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Lecture 4: Energy and Metabolism

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


Energy

Potential energy of the food (chemical bonds) is converted


into kinetic energy (Cheetahs movement).

Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be


created or destroyed.

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


Free energy change, G
The change in free energy (G) during a
process is related to:
(H) (enthalpy); (bonding energy)
the change in entropy (S); (order/disorder)
and the temperature (in Kelvin) (T):
G = H TS

Only processes with a negative G are


spontaneous.

Spontaneous processes can be harnessed to


perform work.
Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia
Exergonic and endergonic reactions in
metabolism

An exergonic reaction
proceeds with a net
release of free energy
and is spontaneous.

An endergonic reaction
absorbs free energy from
its surroundings and is
nonspontaneous.

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic
reactions to endergonic reactions

To do work, cells manage energy resources


by energy coupling: the use of an exergonic
process to drive an endergonic one.

Most energy coupling in cells is mediated by


ATP.

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


The structure and hydrolysis of ATP
ATP (adenosine
triphosphate) is the
energy shuttle of the
cell.

ATP is composed of
ribose (a sugar),
adenine (a
nitrogenous base),
and three phosphate
groups.

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


How ATP drives chemical work

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


Catabolism

Catabolic pathways
release energy by
breaking down complex
molecules into simpler
compounds.
Cellular respiration, the
breakdown of glucose in
the presence of oxygen, is
an example of a pathway
of catabolism.
Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia
Cellular respiration breaks down glucose molecules
Cellular
and banks respiration
their energy in ATPbanks energy
in the form of ATP molecules

C6H12O6 +
C66H12OO6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 6+ 6COH2O+ + Energy
2 2 6 HO
(ATP
+
+ATPs
heat) 2

Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon Water Energy


dioxide

Figure 6.3

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


Glycolysis, citric acid cycle and
An overview of cellular respiration
oxidative phosphorylation
NADH
High-energy
electrons
carried by NADH NADH FADH2
and

GLYCOLYSIS OXIDATIVE
CITRIC ACID PHOSPHORYLATION
Glucose Pyruvate
CYCLE (Electron Transport
and Chemiosmosis)

Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm

CO2 CO2 ATP


ATP ATP

Substrate-level Substrate-level Oxidative


Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia
phosphorylation phosphorylation phosphorylation
Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by
Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by
oxidising glucose to pyruvate
oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

In glycolysis a glucose molecule is split into two


molecules of pyruvate

2 NAD+ 2 NADH + 2 H+

Glucose
2 Pyruvate
2 ADP +2 P 2 ATP

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


uvate is chemically groomed for the
citricisacid
Pyruvate cycle groomed
chemically
o the citric for
acidthe
cycle citric acid cycle.
enzymes process pyruvate,
ingCO 2 and
Before theproducing NADH
citric acid cycle can and acetyl
begin, CoA
pyruvate
must be converted to acetyl CoA, which links the
cycle to glycolysis.

NAD+ NADH + H+

CoA
Pyruvate Acetyl CoA
1
3 (acetyl coenzyme A)

CO2
Coenzyme A

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


The citric acid cycle completes the
The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of
oxidation
organic of organic
fuel, generating fuel
more NADH and FADH 2
molecules
In the citric acid cycle the 2 carbons of acetyl Co A are oxidized
and more NADH and FADH2 are produced
Acetyl CoA
CoA
CoA

2 CO2
CITRIC ACID CYCLE

FADH2
3 NAD+

FAD 3 NADH
+
3 H+
ATP ADP + P
Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia
Figure 6.9A
Energy coupling mechanism
In chemiosmosis, the H+ diffuses back through
the inner membrane through ATP synthase
complexes driving the synthesis of ATP

H+ H+ H+ H+
+
Protein H
H+ Electron H+ ATP
. complex + H+ synthase
carrier H
Intermembrane
space

Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
Electron FADH2 FAD
flow 1
NADH NAD+ O2 + 2 H+
2
H+

Mitochondrial H+
+
matrix H+ H2O ADP P ATP
H+

Electron Transport Chemiosmosis


Chain

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia
The stages of cellular respiration
Cellular respiration has three stages:

Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two


molecules of pyruvate.
the citric acid cycle completes the breakdown of
glucose producing a small amount of ATP.
Supplies the next stage with electrons.
and oxidative phosphorylation accounts for
most of the ATP synthesis. Uses the energy
released by falling electrons to pump H+ across a
membrane. Harness the energy to produce ATP.

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia


Each molecule of glucose
yields
Review: many molecules
Each molecule
molecules of ATP
of
of glucose yieldsATP
many

Oxidative phosphorylation, using electron transport and


chemiosmosis and produces up to 38 ATP molecules for each
glucose molecule that enters cellular respiration
Electron shuttle
across membrane Mitochondrion
2 NADH 2 NADH
Cytoplasm
2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH2

OXIDATIVE
GLYCOLYSIS 2 Acetyl PHOSPHORYLATION
Glucose 2 CITRIC ACID
Pyruvate CoA CYCLE
(Electron Transport
and Chemiosmosis)

+ 2 ATP + 2 ATP + about 34 ATP


by substrate-level by substrate-level by oxidative phosphorylation
phosphorylation phosphorylation

Figure 6.12 Maximum per glucose: About


38 ATP
Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia
Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
can all fuel
Carbohydrates, cellular
fats, respiration
and proteins
fuel cellular respiration
can all

They are converted to molecules that enter glycolysis


or the citric acid cycle
Food, such as
peanuts

Carbs Fats Proteins

Sugars Glycerol Fatty acids Amino acids


Amino
groups

CITRIC OXIDATIVE
Glucose G3P Pyruvate Acetyl
CoA ACID PHOSPHORYLATION
GLYCOLYSIS
CYCLE

ATP

Figure 6.14
Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia
You should now be able to
Describe the different forms of energy (potential,
kinetic and Gibbs free).

Explain the role of ATP as an energy bank and


how it can be utilized to allow non-spontaneous
reactions to occur.

Explain the fate of glucose during cellular


respiration (i.e. glycolysis, citric acid cycle,
oxidative phosphorylation)

Campbell, Reece, Meyers Biology 8e 2009 Pearson Education Australia