Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 21

Pr

of io
Se

.M A
rg

ar bo
International Relations

io le
r
Al da
& Agreements

le U
r S ni
an ver
M sity
MARKETING Y NEGOCIOS INTERNACIONALES 2017-1

ill
Prof.: Mario Aller San Milln

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
There are perhaps too many ways of characterizing the structure and
patter of relations among distinct communities.

io le
On the one extreme is the unrestrained struggle of all against all, where war,

r
Al da
conquest and slaughter or enslavement of the defeated constitute the sole
forms of contact and relation between communities.

le U
On the other extreme we can think of a world government in which the

r S ni
individual societies retain distinctions on the basis of language, culture or
religion, but their political and legal independence at its full capacity.

an ver
In between this extremes it is where we find the many forms of
interaction that have emerged in different times and places through
world history.

M sity
From empires to international systems organized on the basis of the

ill
interdependence of international units, with all kind of international
hierarchical orders we may think about.

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
In the broadest sense the term international society may apply to any
mode of interaction that are governed to some degree by common rules

io le
and practices.

r
However, the term has come to be applied more narrowly to a particular

Al da

narrative and to a theoretical perspective derived from that.

le U
Thats the model of the European state system, with its key principles of
sovereignty and non-intervention.

r S ni
Its theoretical perspective is the international society approach of the English
School of International Relations. Main points are:

an ver
As states accept no higher power than themselves, they exist in a condition of
international anarchy (absence of government).

M sity
Please keep in mind these concepts are the ones of an European
Christian international society. They were use in a systematic way to justify

ill
the seizure of land during the conquest of America, and later to
rationalize nineteenth-century empires and the unequal treatment to

n
nations such as China and the Ottoman Empire.
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
Elements of international society may be found from the time of the
first organized human communities.

io le
Essential principles such as non-intervention and legal equality reflect

r
Al da
the common interest in protecting and legitimizing sovereignty and
excluding others contenders for legal authority within the state.

le U
No early international society resembles this model, mainly because

r S ni
none puts unambiguous emphasis on sovereign equality, the equal
status in international law of all states that characterizes contemporary

an ver
international society.
One powerful state would deal with others on the basis of an

M sity
acknowledgement of its own superior standing.

ill
As in early Islam and medieval Europe different forms of supranational
religious authority coexisted in an uneasy relationship with their secular,
monarchical, counterparts (the caliphate and the papacy).

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
The term international society may still be used (with lots of reserves)
in the previous cases since sometimes they engaged in non-violent

io le
interaction characterized by rules and shared values.

r
Al da
An easy example of this: our hunter-gatherer ancestors as they began
to settle in fixed territorial areas and consequently to develop more

le U
complex hierarchical orders.

r S ni
Territorial possession needed to be defended and if possible
accepted by outside groups. Growing economical complexity

an ver
gave rise to increasing trade relations with other communities.
The need for mutual understanding arose. As rulers extended their

M sity
authority over larger areas they were drawn to less violent means of

ill
consolidating their legitimacy. Rules about the rights of foreigners
to travel or reside in their areas were created.

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
Early forms of diplomacy and treaties existed in the ancient Middle
East.

io le
Treaties between the great kings and their vassals concerned matters

Al da
such as borders, trade, grazing rights, inter-marriage, extradition,

le U
defense, and the rights and duties of citizens of one state visiting o
residing in the other.

r S ni
Diplomacy was invested by religious solemnity. There was no equivalent

an ver
to todays diplomatic immunity; diplomats could be held hostage,
punished or even killed.

M sity
ill
n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
Relations among the city-states of ancient Greece were
characterized by more developed societal characteristics, such as

io le
arbitration.

r
Al da
City-states had a common language and religion, together with

le U
institutions as the Olympic games or the Delphic Oracle. These were
premeditated to underscore that unity.

r S ni
The favored their independence, but were able to unite against a

an ver
common enemy as the Persians.
Arbitration helped settle specific inter-city disputes, particularly those

M sity
involving areas where the land in question had a particular religious,

ill
strategic or economic significance.

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
Rome, ancient China and India all had their own distinctive
international societies.

io le
In ancient India there were numerous religious norms that applied to

r
Al da
international relations. The most characteristic because of its level of
development were the ones concerning warfare.

le U
The concept of dharma, indicating both natural and eternal laws,

r S ni
provided the underlying moral foundation for all these norms.
In China, particularly during the period before the unification under Chin

an ver
dynasty in 221 BCE, international relations were fostered by shared
values and produced a context of intellectual and cultural richness and
dynamism.

M sity
Rome had to deal with an equal, that was Cartage. The characteristic

ill
to emphasise is the extensive legal terminology they developed (ius
gentium).

