rise residence and garden
buildings, public buildings, production agricultural buildings (farms, storages, tents, etc.),
garages, etc.
14.2 It is recommended to use the following types of piles:
- driven prismatic piles with the cross-section of 30 30 cm;
- short pyramidal piles with prestressed reinforcement without crosswise reinforcement;
- drilled piles with the diameter of 30 - 60 cm and the length up to 3 m with the borehole
bottom, compacted by ramming;
- cast-in-situ piles with the diameter of 30 - 60 cm and the length up to 3 m, placed in drilled
holes;
- regulated injection piles with the diameter of 150 - 150 mm;
- tubular metallic-concrete piles with the diameter of 159 - 325 mm;
- bearing piles.
In foundations of production agricultural buildings of the thrust structure it is necessary to use
only T-section and H-section piles with consoles.
Notes:
1 It is allowed to use bearing piles for low-rise buildings, constructed in seismic areas, with driving of such piles
into the soil up to not less than 2m.
2 While placing of drilled piles, compaction of the holes bottoms shall be accomplished by means of ramming
into the soil of a crushed rock layer, and its thickness shall be not less than 10 cm.
3 In designs of pile foundations for low-rise buildings on collapsible soils with settlement of its own weight up
to 15 cm, it is allowed not to specify complete cutting of collapsible formation by piles, if overground constructions
of buildings are designed using construction measures, providing a possibility of its normal operation with
calculated differential settlements and foundations settlement.
14.3 While determining of the piles load-bearing capacity by formula (7.8), the soil design
resistances R (kPa) under the feet of driven piles with the depth of driving from 2 up to 3 m shall
be taken from Table 14.1, and at the lateral area fi (kPa) from Table 14.2.
T a b l e 14.1
Design resistances of the soils under the feet of driven piles R (kPa), for
argillaceous soils with the fluidity index
Pile driving Porosity sands
IL, equal to
depth l, m factor, e
large- medium- fine-
dusty 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0
grain grain grain
2 0,55 8300 3900 2500 1500 6500 3900 2000 1000 600 300
0,70 6400 3000 1900 1200 5400 3200 1700 900 500 250
1,00 - - - - 3200 1900 1000 600 300 150
3 0,55 8500 4100 2700 1600 6600 4000 2100 1100 650 350
0,70 6600 3200 2100 1300 5500 3300 1800 1000 550 250
1,00 - - - - 3300 2000 1100 700 350 200
N o t e : For intermediate values l, IL and e R values shall be derived by interpolation.
T a b l e 14.2
Design resistances of the soils at lateral area of driven piles, including piles of T-
section and H-section, fi (kPa), for
Average depth Soil porosity
argillaceous soils with the fluidity index IL,
of the soil layer factor in layer, sands
equal to
location hi, m e
large-grain and fine-
dusty 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0
medium-grain grain
1 0,55 80 55 45 46 39 32 25 18 11
0,7 60 40 30 45 37 30 23 16 9
1,00 - - - - 32 23 15 10 6
2-3 0,55 85 60 50 68 53 40 29 20 13
0,7 65 45 35 65 50 37 26 18 11
1,0 - - - 60 45 32 21 13 7
N o t e : For intermediate values hi, e and IL fi values shall be derived by interpolation.
14.4 The soil design resistances R (kPa) under the foot of drilled and cast-in-situ piles with
compacted borehole bottom and with the depth of the piles driving from 2 up to 3 m shall be
taken from Table 14.3; thereat the Table values for dense sands shall be multiplied by 1,3. It is
allowed for design resistances fi (kPa) at lateral area of drilled and cast-in-situ piles to be taken
from Table 14.2 with the additional operation conditions coefficient, which is equal to 0.9.
T a b l e 14.3
Design resistances under the foot of cast-in-situ and drilled piles R (kPa),
with the driving depth from 2 up to 3 m, and design resistances under
consoles of bearing piles Rcon (kPa)
Porosity factor,
Soils sands
e
large-grain medium-grain fine-grain dusty
for argillaceous soils with the fluidity index IL, equal to
0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6
Sands 0,55 - 0,8 2000 1500 800 500
Loamy sands and 0,5 800 650 550 450
sandy loams 0,7 650 550 450 350
1,0 550 450 350 250
Clays 0,5 1400 1100 900 700
0,6 1100 900 750 600
0,8 700 600 500 400
14.5 The load-bearing capacity Fd (kN) of the bearing pile, driven into the soil with reinforced
concrete consoles, and operating for the compression load, shall be determined as a sum of the
soil resistances under its foot, under consoles and at the lateral area by the following formula:
Fd = c(RA + conRconAcon + ufihi), (14.1)
where c, R, A and fi, hi - shall mean the same as in formula (7.8);
con - - shall mean the additional operation conditions coefficient; con = 0,4 for
sands and con = 0,8 for argillaceous soils;
Rcon - - shall mean the soil design resistance under the consoles (kPa), with the
driving depth from 0,5 up to 1,0 m, which shall be taken from Table 14.3;
Acon - - shall mean the area of the consoles projection on the horizontal plane
(m2).
14.6 The load-bearing capacity of T-section and H-section piles with acting of the vertical
component of the load shall be determined by formula (7.8), and the values at the lateral area of
flange and wall shall be taken from Table 14.2.
N o t e : While determining the load-bearing capacity for T-section and H-section piles, which shall be used for
buildings with framework, consisting of three-pinned frames, it is allowed to consider the effect of the horizontal
component of the thrust on the design resistances at lateral area of piles.
14.7 While determining the piles load-bearing capacity by 14.3 - 14.6, the design
characteristics of the soils shall be taken for the mostly unfavorable case of its seasonal variation
in the course of the construction and operation of the building.
14.8 While designing of pile foundations in heaving soils, it is necessary to conduct a special
calculation for the effect of the frost heaving force.
15 CONSTRUCTION OF PILE FOUNDATIONS
15.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
15.1.1 While executing the civil and erection works for construction of pile foundations, it is
necessary to observe all requirements of normative documents, specified in 4.12.
15.1.2 Works for construction of pile foundations shall be executed according to the Program
of Works (POW), worked-out by a contracting organization on the basis of the construction
organization design. POW must be coordinated with the design organization, which worked-out
the design of the pile foundations.
15.1.3 POW consists of the following items:
- construction general plan for the object with drawing of boundaries and marks of the
foundation pit, axes of the pile rows, networks of electric power supply and water supply,
location of domestic and production communications;
- list of necessary machines and equipment;
- technological schemes of the main production processes (schemes of pile driving rigs
movement, drilling machines, while placing of piles, schemes of piles, reinforcement and
frameworks hauling to the machines, etc.);
- schemes of placement of temporary roads, storage sites of piles and other construction
structures and materials;
- calendar schedule of execution of the works;
- transportation schedules of piles, structures to the site, manpower requirements and also
main construction machines requirements;
- brief explanatory note with estimations of construction machines requirements and
feasibility studies of POW;
- additional requirements, imposed on the execution of works, which are specific for this
object, depending on the engineering-geological, hydrogeological, climatic and ecological
conditions of the site and on the type of the structures.
15.1.4 Construction of pile foundations of any type shall be executed in the following
sequence:
- site planning by means of cutting or additional filling;
- excavation of the foundation pit and its acceptance;
- laying out and fixation of the axes of the piles to be driven or manufactured;
- trial piles driving;
- sinking or manufacturing of piles;
- handing-over-acceptance of produced piles;
- cutting of pile heads;
- cleaning of the foundation pit in places of the grillages construction;
- production of blinding concrete for the grillage;
- construction of the foundation grillage (slab);
- acceptance of the pile foundation.
15.1.5 As s rule, it is allowed to use foundation pits for construction of pile foundations
without reinforcements on the depth above the groundwater level. The slopes inclination is
stipulated by the soil type, the foundation pit depth and the character of the loads at its walls. In
foundation pits of small width (less than 4 m), excavated higher than the groundwater level in
stable soils, it is possible to use embedded framings of wood boards and bracing beams, which
shall be placed during excavation of the foundation pit. On unstable and water-bearing soils
excavation of foundation pits shall be executed under protection of fencing (tamping of grooves,
construction of retaining walls, etc.). The foundation pit dimensions shall be determined by
design dimensions of the foundation, taken from the plan, and with consideration of its
increasing in accordance with the accepted ways of water disposal, construction of formwork
and framings, concrete casting, removal of the formwork and the foundation grillage insulation.
It is allowed to excavate foundation pits in those places, where operating underground
communications are situated, with written permission from organization responsible for the
operation of such communications, and shall be executed with taking of measures against their
damage, and in places of electrical cables and other cables location it shall be made with the
presence of the representative of the organization responsible for the operation of this cable
network.
15.1.6 While laying-out of the piles axes, the deviation from the design position in the plan
shall be not more than 5 mm. It is recommended to fix in place the design piles position by
means of metal pins, driven for the depth of 0,2 - 0,3 m.
15.1.7 During transportation, unloading and stocking of pre-fabricated piles it is necessary to
ensure their safety (stacking the piles horizontally with their heads in one direction and with the
stack height of not more than 2 m). Storage in one stack of piles of different structures, cross-
sections and lengths is not allowed.
15.1.8 For execution of works on construction of pile foundations, technical facilities are
usually used, which are divided into main, support and for the works quality control.
The main technical facilities shall include: pile driving rigs, hammers and cuddies for piles
driving; drilling machines and pneumatic drifters for piles producing; cranage for hinged driving
rigs booms or drilling working attachments; mixer trucks of large capacity for preparation and
transportation of pourable concrete mixture for producing of piles on the job-sites.
Support technical facilities shall include: machines and devices of the general construction
purpose, including motor vehicles; machines for earth works; loading-unloading facilities;
compressors; equipment for welding works; drive caps; inventory bandages for cutting of piles
heads; chisel hammers; tremie pipes; storage buns and bailers for laying of concrete mixture.
Technical facilities for process control shall include: surveying meters; pile refusal meters;
gamma densitometers; devices for nondestructive ways of determination of the concrete class for
piles and foundation grillages and the actual thickness of the protective concrete cover.
15.2 INSTALLATION OF PRE-FABRICATED PILES
15.2.1 For installation of pre-fabricated piles and shell-piles the following ways of sinking
shall be used: driving, vibro-sinking, pressing-in and screwing, and also special means which
make this installation easier pilot drilling, the soil removal from hollow piles and shell-piles,
etc.
Driven and vibro piles
15.2.2 For piles driving, pile driving rigs and drop-hammer equipment, and also tractor-based
or excavator-based hinged or integral implements shall be used.
Driving shall be executed using the following types of hammers: machine hammers, steam-air
hammers, diesel hammers (pole, tubular or hydraulic), vibrohammers or silent pile drivers.
15.2.3 Pile driving rigs must be selected on the basis of the necessary value of the rig specific
soil pressure under its base mounting, the boom useful height, hoisting power.
The hammer shall be selected on the basis of the geological-engineering specifications of the
construction-site, and also the ratio of the mass of the striking part of the hammer and pile mass,
possibilities of usage of one or another manner of piles driving on the considered site.
15.2.4 The hammer maximal striking energy Ek (joule), necessary for pile driving, shall be
derived by the following formula:
Ek = 1,75aP, (15.1)
where a - shall mean the factor, equal to 25 joule/kN;
P - shall mean the design load acting on the pile (according to the design data), kN.
The accepted type of hammer with the rated strike energy shall meet the following condition:
(Q + q)H/Ekp < k, (15.2)
where Q - shall mean the full weight of the hammer, N;
q - shall mean the pile weight (including the capping weight and the driving hood weight),
H - shall mean the actual drop height of the hammer striking part, m;
Ekp - shall mean the rated strike energy of using the hammer, joule;
k - shall mean the factor, given in Table 15.1.
