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A CFD APPROACH VIA LES TO THE FLOW FIELD WITH COMPLEX GEOMETRICAL CONFIGURATIOS

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A CFD APPROACH VIA LES TO THE FLOW FIELD WITH COMPLEX GEOMETRICAL CONFIGURATIOS

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2009-01-0332

with Complex Geometrical Configurations:

A Study Case of Vehicle Underbody Flows

Kozo Kitoh

Kozo Kitoh Technology, Inc.

Nobuyuki Oshima

Hokkaido University

Makoto Yamamoto

Tokyo University of Science

Simone Sebben

Volvo Car Corporation

configurations is not so simple even via present experi-

CFD is becoming an inevitable modern engineering tool mental methods. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is

in the vehicle aerodynamics. A LES based CFD ap- becoming an inevitable modern engineering tool in the

proach is proposed for analysis for flows with complex vehicle aerodynamic development process, however,

geometrical configurations to which detailed experiments, high grid-density large eddy simulation (LES) or direct

high grid-density LES or DNS cannot be applicable. numerical simulation (DNS), which can resolve the

How CFD results should be evaluated for cases in which boundary layer near the wall, are presently still not

the related experiments are not available. The proce- available. Some practical CFD methods or procedures

dure proposed consists of four stages, i.e., inspections should be developed for flows with complex geometrical

of solutions with coarse and fine meshes, reconfirmation configurations to which detailed experiments, high grid-

of energy spectrum, references to the similar experi- density LES or DNS cannot be applicable.

ments, explanations of results obtained. The proce-

dures are applied to the underbody flows with a semi- If these methods or procedures are developed, they can

complex underbody configuration. be also useful, when estimating aerodynamic drag coef-

ficient (CD) of a newly proposed vehicle body and rating

INTRODUCTION several vehicle models in terms of CD in early aerody-

namic design stage of the vehicle body, because there

Aerodynamic drag reduction of vehicles is intensively are no corresponding experimental data available at that

required in the vehicle design. To achieve it, beside design stage.

exterior body optimization, underbody flows are focused

and effects of wheel rotation on wake flows are being In this paper, to begin with, basic CFD investigations are

investigated [1-2]. To know effects of underbody flows carried out focusing on a simplified vehicle body, i.e.,

on aerodynamic drag formation, it is naturally necessary ASMO (Aerodynamisches Studien Modell) [3-4]. Com-

to investigate underbody and wake flow fields in depth. parisons are made between LES and the standard k-

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dependency of solutions, to clarify effectiveness of LES fs 1 exp (7)

25

for unsteady vehicle underbody and wake flow fields.

where y+ is non-dimensional distance from the wall.

A CFD approach using LES with the standard Sma-

The governing equations are discretized based on the

gorinsky model is proposed for analysis of complex flow

unstructured vertex-based finite volume method. Sec-

fields, such as underbody and wake flows of the vehicle.

ond order accuracy central differencing is applied to the

The procedures proposed are inspections of solutions

spatial discretization except for convection terms, in

with coarse and fine grids, reconfirmation of energy

which 5% of the first order upwind scheme is blended for

spectrum, references to the similar experiments, expla-

computational stability. Second order Adams-Bashforth

nations of results obtained via CFD simulation.

scheme is adopted for time marching. Effects of the

upwind scheme in the computation are regarded small,

The procedures proposed are applied to the underbody as solutions do not change largely when mesh sizes are

flows with a semi-complex underbody configuration. changed.

Volvo V50 is used as exterior vehicle body, which has a

more complex configuration than the ASMO vehicle

Regarding boundary conditions, fixed velocity is im-

body. Effects of underbody configurations on interac-

posed on inlet boundary (with zero turbulence intensity)

tions of underbody and wake flows are shown.

and zero-gradient flow condition is imposed on outlet

boundary. Free-slip condition is imposed on the side

COMPUTATIONAL METHOD and ceiling of a rectangular parallelepiped computational

domain and also on upstream section of the ground floor

Governing equations adopted for LES computation in from vehicle front end in the case of ASMO vehicle body.

this study are spatially-filtered continuity and Navier- Solid wall condition is imposed on vehicle surface,

