Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

4/20/2016 AgeneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionsPart2JobKnowledge68

Accessibility TextOnly SiteMap

TechnicalCapabilities Membership TrainingandExaminations


TWIGlobal

> TechnicalKnowledge > JobKnowledge > Ageneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshape


imperfectionsPart2

Share:

Ageneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshape
imperfectionsPart2
JobKnowledge68
ClickhereforPart1.

Thissecondarticleonshapeimperfectionsrefersmostlytofilletweldsbuttherearetwoadditionalbuttweld
imperfectionsthatrequiresomecomment.

Excessivepenetration(Excesspenetrationbead)

Fig.1.Excesspenetration

Excessweldmetalprotrudingthroughtherootofafusion(butt)weldmadefromonesideonly.

Withpipeweldingthistypeofimperfectionmaycauseeffectsinthefluidflowthatcancauseerosionand/orcorrosion
problems.

Commoncauses
Penetrationbecomesexcessivewhenthejointgapistoolarge,therootfacesaretoosmall,theheatinputtothejoint
istoohighoracombinationofthesecauses.

Acceptance
Thecriteriawhichsetsthelevelofacceptablepenetrationdependsprimarilyontheapplicationcodeorspecification.

BS2971(Class2arcwelding)requiresthatthe'penetrationbeadshallnotexceed3mmforpipesuptoandincluding
150mmboreor6mmforpipesover150mmbore'.

BS2633(Class1arcwelding)givesspecificlimitsforsmallerdiameterspipes,egforpipesize2550mmthe
maximumallowedborepenetrationis2.5mm.

ASMEB31.3basesacceptabilityonthenominalthicknessoftheweld,forinstance,allowingforathicknessrangeof
1325mmupto4mmofprotrusion.However,ASMEnotesthat'morestringentcriteriamaybespecifiedinthe
engineeringdesign'.

BSENISO5817(Qualitylevelsforimperfections),whichsupersedesBSEN25817,relatestheacceptableprotrusion
tothewidthoftheunderbeadasfollows:

Severityofservice Moderate,D Stringent,B


Limit(uptomaximum) h1mm+1.0b h1mm+0.2b
Maximum 5mm 3mm
Forthicknesses>3mmwhere:h=heightofexcess&b=widthofroot
(seeFig.1)

http://www.twiglobal.com/technicalknowledge/jobknowledge/ageneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionspart2068/ 1/6
4/20/2016 AgeneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionsPart2JobKnowledge68

Avoidance
Itisimportanttoensurethatjointfitupisasspecifiedintheweldingprocedure.Ifweldertechniqueistheproblem
thenretrainingisrequired.

Rootconcavity(suckbackunderwashing)

Fig.2.Rootconcavity

Ashallowgroovethatmayoccurintherootofabuttweld.

Commoncauses
Rootconcavityiscausedbyshrinkageoftheweldpoolinthethroughthicknessdirectionoftheweld.Meltingofthe
rootpassbythesecondpasscanalsoproducerootconcavity.

ThisimperfectionisfrequentlyassociatedwithTIGweldingwiththemostcommoncausebeingpoorpreparation
leavingtherootgapeithertoosmallor,insomecases,toolarge.Excessivelyhighweldingspeedsmakethe
formationofrootconcavitymorelikely.

Acceptance
Therootconcavitymaybeacceptable.Thiswilldependontherelevantstandardbeingworkedto.Forexample:

BS2971requiresthat:
a)thereiscompleterootfusion
b)thethicknessoftheweldisnotlessthanthepipethickness.

ASMEB31.3requiresthatthe'totaljointthickness,includingweldreinforcement,mustbegreaterthantheweld
thickness'.

BSENISO5817setsupperlimitsrelatedtothequalitylevel,egforthicknesses>3mmModerate,(D),h0.2tbut
max2mmforStringent,(B),h0.05tbutmax0.5mm.Furthermore,asmoothtransitionisrequiredattheweld
toes.

Ineffectthestandardsrequirethattheminimumdesignthroatthicknessofthefinishedweldmentisachieved.Ifthe
firsttwoconditionsofacceptancearemetbuttheweldfacedoesnothaveasufficientlyhighcap,additionalweld
metalmaybedepositedtoincreasethethroat.