T a b l e 15.1
Factor k value for the piles, produced of
Type of hammer reinforced
wood steel
concrete
Tubular diesel hammer 5 5,5 6
Single-acting steam-air hammer, hydro-hammer and rod diesel hammer 3,5 4 5
Drop hammer 2 2,5 3
15.2.5 The rated value of the strike energy shall be taken as follows:
for hydro-hammers, single-acting steam-air hammers
and drop hammers .............................................................................. Ekp = QH;
for tubular diesel hammers ................................................................ Ekp = 0,9QH;
for rod diesel hammers ...................................................................... Ekp = 0,4QH.
Here Q - shall mean the weight of the hammer striking part, N;
H - shall mean the the same as in formula (15.2), m.
At the stage, when the piles driving is close to the end, for tubular diesel hammers H = 2,8 m;
for rod hammers with the weight of the striking parts equal to 1250, 1800 and 2500 kg it will be
equal to 1,7; 2; 2,2 m respectively; for hydro-hammers check the manufacturers certificate.
It is necessary to check once again the using type of the hammer and the drop height of its
striking part, with determination for the pile of maximal pressure strains, which appear inside the
pile while driving.
15.2.6 As a rule, the maximal pressure strains inside the reinforced concrete pile at strike of
the hammer (inclusive of concrete squeezing in pre-stressed piles) shall not, as a rule, exceed 60
% of concretes normal resistance against compression for piles Rbn, which were placed in non-
aggressive environment.
15.2.7 While selecting of the hammer for steel piles driving it is necessary to observe the
following condition
(m/A) k(Ry/210), (15.3)
where m - shall mean the mass of the hammer striking part, kg;
A - shall mean the pile cross-sectional area, cm2;
k - shall mean the factor equal to 0,8; for tubular piles it is equal to 1;
- shall mean the factor taken from Table 15.2;
Ry - shall mean the design steel resistance by yield point, MPa;
- shall mean the exponent equal to 1.4; for tubular piles it is equal to 1.7.
T a b l e 15.2
Height of the hammer striking part
Type of hammer Values of factor
drop, m
Hydro-hammer and single-acting steam-air hammer or 0,4 75
drop hammer 0,8 45
1,2 30
Tubular diesel hammer 2 45
2,5 30
3 20
Rod diesel hammer - 50
15.2.8 While selecting the hammer for driving of inclined piles, the strike energy shall be
multiplied by the increasing index k, which is equal to:
1.1 - with pile inclination of 5:1;
1.15 - 4:1;
1.25 - 3:1;
1.4 - 2:1;
1.7 - 1:1.
While mining solid soil layers, it is necessary to use only hammers, the actual strike energy of
which exceeds the energy received after calculation by formulas, or to drive the piles using pilot
holes.
15.2.9 As a rule, selection of the hammer for composite piles driving, the height of which is
more than 25 m, shall be executed in the design of the pile foundation, using special programs,
the algorithms of which are based on the strike wave theory. The hammer selection shall be
executed on the basis of computer solutions of different variants of problems, in which, using
particular parameters for the system hammer-capping-pile-soil, the pile refusal and dynamic
stresses in it after the hammer strike can be determined.
15.2.10 The piles driving shall be executed up to the design elevation upon receiving a design
refusal (the pile driving after one strike), which shall be determined by formulas, given in sub-
item 7.3.
15.2.11 As the need arises during the piles driving for punching the layers or interlayers of
solid soils for the purpose of reduction the time, necessary for the piles driving, and also of
ensuring their integrity and driving up to the set marks, pilot holes can be used. In this case the
pilot holes shall be set usually by 5 cm smaller than the cross-section diagonal of the pile to be
driven for the depth up to footing of the solid interlayer.
15.2.12 It is recommended to use pilot holes for driving of piles into water-saturated
argillaceous soils, which can not be compressed in the process of the piles driving; it can result
in vertical deformations of the soils and cause heave of the already driven piles, and also damage
the joints of the composite piles, damage of the foundation structures of the neighboring
buildings and structures.
15.2.13 The depth of the pilot holes shall be assigned experimentally, but not more than 0.9 of
the piles length, and for the pilot holes, specified in 15.2.12, the driving depth can be determined
by the stability condition of its walls regardless of its diameter by the following formula:
Z = 2cu/I, (15.4)
where Z - shall mean the depth limit for the stable pile, m;
cu - shall mean the undrained resistance of the argillaceous soil against shearing, kPa;
I - shall mean the calculation value of the soil specific gravity, kN/m3.
15.2.14 Before starting the mass piles driving, it is recommended, as a rule, to execute
dynamic tests of the piles and, if needed, static tests of the piles in accordance with the
requirements of GOST 5686.
15.2.15 While vibro-driving of piles, attachment of the silent pile driver or the vibro-hammer
(except vibro-hammers with free drive head) with the pile or the sheet piling shall be hard in a
whole driving process. It is recommended to use hydraulic caps.
15.2.16 The type of the silent pile driver shall be selected on the basis of the design pile load-
bearing capacity with allowance for the soil conditions.
15.2.17 For low-frequency silent pile drivers with unbalances rotating velocity of up to 1000
per minute, the value of the necessary driving force for the silent pile driver P (kN) shall be
derived by the following formula:
P = (1,4Fd - 3Q)/K, (15.5)
where Fd - shall mean the calculated pile load-bearing capacity (kN) according to the design;
Q - shall mean the weight of the vibrosystem, including the silent pile driver, the pile and
the cap, kN;
K - shall mean the factor of the soil lateral resistance reduction during vibratory driving,
which shall be taken for different soils as:
- sands of average density: gravelly 2.5; large-grain 3.2; medium-grain 4.9; dusty 5.7;
fine-grain 6.2;
- argillaceous soils with the fluidity index IL equal to: 0 - 1,3; 0,1 - 1,4; 0,2 - 1,5; 0,3 - 1,7; 0,4
- 2,0; 0,5 - 2,5; 0,6 - 3,0; 0,7 - 3,3; 0,8 - 3,5.
Notes:
1 For water-saturated sands K values shall be multiplied by 1.2 for large-grain sands, by 1.3 for medium-grain
sands and by 1.5 for fine-grain sands.
2 For silted sands K values shall be divided by 1.2, what shall not exclude the usage of the increasing indices
specified in paragraph 1.
3 With stratified bedding of the soils K value shall be derived as the weighted average by depth.
15.2.18 Finally the value of the necessary maximum driving force P for the silent pile driver
shall be taken not less than 1,3Q while driving of bored piles (with possible soil excavation
from the central hole) and 2,5Q , while driving of piles with a solid cross-section and bored
piles, driven without the soil excavation.
15.2.19 From the list of existing silent pile drivers, which maintain the development of the
necessary driving force, the silent pile driver of the minimal power can be selected, the static
moment of unbalances mass k (or the maximal value of unbalances moment k for silent pile
drivers with adjustable parameters), kg x cm, of which will meet the following condition:
k MA, (15.6)
where M- shall mean the total weight of the silent pile driver, pile and drive head, kg;
A - shall mean the amplitude of vibration with the absence of any resistances (cm), taken
within the limits of 0.8 1.6 depending on the characteristics of the slotted soils and
the driving depth.
Jack piles
15.2.20 Pressing-in of piles can be executed in the same soil conditions, in which they shall be
driven by other ways (by strikes, vibrations, etc.).
In comparison to other ways, pressing-in will be mostly preferable, while installing of piles
near existing buildings, structures and communications.
15.2.21 While pressing-in of piles into solid soils (or while passing interlayers of such soils),
it is recommended to use different ways of resistance reduction against pressing-in (for example,
making of pilot holes). At its assignment it is necessary to take into account such factors, as
possible reduction of the load-bearing capacity of jack piles, and also the negative influence of
these measures on the condition and reliability assurance for the existing foundations of
neighboring buildings and structures, including underground structures.
15.2.22 For pressing-in of piles it is possible to use different types of self-propelled units
(tractor-, excavator- and crane-based) or non-self-propelled units (with support of cuddies into
the existing foundations or the system of anchorage devices, connected to the foundations).
Selection of the unit shall be accomplished on the basis of the following conditions:
- space-limited construction conditions (limiting dimensions);
- dimensions of piles;
- load-bearing capacity of designed piles;
- equipment of the construction organization, making piling.
15.2.23 Piles pressing-in shall be executed up to the design elevation with the pressing-in
force exceeding the load-bearing capacity Fd by not less than 20%, which shall be calculated in
accordance with the directions of sub-item 7.2.
Screw and screw-bored piles
15.2.24 It is recommended to perform driving of screw and screw-bored piles, using drilling
machines of -2, -1200 types or special units, attaining the torque moment of not less than
32000 N x m.
In the process of piles driving in each 0.5 m it is necessary to fix and register the duration of
pile driving and values of the torque moment.
15.2.25 For the purpose of the minimal damage of the soil structure, while driving of screwed
and screw-bored piles and reducing of the driving time, the value of the axial surcharging shall
be taken depending on the gravity of the passed soil. The axial surcharging shall be corrected so,
that the pile driving factor k, calculated as a ratio of the theoretical number of the pile rotations
by 0.5 m of its driving n, to the actual number of rotations n, which shall be calculated by
multiplying the rotation speed of the drive shaft of the driving unit by the duration of the pile
driving by 0.5 m, should be as close to 1 as possible.
N o t e : The theoretical number of the pile rotations by 0.5 m of its driving n shall be calculated by dividing of
l = 0.5 m on lead of a helix (screw blade).
15.2.26 With the adequate study by the calculation and approval of the design organization it
is allowed to change the location of screwed and screw-bored piles with dumb driving point in
the progress of the works execution (pulling-out of piles at their meeting the local concentrations
of pebble gravel, big boulders, etc., and redriving of piles).
In these cases (existence of inclusions) it is allowed to use pilot holes with the diameter of not
less than by 0,1d smaller than the pile shaft diameter d, and displacement of its bottom at not less
than by 1 m higher than the elevation of the location of the piles feet.
15.2.27 While installating of screw-bored piles with a dumb driving point in unstable soils
instead of arrangement of pilot piles, it is necessary to loosen the soils by screw auger (without
lifting out in the drilling process) within the limits of the soil solid mass (cylinder), the diameter
of which is not less than by 0,1d smaller than the pile diameter, and the elevation of the mass
bottom line lies at least 0.5 m higher than the design elevation of the position of the piles feet.
15.2.28 While installing of screw-bored piles with a dismountable driving point when the
piles walls serve as inventory pipe casings it is necessary to consider all requirements related to
installation of cast-in-situ piles of BSI type (15.3.2 - 15.3.4).
15.2.29 While installing of screw-bored piles with a dumb driving point without
reinforcement, cementation of piles hollows shall be made by free dropping of concrete with the
cone slump of 5 - 7 cm. Concrete compaction by electric pervibrator shall be executed only at
the head part of the pile.
15.2.30 While installing of screw-bored piles with a dumb driving point with reinforcement,
cementation of piles hollows within the limits of the reinforcement installation height shall be
executed by the tremie pipe (VPT).
15.3 PILES PRODUCED ON THE CONSTRUCTION-SITE
15.3.1 The most popular types of piles produced on the construction-site (6.4 - 6.7) are cast-
in-situ piles, including bored-secant and regulated injection piles.
Cast-In-Situ Piles
15.3.2 By method of production cast-in-situ piles shall be divided into different types, given
in Table D.2 of Appendix D.
In cohesive light-humid soils, when it is possible to drill without fixation of hole walls, piles
shall be installed without usage of pipe casings.
In water-saturated soils holes making for piles installation shall be executed either under
protection of pipe casings, or under protection of mud solution or polymer drilling mud, which
creates overpressure in the hole, preventing the walls from damaging.