Stokes equations as shown below: ground floor in the vicinity of the vehicle, and down-

stream section of the ground floor (in the case of ASMO

wu i vehicle body) or entire ground floor (in the case of V50

0 (1)

wx i vehicle body).

w wP w

u iu j 2 Q Q SGS S ij (2) cle body surface is estimated from the velocity at the

wt wx j wx i wx j nearest grid point from the wall by assuming the log-law

mean velocity profile, and is explicitly imposed on the

1 wu j wu i wall as the boundary condition. For the condition of

S ij (3) moving ground and rotating wheels (MVG&RW), inlet

2 wx wx j

i flow velocity is imposed on the ground floor and also on

the surface of the wheel. Time increment is set to be

P

p U uiui u i u i 3 (4) 2.0x10-6 and 2.0x10-5 for ASMO and V50, respectively.

Computational steps were 100,000 and 25,000-43,500

for ASMO and V50, respectively.

where u i , p , Q and U are spatially-filtered velocity,

pressure, kinetic viscosity and density, respectively. The Note that computations for the standard k-epsilon model

last term on the right of Navier-Stokes equation (Eq. (2)) in the basic investigation in this paper are based on the

is the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress term to be modeled. description by Launder and Spalding [7]. Mesh system

The SGS eddy viscosity Q SGS is modeled based on the and boundary conditions are the same with those of LES.

TVD third order upwind scheme is applied to convection

Smagorinskys eddy viscosity model [5]: terms of momentum equation and central differencing for

other terms. First order Euler implicit method is used for

Q SGS C s f s ' 2 2 S ij S ij (5) time integration. Time increment is set to be 10-4. Con-

vergence condition for variables is 10-3. Turbulence,

which corresponds to 0.1% of the main stream, is im-

' ' x1' x 2 ' x3 1 3 (6) posed on inlet boundary. Dissipation rate, which is cal-

culated from the condition of turbulence Reynolds num-

where the model coefficient in Eq. (5) is given as ber Rt=500, is imposed on inlet boundary.

Cs=0.15 in this study, which is typically used for flows

around a rectangular cylinder. Eq. (6) shows spatial fil- The CFD code FrontFlow/red (FFr) ver. 2.7, which was

ter width, expressing one third power of the volume of developed at Inst. of Industrial Science, University of

vertex-based generic numerical element. The following Tokyo under the project of Revolutionary Simulation

Van-Driest type damping function is also adopted for the Software for Industrial Science, was used in this study.

solid wall treatment: The Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports,

Science and Technology (MEXT) supported the devel-

opment project [6].

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Computations were carried out on the computer systems Figs. 5 (a) and (b) show pressure distribution on the

of SR11000 (scalar machine) at University of Tokyo and base surface of vehicle body on its center line cross sec-

Hokkaido University and on the Earth Simulator (vector tion (at y/B=0), respectively in the cases of LES and the

machine) of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and standard k-epsilon model (KEM).

Technology (JAMSTEC).

Experimental data are also shown in Fig. 5 [3-4]. The

Parallel computations were performed using 16 CPUs experiment was performed using the 1/5 scale model

on SR11000 system and 256 CPUs on the Earth Simu- wind tunnel at Volvo Car [3]. Inlet velocity is 50 m/s and

lator. The former was used for computations of ASMO Reynolds number (based on vehicle width) is 9.56x105.

with smaller mesh size and those of V50, and the latter Effect of a difference in Reynolds number between com-

for those of ASMO with larger mesh size. Computer putation and experiment was checked to be small in

memories required were ca. 0.5 KB per element on the terms of pressure distribution in the case of grid M.

SR11000 system and ca. 6.2 KB per element on the

Earth Simulator. From Fig. 5, effects of mesh size on the solutions are

relatively small in the range of mesh size of 5.50-24.30

BASIC INVESTIGATION millions for both turbulence models. In the case of LES

even with mesh size of 1.3 million, center part of the

In the normal CFD practice, how to select a turbulence base pressure is similar to that with mesh size of 5.50-

model, how many mesh sizes should be used and how 24.30 millions. This means LES can reproduce center

to construct mesh system, especially near the wall, are part of the base pressure even with relatively small

practically very important processes. A good mesh gen- mesh size.

