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Automatic Railway Gate Controller

A Project Submitted in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the


Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Submitted By

Name: Md. Mahmudul Hasan Name: Md. Nazmul Islam


ID NO: 123-0085-011 ID NO: 123-0158-011

Advising Semester: Fall-2015

Department
Of
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

ATISH DIPANKAR UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


November, 2016

i
Certificate of Approval

B.Sc. Project entitled:

Automatic Railway Gate Controller

Done under my supervision, meets acceptable presentation that is standard and


can be submitted for evaluation to The department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Science(B.Sc.) in Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

Date.
...
TAMANNA SHAOWN
Lecturer Dept. of EEE, FST
Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology
Banani, Dhaka-1213

ii
Declaration

We hereby declare that this project Automatic Railway Gate Controller is the
result of our own work except as cited in the references. The project has not
been presented for any partial fulfillment of any degree courses and is not
concurrently submitted in candidature of any other program.

Date: ...

.........................................
Md. Mahmudul Hasan
B.Sc. Student.
ID: 123-0085-011
Dept. of EEE, FST

.......................................
Md. Nazmul Islam
B.Sc. Student
ID: 123-0158-011
Dept. of EEE, FST

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to express our deepest gratitude to our advisor Tamanna Shaown
(Coordinator and Lecturer of FST, ADUST), for his full support, dedication, expert
supervision, understanding and inspiration throughout our study and research. Without his
incredible patience and timely insight and guidance, our thesis work would have been a
frustrating and overwhelming pursuit.

We would like to thank Md.Istique Rahman,( Former Lecturer of EEE, Faculty of Science
and Technology, ADUST), for his encouragement throughout this project.

We are also obliged to Md.Mazid Istique, (Senior Lecturer of EEE, Faculty of Science and
Technology, ADUST), for his instructions and guidance regarding some technical issues of
our research.

We would like to thank Md. Abdus Sattar Titu, (Assistant Professor and Chairman, Faculty
of science & technology, ADUST), for encouraging us throughout our Bachelors program.
We also would like to thank the entire EEE department faculty members for their support and
encouragement they gave to me. We extend my gratitude to one and all who are directly or
indirectly involved in the successful completion of this project work.

Finally, we are very grateful to the Almighty, who has always showed us the right path, in
every step of our lives to reach this stage.

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Dedicate to

My beloved parents and my Family without them I would be nothing. They


always comfort and console, ask nothing and endure all.

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ABSTRACT

Automatic Railway Gate Controller

In general, Railway gates are opened or closed manually by a gate keeper. The information
about arrival of train for opening or closing of door is received from nearby station. But some
railway crossings are totally unmanned and many railway accidents occur at these unmanned
level crossings. To avoid the human intervention at level crossings completely, we need to
automate the process of railway gate control. This project deals with an interesting manner of
automating the railway gate control where the gate is automatically opened or closed by
detecting the arrival or leaving of the train.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certificate of Approval II

Declaration III

Acknowledgement IV

Dedicate to V

Abstract VI

List of Figure IX

List of Table X

Table of Contents Page

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Motivation 3

1.3 Objectives of the project 3

1.4 Organization of Project 3

Chapter 2: Theoretical Background 4

2.1 Microcontroller 5

2.1.1 Features of Microcontroller 6

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2.1.2 Block Diagram of Microcontroller 7

2.1.3 Pin Diagram 8

2.1.4 Pin Description 8

Chapter 3: Design and Development 11

3.1 Hardware Design 12

3.1.1 Microcontroller: AT89S51 12

3.1.2 Crystal 14

3.1.3 Capacitor 15

3.1.4: Resistor 17

3.1.5 Sensor: Optical IR 18

3.1.6 DC Stepper motor 19

3.1.7 Motor Driver: L298N (Shield) 20

3.1.8 Transistor 21

3.1.9 Breadboard 21

3.1.10 Battery 23

3.1.11 Connecting wire 23

3.2 Basic idea 24

3.3 Circuit Diagram 27

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3.4 Flow Chart 28

35 The Program 29

Chapter 4: Result and Discussion 33

4.1 Working Principle 34

4.2 How it works 35

Chapter 5: Conclusion 37

Conclusion 38

Reference 39

List of Figure

Fig 2.1 Microcontroller 5

Fig 2.2 Block Diagram of Microcontroller 7

Fig 2.3: Pin Diagram 8

Fig 3.1: Microcontroller: AT89S51 12

Fig 3.2: Crystal 14

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Fig 3.3: Ceramic Capacitor 15

Fig 3.4: Electrolytic Capacitor 15

Fig 3.5: Resistor 17

Fig 3.6: Sensor: Optical IR 18

Fig 3.7: DC Stepper motor 19

Fig 3.8: Motor Driver: L298N (Shield) 20

Fig 3.9 Transistor 21

Fig 3.10: Breadboard 22

Fig 3.11: Battery 23

Fig 3.12: Connecting wire 23

Fig 3.13: Run System 24

Fig 3.14: Basic System 25

Fig 3.15: Circuit Diagram 27