15.3.3 Installation works for cast-in-situ and bored-secant piles of BSI type shall be executed
by rotary drilling rigs and churn-drill rigs. Thereat it is recommended to use the SP-45 unit or
foreign units, such as Benoto, Kasagrande and Bawer.
15.3.4 Inventory pipe casings used, while installing of piles of BSI type shall consist of
separate sections, thereat joints lower than the underground water level shall be hermetic.
15.3.5 While using of cast-in-situ piles of BSVo type, which shall be installed with
enlargement and fixation of walls by stationary pipe casings, it is recommended to use rotary
drilling rigs and churn-drill rigs BS 1-M, UKS or URB-ZAM.
15.3.6 While using of cast-in-situ piles and bored-secant piles of BSS type, which shall be
installed without holes walls fixation, it is recommended to use rotary drilling rigs SO-2 and SO-
1200.
15.3.7 Holes drilling using pipe casings shall be executed without advanced heading.
While drilling in flooded sands with interlayers of drifting sands, filling in the hollow of pipe
casing, it is necessary to make water delivery for maintaining the design level of underground
water by overhead of at least 4 m.
In progress of the holes drilling for the piles installation, it is necessary to register losses of
instrument. At registration of a fail, all works shall be stopped and the design supervision shall
be informed.
15.3.8 The drilled-out soil shall be loaded directly onto the transportation vehicles or reloaded
by platform truck onto the transportation vehicles and carried out outside the construction-site.
15.3.9 After completion of the hole mining, a cleanup of raw sludge shall be performed
mechanically, and while supporting of piles on rocky soils, additional cleanup can be made
hydraulically.
In dry holes loose earth can be compacted by ramming. In water-saturated soils it is allowed
to make such compaction by dropping of the rammer (its weight shall be not less than 5 t with
the hole diameter of less than 1 m). The soil ramming inside the hole shall be made up to the
value of refuse, not exceeding 2 cm for the last five strikes.
After that it is necessary to check the compliance of the actual hole depth with the design
depth, and the presence of the grounds, specified in the design, under the pile foot.
15.3.10 While hole drilling under protection of the mud solution, its level in the progress of
the hole drilling, cleaning up and cementation shall be higher than the underground water level
by at least 0.5 m.
Using drilling polymer mortar, its level inside the hole in the progress of drilling, cleaning up
and cementation shall be higher than the underground water level by the value equal to 10 % of
the pile length, but not less than by 2 m. Thereat the hole casing shall not exclude the
requirement of maintaining the mud solution level above the underground water level.
15.3.11 The composition of the mud solution shall be assigned by the laboratory depending
on the composition of the drilled soil. The sand content in the mud solution shall not be more
than 10 %. In the progress of drilling it is necessary to make periodical inspection of the main
characteristics of the mud solution: viscosity, density and the sand content.
The composition of polymer mortars, produced using certified thickeners on the basis of
polyacrylamide, shall be selected in construction technology laboratories with obligatory
compliance with the condition of the viscosity maintenance within the limits of 35 - 80
centistoke by Marsh viscosimeter (the minimal value of viscosity shall correspond to
argillaceous soils, and a higher value to sands).
15.3.12 Surplus water pressure (head) is allowed to use for fixation of the holes surfaces in
the process of drilling in the argillaceous water-saturated soils, providing that the location of the
holes will be not closer than 40 m to the existing buildings and structures.
Surplus water pressure (head) for fixation of the holes surfaces either in argillaceous and in
sandy water-saturated soils is allowed to use during its drilling using polymer drilling muds at
location of the holes not close than 5 m to the existing buildings and structures, thereat the top
part of the holes shall have a soil pipe with the length of not less than 2.5 m.
15.3.13 The holes bottom during drilling shall be executed up to the design elevations. If it is
impossible to overcome the obstacles met in the drilling process over the design elevation of its
bottom, a decision on the possible usage of these holes for piles installation shall be taken by the
design organization.
15.3.14 After completion of drilling it is necessary to check the compliance of the actual sizes
of the holes with the design sizes, elevation of the hole mouths, the bottom and location of each
hole in the plan, and also to check the compliance of the base soil with the data obtained after
geological-engineering surveys (engage a geologist if needed).
During dry concreting before installation of the reinforcement framework and after its
installation inspection of the hole shall be conducted for the presence of the loose soil inside the
bottom, cavings, inrushes, water and raw sludge.
15.3.15 Holes drilling near the prefabricated piles is allowed only expiration of at least 48
hours after completion of concreting of the latter. It is possible to reduce this period using special
types of concretes with expedited time of hardening.
15.3.16 Piles reinforcement shall be made with prefabricated frameworks, installed in the hole
before concreting. For prevention of pulling up and shift in the reinforcement framework plan
with the concrete mixture to be laid and in the process of the tremie pipe and pipe casing
removing, and also in all cases of reinforcement for the incomplete depth of the hole it is
necessary to fix it in the design position. It is recommended to execute fixation of the
framework, using the guide pipe with its length of not less than 1 m and with the external
diameter equal to the hole diameter, which allows at the same time to prevent a collapse of the
hole mouth.
For prevention of pulling up of the reinforcement framework in the process of the pile
concreting by the VPT method, it is necessary to envisage its additional fixation.
15.3.17 It is allowed to make the piles concreting only after inspection and execution of acts
for concealed works on drilling and reinforcement.
15.3.18 In water-cut sands and in other unstable soils the piles concreting shall be executed
not later than in 8 hours after completion of the drilling, and in stable soils not later than in 24
hours. If it becomes impossible to make concreting within the mentioned period of time, the
holes drilling shall not be commenced, and if this process has been already started it shall be
stopped, not driving the holes bottoms by 1 2 m to the design level and not drilling out the
enlargement.
The holes concreting drilled under protection of the drill polymer mud shall be started not
later than in 5 hours after the final cleaning up of their bottom, providing achievement of the
mud solution stabilization before this cleaning, and this stabilization shall correspond to
changing of the sand content in the mud by not more than 1 % in 30 min.
15.3.19 The concrete mixture shall be laid into the hole by the VPT method. For cementation
it is necessary to use charging bin with tremie pipe with the diameter of 250 325 mm. The bin
volume shall be not less than the internal volume of the tremie pipe. The sections joints of the
tremie pipe shall be hermetical. With the presence of water (before concreting is started) inside
the hole with a layer of more than 20 cm tremie pipe shall be equipped with a back-flow valve.
15.3.20 At the beginning of concreting the distance between the hole bottom and the lower
bearing face of the tremie pipe shall not exceed 30 cm. In the process of the concreting the
tremie pipe shall be recovered. Thereat the lower bearing face shall be always embedded under
concrete mixture level for not less than 1 m.
In the process of concreting the tremie pipe shall be filled by the concrete mixture for the
whole height. Breaks in feeding of separate portions of the concrete mixture shall not exceed the
setting time, established by the laboratory for this mark of concrete and the ambient temperature.
15.3.21 While concreting of piles in winter conditions, the concrete mixture shall be fed into
the charging bin warmed up to the temperature, which can guarantee the temperature of the
concrete inside the hole while its placing of not less than 5 .
With the ambient temperature of minus 20 and lower, it is necessary to warm the charging
bin and the top part of the tremie pipe, using electric heaters or a heated enclosure shall be
arranged.
15.3.22 Feeding of the concrete mixture into the hole shall be continued until the concrete
yield will become clean (without raw sludge) at grade, and shall be finished with removal of the
contaminated ply of the concrete mixture. After that, if pipe casing was used, its last section shall
be removed and head of the pile shall be formed.
15.3.23 Piles with nonrecoverable pipe casing shall be used when it is not possible to produce
quality piles with recoverable casing. Such conditions are created at landslip areas and sites
composed by water-saturated argillaceous soils of mushy consistency with interlayers of sands
and loamy sands, where under the head of the underground water the pile shaft can be damaged
on separate sections during hardening of the concrete mixture.
15.3.24 Before starting and in the process of concreting it is necessary to determine the
consistency factor for the concrete mixture according to 15.3.26. With non-conformance of the
consistency factor the concrete mixture shall not be allowed for laying. In addition, samples of
concrete shall be always selected according to 15.3.28.
15.3.25 Cast-in-situ piles shall be produced of concrete of not lower than 15 class by
compressive strength (with dense aggregates) and of W6 grade of waterproofness. The concrete
mixture shall comply with the requirements of GOST 7473 and shall be prepared on the basis of
crushed rock of 5 - 30 mm fraction.
15.3.26 Placeability of the concrete mixture, which is determined by sagging of slump cone
according to GOST 10181, at the moment of its laying shall be equal to not less than 18 cm (P4
grade). The mixture shall be homogeneous and shall not disintegrate during its transportation and
laying.
Placeability of concrete mixture shall be determined on the site and entered into a special
sheet of the operating log. Other parameters shall be registered in the registration document of
the concrete mixture quality according to GOST 7473.
15.3.27 For producing of cast-in-situ piles, those grades of cements which have the setting
time of not less than 2 hours shall be used. The consistency of the concrete mixture shall be
provided by selection of its composition and addition to the mixture of surface-active fluidifier
additives.
15.3.28 The concrete strength of cast-in-situ piles shall be determined by GOST 18105 with
obligatory production of check samples and provision of its hardening in conditions similar to
the piles hardening conditions. The volume of the inspection portion shall be assigned depending
on the concrete volume, placed during 1 day.
15.3.29 Arrangement of enlargements at the foot of cast-in-situ piles shall be made
mechanically, using special reamers or using camouflet blasting.
15.3.30 For creation of camouflet enlargement of the pile, mass (kg) of the exploding
charge shall be determined by the following formula:
C = kD3, (15.7)
where k - shall mean the soil resistance factor against explosion (kg/m3) which shall be taken
for tough argillaceous soils as equal to 1.2, and for semi-solid soils it will be 1.4;
D - shall mean the diameter of the camouflet enlargement (m).
While executing of the works, the charge mass shall be updated for deriving of the camouflet
enlargement for the design dimensions. The diameter of the formed camouflet enlargement D
shall be checked by the following formula:

D = 1,33 V , (15.8)
where V - shall mean the volume of the concrete mixture, yielded from the casing hollow into the
camouflet enlargement (m3), and determined by the difference of the surface elevations
of the concrete, laid into the casing before and after the explosion.
Regulated Injection Piles
15.3.31 Hole making for installation of regulated injection piles shall be executed by rotary
drilling using screw auger or roller bits. While mining of unstable water-cut soils, the holes
drilling shall be made under protection of mud (bentonite) solution or under protection of pipe
casings.
Upon completion of the roller-bit drilling it is necessary to make hole jetting in order to clean
it of raw sludge through the drilling flight, using fresh mud solution during 3 - 5 min.
15.3.32 It is recommended to take the density of the mud (bentonite) solution within the range
of 1.05 1.15 g/cm3, updating it in the laboratory for some particular soil conditions.
15.3.33 A deviation from the preset angle of drilling shall not exceed 2. Deviations in the
piles lengths shall not exceed 30 cm from the design lengths.
15.3.34 As a rule, installation of reinforcement framework shall precede the injection works,
but with an adequate study it is allowed to mount the reinforcement framework inside the hole
filled with injection mud. In the last case the assembly and installation time for the reinforcement
framework shall provide its installation into the design position before injection mud will start
setting and shall be not more than 1 hour.
15.3.35 It is allowed to install the reinforcement framework of the regulated injection pile into
the hole by separate sections. Joining of reinforcement bars of sections shall be executed by
manual arc welding.
The reinforcement framework shall have fixing elements for its centration inside the hole and
provision of the necessary thickness of protective coating. Before installation the framework
sections shall be cleaned up of occasion gummy soil.