eration is time-consuming process, which needs a lot of

experiences. In this section, focusing on LES and the Sharp numerical values in the LES solutions are seen on

standard k-epsilon model, solutions are checked in the corner of vehicle body, e.g., at the end of roof. This

terms of grid dependency [8-9]. The former is gradually is due to lack of mesh density. They disappear by in-

getting attention as an unsteady turbulence model even creasing local mesh density or using prism mesh [10].

for flows with complex geometrical configuration in in-

dustrial applications and the latter is still dominant turbu- Note that pressure distribution on upper and lower sur-

lence model in the present vehicle aerodynamics. faces of the vehicle body is not so much influenced by

mesh size in the range of mesh size of 5.50-24.30 mil-

Vehicle model tested is 1/5 scale model of the European lions. Pressure distribution on the base surface is more

research vehicle model called ASMO (Aerodynamisches influenced by mesh size, needing finer mesh system

Studien Modell) with flat underbody configuration (see than upper and lower body surfaces.

Fig. 1). Mesh systems employed in this section are 3

types, i.e., grids S, M and L (see Fig. 2). They are re- Fig. 6 shows the relationship between pressure drag and

spectively 1.3 millions elements (0.23 millions vertices), mesh size in the cases of LES and the standard k-

5.5 millions (0.95 millions) and 24.3 millions (4.11 mil- epsilon model (KEM). The former is obtained by inte-

lions). Mesh systems are composed only by tetrahedral grating pressure distribution on the vehicle body surface.

elements. From the figure, although LES and KEM solutions show

still some grid dependency in the range of 5.50-24.30

Fig. 3 shows the rectangular parallelepiped computa- millions meshes, they are converging to a certain value

tional domain of (stream-wise) 15L x (side-wise) 7.5B x around mesh size of 24.30 millions, respectively. This

(vertical-wise) 4H, where L = vehicle length (0.81m), B = tendency is remarkable especially in the case of KEM.

vehicle width (0.29m), H = vehicle height (0.27m). For LES, another several 10 millions and more of mesh

Blockage ratio, i.e., ratio of side-wise cross-section of might be needed to be a grid-independent solution.

vehicle body and wind tunnel, is ca. 2.6%. Inlet velocity

is 50m/s and Reynolds number (based on vehicle width) It is a remarkable finding from Figs. 5 (a) and (b) that

is 7.97x105. Moving ground and rotating wheels LES of 24.30 millions mesh size reproduces the base

(MVG&RW) are not considered. pressure distribution, whereas KEM cannot realize it

even by increasing mesh size to 24.30 millions. LES

Non-dimensional distance from the wall of the grid point also well reproduces the pressure distribution in the dif-

adjacent to the wall (y+) was, e.g., 115.2 with the most fuser area of vehicle underbody than KEM (see Fig. 7).

dense mesh system (grid L). CPU times required were These findings are reconfirmed also by Fig. 8, where

20, 120 and 71.2 hours, respectively for mesh systems pressure distribution on the base surface away from

of grids S and M (on SR11000 system) and grid L (on center-line cross section (at y/B=0.345) is shown in the

the Earth Simulator). case of mesh size of 24.30 millions. The figure implies

that the pressure distribution even away from center-line

Approximately 90% of computational steps were used to cross section corresponds well to the experiment in LES

get time-averaged values of variables. Fig. 4 shows a than KEM.

typical time history of calculated aerodynamic drag coef-

ficient CD, e.g., in the case of mesh size of grid M. Pressure is almost constant vertically to the wall in the

boundary layer. Pressure on the vehicle body surface

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depends on the state of outer flow field beyond the LES APPROACH

boundary layer, except cases with separation in the

boundary layer, e.g., separation before the end of roof. For years, several evaluation methods or checking steps

Therefore, the fact above, i.e., pressure on the body sur- have been discussed regarding CFD simulation [13-14].

face is well reproduced by LES, means that outer flow Those are such as qualification in terms of physical

field around the vehicle is well reproduced, including the model employed (i.e., turbulence model for CFD), verifi-

wake behind the vehicle. In LES, large eddies are com- cation of computer code used (inc. numerical scheme)

puted by direct computation on grid-scale basis, by and validation of CFD results in terms of reality (i.e.,

which unsteady large eddies in the wake are captured. comparing with experimental data).