Avoidance
Itisimportanttoensurethatjointfitupisasspecifiedintheweldingprocedureandthatthedefinedparametersare
beingfollowed.Ifweldertechniqueistheproblemthenretrainingisrequired.

Filletweldedjoints
ThisSectionshouldbereadinconjunctionwithJobKnowledge66Filletweldedjointsareviewofthepracticalities.

Excessiveconvexity

http://www.twiglobal.com/technicalknowledge/jobknowledge/ageneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionspart2068/ 2/6
4/20/2016 AgeneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionsPart2JobKnowledge68

Fig.3.Excessiveconvexity

Thisfeatureisalsocoveredbythedefinitionforexcessweldmetal,seePart1,andmaybedescribedasweldmetal
lyingoutsidetheplanejoiningtheweldtoes.Notethattheterm'reinforcement',althoughusedextensivelyinthe
ASME/AWSspecificationsisavoidedinEuropeasitimpliesthatexcessmetalcontributestothestrengthofthewelded
joint.Thisisrarelythecase.

Commoncauses
Poortechniqueandthedepositionoflargevolumesof'cold'weldmetal.

Acceptance
Theidealiseddesignrequirementofa'mitre'filletweldisoftendifficulttoachieve,particularlywithmanualwelding
processes.

BSENISO5817acceptanceisbasedonamitrefilletweldshapewithaspecificdesignthroatandanyexcessweld
metalismeasuredinrelationtothismitresurface.Thelimitsforthisimperfectionrelatetheheightoftheexcess
metaltothewidthofthebeadwithmaximumvaluesrangingfrom3mmforastringentqualitylevelto5mmfora
moderatequalitylevel.Surprisingly,thereisnoreferencetoa'smoothtransition'beingrequiredattheweldtoesfor
suchweldshape.

AWSD1.1alsohaslimitsrelatingwidthtoacceptableexcessasfollows:

Widthofweldface Maximumconvexity
W8mm 2mm
W<8toW<25mm 3mm
W25mm 5mm
Avoidance
Weldertechniqueisthemajorcauseofthisproblemandtrainingmayberequired.Itisalsoimportanttoensurethat
theparametersspecifiedintheweldingproceduresspecificationareadheredto.

Oversizefilletwelds(weldswithathroatlargerthanrequiredbythe
design)

Fig.4.Oversizefilletweld

AsdiscussedinJobKnowledge66,oversizefilletweldscanrepresentasignificantadditionalcostandlossof
productivity.

Commoncauses
http://www.twiglobal.com/technicalknowledge/jobknowledge/ageneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionspart2068/ 3/6
4/20/2016 AgeneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionsPart2JobKnowledge68

Therearesomeweldingrelatedcauses,eghighweldingcurrent,slowtravelspeeds,andsomesupervisionrelated(eg
'tobesafemakethisfilletbiggerbyxmm').

Acceptance
BSENISO5817haslimitsrelatedtotheactualthroat(egforstringentqualitylevels,theactualweldthroat[a]may
exceedthenominal(design)weldthroat[h]by1+0.15awithamaximumof3mm.Forthemoderatequalitylevel(D)
theexcessivethroatthicknessisunlimited.

Avoidance
Adheretothespecifiedweldingprocedureandparametersanddonotaddtothespecifiedweldsize.Wherepossible
mechanisetheweldingoperation.

Undersizedfilletwelds(filletweldssmallerthanthosespecified)

Fig.5.Undersizedfilletweld

Commoncauses
Theweldingrelatedcausesareassociatedwithhighweldingspeedsandlowweldingcurrents.

Acceptance
Therefore,itisnormallyassumedthatfilletweldswillbeatleastofthesizespecified.BSENSIO5817statesthat
limitstoinsufficientthroatthicknessarenotapplicabletoprocesseswithproofofgreaterdepthofpenetration,
thereforeafilletweldwithanapparentthroatthicknesssmallerthatthatprescribedshouldnotberegardedasbeing
imperfectiftheactualthroatthicknesswithacompensatinggreaterdepthofpenetrationcomplieswiththenominal
value.Thatisifwecanbesurethereisgoodpenetrationthesmallerfilletmaybeacceptable,however,thisshouldbe
discussedwiththedesignerofthefabrication.Thelimitssetbythestandard.