15.3.36 Holes for regulated injection piles shall be filled by injection mud fine-grained
concrete mixture (compo). Injection mud shall be homogenous and shall not be segregated
during the injection, the mud grade by placeability, determined by GOST 7473, shall be P4 grade
(18 - 20 cm by slump cone). In standard conditions of curing the strength of the test cubes with a
side of 7 cm shall be not less than 15 MPa in the age of 7 days and 30 MPa in the age of 28
days.
15.3.37 Preparation of injection mud shall be conducted on the site directly before its
injection into the hole. For the mud solution preparation it is necessary to use high-speed shower
mixers with the velocity of rotation of not less than 200 rpm. The duration of mixing of the mud
components shall be not less than 60 s.
15.3.38 The injection mud shall be spent not later than in two hours after its preparation. Once
a day samples of injection mud shall be taken in order to check its strength after 28-days curing
in the conditions, which are similar to the conditions of the regulated injection piles production.
15.3.39 Filling of a hole by injection mud solution shall be executed either directly through
the drilling mud or through the injecting pipe. In any case filling in shall be executed, starting
from the hole bottom bottom-up until the complete extrusion of the drilling mud and the
appearance of pure injection mud at the hole mouth.
15.3.40 The whole process of the mud injection until the complete filling of the hole shall be
conducted with placing of the foot of the injection pipe at the distance of not more than 0.5 m
from the hole bottom (at the starting moment of injection the foot of the injection pipe shall be
placed directly at the hole bottom). The diameter of the injection pipes shall be not less than 40
mm.
15.3.41 While installing of regulated injection piles (except RIT regulated injection piles)
after filling the hole with the setting mud solution and installation of reinforcement framework
into the design position, it is necessary to make a pressure test of the pile. For the pressure test of
the top part of the guide pipe, it is necessary to install a plug (obturator ring) with manometer
and through the injector injection of the mud under pressure of 0.2 0.3 MPa during 1 - 3 min
shall be made.
15.3.42 Installation of RIT regulated injection piles by digit-pulse technology shall be made
by not less than 5 - 7 electric discharges with the spacing of 200 - 300 mm lengthwise
respectively and by not less than 15 electric discharges inside the hole bottom with each
discharge energy of 30 - 40 kJ.
For this purpose after filling the hole by fine-grained concrete mixture, a special discharge
device shall be lowered in it. In the process of immersion of the discharger high voltage shall be
periodically applied to its electrodes, what will provide an appearance of an electric discharge of
the necessary power, causing the soil compaction inside the hole walls and in its bottom.
15.3.43 The injection mud consumption for one compacted regulated injection pile shall be
not less than 1.25 and not more than 2.5 of the hole volume. When leakages of injection mud
from the hole of the regulated injection pile appear (that shall not allow rising a compaction
pressure up to the design value), it is necessary to stop its injection with the volume of the mud
solution feeding equal to 2.5 of the hole volume, and then recompaction shall be made in (12
1) hours.
While installing of RIT piles, the injection mud solution consumption shall correspond to the
design consumption.

15.4 CONSTRUCTION OF PILE FOUNDATIONS WHILE RECONSTRUCTING


BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES
15.4.1 Installation of pile foundations, while reconstructing, shall be executed according to
the program of work, which includes all the data about location of underground communications
and electric cables within working space, and also to the progress schedule.
15.4.2 Laying out of axes for new pile foundations shall be made with fixation of axes of all
files relative to the building.
15.4.3 While executing the works on reinforcement of footings of buildings under
reconstruction, using piles, it is possible to use all methods of driving and production of piles,
specified in sub-items 15.2 - 15.3. Thereat it is necessary to execute all production requirements
stated in these sub-items.
15.4.4 Selection of the driving method for prefabricated piles (driving, vibratory driving,
injection and screwing) shall be made considering the allowed distance between the existing and
new foundations, which shall be derived depending on the effect of dynamic loads on the latter
(see sub-item 7.5).
15.4.5 Before commencing the piles driving, it is necessary to survey all buildings and
structures, which will suffer these effects. In progress of the driving the necessary observations
shall be made over the appearing or existing cracks opening, and also conduct all observations
over deformations and settlements of the existing buildings and structures.
15.4.6 In order to reduce the dynamic loads on the existing buildings and structures due to the
piles driving, the follow measures can be envisaged: arrangement of pilot holes for driving of
piles; driving of piles with jetting; reduction of the drop height for the striking part of the
hammer; the piles driving by vibratory driving, injection or screwing instead of driving;
reduction of the number of hammers working at one time, and silent pile drivers and so on.
Pile driving near residential buildings is allowed only in the daytime.
15.4.7 Piles indentation can be made from under the outer wall of the building by arrangement
of recesses in the old foundation using special units for piles indentation, which allow making
inclined indentation.
15.4.8 At reinforcement of the bases with cast-in-situ piles depending on transmitted loads,
they can be reinforced by reinforcement frameworks for their full length, for a part of their
length or only in the top part of it for connection with the foundation grillage.
15.4.9 It is necessary to install cast-in-situ piles next nearest if drilling of holes is executed in
water-saturated soils with the clearance of not less than 1.5 m between them; drilling of the
holes, which are adjacent to the concreted holes, shall be executed after setting of concrete
mixture in the latter holes but not earlier than in 8 hours.
15.4.10 The bases and foundations reinforcement with regulated injection piles consists of
two stages: reinforcement cementation of the brickwork of the existing foundations and the
foundation soil contact; installation of regulated injection piles.
Holes mining for regulated injection piles shall be made by rotary drilling inside the
foundation body, using tricone drilling bits, and in the soils - using screw auger or roller drill
bits.
15.4.11 For reinforcement of the hole mouth for the regulated injection pile in the brickwork
of the foundations under reinforcement it is necessary to install a guide pipe, which shall
protrude above the bottom for not less than 300 mm. Installation of the guide pipe with the
interior diameter equal to the pile diameter or more, shall be made inside the hole drilled and
filled with cement mortar in advance.
15.4.12 Drilling over of the cement brick inside the guide pipe shall be started not earlier than
after two-day storage of this pipe inside the hole with registration of this fact in the works
registration log. Drilling inside the guide pipe shall be made with air flushing. After you finish
drilling over of the cement brick inside the guide pipe, the subsequent holes drilling in sandy and
other unstable soils shall be executed up to the design elevation under protection of bentonite
slurry or using cored screw without the earth excavation. Further installation of regulated
injection piles shall be conducted in accordance with sub-item 15.3.
15.4.13 At insufficient load-bearing capacity of existing piles of buildings and structures
under reconstruction it is possible to design the piles bodies reinforcement and the foundation
grillage body or installation of additional piles.
15.4.14 The piles bodies reinforcement with the absence of the foundation grillage inside the
foundation and also with a high foundation grillage shall be executed, using a concrete collar
with its walls thickness of not less than 1 % of the collar cross-sectional area. The collar shall be
installed at the height of the loose part of the pile and buried under not less than 1 m of the soil.
The top ends of the piles and their joints with the foundation grillage can be reinforced by
means of installation of reinforced framework for the collar installed under the whole foundation
grillage with digging of a shallow foundation pit.
15.4.15 The foundation grillages reinforcement, the necessity of which shall be revealed,
while digging prospecting-holes near their sides, shall be selected depending on the character of
detected damages. Superficial damages shall be eliminated by means of floating it with damp
cement and plastering it in several coats. More substantial damages shall be eliminated by means
of concrete spraying on metallic grid by compo [1:3 (4)], containing about 15 % of water in
relation to the cement weight.
Serious damages shall be eliminated by drilling of vertical or inclined holes with the diameter
of 36 - 75 mm and its cementation with cement mortar, in which it is recommended to add
fluidifiers.
15.4.16 Reinforcement of the existing foundation grillages, which do not have the sufficient
load-bearing capacity according to the determination by new loads at installation of additional
piles, can be made by means of its concrete solidification or by means of installation of the
reinforcement frameworks above them, which frame the above-piling structures of the basement
walls, panels or foundation blocks. The reinforcement frameworks shall be connected with the
existing structures, using anchoring rods, which shall be placed into the anchor holes based on
cement mortar. The cross-sectional area of the anchoring rods shall be determined by perception
sufficiency of the additional loads, transmitted to the existing foundation grillages.
15.5 COMMISSIONING AND QUALITY CONTROL OF THE WORKS ON
CONSTRUCTION OF PILE FOUNDATIONS
15.5.1 Commissioning of foundation structures produced of piles shall be made according to
the results of the acceptance control based on the design and as-built-production documentation,
contemplating determination of conformity of the erected structures to the design data and to the
requirements of the norms and codes, and shall be a documentary evidence of serviceability of
the accepted foundations for execution of further stages of civil and erection works on
construction of the building or structure.
15.5.2 Control and commissioning of piles and foundation grillages shall be made by the
technical supervision service of the customer with participation of the authors of the pile
foundations design and the executors who have performed all works on construction of the
foundations.
15.5.3 Acceptance of pile foundations will be executed in two stages: after driving or
production of piles and after execution of works on the grillages arrangement.
15.5.4 It is prohibited to arrange foundation grillages and move-out the equipment for driving
and production of piles from the site before elimination of all damages detected in the process of
execution of the author supervision and acceptance of the pile field.
Erection of the buildings and structures constructions shall be also prohibited before
acceptance of the foundation grillages.
15.5.5 Acceptance of works on installation of pile foundation structures shall be executed on
the following basis:
- pile foundations designs and the works execution designs;
- technological procedures for execution of works;
- passports of the manufacturing plants for driven piles and prefabricated grillages and also
for crushed rock (gravel), reinforcement and ready-mixed concrete for produced-on-site piles
and cast-in-situ foundation grillages;
- log of acceptance quality control of the materials and structures;
- general log of the works;
- act for the handing-over-acceptance of the foundation pit for driving or production of piles;
- act on the geodesic layout of the building and foundations axes and fixation of the
construction axes;
- acts of laboratory tests of control concrete test samples;
- as-built schemes of the piles location with indication of their deviations in the plan in depth
and from the vertical line;
- logs of driving or production of piles;
- summary lists for the driven or produced piles;
- documentation on the experimental works results including the results of the piles tests
according to GOST 5686;
- acts of examination of the reinforcement frameworks and the holes before concreting of
produced-on-site piles.
15.5.6 Acceptance of the works on installation of piled foundation structures shall be
accompanied by:
- study of the submitted documentation;
- certification of the piles with inspection of executed works compliance with the design;
- instrumental test for the correctness of the piles positions;
- control tests of piles, if their load-bearing capacity is doubtful.
15.5.7 The basic indices, which shall be controlled, while constructing of foundations of
driven, vibratory driven, jack and screwed piles, shall include their position in the plan, the heads
elevations and the verticality of the piles axes.
The limit deviations of the actual piles positions in the plan from the design positions with
single-row location of the piles crosswise the piles row axis, shall be 0,2d (d shall mean the
diameter or a side of the piles cross-sections), and along the row axis 0,3d; for pile clusters and
lines with their location in two or three rows it will be 0,2d for border piles crosswise the
piles row axis and 0,3d for the rest piles and border piles along the piles row axis; for a
continuous piles field it will be 0,2d for border piles and 0,4d for middle piles.
The limit deviations of the actual head elevations of the piles from the design positions in
cast-in-situ foundation grillage or slab will be 3 cm, in prefabricated grillage it will be 1 cm,
and in the foundation without grillage with prefabricated head it will be 5 cm.
The limit deviations of the axes of driven piles from the vertical line will be 2 % of their
length.
15.5.8 The basic indices, which shall be controlled while constructing of foundations of
screw-bored piles with a replaceable driving point, shall be the same as while installing of cast-
in-situ piles of BSI type. The indices and the permissible deviations for them shall be taken from
15.5.11.
