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Honors Chemistry 2017

Exam 1 Topics
All of these topics are fair game for the coming exam, but not all of the topics will necessarily appear on the exam.

Dimensional Analysis
Conversion factors are an integral part of all chemical calculations.
Use concentration, density, molecular weight, empirical and chemical formulas, and chemical equations as conversion
factors.

Empirical and Chemical Formulas


Name basic ionic compounds (i.e. salts).
Identify and name common polyatomic cations and anions : Ammonium (NH4+), Carbonate (CO3-2), Nitrate (NO3-),
Phosphate (PO4-3), sulfate (SO4-2), hypochlorite (ClO-), chlorite (ClO2-), chlorate (ClO3-) and perchlorate (ClO4-).
Explain mass spectrometry and analysis of atomic and molecular mass.
Convert between empirical and chemical formulas.
Use percent composition to calculate empirical formulas.
Use combustion analysis to calculate empirical formulas.
Use precipitation analysis to calculate empirical formulas.

Stoichiometry
Write and balance chemical reactions.
Reaction. Initial. Change. End. (R.I.C.E.) table formalism.
Identify and evaluate precipitation (double-displacement) and combustion reactions.
Evaluating chemical reactions to identify limiting reagents and theoretical yields.
Mixture problems.

Chemical Reactions
Identify and balance the following reactions types :
Precipitation (i.e. double-displacement) reactions.
Acid-Base reactions.
Combustion reactions.
Reduction-Oxidation reactions.
Decomposition reactions

Nuclear and Atomic Structure


Explain the basic structure of the atom.
Explain the origins of the strong nuclear force.
Identify, describe and manipulate the three major forms of nuclear decay.
Calculate nuclear decay rates, isotope half-life and the age of samples using graphical isochron data.
Honors Chemistry
Exam 1 Useful Information
Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
c = c = speed of light, = wavelength, = frequency

Energy = E = h n E = energy, h = Plancks constant, n = frequency

Classical Mechanics

l
Velocity v= v = velocity, l = length, t = time
t

at2
Diffraction D= D = diffraction, a = acceleration, t = time
2

Mechanical Force F = ma m = mass, a = acceleration

Electrical Force FE = qE q = charge of particle, E = strength of electrical field

Magnetic Force FB = qvB q = charge of particle, v = velocity of particle, B = magnetic field strength

Relativity E = mc2 E = energy, m = mass, c = speed of light

mv2
Kinetic Energy (KE) = m = mass, v = velocity
2

q 1q 2
Electrostatic Energy (PE) = q = charge of ion, = 3.14, o = Permittivity of vacuum, r = distance between ions
4or

Nuclear Decay

d No NF = Final amount of Parent Nuclide, No = Initial amount of Parent Nuclide


No = Nfet ln = t
N = -lN Nf = decay constant, t = time
dt

DF = Do + No - NF NF = Final amount of Parent Nuclide, No = Initial amount of Parent Nuclide,


DF = Final amount of Daughter Nuclide, Do = Initial amount of Daughter Nuclide,

RD = RDo + RN(et - 1) RD = Ratio of daughter nuclide to a stable isotope


RDo = Ratio of initial amount of daughter nuclide to a stable isotope
RN = Ratio of parent nuclide to a stable isotope
= decay constant, t = time

Constants Metric Prefixes

Electron mass (me) = 9.109381910-31 kg peta P 11015

tera T 11012
Avogadros Number (NA) = 6.0221408571023 things = 1mol
giga G 1109
Permittivity of vacuum (o) = 8.8541878210-12 C2J-1m-1
mega M 1106
Plancks constant (h) = 6.6260689610-34 Js
kilo k 1103
Speed of light (c) = 2.99792458108 m/s 1100

Terrestrial Gravity (g) = 9.80665 ms-2 milli m 110-3

Universal Gas Constant (R) = 8.314472 Jmol-1K-1 micro 110-6

Universal Gas Constant (R) = 0.0820574 L atm mol-1K-1 nano n 110-9

Angstrom 110-10
Rydberg (Ry) = 2.1798710-18 J
pico p 110-12
Life/Universe/Everything (J) = 42
femto f 110-15