Relyingupondeeppenetrationtoprovidetherequiredminimumdesignthroatthicknesscanbedifficulttojustify.
Penetrationisaweldcharacteristicthatishardtomeasuredirectlyandreliancemustbeplacedonthestringent
controlofboththeweldingprocessandthewelder.Manualweldingcanrarelybereliedupontoprovidetherequired
consistencybutitisanoptionwithmechanisedweldingsystems.

Qualitylevels
Imperfection:filletweldModerateD IntermediateC StringentB
havingathroat
LongimperfectionsNOTpermitted NOTpermitted
thicknesssmallerthan
thenominalvalue Shortimperfections(seeFig.5)h0.3mm+0.1a
max2mm max1mm
Avoidance
Adheretothespecifiedweldingprocedureandparameters.Usesufficientcurrentandappropriatetravelspeed.Where
possiblemechanisetheweldingoperation.

Asymmetricfilletweld(afilletweldwherethelegsareofunequal
length)

http://www.twiglobal.com/technicalknowledge/jobknowledge/ageneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionspart2068/ 4/6
4/20/2016 AgeneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionsPart2JobKnowledge68

Fig.6.Asymmetricfilletweld

Commoncauses
Duetoincorrectelectrodepositioningortogravitypullingthemoltenpooltowardsonefaceofthejoint.Itisan
mainlyaproblemwithfilletweldsmadeinthehorizontal/vertical(PB)position.

Acceptance
Thereareinstanceswhereasymmetrymaybespecified(egtoplacethetoestressconcentrationinaparticular
region).

BSENISO5817would,fora10mmleglengthfilletweld(ie7.1mmthroat)allowadifferenceinleglengthsofabout
2.5mmatthestringentqualityleveland3.4mmatthemoderatequalitylevel.Acceptanceisrelatedtothethroat
thickness.

Theconsequenceofthisimperfectionisasignificantincreaseinweldvolume.Providedtheleglengthrequirementis
achievedtherewouldnotbealossofstrength.Perhapsthisiswhy,inotherstandards,arequirementisnotspecified
andtheacceptabilityislefttotheinspectionpersonneltomakethe'engineeringjudgement'!

Poorfitup

Fig.7.Poorfitup

Themostcommonimperfectionisanexcessivegapbetweenthematingfacesofthematerials.

Commoncauses
Poorworkshoppractice,poordimensioningandtolerancedimensionsondrawings.

Acceptance
Amajorproblemwithfilletweldsisensuringthegapbetweenthecomponentsiswithindefinedlimits.BSENISO
5817specifiestheacceptancecriteriaasfollows:

Qualitylevels
ModerateD IntermediateC StringentB
h1mm+0.3a h0.5mm+0.2a h0.5mm+0.1a
max4mm max3mm max2mm
Whereh=fitupgapanda=filletwelddesignthroat

http://www.twiglobal.com/technicalknowledge/jobknowledge/ageneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionspart2068/ 5/6
4/20/2016 AgeneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionsPart2JobKnowledge68

Figure7showsthatthegapresultsinareductionintheleglengthontheverticalplateandthis,inturn,resultsina
reductioninthethroatthicknessofthejoint.A10mmleglengthfilletwitharootgapof3mmgivesaneffectivelegof
7mm(athroatof4.9mminsteadoftheexpected7mm).

WhentheapplicationofBSENISO5817isnotrequired,theguidanceofBSEN10112canbefollowed,which
recommendsamaximumgapof3mm.Thisstandardalsostatesthatthesizeofthefilletweldcanbeincreasedto
compensateforalargegap.

ThisdiscrepancyisaddressedwithinAWSD1.1.whichpermitsarootgapofupto5mmformaterialthicknessupto
75mm.However,'ifthe(joint)separationisgreaterthan2mmthelegofthefilletweldshallbeincreasedbythe
amountoftherootopening,orthecontractorshalldemonstratethattheeffectivethroathasbeenobtained'.

ThisJobKnowledgearticlewasoriginallypublishedinConnect,January2004.Ithasbeenupdatedsothewebpage
nolongerreflectsexactlytheprintedversion.

http://www.twiglobal.com/technicalknowledge/jobknowledge/ageneralreviewofthecausesandacceptanceofshapeimperfectionspart2068/ 6/6