As a result, time-averaged pressure distribution on the

base surface is well reproduced. Thus, unsteady com- In the cases in which there are no experiments or in the

putation is found to be important to see the flow field cases in which high grid-density LES or DNS are not

around the vehicle. available, some practical CFD approaches or methods

are needed to evaluate CFD results obtained. Actually

Reproduction of the base pressure of vehicle body has in the early aerodynamic design stage of the vehicle

been regarded difficult for years [11]. The result via LES body, there are no corresponding experimental data. In

here implies that capturing unsteady flow field is essen- the course of digital design of vehicles, aerodynamicists

tial to reproduce the base pressure. Steady turbulence have to naturally evaluate aerodynamic performances of

model, such as the standard k-epsilon model, cannot a proposed vehicle model and to rate various vehicle

reproduce unsteady characteristics of the wake. Con- models without experiments. In this section, a LES ap-

sequently time-averaged pressure distribution on the proach with the standard Smagorinsky model is pro-

base surface is not realized. The computation here is posed in terms of how to evaluate such solutions for

limited to a simplified vehicle body with flat underbody, flows with complex geometrical configurations.

however, technological and industrial significance that

the base pressure is reproduced with LES using mesh A LES approach proposed here consists of two quantita-

size of 24.30 millions should be noted. Thus, usefulness tive and two qualitative stages, i.e.,

of LES was shown for evaluations of vehicle aerody-

namic performances. These findings might be qualita- Stage 1: inspection of solutions with coarse and fine

tively valid even for other vehicle bodies, but more stud- meshes

ies might be needed for other cases, especially for the Stage 2: checking energy spectrum of solutions

case with separation in the boundary layer (e.g., separa-

Stage 3: references to previous experiences or the

tion before the end of roof, etc.).

similar vehicle body configurations

Stage 4: explanations of results obtained via CFD

Figs. 9 (a) and (b) show velocity distribution in the wake

simulation

(at y/B=0), respectively in the cases of LES and the

standard k-epsilon model (KEM). Velocity is normalized

Stage 1: inspection of solutions with coarse and fine

by inlet velocity U0. In the figure, plotted are normalized

meshes - Theoretically a LES solution tends to approach

velocities at x/L=1.00 (position of 0 in the figure), 1.123

to exact solution (i.e., DNS solution) with increased

(position of 1), 1.247 (position of 2) and 1.370 (position

mesh sizes. Several solutions are compared with differ-

of 3), where x/L of 1.00 denotes the end of vehicle.

ent mesh sizes. Grid dependency of solutions is

From the figures, there is only a small difference be-

checked if solutions are to be converged toward a cer-

tween three meshes in the case of LES, except the vi-

tain value. An error of the solution in terms of mesh size

cinity of the wall, whereas there is a rather large differ-

can be estimated by comparing several results.

ence between 24.30 million and 1.30-5.50 millions in the

case of KEM, showing grid dependency.

Stage 2: checking energy spectrum of solutions - LES

with the standard Smagorinsky model is based on the

Fig. 10 shows velocity distribution in the wake in the

assumption that solutions are resolved at least with

cases of LES and KEM with mesh size of 24.30 millions.

scale of the inertial sub-range or with smaller scale,

There is a large difference between two models. The

where energy spectrum of the solutions is expressed by

reason for it stems from the fact whether unsteady char-

the Kolmogorovs 5/3 power law. Energy spectrum of

acteristics are captured or not, as in the case of the base

the solutions is checked if a LES solution is appropriate

pressure. In the case of backward facing step flow,

in terms of the Smagorinsky model based LES modeling,

there is almost no difference in time-averaged velocity

i.e., in terms of proper mesh size.

distribution between LES and KEM [12]. The results

here show that a large difference can exist even in time-

averaged characteristics, when unsteady characteristics Stage 3: references to previous experiences or the simi-

are dominant in the flow field. The experimental valida- lar vehicle body configurations - This is not so-called a

tions should be needed for this discussion. validation process of CFD simulations, however, refer-

ring to the similar experiments yields good hints if CFD

results obtained exit in a proper range of estimation or

they are approaching in the right direction toward exact

solution. In the early vehicle design process, a CFD

Downloaded from SAE International by Cranfield University, Sunday, November 26, 2017

code, which shows a good agreement with the experi- is 30m/s and Reynolds number (based on vehicle width)

ment for a certain vehicle configuration, is applied to a is 3.6x106. CPU times required for semi-complex un-

non-validated vehicle configuration. Such process is derbody with fine mesh were ca. 500 hours on SR11000

also one of the referring processes described here. system.

