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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS Volume 2 Issue 1 November 2015

ISSN: 2392 876X Available online at: www.researchthoughts.us


Impact Factor: 2.0178 (UIF) http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1594904

THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30%


FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON
FILLING IN CONCRETE ON
ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

Abdelnabi Ali Elamin1, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan1,


Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi2, Mobark Dirar Abdelha3

1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Omdurman Islamic University,


Omdurman, Sudan
2Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Faculty of Science and Technology,
Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan
3Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sudan University for Science and Technology,
Khartoum, Sudan

Abstract: The samples of concrete contain of replacement 30% of iron filling for each concrete
component such as cement +iron 30% denoted by SSX, sand +iron filling 30% denoted by SSY and
less gravel +iron filling 30% denoted by SSZ. The measurement was done using Cs -137 -662 KeV
farmer ionization chamber with electrometer for measuring radiation intensity (in term of air karma).
The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of iron filling loading rates and the particulate
dispersive manner within the concrete matrix on the attenuation properties. Such as linear
attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient, mean free path and half value layer. The results
show that the sample SSZ with thickness 6 cm is the best for shielding with values
0.209,0.007,4.774,3.308 for linear attenuation coefficient ,mass attenuation coefficient m, mean
free path mf and half value layer HVL, respectively while the other samples values remain far from
this in conclusion for SSZ to be the best we can take to the account the economic feasibility and ease
of application with the availability of materials for the goal to create private radiation and keeping
waste in an easier and less financial cost of blocks used in building material.

Key Words: Iron filings, Linear Attenuation Coefficient and Half Value Layer

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Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

1. INTRODUCTION

Coincided with the increasing growth in the exploitation rights of nuclear energy and
radiation great development in the science of nuclear techniques, this growth has failed
to convince many people could control the outcome and implications of these
technologies and the human ability to control and control of the waste and radiation
generated by the use of radioactive sources (Akkurt et al. 2003). There are still more
doubts about the feasibility of the exploitation rights to nuclear energy. The future of
the nuclear industry to a large extent on the ability of the industry to convince the
public the existence and availability of appropriate techniques to reduce hazard
associated with radiation. Day by day radiation protection becomes more and more
important topic to be investigated in nuclear science (Ali Basheer et al. 2013). Shielding
from gamma rays is more difficult than others because gamma photons have no mass
and charge and hold high-energy, they can readily penetrate into the matter.
One of the most widely used materials in reactor shielding is concrete; it is
basically, a mixture of Portland cement, sand, coarse aggregates and water. It is cheap,
easy to prepare in different compositions, and easy to form and to use in construction
works. Radiation shielding concrete can be used to attenuate both neutron and gamma
rays. The photon interaction with the matter depends on the incoming photon energy
and the density of the shielding material. The concrete shielding properties may vary
depending on the material components of the concrete. Aggregates are the largest
constituent (about 70%-80% of the total weight of normal concrete). Heavy concrete
materials are those with the density greater than 2600 kg/m3.
Portland cement is the main cementitious component of conventional concrete.
Several papers are found working on improvement of concrete properties to suit the
shielding requirements. They mostly concentrate on reducing the water contents, using
other cementitious materials such as steel blast furnace slags, silica fumes and
polymeric compounds rather than Portland cement. In order to achieve higher density,
some researchers try to entirely or partially replace the traditional fillers of concrete
(sand, gravel, cement) with materials possess larger specific gravity such as magnetite,
hematite, barite and colemanite. On the other hand, very few of these papers are on the
addition of metal particulates to concrete to enhance its density to be used for shielding
purposes Kan et al. (2004).

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

Gencel et al. have investigated the engineering properties of concrete containing


colemanite at different proportions. For long time lead was used for anti-radiation
protection whether alone or within concrete walls. Recently the toxicity of lead steered
researchers to look for alternative materials. Other materials such as steel in
paraffin/poly-ethylene, hydrogen, silicon or carbon, boron and depleted uranium were
proposed for anti-radiation protection (Kaplan, 1989 and Rammah, et al. 2003). These
materials are not easy to be processed, relatively expensive, not abundant. Radiation
shielding commonly used to protect medical patients and workers from exposure to
direct and secondary radiation during diagnostic imaging in hospitals, clinics,
radiological facilities and dental offices. The effectiveness of radiation shielding varies
significantly with the attenuation coefficients of the constituent materials, the thickness
of the material and the energy spectrum of the radiation. The most used are lead, iron
and steel, Lead is often used because of its high atomic number and density, but it has
significant disadvantages toxic, not environment-friendly and there are several attempts
to replace the shield by environment-friendly materials. There are three general rules
for protection such as exposure time, distance, and shielding.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 Sample preparation