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
Medieval Europes international society was a complex mixture of
supranational, transnational, national, and subnational structures.

io le
There were to strictly separated systems and evolutions:

r
Al da
The eastern part, the Byzantine Empire, which survived for nearly a thousand years
until it was overthrew by Islamic forces in 1453 CE.

le U
The western part, where the papacy maintained its authority as heir of Rome. It

r S ni
was an authority, not an actual power, thus its edicts were frequently ignored by
secular rulers; it kept its role as unifying element in medieval Europe.

an ver
Catholic Churchs comprehensive moral and ethical norms were, nonetheless, important
in some key areas of the discipline:
Prohibition of dealing with both Muslim or other non-Christian states.

M sity
The Catholic Church elaborated a legal system, canon law, involving norms, sanctions,
use of arbitration

ill
The Church set up rules on the safe conduct of diplomats and many aspects concerning
treaties.

n
The main penalty was excommunication but also , in some cases, fines of public
penance.
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
Islam developed its own distinctive understanding of international
society.

io le
1. Its fast expansion in the century after the death of Muhammad (632 CE)
created a new force that found itself at odds with both Roman and

r
Al da
Byzantine Empire.

le U
2. Islam was conceived as creating a single identity for all Muslims, the umma
or community of believers. That idea was dominant during the period of the

r S ni
caliphate, a central political institution for all Muslims (until Shia-Sunni divide
680 CE).

an ver
As Islams unity broke down and various nations, of non-believers,
resisted the advance of Muslim armies, the Islamic world had to accept
peaceful coexistence for longer periods. Close commercial links were

M sity
created and some Christian rulers were allowed to establish settlements
with some extraterritorial privileges (within Muslim countries).

ill
The head of those settlements got the name of consuls.

n
1535 Ottoman Empires Suleiman sealed an agreement with Francis I (French King)
against a common enemy, the Habsburg Empire.
Ottoman Empire, 1299-1922.
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
In Early Islamic Theology the world is divided in two houses:

io le
dr al-Islam (the house of Islam).

r
Al da
dr al-harb (the house of war).
They are in a constant state of struggle with each other, but there

le U

are truces lasting approx.. 10 years.

r S ni
IN THEORY, Muslims were obliged to jihad (heart, words, hand and

an ver
sword) until the house of war embraces Islam.
SOLE EXCEPTION: The peoples of the book. They could continue their

M sity
religion but paying a so-called tax and accepting being deprived of
certain rights.

ill
The truces needed a treaty that was strictly observed by Muslims.

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
Modern international society is based upon a conception of the
state as an independent actor enjoying legal supremacy over

io le
whichever other actors in the international arena.

r
Al da
The main constituents of contemporary international society are the

le U
principles of sovereignty and non-intervention, the institutions of

r S ni
diplomacy, the balance of power, and international law.
These took centuries to develop, although the Peace of Westphalia

an ver
was a key event to establish tem throughout Europe. The peace
represents the first formal acceptance of sovereign equality for a

M sity
large number of states.

ill
The idea of balance of power was established at the 1713 Treaty of
Utrecht.

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
The central institutions of international society based on the principles
that we explained:

io le
Sovereignty.

r
Al da
Non-intervention.

le U
Equality among states.

r S ni
From the previous they derive:
Formal communication between states should be conducted by diplomats,

an ver
because they stood for their sovereign masters.
Any rule given the status of international law should not be binding without

M sity
explicit consent of the state in question.

ill
If order could not be maintained in international affairs by a higher authority
as in the domestic realm, then should exist a balance of power among
sovereign states (this became part of international law in 1713).

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
End of fifteenth century and sixteenth:

io le
1. Larger and more powerful states, e.g. France and the Habsburg Empire.
Protestant Reformation. It was a huge blow to Catholic Churchs claim

r
2.

Al da
of superior authority.

le U
3. Columbus voyage to the New World, and Vasco da Gamas discovery

r S ni
of a sea route to India.
In conjunction with:

an ver
The struggle for power in Europe was increasingly violent and
widespread.

M sity
Because of the three developments described above (but not only),
the study of international law and the methods of international order

ill
were boosted.

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
And this is the time when International law was born.

io le
The School of Salamanca was the first school of thought which basing on
Catholic iusnaturalism touched upon the moral problems and dilemmas

r
Al da
derived from the state-of-the-art commercial system and the neo-mercantilist
mentality generated in Europe during Modernity and Discovery of the New

le U
World.

r S ni
The thorny issue concerning law was the famous discussion on whether
indigenous inhabitants of the new world possessed any legal rights.

an ver
Traditional catholic theory denied them any right but Salamancas legal theorists,
though supporting the conquer, developed a complex counter-argument, to the
effect that the Indians did have some rights under natural law.