Stage 4: explanations of results obtained via CFD simu- Inspection of solutions with coarse and fine meshes -

lations - There are several flow fields in the vehicle aero- Two LES solutions for the semi-complex underbody con-

dynamics, which have been understood qualitatively figuration were checked using coarse and fine mesh

from experiences for years, but their quantitative flow sizes in the case without moving ground & rotating

mechanisms are still not known due to difficulties of ex- wheel (MVG&RW) condition.

periments. Underbody flow or wake of the vehicle is one

of such examples. For such cases, if a CFD simulation Fig. 14 shows velocity distribution in the wake behind

can show the phenomena of interest not only qualita- the vehicle (at x/L=1.025), where x/L=1.0 denotes vehi-

tively but also quantitatively, such CFD result is judged cle end. Fig. 15 shows pressure distribution on the un-

as a useful information for the flow field design. derbody of the vehicle. From these figures, there are

almost no differences between coarse and fine meshes,

With considerations on these stages, new findings or showing a converging state of the solution with fine

new phenomena, which could not be noticed for years mesh.

due to difficulties of experiments, might be obtained via

CFD simulations. These are one of the targets at which Computation showed aerodynamic drag coefficient CD of

CFD simulations really aim. Hopefully, such new find- 0.330 for fine mesh and CD of 0.334 for coarse mesh

ings are to be validated later with detailed experiments, (see Table 1). A difference in CD between two meshes

high grid-density LES or DNS. is 0.004, which might be regarded as an error of the so-

lution when employing coarse mesh.

APPLICATION

Table 1 CD

The semi-complex underbody configuration [15] - In the CD mesh density

early stage of aerodynamic developments of vehicles, it 0.330 fine/non-MVG&RW

is necessary to evaluate and rank various exterior de- 0.334 coarse/non-MVG&RW

sign proposals based on the aerodynamic performances.

In order to support stylists and give appropriate recom-

mendations for them based on CFD analyses, it is nec- Checking energy spectrum of solutions - Fig. 16 shows

essary to develop a method that is reasonably fast and turbulence fluctuation energy of the grid-scale level in

robust, giving good results with enough accuracy. the flow direction in the case without moving ground &

rotating wheel (MVG&RW) condition. Turbulence fluc-

tuations at several selected points, i.e., those behind

According to experiences at Volvo Car, flat underbody

bumper, on underbody and after roof end, are shown.

configuration for such early analysis works quite ac-

From the figure, the -5/3 power law is relatively well re-

ceptably for sedan type of vehicles. However, when ap-

produced on these points. The -5/3 power law is also

plying it to station wagons or SUVs, it has been ob-

reproduced at other points, i.e., those behind rear tire

served that wrong conclusions might be obtained. A

and in the wake. These imply that the LES analysis in

simplified but reasonably complex underbody configura-

this computation is performed using a spatial mesh size

tion, corresponding to simple exterior vehicle body at

which can reproduce the similarity law of energy spec-

such early stage, should be pursed.

trum in the inertial sub-range. LES computation here

can be judged as an appropriate one as the standard

Vehicle model tested in this section is full-scale Volvo

Smagorinsky model based LES.

V50. The semi-complex configuration used as under-

body is shown in Fig. 11. Underbody elements such as

exhaust pipe, fuel tank, rear axle and spare tire storage References to previous experiences or the similar vehi-

are imitated in this semi-complex underbody configura- cle body configurations - Table 2 shows CD for flat and

tion. Mesh sizes employed are 3 types, i.e., coarse and semi-complex underbody configurations in the case of

fine meshes for semi-complex underbody and fine mesh non-MVG&RW condition. From the table, CD for flat un-

for flat underbody. They are respectively 7.2 millions derbody is 0.294 and that for semi-complex underbody

elements (1.27 millions vertices), 23.3 millions (4.01 mil- 0.330 under non-MVG&RW condition.