15.5.9 The basic indices, which shall be controlled, while constructing of foundations of
screw and screw-bored piles with a dumb driving point shall be the same as while constructing
of foundation structures of driven, vibratory driven and jack piles. The indices and the
permissible deviations for them shall be taken from 15.5.7.
15.5.10 The basic indices, which shall be controlled, while constructing of KSP foundations
depending on the type of the used piles (cast-in-situ or driven) shall be those which shall be
controlled, while constructing of foundations of cast-in-situ piles with the cluster location
according to 15.5.11, and while constructing of continuous piles field of driven piles according
to 15.5.7.
15.5.11 The basic indices, which shall be controlled, while constructing of foundations of
cast-in-situ, bored-secant and regulated injection piles, shall be their position in the plan and the
heads elevations.
The limit deviations of the actual piles position in the plan from their design position
crosswise the row shall be 10 cm, and along the row at a cluster location of piles shall be 15
cm.
The limit deviations of the actual elevations of the piles heads from the design deviations, and
also the piles axes from the vertical line shall correspond to the deviations specified in 15.5.7.
15.5.12 After completion of holes drilling for installation of cast-in-situ, bored-secant and
regulated injection piles, it shall be necessary to control the piles driving depth and the quality of
the cleanup of the bottom by means of slow lowering of movable operating element of the
drilling rig into the bottom and by taking samples from the bottom of the hole. The permissible
deviation of the hole depth from the design value shall not exceed 100 mm.
15.5.13 The production quality of the reinforcement framework shall comply with the
requirements of the design and GOST 14098. After installation of the framework into the hole, it
shall be necessary to control its position by the hole depth. The permissible deviations from the
design values shall be not more than 50 mm.
15.5.14 Control of the concrete strength in the piles shall be exercised according to 15.3.28
and 15.3.38 with presentation of the tests results in special acts in accordance with GOST 18105.
15.5.15 While concreting of cast-in-situ and bored-secant piles by the VPT method, all
parameters specified in 15.3.19 and 15.3.20 shall be controlled, and while injecting of the setting
mixture during installation of the regulated injection piles, alll parameters specified in 15.3.40
shall be controlled. In case if some deviations from the process variables specified in these items
are detected and if the yield of the pure concrete at the end of concreting is absent, this pile shall
be subject to the control drilling-out for estimation of the concrete quality inside it.
15.5.16 Besides the control activities according to 15.5.11 and 15.5.12, it shall be necessary to
exercise the quality control of cast-in-situ and bored-secant piles bodies by means of the strength
test of the corn samples, drilled out along the vertical line in different areas by height in each 0.5
m. For this purpose at the direction of the author supervision it shall be necessary to arbitrarily
select some piles, proceeding from the calculation: one pile from one hundred piles but not less
than two piles. Sampling shall be executed in the presence of the author supervision. The quality
control of regulated injection piles bodies shall be made by digging up of heads for 2% of
installed piles and by determination of their strength by the non-destructive method. At detection
of defects in a pile under the test it shall be recommended to increase the number of tests.
15.5.17 While erecting of prefabricated foundation grillages, it shall be necessary to control
their deviations against the layout axes and the deviation from the surface elevations.
The deviations from the layout axes for foundations of residential and public buildings shall
not exceed 10 mm, and for foundations of industrial buildings they shall not exceed 10 mm, and
for foundations of industrial buildings - 20 mm.
The deviations in the surface elevations for foundations of residential and public buildings
shall not exceed 5 mm, and for foundations of industrial buildings - 10 .
15.5.18 Acceptability of usage of the piles and grillages, the deviations of which exceed the
above mentioned, shall be determined by the author of the pile foundations design.
15.5.19 With the presence of the technical documentation which confirms the quality and the
load-bearing capacity of piles, the act of acceptance for piling shall be drawn up, in which all
deviations introduced during the execution of the works, the decisions taken and the due dates of
the implementation of the decisions shall be noted.
15.5.20 It is allowed to execute concreting of cast-in-situ foundation grillages and erection of
prefabricated foundation grillages only after acceptance of the works on the piles installation.
While accepting the foundation grillages, for which a special act shall be drawn up, it shall be
necessary to pay a special attention to the quality and positioning accuracy of anchoring bolts
(with steel structures) or cup-forming inserts (with prefabricated reinforced concrete columns),
which shall comply with the design.
16 GEOTECHNICAL MONITORING
16.1 In the process of execution of the works on construction of pile foundations and in the
initial operating period of buildings and structures, it shall be necessary to conduct field studies
of (monitoring over) the behavior of the structures of the buildings and their bases.
As a rule, the monitoring shall be organized as follows:
- at construction (reconstruction) of unique buildings and structures and of I level of
responsibility;
- at construction (reconstruction) of buildings and structures in complex engineering-
geological conditions;
- for operated buildings and structures, getting into the influence zone of the new construction
(reconstruction) works in the conditions of the existing development, and also in other cases
specified by the technical assignment.
16.2 The monitoring targets shall be as follows: execution of observations and timely
detection of unacceptable deviations in the behavior of buildings and structures under
construction (reconstruction) and their bases from the design data, working out of measures on
prevention and elimination of possible disamenity, assurance of safety of the existing
development, located in the influence zone of the new construction, and also environmental
protection.
16.3 The content, scope and methods of the monitoring shall be assigned depending on the
object level of responsibility, its structural peculiarities, the method of construction of pile
foundations, engineering-geological and hydrogeological conditions of the site, remoteness of
the existing development, operating requirements and in accordance with the results of the
geotechnical forecast.
Specialized organizations shall be drawn to the working out and execution of the geotechnical
monitoring.
16.4 The question about the necessity of organization of monitoring shall be considered at the
design stage. At this stage it shall be necessary to arrange the observation program and work out
an observation system, which shall be included in the section Monitoring system on the site,
comprising the design.
16.5 The monitoring shall include:
- survey of the existing buildings and structures, getting into the influence zone of the new
construction (reconstruction) works;
- execution of field studies (16.6);
- evaluation of the observations results and their comparison to the design data;
- forecast on the basis of the observations results for the change of the state of the building
under construction (reconstruction) or the existing objects in its influence zone, and also the soil
massive, including the underground water;
- development, if necessary, of measures on elimination of unacceptable deviations and
diamenity;
- control over execution of the taken decisions.
According to the monitoring results, the design organization can correct the design decision.
16.6 In general, field studies can include the following:
a) observations of the behavior of the buildings and the condition of their load bearing
structures deformation measurement for the structures (settlements, rolls, horizontal shifts,
etc.); fixation and monitoring for the cracks opening; changing of stresses in brace and anchoring
structures; measurement of the vibrations level of the structures with the presence of dynamic
loads, etc.;
b) observation of the stressed state of the base and the soil massive and the hydrogeological
situation measurements of stresses and deformations in the soil massive; observation of the
composition and the ground water dynamics; observation of the development of unfavorable
engineering-geological processes (karst, suffusion, landslips, land settlement, etc.); observations
of the condition of the temperature, electric and other physical fields;
c) observations of the environmental change in danger of the soils pollution and the ground
water pollution, gas release, radiated emission, etc.
Special attention shall be paid to the analysis of vibration acceptability in the process of piles
driving works or silent piles driving near the existing buildings and structures.
16.7 On the basis of the received results after field studies, it shall be necessary to specify all
forecasts, especially changes of the deflection mode of the soil massive and the hydrogeological
condition, to enter some corrections into the design concepts, and if needed to work out the
emergency and protective measures.
16.8 General requirements for the monitoring:
- complexity, that is all observations shall be made in coordination with each other in space
and in time;
- affixment of all observation points at the most typical places;
- observation frequency, determined by the intensity and duration of deformation processes of
the soil massive and the structure constructions;
- precision of measurements, which provide authenticity of the received information and its
coordination with the precision of the calculations.
Based on the monitoring results, a report shall be drawn up.
APPENDIX A
(obligatory)
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Single pile: a pile placed from the neighboring piles of the cluster, piles field or piles line at
the distance of more than 8d.
Screw-bored: a pile, consisting of a metal pipe with a cross-shaped heading and spiral
winding, which shall be driven into the soil by means of screwing in combination with
indentation.
Screw pile: a pile, consisting of a metal screw blade and tubular metal body with a
significantly smaller cross-sectional area in comparison to the blade cross-sectional area, and
which shall be driven into the soil by means of screwing in combination with indentation.
Bored-secant pile: modification of cast-in-situ piles. It is used as line or combined (load-
bearing and enclosing) structures. The distances between the centers of bored-secant piles shall
be 0.8 0.9 of its diameter.
Claviform pile: Driven reinforced pile with an extended foot.
Driven pile with pedestal: a pile, installed by means of driving of the pile with round cross-
section and with closed steel driving point at its driving head, which shall be followed by filling
of pile and the driving point hollows with concrete using explosion of the pedestal within the
driving point.
Sample pile: a pile, consisting of inventory composite metal pipe, the foot of which shall be
closed by the tapered tip. The external diameter of the standard sample pile shall be equal to 114
mm (GOST 5686).
Foundation grillage: spreader beam or slab, joining the groups or rows of piles from the top.
High foundation grillage: foundation grillage, the footing of which shall be placed above the
ground surface and shall not touch it.
Low foundation grillage: foundation grillage, the footing of which shall be supported on the
soil or embedded in it.
Combined piled-slab foundation: foundation, which consists of mutually operating
reinforced concrete slab and piles rigidly connected to it.
Negative friction forces: forces, appearing at the lateral area of the pile, while setting of the
soil and directed vertically down.
APPENDIX B
(recommended)
COMPOSITION OF THE PILE FOUNDATIONS DESIGN
B.1 While working out of the pile foundation structures, execution of drawings shall meet the
requirements of the state standards of the design documentation system for construction works
(DDSCW).
B.2 With a two-stage designing, the design at the stage DESIGN shall consist of the
following items:
- the explanatory note, containing as follows: explanation of the engineering-geological and
hydrogeological conditions of the construction-site, the design characteristics of the building and
structure, grounding of the accepted concept for the pile foundations (external loads, transmitted
to the foundations, the pile types, their dimensions, the design loads per pile vertical pressing-
in and pulling-out loads, horizontal and bending moments; deformations of the foundations bases
vertical, horizontal, inclinations); the feasibility characteristics of the comparable variants,
executed with observance of the necessary conditions of comparability;
- foundations drawings, which allow validating of the scopes of works, among them: marking
schemes of the piles location in the plan (lines, groups, piles field); marking schemes of the
foundation grillages location in the plan; typical geological sections with charted piles and
foundation grillages, which can validate the accepted parameters for the piles and pile
foundations, and drawings of the pile structures.
It is necessary to accompany the design with a list of norms and codes, on the basis of which
this design has been developed.
B.3 At the stage WORKING DOCUMENTATION at two-stage designing or DETAILED
DESIGN at one-stage designing, the drawings of the pile foundations shall be included in the
package of drawings of reinforced concrete structures (RCS) and shall include:
- sheet General Data, which shall consists of the information about the contents of drawings
sets of RCS (K) mark, worked out set of drawings for the pile foundations, a list of
specifications, sheets of reference and attached documents for the design, bill of quantities; on
that list it is necessary to specify a copy of the general plan with drawn architectural-construction
axes for the building or structure, position of engineering-geological minings (holes, exploratory
shafts, probing points, etc.), lines of engineering-geological sections, red and black marks of
daylight ground surface, actual elevation 0.000.
On the sheet a special entry shall be made with the signature of the design chief engineer,
proving that the design has been worked out in accordance with the norms and codes in force.
This entry shall be placed in the lower-left corner of the drawing and framed.
