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9/30/2016

DifferentialPressureTypeLevelDetectorReview|EngineersEdge|www.engineersedge.com

DifferentialPressureTypeLevelDetectorReview

DifferentialPressureTypeLevelDetectorReview

DifferentialPressureTypeLevelDetectorReview

Thedifferentialpressure(DP)detectormethodofliquidlevelmeasurementusesaDP detectorconnectedtothebottomofthetankbeingmonitored.Thehigherpressure,caused bythefluidinthetank,iscomparedtoalowerreferencepressure(usuallyatmospheric).

ThiscomparisontakesplaceintheDPdetector.FigureA1illustratesatypicaldifferential

pressuredetectorattachedtoanopentank.

pressuredetectorattachedtoanopentank. FigureA1

FigureA1

Thetankisopentotheatmosphere;therefore,itisnecessarytouseonlythehighpressure

(HP)connectionontheDPtransmitter.Thelowpressure(LP)sideisventedtothe

atmosphere;therefore,thepressuredifferentialisthehydrostatichead,orweight,ofthe

liquidinthetank.ThemaximumlevelthatcanbemeasuredbytheDPtransmitteris

determinedbythemaximumheightofliquidabovethetransmitter.Theminimumlevelthat

canbemeasuredisdeterminedbythepointwherethetransmitterisconnectedtothetank.

Notalltanksorvesselsareopentotheatmosphere.Manyaretotallyenclosedtoprevent vaporsorsteamfromescaping,ortoallowpressurizingthecontentsofthetank.When measuringthelevelinatankthatispressurized,orthelevelthatcanbecomepressurizedby vaporpressurefromtheliquid,boththehighpressureandlowpressuresidesoftheDP

transmittermustbeconnected(FigureA2).

transmittermustbeconnected(FigureA2). FigureA2   Membership Register | Login

FigureA2

Thehighpressureconnectionisconnectedtothetankatorbelowthelowerrangevalueto

bemeasured.Thelowpressuresideisconnectedtoa"referenceleg"thatisconnectedator

abovetheupperrangevaluetobemeasured.Thereferencelegispressurizedbythegasor

vaporpressure,butnoliquidispermittedtoremaininthereferenceleg.Thereferenceleg

mustbemaintaineddrysothatthereisnoliquidheadpressureonthelowpressuresideof

thetransmitter.Thehighpressuresideisexposedtothehydrostaticheadoftheliquidplus

thegasorvaporpressureexertedontheliquidssurface.Thegasorvaporpressureisequally

appliedtothelowandhighpressuresides.Therefore,theoutputoftheDPtransmitteris

directlyproportionaltothehydrostaticheadpressure,thatis,thelevelinthetank.

Wherethetankcontainsacondensiblefluid,suchassteam,aslightlydifferentarrangement

isused.Inapplicationswithcondensiblefluids,condensationisgreatlyincreasedinthe

referenceleg.Tocompensateforthiseffect,thereferencelegisfilledwiththesamefluidas

9/30/2016

DifferentialPressureTypeLevelDetectorReview|EngineersEdge|www.engineersedge.com

thetank.Theliquidinthereferencelegappliesahydrostaticheadtothehighpressureside ofthetransmitter,andthevalueofthislevelisconstantaslongasthereferencelegis maintainedfull.Ifthispressureremainsconstant,anychangeinDPisduetoachangeon

thelowpressuresideofthetransmitter(FigureA3).

thelowpressuresideofthetransmitter(FigureA3). FigureA3

FigureA3

Thefilledreferencelegappliesahydrostaticpressuretothehighpressuresideofthe

transmitter,whichisequaltothemaximumleveltobemeasured.TheDPtransmitteris

exposedtoequalpressureonthehighandlowpressuresideswhentheliquidlevelisatits

maximum;therefore,thedifferentialpressureiszero.Asthetanklevelgoesdown,the

pressureappliedtothelowpressuresidegoesdownalso,andthedifferentialpressure

increases.Asaresult,thedifferentialpressureandthetransmitteroutputareinversely

proportionaltothetanklevel.

proportionaltothetanklevel.

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