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# CHE184-1P Process Dynamics and Control

Transfer Functions

Derivations of the rule polynomial of the differential equation. Also, we can find
the output, C ( s ) by using:
A general nth-order, linear, time-invariant differential C ( s) G ( s) R( s)
equation has the form:

d n c(t ) d n 1c(t )
an a n 1 a0c(t )
dt n dt n 1
d m r (t ) d m1r (t )
bm bm 1 b0 r (t )
dt m dt m1
Example 1
Where c (t ) is the output and r (t ) is the input, and the Find the transfer function represented by:
ais, bis, and the form of the differential equation dc(t )
2c(t ) r (t )
represent the system. Taking the Laplace transform of dt
both sides: Ans:

## an s nC ( s ) an 1s n 1C ( s ) a0C ( s )+ initial condition C (s) 1

G (s)
terms involving c(t ) R(s) s2
bm s m R ( s ) bm 1s m 1R ( s ) b0 R ( s )+ initial condition
Example 2
terms involving r (t ) Find the response, c(t) to an input, u(t), a unit step,
assuming zero initial conditions:
The last equation is purely algebraic. If we assume that
all initial conditions are zero, the equation is reduced to: Ans:
1 1 2t
c(t ) e
an s n an1s n1 a0 C ( s ) 2 2
bm s m bm 1s m 1 b0 R ( s )

Now form the ratio of the output transform, C(s), divided Exercise 1
by the input transform, R(s):
a. Find the transfer function of the DE:

C (s)
G ( s)
bm s m bm 1s m 1 b0 d 3c
3
d 2c
7
dc
5c
d 2r dr
4 5r
R( s) an s n an1s n1 a0 dt 3
dt 2
dt dt 2
dt
b. Find the differential equation corresponding to the
Notice that the equation separates the output, C ( s ) the transfer function
input, R ( s ) , and the system, the ratio of polynomials in
2s 1
s on the right. We call this ratio, G ( s ) , the transfer G (s)
s 6s 2
2
function and evaluate it with zero initial conditions.
c. Find the ramp response for a system whose transfer
The transfer function can be represented as a block function is
diagram, as shown in the figure, with the input on the
left, the output on the right, and the system transfer s
G (s)
function inside the block. Notice that the denominator of ( s 4)( s 8)
the transfer function is identical to the characteristic

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