On the sheet there shall be general guidelines, including the title of the organization, which
has issued the design assignment, the number and date of the contract, on the basis of which the
design has been worked out, a list of the engineering-geological materials, the absolute elevation,
conventionally taken equal to 0.000. It shall be necessary to specify all loads transmitted on the
piles (vertical, horizontal, bending moments), and validation of their usage in the design. On the
sheet it shall be also necessary to indicate the information about the water and soil
aggressiveness and accepted in the design the piles protection against corrosion. Also it shall be
necessary to specify all information about the source of the loads reception on the foundations; to
unify all requirements to the total and uneven settlements, which shall be provided by the
accepted structure of the foundations.
With a large scope of the information the sheet General Information can be made on two
pages, the first of which will be titled as General Data (beginning), the second General Data
(ending);
- sheet Section(s), on which it shall be necessary to draw the typical engineering-geological
sections, on which building axes, lines with the levels of the foundation pit bottom with the
absolute elevations of the foundation grillages footings, marks of the pile feet, data about the
mechanical-and-physical properties of the soils, necessary for validation of the piles parameters,
shall be drawn;
- sheet with layout schemes of the piles locations with specifications;
- sheet with the foundation grillages location schemes with specifications;
- sheet(s) with the piles structures (if necessary) with specifications;
- sheet(s) with the foundation grillages structures with the formwork sizes, schemes of
reinforcement, specifications, with schemes of loads on the foundation(s) and their values with
specifications;
- sheet(s) with assemblies and cross-sections;
- drawings of reinforced concrete and reinforced manufactures (RCRM) ().
Notes
1 The submitted composition of the design for pile foundations is very convenient with usage of graphical
packages for working out of pile foundations using computers. In this case the design can be produced in the form of
special albums of drawings, assigned for usage by separate construction divisions: album General data, album
Marking schemes, album Pile groups (fields, clusters), album Foundation grillages, album RCRM, album
Estimates. The albums General data, Pile groups, RCRM, Marking schemes shall be made on 3, 2, 1
paper formats.
2 The recommended structure of the design allows accumulating the necessary database of the design documents
relating to the reference region during a short period of time.
3 The presented structure of drawings makes easier the introduction of necessary corrections in the drawings in
the process of construction and simplifies preparation and processing the as-built documentation.
APPENDIX C
(recommended)
DETERMINATION OF THE SCOPES OF THE ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL
INVESTIGATIONS FOR DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF PILE
FOUNDATIONS
C.1 For determination of the scopes of the investigations for pile foundations it shall be
expedient to single out three categories of difficulty of the soil conditions depending on the soils
homogeneity by their occurrence and properties.
The first category shall include a single-layer or many-layer soil mass (by consistency) with
practically horizontal or lightly inclined layers (inclination of not more than 0.05), thereat within
the limits of the each layer all soils shall be homogenous by their properties.
The second category shall include a single-layer or many-layer soil mass with not precise
borders between the layers (inclination of not more than 0.1), thereat within the limits of the
layers all soils shall be not homogenous by their properties.
The third category shall include a many-layer by composition and non-homogenous by
properties soil mass with not precise borders between the layers (inclination of more than 0.1),
thereat separate layers can lens out.
C.2 Evaluation of the category of difficulty for the soil conditions on the construction-site
shall be executed on the basis of the materials from geological funds.
C.3 It is recommended to determine the investigations scopes for pile foundations, depending
on the level of responsibility of objects and the difficulty categories for the soil conditions, using
the following Table C.1.
T a b l e C .1
Types of the Difficulty category of the soil conditions
investigations first second third
Buildings and structures of III (reduced) level of difficulty
Holes drilling Acquired as per 70 70 m Acquired as per 50 50 m Acquired as per 30 30 m
pattern, but not less than one pattern, but not less than two pattern, but not less than
hole for each building holes for each building three holes for each building
Laboratory experiments Not less than six derivations of each parameter within the limits of one geological
of the soils engineering element.
Probing of the soils Acquired as per 35 35 m Acquired as per 25 25 m Acquired as per 15 15 m
pattern, but not less than two pattern, but not less than pattern, but not less than six
points for each building three points for each building points for each building
Buildings and structures of II (normal) level of difficulty
Piles drilling Acquired as per 50 50 m Acquired as per 40 40 m Acquired as per 30 30 m
pattern, but not less than two pattern, but not less than pattern, but not less than
holes for each building three holes for each building three holes for each building
Laboratory experiments Not less than six derivations of each parameter within the limits of one geological
of the soils engineering element.
Probing of the soils Acquired as per 25 25 m Acquired as per 20 20 m Acquired as per 15 15 m
pattern, but not less than six pattern, but not less than pattern, but not less than ten
points for each building seven points for each points for each building
building
Pressure meter tests - Not less than six tests within the limits of one geological
engineering element
Soil tests by sample pile Not less than six tests at each specified depth
Soil tests by actual pile - Not less than two tests at Not less than two tests at
each specified depth with the each specified depth with
presence of more than 1000 the presence of more than
piles 100 piles
Buildings and structures of I (increased) level of responsibility
Piles drilling Acquired as per 40 40 m Acquired as per 30 30 m Acquired as per 20 20 m
pattern, but not less than pattern, but not less than four pattern, but not less than five
three holes for each building holes for each building holes for each building
Laboratory experiments Not less than six derivations of each parameter within the limits of one geological
of the soils engineering element.
Probing of the soils Acquired as per 25 25 m Acquired as per 15 15 m Acquired as per 10 10 m
pattern, but not less than six pattern, but not less than pattern, but not less than ten
points for each building eight points for each building points for each building
Pressure meter tests Not less than six tests within the limits of one geological engineering element
Types of the Difficulty category of the soil conditions
investigations first second third
Stamp tests Not less than two tests within the limits of one geological engineering element with
deviation of the results from medium of not less than 30 %
Test with sample pile Not less than six tests at each specified depth
Soil tests with the full- Not less than two tests at each specified depth with the presence of more than 100 piles
scale pile
APPENDIX D
(recommended)
NOMENCLATURE OF DRIVEN REINFORCED CONCRETE AND CAST-IN-SITU
PILES
T a b l e D .1 Classification of driven reinforced concrete piles
Edge width or pile Initial working
Piles Length of pile, m
diameter, cm documentation
One-piece piles of square solid cross-section with 20 3-6
non-prestressed reinforcement 25 4.5 - 6
Series* 1.011.1-10
30 3 - 12
issue 1
35 8 - 16
40 13 - 16
The same with crosswise reinforcement of the pile 20 3-6
shaft with prestressed reinforcement 25 4.5 - 6
30 3 - 15 GOST 19804.2
35 8 - 20
40 13 - 20
The same without crosswise reinforcement of the 25 5-6
GOST 19804.4
pile shaft 30 3 - 12
Composite with square solid cross-section with 30 14 - 20
Series* 1.011.1-10
crosswise reinforcement of the pile shaft 35 14 - 24
issue 8
40 14 - 28
One-piece piles with square cross-section and 25, 30, 40 3-8
GOST 19804.3
round hollow
Entire hollow round piles and shell-piles 40, 50, 60 4 - 18
GOST 19804.5
80, 100, 120, 160 6 - 12
Composite hollow round piles and shell-piles 40 14 - 26
50 14 - 30
GOST 19804.6
60 14 - 40
80, 100, 120, 160 14 - 48
Bearing piles:
with square cross-section 20 5-8
30 5 - 12
Series* 3.015-5
35 5 - 16
40 8 - 16
double cantilever 20 5 6.5
Series* 1.821.1-2
30 5 7.5
hollow round 40, 50, 60, 80 5 - 18 Series* 3.015-5
* Typical building structures, manufactures and assemblies. Working drawings. FGUP TSPP.
T a b l e D .2 Classification of cast-in-situ piles
Length
Pile diameter*,
Type of pile Method of the pile production Concrete grade of the
mm
pile, m
BSS Rotary drilling in stable argillaceous soils without 500/1200
fixation of the piles walls 500/1400
C15 C22,5
500/1600
600/1600 10 - 30
800/1800 C15 C22,5
1000 C15
1200 C15
BSSm 400
The same C15 2-4
500
BSVg Rotary drilling in unstable soils with fixation of the piles 600/1600
C15 C22,5 8 - 20
walls with mud solution
BSVo Rotary and cable-churn drilling in unstable soils with 600/1600
C15 C22,5 8 - 30
fixation of the piles walls using pipes to be left in the soil 800/1800
BSI The same, with removal of the inventory pipe casings 880
980
C15 8 - 50
1080
1180
* Before the line the diameter of the pile shaft, after the line the diameter of the enlargement is indicated.
APPENDIX E
(recommended)
Calculation of Piles for the Joint Effect of the Vertical and the Horizontal Forces and the
Moment
E.1 Calculation of piles for the joint effect of the vertical and the horizontal forces and the
moment shall be made in accordance with a scheme, given on picture E.1, and include the
following operations:
a) the piles stiffness analysis, providing checking of observance of the following conditions
(E.1) and (E.2):
Up Uu, (E.1)
p u, (E.2)
where Up and shall mean the calculated values of the horizontal movement of the pile head
(m), calculated in accordance with directions of E.4;
Uu and u - shall mean the limit values of the horizontal movement of the pile head (m) and
the torsion angle (radian), specified in the design assignment for the building or
structure;
b) stability calculation for the base soils, enclosing the pile, which shall be made in
accordance with requirements of E.4;
Picture E.1 Load chart for the pile
c) checking of the piles cross-sections by the resistance of the materials by the limiting states
of the first and second groups (by strength, by appearance and opening of cracks) for the joint
effect of the design forces: the compressive force, the bending moment and the shear force; this
calculation shall be made depending on the piles material according to the requirements of 7.1.7,
and the design values for compressive forces Nz, bending moments Mz and shear forces Qz,
acting in different cross-sections of the pile, shall be determined in accordance with requirements
of E.7.
In case of the pile anchorage into the foundation grillage and elimination of the possibility of
its head rotation (for example, into the dry foundation grillage with two rows of piles and more,
installed in the direction of the action of the horizontal force), in calculations it shall be
necessary to consider the fixed edge moment M = Mf, acting at place of the pile conjunction with
the foundation grillage to be determined in accordance with the requirements of E.8.
E.2 While calculating the piles by the horizontal load, the soil, enclosing the pile, can be
considered as linearly elastic environment, which shall be characterized by the bedding factor cz,
kN/m3.
It is allowed to determine the design value of the bedding factor cz, kN/m3, and the soil at the
lateral area of the pile in the absence of experimental data, using the following formula:
cz = Kz, (E.3)
4
where K - shall mean the proportionality factor, kN/m , which shall be taken depending on the
type of the soil, enclosing the pile, from Table E.1;
z - shall mean the depth of the pile cross-section position in the soil, m, for which it shall be
necessary to determine the bedding factor in relation to the soil surface with a high
foundation grillage or to the foundation grillage foot with a low grillage.
With the presence of several soil layers within limits of the pile length, for determination of
the soil resistance at lateral area of the pile, it is recommended to use one of the adjusted values
for the proportionality factor K, which shall taken depending on the soils before the depth lK, m,
counted starting from the soil surface with a high foundation grillage or starting from the
foundation grillage foot with a low grillage
lK = 3.5d + , (E.4)
where d - shall mean the outer diameter of the round or a side of the square or rectangular cross-
section, which is parallel to the plane of the load, m;
- shall mean the factor, which shall be taken equal to 1.5 m.
If within the limits of depth lK there are two soil layers, the adjusted value K shall be
determined by the following formula:
K I lI ( 2lK lI ) + K II (lK lI ) 2
K= ,
lK2 (E.5)
where lI - shall mean the thickness of the first (top) soil layer, m;
KI and KII - shall mean the proportionality factors, which shall be taken from Table E.1, for
the soils of I and II layers.