M sity
In doing so, they produced a shift in the location of legitimate authority from the Pope to
sovereign states.

ill
Future authors such as Vattel and Grotius endeavored to define the rights
and duties of states towards each other, the nature of international society in

n
which these existed, and the role of the balance of power in that
international society.
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
The Thirty Years War is often seen as Europes last religious conflict, but it should
be understood more as a conflict over legitimate authority with various

io le
contenders:
Papacy.

r
Al da
Protestants.

le U
Habsburgs.

r S ni
Holy Roman Emperor.
The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the war, is regarded as the key event
leading to the contemporary international system, because it meant:

an ver
The notion of sovereignty. The sovereign enjoyed exclusive rights within a given territory,
where they were autonomous to determine their domestic policies.

M sity
The reinforcement of the states power, as a modern tax system was conceived
because sovereigns started to create permanent national militaries and needed to pay

ill
them to maintain control over the troops.
It established a core group of states that dominated the world until the beginning of
the nineteenth century: Austria, Russia, England, France, and the United Provinces of

n
the Netherlands and Belgium.
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
The American Revolution (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) were
the products of Enlightenment thinking. These gave birth to two

io le
important values :

r
Legitimacy: absolutist rule is subject to limits (imposed by man). See John

Al da

Lockes Two Treatises on Government and its attack on the divine right of
kings.

le U
Nationalism: the peoples identify with their common language, history, moral

r S ni
beliefs, and customs; therefore those who share such characteristics are
motivated to participate actively in the political process as a single group.

an ver
The Napoleonic Wars. The political impact of the previous two doctrines
was far from benign in Europe. The nineteenth century meant war in
Europe on an unprecedented scale

M sity
The same nationalist fervour that in France brought about the success of

ill
Napoleon also led to his downfall:
In Spain and Russia, nationalist guerillas fought against French invaders.

n
Napoleons invasion of Russia ended in disaster, leading to French defeat at
Waterloo three years later.
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
Subsequent to Napoleons defeat in 1815 and the peace agreed at
the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the so-called Concert of Europe

io le
conducted a period of relative peace.

r
Al da
Peace prevailed even though the scenery was frequently distorted by
technological, economic, and political changes.

le U
Why was it so uncertain but remained?

r S ni
European elites united in their fear of revolution. Leaders safeguarded
that mass revolutions did not jumped from state to state.

an ver
The essence of Europes states system was challenged and at the same
time assured by the unification of both Germany and Italy. Although

M sity
there were small wars in those processes, a general war was averted

ill
since Germany and Italy were preoccupied with territorial unification.
Imperialism and colonialism.

n
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
Imperialism and Colonialism. European powers sought to annex distant
territories.

io le
Imperialism came to mean the annexation of distant territory, usually by force, and its
inhabitants into an empire.

r
Al da
Colonialism refers to the settling of people from the home country among indigenous
peoples whose territories have been annexed, and it often followed imperialism.

le U
This process also led to the establishment of a European identity (civilized, Christian,

r S ni
and white in contrast to the others).
The industrial revolution provided the European states with the military and
economic capacity to engage in territorial expansion.

an ver
The struggle for economic power led to the heedless exploitation of the colonial areas,
particularly Africa and Asia.

M sity
During the Congress of Berlin (1885), the major powers divided up Africa.

ill
During this period, much of the competition, rivalry, and tension traditionally
marking relations among Europes states could be acted out far beyond
Europe.

n
By the end of the nineteenth century, political rivalry and economic competition
had become destabilizing.
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg
Peace in Europe was managed and preserved for so long because of the concept of

ar bo
balance of power.

io le
It arose because the European states dreaded the dominance of any among them. Thus, they
formed alliances.

r
Al da
That system weakened during at the end of the nineteenth century; but whereas previous alliances
had been fluid and flexible, those had solidified.

le U
Two blocs appeared:

r S ni
Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, and Italy) in 1882.
Dual Alliance (France and Russia) in 1893.

an ver
Britain acted as balance between both blocs, but in 1902 it formed a naval alliance with
Japan to prevent a Russo-Japanese compromise in China.

M sity
In 1902 Russia lost the Russo-Japanese war in 1902 and the balance of power was almost destroyed.

ill
Germany was not happy with the results of the Congress of Berlin, as it did not receive the
recognition and status they desired.

n
In 1914, with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, Germany encouraged Austria to crush
Serbia, and given the alliances, states honoured their commitments.
Pr
The evolution of international

of io
Se
society

.M A
rg

ar bo
What happened next is in the book, and you should have read it.

io le
r
Al da
NOW, THREE OF YOU WILL

le U
r S ni
TAKE THE STAGE AND

an ver
EXPLAIN IT TO US.

M sity
ill
n
Because all I will say is that International Society is now somewhere
between a struggle of all against all and a world government.