In this paper, a sample of the brick work has been designed in a specialist factory brick
industry. Samples were depending on the installation of brick (Sand - Cement - Gravel)
by 1:2:4 and install the add iron filings in all my samples of different thickness In the
thickness of 6 cm was the installation of brick 750 g of cement and 1,500 g of sand and
3000 g of Gravel for stander sample had been without any addition and the rest of the
samples of the bricks to reduce 30% of for each the cement and sand and Gravel and the
addition of iron filings and in thickness for the second samples of 3 cm was the
installation of brick 350 g of cement and 750 g of sand and 1,500 g gravel designed for
samples in this thickness in the same way. Were collected iron filings various
workshops and industrial zone in Khartoum it was mixed in the concrete particle
mixture for 20 minutes, which was considered enough to achieve a good homogeneity.
Was rated bulk density () of the samples prepared by weight and dimensions of the
sample directly measuring. The Portland cement (ATBARA cement company) used in
all the mixtures was manufactured according to the European Standards EN 196-1

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

(1994) and EN 197-2 (2000) and labeled as CEM II/A-M (P-LL) 42.5N, as shown in tables
2.1 and 2.2.

Samples SSA SSX30% Ssy30% Ssz30%


6cm Standard Reduce 30% cement Reduce 30% sand Reduce 30 % gravel
3cm Standard Reduce 30% cement Reduce 30% sand Reduce 30 % gravel
Table 2.1: Table showing the installation of the samples (g)

Samples Slabs of20203-6 cm dimension were fabricated to be later used for measuring
the radiation transmission or absorption properties.

Elementals SSA SSX30 SSY30 SSZ30


LOi 2.99 2.93 2.97 2.98
MgO 1.63 1.59 1.61 1.63
So 3 2.87 2.82 2.85 2.86
CL 0.018 0.016 0.017 0.019
Na2 O2 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.64
Sio2 20.76 27.74 25.72 26.75
Al2 O2 5.14 5.12 5.13 5.15
Fe2 O2 3.43 8.42 8.54 9.01
Table 2.2: presents the chemical composition of the concrete samples

2.2 Experimental setup


The samples slabs were irradiated under the irradiation conditions the samples were
placed between the Source and Detector take an average of ten readings, Radiation
beam gamma radiation from Cs-137 with Activity 740 GBg and Energy 662kev. The
detector was 2575-600cc thin window ionization chamber with farmer electrometer
manufacture by technology ENGLAND. Wall material SRBP, Collecting electrode
material is polypropylene graphite coated. And the chamber has additional three
windows A-B and C made of clear melinex and used for different energies. Exposure
for 1min, 2m distance the detector from the radiation source.

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

Figure 2.1: Cs-137 container and the ionization chamber

2.3 Attenuation coefficient equation


After the readings were taken, the Beer-Lambert law the parameter a (in units of cm-1)
represents the absorption properties of the attenuating medium. For photons, it is
referred to as the linear attenuation coefficient and is denoted as . The defining
equation for the mass attenuation coefficient is essentially a different way to write the
Beer-Lambert la w. The Beer-Lambert law is normally written

(2.1)

Where I0 is the original intensity of the beam, I is the intensity of the beam at distance
into the substance, e is Euler's number, about 2.718 and the leaner attenuation
coefficient.
When discussing the mass attenuation coefficient, this equation is rewritten:

(2.2)

Where Is the density, is the mass attenuation coefficient and is the area
density known also as mass thickness.
In accordance with the above, the mass attenuation coefficient is equal to the
attenuation coefficient divided by the density. The values of the standard deviations ten
positions for each fabricated sample were calculated. The half value level (HVL) for the

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

fabricated samples of combined waste material of different granule sizes was calculated
according the following formula:

HVL = 0.693/ (2.3)

whereas, HVL is the average amount of material needed to absorb 50% of all radiation,
it is related to mean free path, however the mean free path (mpf) of a pencil beam of
mono-energetic photons is the average distance that the photon travels between
successive collisions with the atoms of the absorbed material. It depends on the material
and the energy of the photons, mpf was calculated using the following formula:

(2.4)

2.4 Compressive strength


The 14 and 28-day compressive strength of concrete specimens prepared with filling
iron as expected, the 28-day compressive strength was more than that of 14-day value.
However, the difference between the 14-day and28 -day compressive strength was not
that significant. The compressive strength was in the range of 5065 MPa. Maximum
compressive strength, both at 14- and 28-days, was noted in the concrete specimens
with equal proportions of filling iron. The high strength of concrete may be attributed to
the hard nature of the aggregate. Similar results have been reported by other
researchers on concrete prepared with hematite aggregates (Gencel et al., 2010b;
Gencel, 2011a, b).

