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- Control, protection and monit .
trol cables installed in control onng panels along with con
valve halls. room located in between two



- HVDC yard with switching arrangement for Bipolar to

Monopolar change over. MRTB in one terminal.
- Smoothing reactors (R), one for each pole..
- Electrical and Mechanical Auxiliaries (not shown)
- HVDc line poles.
- Electrode lines (EL) and Earth Electrodes (E)
- Station earthi ng system.
1().2 onfiguration of a Terminal Substation
Fig..103 ill.ustrates the schematic diagram and main parts of
a bipolar 2-Termlnal HVDC transmission system.
Both the ter~inal. substations (Terminal-l and Terminal-2)
are similar but not )den~lcal. The ratings of convertor transformers
and AC filters may be different. Ref. Fig. 101 and 10.2 also.
The AC yard (1) has AC switchgear, busbars, CTs, VTs, surge
arresters etc. One-and-a half breaker arrangement is preferred.
Surge Arresters in AC yard are co-ordinated with surge arresters in
DC yard, valve hall and neighbouring AC yards in the network. In
someHVDCterminal substations, SF s GIS is used for AC substation.
WithSFs GIS, the space required by ACyard is reduced to about one
tenth of conversional open terminal AC substation.
Convertor transformers (T) are connected between convertor
valvesand the ACbus. These are specially designed as they have a d.c.
voltagecomponent coming from valve side. They are either single
phaseunits, or three phase units and are either two winding type or
three winding type.
Convertor transformers are installed near the Valve Hall. They
are connected between AC busbars and convertor valves. The type
and numbers of convertor transformers per pole depends upon the
choiceof transformers viz. single phase or three phase units whether
2 windingtype or 3 winding type. The transformers are outdoor type,
forcedoil, forced air cooled. (OFAF).
Operation of thyristor convertor valves results in generation of
AC harmonics. AC fil ters (F) are connected to the AC busbars at
each end. (Refer Chapter 7).
AC Harmonic Filters (F) cover a larage area near AC yard.
These filters are composed of resistor banks, reactors, capacitor
banks. They eliminate the AC harmonics arising out of the conv~rtor
operation.Shunt Compensation (C) is provided by shunt ~apaC1tors.
They supply reactive power needed for convertor operation, (Refer
Chapter 7).
Modem HVDC convertors employ 12-pulse thyristor conver
tors. The quadri-valves receive AC power from convertor transform
ers and deliver DC power to DC poles (or vice versa) convertor
:IllPrises a convertor bridge formed by convertor va_lves(V) ~n f:
c~d to the secondary of convertor transformers In a definite
a Each valve is made-up of series connected thyristors. Val yes
n~Connectedin bridge formation. Valves transfer powe~ fr~m AC
o~ ?r vice versa. Val ves are USU~nyco.oIedb! pure ~elonlsed, de-
<Usedwater. Such water is a dIelectrIC coohng medium.