T a b l e E .1
Proportionality factor K, kN/m4, for the
following piles
Soils enclosing a pile, and their characteristics
Cast-in-situ, drilled, shell
driven
piles, piers
Clays and sandy loams of high plasticity (0.75 < IL 1) 650 - 2500 500 - 2000
Clays and sandy loams of low plasticity (0.5 < IL 0.75); lean 2500 - 5000 2000 - 4000
loamy sands (0 IL 1); dusty sandy (0.6 e 0.8)
Clays and sandy loams of high plasticity and semi-solid (0 IL 5000 - 8000 4000 - 6000
0.5); solid loamy sands (IL < 0); fine-grain sands (0.6 e 0.75);
medium-grain sands (0.55 e 0.7)
Solid clays and sandy loams (IL < 0); large-grain sands (0.55 e 8000 - 13000 6000 - 10000
0.7)
Gravelly sands (0.55 e 0.7); gravel and pebble with sandy - 10000 - 20000
aggregate
Notes:
1 Lower values of K factor from the Table correspond to higher values of the index of liquidity IL for
argillaceous and porosity factors e for sandy soils, which are given in brackets, and higher values of K factor
correspond to lower values of IL and e respectively. For the soils with intermediate values of IL and e characteristics
the values of K factor shall be derived by interpolation.
2 K factor for dense sands shall be taken by 30 % higher than the largest values of the tabular values of K factors
for the specified type of the soil.
E.3 The pile calculation by the limiting states of two groups shall be made, using the values of
the adjusted depth of the pile driving into the soil l and the adjusted depth of the pile cross-
section position in the soil z , which shall be derived by the following formulas:
l = l; (E.6)
z = z, (E.7)
where l and z - shall mean the actual depth of the pile driving (its foot) into the soil and the actual
depth of the pile cross-section position in the soil, counted starting from the soil
surface with a high foundation grillage or starting from the grillage foot with a low
foundation grillage respectively, m;
- shall mean the coefficient of deformation, 1/m, which shall be derived by the
following formula:
Kbp
= 5 ,
EI (E.8)
where K - shall mean the same as in formula (E.3);
bp - shall mean the relative pile width, m, which shall be taken equal to: for shell-piles, and
also for piers, cast-in-situ and drilled piles with the diameters of their shafts from 0.8 m
and more it will be bp = (d + 1) m, and for the other types of piles and the piles cross-
sectional dimensions it will be bp = (1,5d + 0,5) m;
d - shall mean the outer diameter of the round or a side of the square, or a side of
rectangular cross-section of the pile in the plane, that is perpendicular to the load action,
m;
E - shall mean the initial modulus of concrete elasticity, while compressing and tensioning,
kPa, for reinforced concrete piles; the elasticity modulus of wood for wooden piles;
I - shall mean the inertia modulus of the transverse cross-section of the pile, m4.
Depth l shall mean the actual depth of the pile driving with supporting it on dispersed or rocky
soil in case of absence of embedment (predrilling) into it. In cases when cast-in-situ and drilled
piles , shell piles, piers are embedded for not less than 0.5 m into unweathered rocky soils, the
depth l shall be determined by the following formula:
l = lc + l, (E.9)
where lc - shall mean the depth of the top of unweathered rocky soil, m, counting from soil
surface with a high foundation grillage or from the grillage foot with a low foundation
grillage;
l - shall mean the an additional depth, m, which shall be taken equal to:
a) with embedment of the pile foot into magmatic rocks (granite, diorite, basalt, etc.) - 0;
b) with embedment into other types of rocks - d/2.
E.4 The calculated values for the pile horizontal location at the level of the grillage foot Up,
m, and its rotation angle p, radian, shall be derived by the following formulas:
Hl03 Ml02
+ ;
Up = U0 + 0l0 + 3EI 2 EI (E.10)
Hl02 Ml0
+ ,
p = 0 + 2 EI EI (E.11)
where H and M - shall mean the calculated values of the shearing force, kN, and the bending
moment, kN x m, acting on the pile head (see picture E.1);
l0 - shall mean the length of the pile part, m, equal to the distance from the grillage foot
up to the ground surface under the foundation grillage;
E and I - shall mean the same as in formulae (E.8);
U0 and 0 - shall mean the horizontal location, m, and the rotation angle of the pile crosswise
section, radian, at the level of the soil surface with a high foundation grillage, and
with a low foundation grillage at the level of its foot, which shall be determined
by E.5.
N o t e : While determining, the following values shall be considered positive:
the moment and the horizontal force, applied to the pile head, if the moment and the force are directed clockwise
and to the right respectively;
the bending moment and the shearing force in the pile cross-section, if the moment and the force, transmitted
from the top (conditionally cut off) part of the pile to the bottom part, are directed clockwise and to the right
respectively;
the horizontal shear of the pile cross-section and its rotation, if they are directed to the right and clockwise
respectively.
E.5 The horizontal displacement U0, m, and the rotation angle 0, radian, shall be determined
by the following formulas:
U0 = H0HH + M0HM; (E.12)
0 = H0HM + M0MM, (E.13)
where H0 and M0 - shall mean the calculated values of the shearing force, kN, and the bending
moment, kN x m, respectively, in the pile cross-section under consideration, and
shall be taken equal to H0 = H and M0 = M + Hl0 [here H and M shall mean the
the same values as in formulas (E.10) and (E.11)];
HH - shall mean the horizontal displacement of the cross-section, m/kN, under the force
H0 = 1 (picture E.2, a);
HM - shall mean the horizontal displacement of the cross-section, 1/kN x m, under the
moment M0 = 1 (picture E.2, b);
MH - shall mean the rotation angle of the cross-section, 1/kN, under the force H0 = 1
(picture E.2, a);
MM - shall mean the rotation angle of the cross-section, 1/(kN x m), under the moment
M0 = 1 (picture E.2, b).
Displacements HH, MH = HM and MM shall be calculated by the following formulas:
1
HH = 3
A0 ;
EI
(E.14)
1
B0 ;
2
MH = HM = EI (E.15)
1
MM = C0 ,
EI (E.16)
where , E and I- shall mean the the same as in formulae (E.8);
A0, B0, C0 - shall mean the non-dimensional coefficients, which shall be taken from Table E.2
depending on the adjusted depth of the piles locations in the soil l , which shall
be determined by formula (E.6). With the value of depth l , corresponding to the
intermediate value, given in Table E.2, it shall be adjusted up to the nearest
tabular value.

a) displacements under action of force H0 = 1, applied at the level of the soil surface; b) displacements under the
action of moment M0 = 1.
Picture E.2 Scheme of pile displacements in the soil
T a b l e E.2
Resting of the pile on dispersed Embedment of the pile into rocky
Resting of the pile on rocky soil
l soil soil
A0 B0 C0 A0 B0 C0 A0 B0 C0
0.5 72.004 192.026 576.243 48.006 96.037 192.291 0.042 0.125 0.5
0.6 50.007 111.149 278.069 33.344 55.609 92.942 0.072 0.18 0.6
0.7 36.745 70.023 150.278 24.507 35.059 50.387 0.114 0.244 0.699
0.8 28.14 46.943 88.279 18.775 23.533 29.763 0.17 0.319 0.798
0.9 22.244 33.008 55.307 14.851 16.582 18.814 0.241 0.402 0.896
1 18.03 24.106 36.486 12.049 12.149 12.582 0.329 0.494 0.992
1.1 14.916 18.16 25.123 9.983 9.196 8.836 0.434 0.593 1.086
1.2 12.552 14.041 17.944 8.418 7.159 6.485 0.556 0.698 1.176
1.3 10.717 11.103 13.235 7.208 5.713 4.957 0.695 0.807 1.262
1.4 9.266 8.954 10.05 6.257 4.664 3.937 0.849 0.918 1.342
1.5 8.101 7.349 7.838 5.498 3.889 3.24 1.014 1.028 1.415
1.6 7.154 6.129 6.268 4.887 3.308 2.758 1.186 1.134 1.48
1.7 6.375 5.189 5.133 4.391 2.868 2.419 1.361 1.232 1.535
1.8 5.73 4.456 4.299 3.985 2.533 2.181 1.532 1.321 1.581
1.9 5.19 3.878 3.679 3.653 2.277 2.012 1.693 1.397 1.617
2 4.737 3.418 3.213 3.381 2.081 1.894 1.841 1.46 1.644
2.2 4.032 2.756 2.591 2.977 1.819 1.758 2.08 1.545 1.675
2.4 3.526 2.327 2.227 2.713 1.673 1.701 2.24 1.586 1.685
2.6 3.163 2.048 2.013 2.548 1.6 1.687 2.33 1.596 1.687
2.8 2.905 1.869 1.889 2.453 1.572 1.693 2.371 1.593 1.687
3 2.727 1.758 1.818 2.406 1.568 1.707 2.385 1.586 1.691
3.5 2.502 1.641 1.757 2.394 1.597 1.739 2.389 1.584 1.711
4 2.441 1.621 1.751 2.419 1.618 1.75 2.401 1.6 1.732
E.6 The stability calculation of the base, enclosing the pile, shall be made by the data of
(E.17) for limitation of the design pressure z, effecting the soil through the lateral areas of the
piles
4
z 12 cos I (1ztgI + cI), (E.17)
where z - shall mean the design pressure, kPa, effecting the soil through the lateral areas of the
pile, which shall be determined by formula (E.19) at the next depths z, , counted with a
high foundation grillage from the soil surface, and with a low foundation grillage
from its foot:
a) with l 2.5 at two depths, corresponding to z = l/3 and z = l;
b) with l > 2.5 at the depth z = 0.85/, where shall be determined by formula (E.8);
1 - shall mean the factor equal to 1, except the cases of calculating the foundations for
braced structures (for example, thrust bays), in which 1 shall be taken equal to 0.7;
2 - shall mean the factor, considering the portion of the constant load in the total load, and
shall be determined by formula (E.18);
I - shall mean the design specific weight of the soil of undisturbed structure, kN/m3, which
shall be determined in water-saturated soils, considering uplifting in the water;
I and cI - shall mean the calculated values of the angle of internal friction in the soils, degrees,
and the specific cohesion of the soil, kPa, respectively;
- shall mean the factor, taken for driven piles and shell piles equal to 0.6, and for all other
types of piles equal to 0.3;
Mc + Mt
2 = ,
nM c + M t (E.18)
where Mc - shall mean the moment transmitted from the outer permanent design loads in the
cross-section of the foundation at the level of the piles feet, kN x m;
Mt - shall mean the same as from the external temporary design loads, kN x m;
n - shall mean the factor, which shall be taken as n = 2.5, except the following cases of the
calculation:
a) of extra responsible structures, for which at l 2.5, the value n shall be taken equal to 4
and at l 5 2.5 (with intermediate values l the value n shall be determined by interpolation);
b) of foundations with a single-row position of piles, operating for the non-axial vertical
pressure load, for which n = 4 shall be taken regardless of l value.
N o t e : If the design horizontal soil pressures z, determined by formula (E.19), do not meet the condition
(E.17), but thereat the load-bearing capacity of the piles by material is under-utilized and the pile displacements are
less than the maximum permissible values, at the adjusted depth of the piles driving l > 2.5 the calculation shall be
re-made with a reduced value of proportionality factor K (see E.2). With a new K value it is necessary to check the
pile strength by the material, its displacements, and also compliance with the condition (E.17).