lions) and 21.9 millions (3.77 millions). Mesh systems

are composed only by tetrahedral elements (see Fig. 12). Table 2 CD

CD underbody configuration

Fig. 13 shows the rectangular parallelepiped computa- 0.294 flat underbody/non-MVG&RW

tional domain of (stream-wise) 11L x (side-wise) 6H x 0.330 semi-complex under./non-MVG&RW

(vertical-wise) 7H, where L = vehicle length (4.6m), B =

vehicle width (1.8m), H = vehicle height (1.425m). There is a difference of 0.036 in CD between two con-

Blockage ratio, i.e., ratio of side-wise cross-section of figurations (i.e. between flat and semi-complex configu-

vehicle body and wind tunnel, is ca. 2.6%. Inlet velocity rations) (see Table 3). Buchheim et al. reported CD re-

Downloaded from SAE International by Cranfield University, Sunday, November 26, 2017

duction by 0.045, when using entire flat underbody con- quantitative aspects of the phenomena are not fully

figuration, for a certain sedan vehicle body [16]. That known due to difficulties of experiments. It is found that

vehicle body was, of course, a different from one used in quantitative descriptions of the flow field via LES are one

this section. However, considering that underbody is of the informative results of LES computation. Useful-

normally composed of the similar underbody elements, ness of LES for the flow fields with complex geometrical

CD-flr of 0.036 obtained for this configuration can be a configuration can be emphasized from these examples.

possible one as an underbody configuration, where

CD-flr is a difference in CD between flat and complex/ New findings from LES computations - Besides above

semi-complex underbody configurations. quantitative findings of the phenomena, new findings

can be shown for vehicle underbody flows. Those are

Table 3 CD-flr effects of underbody configuration and MVG&RW condi-

tion on the wake flows behind the vehicle.

CD-flr underbody configuration

0.045 experiment from Buchheim et al. Fig. 19 shows effects of underbody configuration on the

0.036 V50/semi-complex underbody base pressure distribution of vehicle body under non-

MVG&RW condition, where dotted line is that for flat un-

From Volvos experiences based on the experiments at derbody and solid line for semi-complex configuration

its wind tunnels and Pininfarinas wind tunnel, CD was (which is denoted by combination in the figure). The

estimated to be 0.299 for V50 with the fully detailed un- base pressure distribution is fully influenced by the un-

derbody configuration under MVG&RW condition, derbody configuration over the entire region. Pressure

whereas it was 0.327 for the semi-complex configuration distribution on the roof of the vehicle is almost not influ-

in this computation (see Table 4) [17]. Regarding effects enced by the underbody configuration, except areas

of MVG&RW condition, CD-mvg was estimated as near the roof end. Fig. 20 shows velocity distribution in

0.002, whereas it was 0.003 for the semi-complex con- the wake (at x/L=1.025). The velocity distribution is

figuration in this computation (see Table 5) [17]. largely influenced by the underbody configuration, corre-

sponding to the base pressure distribution changes.

CD-mvg is a difference in CD between MVG&RW and

non-MVG&RW conditions.

Fig. 21 shows effects of MVG&RW condition on velocity

distribution in the wake (at x/L=1.025). The velocity dis-

Table 4 CD

tribution is influenced by MVG&RW condition only in the

CD computation & estimation

vicinity of the ground floor. The base pressure distribu-

0.327 semi-complex under./MVG&RW tion is not influenced so much by MVG&RW condition.

0.299 Volvos estimation/MVG&RW

Fig. 22 shows the state of the wake flow drawn by veloc-

ity vector on the cross section (at x/L=1.025) and veloc-

Table 5 CD-mvg

ity in the main stream direction (shown by contour) in the

CD-mvg computation & estimation

case of semi-complex underbody without MVG&RW

0.003 semi-complex under./MVG&RW condition. Two large recirculation flows are seen and a

0.002 Volvos estimation/MVG&RW strong downwash exists between them. The down wash

in the vicinity of the ground floor is not weakened than

From these considerations, computational results in this the case of flat underbody, due to the decelerated flows

section are regarded acceptable, i.e., they exist in a rea- in the underbody.