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

From figure 3.1 show that the intensity of radiation which emits from Cs-137 with
Activity 740 GBg and energy 662keV were emerged from the samples with thickness
3cm and 6cm with and without iron filing. The different component of concrete block,
which consist of cement, sand, gravel and the percentage of these components, which
were played important role in attenuation properties, such as, Linear Attenuation
Coefficient (LAC), Mass Attenuation Coefficient (MAC), Mean Free Path (MFP) and the
Half Value Layer (HVL).

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

Figure 3.1: Show the intensity of radiation without iron filing for each sample

Samples SSA SSX SSY SSZ


0.112680809 0.184954102 0.172706961 0.209452758
/(cm /g)
2 0.003863342 0.006341283 0.005921382 0.007181237
Mf 8.874625677 5.406746815 5.790154561 4.77434629
HVL 6.150115594 3.746875543 4.012577111 3.308621979
Table 3.1: The attenuation properties for concrete and iron concrete samples
(thickness 6cm)

Samples SSA SSX SSY SSZ


0.118173504 0.164724823 0.159109864 0.227971194
/(cm2/g) 0.00472694 0.006588993 0.006364395 0.009118848
Mf 8.462133795 6.070730454 6.284965464 4.386519114
HVL 5.86425872 4.207016205 4.355481066 3.039857746
Table 3.2: Linear and mass attenuation coefficient, mean free path and the half value layer
(thickness 3cm)

From Fig. 3.2 and 3.3: it clear that the averages of linear and mass attenuation
coefficients were increased with increasing the thickness for all samples, including SSA
it is concrete without filling iron and concrete iron which are including SSX,SSY and
SSZ they are filling with iron replacement of reduce 30% for cement, sand and grovel in
concrete respectively. Samples reduce 30% of grovel in concrete (SSZ) particulates,
exhibited the highest values for linear attenuation coefficients as opposed to other
samples. This results obtained in this study contradict those obtained by Ali Basheer et
al 2013; because they were used difference of concrete component (reduce 30% of sand
in concrete and with waste iron).

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

Figure 3.2: The average linear attenuation coefficients of the examined samples

Figure 3.3: The average mass linear attenuation coefficients of the examined samples

From Figs. 3.3 and 3.4 it clears that the mean free path (MFP) and half value layer (HVL)
were decreases when the linear attenuation coefficients increased because the
relationship between the MFP and HVL for the attenuation coefficient was
determined from the basic definition of the MFP& HVL in equations (2.3) and (2.4). The
photon MFP is the average distance a photon of energy h travels through a given
absorber before undergoing an interaction. The decreases of MFP& HVL for all concrete
samples may be attributed to samples of higher wt % of iron concrete which takes
relatively shorter distance to attenuate the same radiation. From example, the mean free
path for SSZ with 6cm was 4.8 cm while its value for 3cm was 4.4 cm.

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

The interaction of radiation with matter clearly defined that the photon going
interaction with shielding material in three ways depending on incident photon energy
in this case we only have one energy (Cs-137 with 662 KeV).

Figure (4.4) Variation of MFP as a function of the additives of all samples

Figure 3.5: Shows (HVL) concrete samples

4. CONCLUSION

The results from this study reveals that the concretes heavy the addition of iron filings
have the desired gamma absorption capabilities and it is vital to follow the good

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

geometry conditions in measuring the attenuation characteristics of a shielding


material. The following main conclusions had been drowning:
1. The maximum linear attenuation coefficients () were attained for concrete
incorporates iron filling of 30 wt %Substitute of basic concrete of gravel sample SSZ can
be utilized successfully as an additive to anti-radiation concrete to improve the
structure and the bulk density of concrete and in turn its attenuation performance.
2. Iron filing which replacement reduce 30% of grovel in concrete (SSZ)
particulates, exhibited the highest values for linear attenuation coefficients as opposed
to other samples.
3. The results proved that dispersion and grain size of the added particulates have
great impact on attenuation performance of the concreteadditives composite samples
besides the bulk density and porosity level of the solidified concrete mix.
4. Taking into account the economic feasibility and ease of application with the
availability of materials for the goal to create a private radiation and keeping waste in
an easier and less financial cost of rooms.

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

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AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 2 Issue 1 2015
Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Odi Hassaan Alawad Alahassan, Mohammad Hbeeb Ahmad Elkanzi, Mobark Dirar
Abdelha- THE EFFECT OF REPLACEMENTS 30% FOR EACH CONCRETE COMPONENT BY IRON FILLING
IN CONCRETE ON ATTENUATION PROPERTIES

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