E.7 The design soil pressure z, kPa, by the contact with the lateral area of the pile, appearing
at the depth z, and also the design bending moment Mz, kN x m, the shearing force Qz, kN, the
longitudinal compressive force Nz, kN, acting at the depth z in the pile cross-section, shall be
determined by the following formulas:

K M H
z = z U 0 A1 0 B1 + 2 0 C1 + 3 0 D1 ;
EI EI (E.19)
Mz = 2EIU0A3 - EI0B3 + M0C3 + H0D3/; (E.20)
Qz = 3EIU0A4 - 2EI0B4 + M0C4 + H0D4; (E.21)
Nz = N, (E.22)
where K - shall mean the proportionality factor, which shall be determined by Table
E.1;
, E and I - shall mean the same as in formula (E.8);
z - shall mean the adjusted depth, which shall be determined by formula (E.7)
depending on the value of the actual depth z, for which the values of pressure
z, moment Mz and shearing force Qc shall be determined;
H0, M0, U0 and 0 - shall mean the the same as in E.4 and E.5:
A1, B1, C1 and D1 - shall mean the factors, the values of which shall be taken from Table E.3;
A3, B3, C3 and D3 - shall mean the same;
A4, B4, C4 and D4 - shall mean the same;
N - shall mean the design axial load, kN, transmitted to the pile head.
E.8 The calculated end restrained moment Mf, kN x m, considered, while calculating of the
piles, which have an anchorage in the foundation grillage, providing impossibility of rotation of
the pile head, and shall be determined by the following formula:
l02
MH + l0 MM +
Mf = 2 EI H ,
l0
MM +
EI (E.23)
where all letter symbols shall be the same as in the previous formulas.
Thereat the minus sign shall mean, that with the horizontal force H, directed from the left to
the right on the pile head from the side of the embedment, the moment directed counterclockwise
shall be transmitted.
T a b l e E.3
Adjusted depth Factors
of the pile cross-
section location A1 B1 C1 D1 A3 B3 C3 D3 A4 B4 C4 D4
in the soil z
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
0.1 1 0.1 0.005 0 0 0 1 0.1 -0.005 0 0 1
0.2 1 0.2 0.02 0.001 -0.001 0 1 0.2 -0.02 -0.003 0 1
0.3 1 0.3 0.045 0.005 -0.005 -0.001 1 0.3 -0.045 -0.009 -0.001 1
0.4 1 0.4 0.08 0.011 -0.011 -0.002 1 0.4 -0.08 -0.021 -0.003 1
0.5 1 0.5 0.125 0.021 -0.021 -0.005 0.999 0.5 -0.125 -0.042 -0.008 0.999
0.6 0.999 0.6 0.18 0.036 -0.036 -0.011 0.998 0.6 -0.18 -0.072 -0.016 0.997
0.7 0.999 0.7 0.245 0.057 -0.057 -0.02 0.996 0.699 -0.245 -0.114 -0.03 0.994
0.8 0.997 0.799 0.32 0.085 -0.085 -0.034 0.992 0.799 -0.32 -0.171 -0.051 0.989
0.9 0.995 0.899 0.405 0.121 -0.121 -0.055 0.985 0.897 -0.404 -0.243 -0.082 0.98
1 0.992 0.997 0.499 0.167 -0.167 -0.083 0.975 0.994 -0.499 -0.333 -0.125 0.967
1.1 0.987 1.095 0.604 0.222 -0.222 -0.122 0.96 1.09 -0.603 -0.443 -0.183 0.946
1.2 0.979 1.192 0.718 0.288 -0.287 -0.173 0.938 1.183 -0.716 -0.575 -0.259 0.917
1.3 0.969 1.287 0.841 0.365 -0.365 -0.238 0.907 1.273 -0.838 -0.73 -0.356 0.876
1.4 0.955 1.379 0.974 0.456 -0.455 -0.319 0.866 1.358 -0.967 -0.91 -0.479 0.821
1.5 0.937 1.468 1.115 0.56 -0.559 -0.42 0.811 1.437 -1.105 -1.116 -0.63 0.747
1.6 0.913 1.553 1.264 0.678 -0.676 -0.543 0.739 1.507 -1.248 -1.35 -0.815 0.652
1.7 0.882 1.633 1.421 0.812 -0.808 -0.691 0.646 1.566 -1.396 -1.613 -1.036 0.529
1.8 0.843 1.706 1.584 0.961 -0.956 -0.867 0.53 1.612 -1.547 -1.906 -1.299 0.374
1.9 0.795 1.77 1.752 1.126 -1.118 -1.074 0.385 1.64 -1.699 -2.227 -1.608 0.181
2 0.735 1.823 1.924 1.308 -1.295 -1.314 0.207 1.646 -1.848 -2.578 -1.966 -0.057
2.2 0.575 1.887 2.272 1.72 -1.693 -1.906 -0.271 1.575 -2.125 -3.36 -2.849 -0.692
2.4 0.347 1.874 2.609 2.195 -2.141 -2.663 -0.949 1.352 -2.339 -4.228 -3.973 -1.592
2.6 0.033 1.755 2.907 2.724 -2.621 -3.6 -1.877 0.917 -2.437 -5.14 -5.355 -2.821
2.8 -0.385 1.49 3.128 3.288 -3.103 -4.718 -3.108 0.197 -2.346 -6.023 -6.99 -4.445
3 -0.928 1.037 3.225 3.858 -3.541 -6 -4.688 -0.891 -1.969 -6.765 -8.84 -6.52
3.5 -2.928 -1.272 2.463 4.980 -3.919 -9.544 -10.34 -5.854 1.074 -6.789 -13.692 -13.826
4 -5.853 -5.941 -0.927 4.548 -1.614 -11.731 -17.919 -15.076 9.244 -0.358 -15.611 -23.14
APPENDIX F
(recommended)
CALCULATION OF THE LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY OF PYRAMIDAL PILES
WITH THE INCLINE OF THE LATERAL EDGES OF ip > 0.025
It is allowed to determine the load-bearing capacity Fd, kN, of pyramidal piles with the
inclination of their lateral edges equal to ip > 0.025 as a sum of forces of the soil design strengths
on the lateral area of the pile and under its foot, using the following formula:
n d2
Fd = Ai cos [ pi ( tg + tg I ,i + cI ,i ] + ( pi + n2 cI ,i ),
i =1 n1 (F.1)
where Ai - shall mean the area of the pile lateral area within the limits of the i-th layer of the soil,
m2;
- shall mean the taper angle of the pile, degrees;
I,i, cI,i - shall mean the calculated values of the angle of the internal friction, degrees, and
cohesion, kPa, of the i-th layer of the soil;
d - shall mean the face of the pile cross-section foot, m;
n1, 2 - shall mean the factors, the values of which are given in Table F.1.
The soil resistances under the pile tip pi and on its lateral area p'i, kPa, shall be determined by
the following formula:

Ei
p i = p i = ( p p ,i + c I,i ctg I ,i ) c I,i ctg I,i , (F.2)
4 p 0,i (1 vi ) 2 p 0,i (2 vi )
2

where Ei - shall mean the modulus of the soil deformation of the i-th layer, kPa, which shall be
determined by the results of the pressure meter tests;
vi - shall mean the Poisson ratio for the i-th layer of the soil, which shall be taken in
accordance with the requirements of SNIP 2.02.01;
- shall mean the factor, the values of which are given in Table F.1.
The soil pressure p0,i, pp,i, kPa, shall be determined by the following formulas:
vi
p0,i = I ,i hi ;
1 vi (F.3)
pp,i = p0,i(1 + sin I,i) + cI,icos I,i, (F.4)
where I,i - shall mean the specific soil weight of the i-th layer, kN/m3;
hi - shall mean the average depth of the i-th layer location, m.
T a b l e F.1
Angle of the internal friction of the soil I,i, degrees.
Factor
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
n1 0,53 0,48 0,41 0,35 0,30 0,24 0,20 0,15 0,10 0,06
n2 0,94 0,88 0,83 0,78 0,73 0,69 0,65 0,62 0,58 0,54
0,06 0,12 0,17 0,22 0,26 0,29 0,32 0,35 0,37 0,39
N o t e : For the intermediate values of the angle of the internal friction I,i values for n1, n2 and factors shall be
determined by interpolation.
APPENDIX G
(recommended)
DETERMINATION OF THE SETTLEMENT OF STRIP PILE FOUNDATIONS
Settlement s, m (cm), of strip pile foundations with a single-row or a two-rows position of
piles at the distance of (3 - 4)d between piles shall be determined by the following formula:
n (1 v 2 )
s= 0 ,
E (G.1)
where n - shall mean the linear load on the pile foundation, kN/m, considering the foundation
weight in the form of the soil massive with piles, restricted: from above to the leveling
surface; from the sides to the vertical planes, passing the outer edges of the outmost
rows of the piles; from below to the plane passing the pile feet;
E, v - shall mean the values of the modulus of deformation, kPa, and Poissons ratio for the
soil within the limits of the massive to be compressed, which shall be determined for the
above mentioned foundation in accordance with the requirements of SNIP 2.02.01;
0 - shall mean the factor, which shall be taken by the alignment chart (see page G.1)
depending on Poisson ratio v, the adjusted width of the foundation B = B/h (where B
shall mean the width of the foundation, which shall be taken by the outer edges of the
outmost rows of piles; h shall mean the depth of the piles driving) and the adjusted
depth of the massive to be compressed Hc/h (Hc shall mean the depth of the massive to
be compressed).
The values for 0 factor shall be determined by the alignment chart in the following way. On
this chart through the point which corresponds to the calculated value of the adjusted depth of
the massive to be compressed, it shall be necessary to draw a straight line, parallel to the axis of
abscissa, until it crosses the line of the adjusted width of the foundation B and to drop a
perpendicular up to the line of Poissons ratio for the soil v. From the cross point, a line parallel
to the axis of abscissa until it crosses the axis of ordinates, on which there are values of 0 factor,
shall be drawn.
Picture G.1 Alignment chart for determination of the values for 0 factor.
APPENDIX H
(recommended)
DETERMINATION OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE SINGLE PILE TAKING INTO
CONSIDERATION THE MODULUS IN SHEAR
The settlement calculation for the single piles, cutting the soil layer with the modulus in shear
G1, MPa, Poissons ratio v1 and resting on the soil, and considered as linearly elastic half-space,
characterized by the modulus in shear G2 and Poissons ratio v2, it is allowed to execute with N
Fd/k and providing that l/d > 5, G1l/G2d > 1 (where l shall mean the pile length, m, d shall
mean the diameter or a side of the pile cross-section, m) by the following formulas:
a) for a single pile without enlargement
N
s= ,
G1l (I.1)
where N - shall mean a vertical load, transmitted on a pile, MN;
- shall mean the factor, determined by the following formulae:
1 ( / )
= + ,
1 (I.2)
here ' = 0.17ln(kvG1l/G2d) shall mean the factor, corresponding to the absolutely inelastic
pile (EA = );
' = 0.17ln(kv1l/d) shall mean the the same factor for the case with homogenous
footing with characteristics G1 and v1;
2
= EA/G1l - shall mean the relative pile stiffness;
EA - shall mean the pile shaft stiffness by compression, MN;
1 - shall mean the parameter, characterizing the increase of the settlement at the
expense of the shaft compression, and determined by the following formula:
2,12 3 / 4
1 = ;
1 + 2,12 3 / 4 (I.3)
kv, kv1 - shall mean the factors which shall be determined by the following formula:
kv = 2.82 3.78v + 2.18v2 (I.4)
with v = (v1 + v2)/2 and with v = v1 respectively;
b) for a single pile with enlargement
0,22 N Nl
s= + ,
G2 d b EA (I.5)
where db - shall mean the diameter of the pile enlargement.
The characteristics G1 and v1 shall be taken averaged for all soil layers within the limits of the
pile driving depth, and G2 and v2 within the limits of 10 pile diameters or its enlargement (for
the pile with enlargement), providing that under the piles feet there are no argillaceous soils of
mushy consistency, organomineral and organic soils.
Key words: pile foundations, designing, installation, buildings and structures under
construction or reconstruction.