sonable range of experiences and estimations. Thus, it

is shown that this semi-complex underbody configuration From these, it was made clear that base pressure of the

might be used effectively in early aerodynamic design vehicle body and wake flows behind it are largely influ-

stage. enced by underbody configuration, but they are not in-

fluenced so much by MVG&RW condition. Effects of

Explanations of results obtained via CFD simulation - Fig. MVG&RW condition are limited to the vicinity of the

17 shows velocity distribution in the underbody region in ground floor. Previously these interactions of underbody

the cases of flat and semi-complex (which is denoted by configurations and wake flows are not well discussed,

combination in the figure) underbodies. In the case of especially in terms of quantitative aspects. Hopefully,

semi-complex underbody, flow is decelerated in the un- these new findings will be validated with detailed ex-

derbody region due to flow resistances stemmed from periments, high grid-density LES or DNS in the future.

the underbody configuration.

CONCLUSION

Fig. 18 shows velocity distribution in the underbody re-

gion with and without MVG&RW conditions. In the case In this paper, a LES approach to the flow field with com-

of MVG&RW condition, flow is accelerated due to the plex geometrical configuration, to which detailed experi-

effects of moving ground and rotating wheels. Due to ments, high mesh-density LES or DNS cannot be appli-

the accelerated flow, pressure on the underbody is de- cable, was proposed.

creased. Although these phenomena have been ac-

knowledged among vehicle aerodynamicists for years,

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Firstly, basic investigations were performed focusing on valuable comments and supports on this study. Special

a simplified vehicle body ASMO. Comparisons were thanks should go to Tim Walker at Volvo Car, who pro-

made between LES and the standard k-epsilon model in vided the vehicle body configuration data and the related

terms of grid dependency of solutions. It was found that: experimental data, and also to Shouta Chatani formerly

at Hokkaido University, who made intensive computa-

1) LES with mesh size of 24.30 millions well repro- tional works. The comments and constructive criticism

duces pressure distribution on the vehicle body, of the reviewers improved the paper greatly.

whereas the standard k-epsilon model cannot real-

ize it even when increasing mesh size to a mesh REFERENCES

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T., Large-scale LES on the flow around a vehicle

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tion, using Volvo V50 as exterior vehicle body. This un- nese)

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imitating underbody elements such as exhaust pipe, fuel Onishi, K., Tominaga, T. and Kobayashi, T., High

tank, rear axle and spare tire storage. All stages of the performance LES on Earth Simulator: A challenge

LES approach proposed here were discussed and appli- for vehicle aerodynamics, FISITA 2006 Trans., Pa-

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revealed as below: Zhang, H., Hori, K. and Kobayashi, T., Unstructured

large eddy simulation of flows around automobiles

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS els, SAE Paper 96081, 1996

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Makoto Tsubokura at Hokkaido University and Dr. Takuji

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CONTACT

Nobuyuki Oshima oshima@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

Makoto Yamamoto yamamoto@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

Simone Sebben ssebben@volvocars.com

Downloaded from SAE International by Cranfield University, Sunday, November 26, 2017

on pressure distribution (underbody, y/B=0)

(b) KEM

(base surface, y/B=0)

(a) LES

Fig. 6 Relationship

between pressure drag and mesh size

(b) KEM

(wake, y/B=0)

Downloaded from SAE International by Cranfield University, Sunday, November 26, 2017

on pressure distribution (base surface, y/B=0.345)

on velocity distribution (wake, y/B=0)

Fig. 11 The semi-complex underbody configuration Fig. 14 Effects of mesh density on velocity distribution

(wake, x/L=1.025, y/B=0, non-MVG&RW)

Downloaded from SAE International by Cranfield University, Sunday, November 26, 2017

Fig. 15 Effects of mesh density on pressure distribution Fig. 17 Effects of underbody configuration

(underbody, y/B=0, non-MVG&RW) on velocity distribution

(underbody, x/L=0.5, z/H=0.0432, non-MVG&RW)

on velocity distribution (underbody, x/L=0.5, z/H=0.0432)

on pressure distribution (base, y/B=0, non-MVG&RW)

Downloaded from SAE International by Cranfield University, Sunday, November 26, 2017

on velocity distribution

(wake, x/L=1.025, y/B=0, non-MVG&RW)

on velocity distribution (wake, x/L=1.025, y/B=0)

wake, x/L=1.025, non-MRG&RW)

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