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SUMMARY OF LECTURE DELIVERED BY

PROF.MANINDRA AGARWAL ON PRIME


NUMBERS

PROF .MANINDRA AGARWAL DELIVERED LECTURE ON HISTORY OF PRIME NUMBERS


INSTEAD OF THEIR ALOGORITHM ON DEC 2,2011.

DEFINITION: NUMBER n IS PRIME IF IT IS >1,DIVISIBLE BY 1 AND ITSELF.OTHERWISE


IT IS A COMPOSITE.
EXAMPLES; 2,5,3,7

TO UNDERSTAND THE PROPERTIES OF GIVEN NUMBERS ,WE NEED TO


UNDERSTAND PRIME NUMBERS.
WHY DO WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND PRIME NUMBERS ? ,TO UNDERSTAND
FUNDAMENTAL THEORY OF ARITHMATICS WHICH STATES AS EVERY NUMBER
CAN BE WRITTEN AS PRODUCT OF PRIME NUMBERS IN A UNIQUE WAY .
PRIME NUMBERS ARE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR ALL NUMBERS LIKE ATOMS
BONDING WITH EACH OTHER TO FORMS A MOLECULE.

NEXT PROF. TRIED TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS USING THE DIFFERENT
METHODS,CONJECTURE AND ITS HYPOTHESISES.
1. HOW MANY PRIME NO.S EXIST?
2. CAN WE ESTIMATE THE NO. OF PRIME NUMBERS LESS THAN GIVEN NUMBER n?
3. HOW DO WE FIND OUT NUMBER n IS PRIME NUMBER ?
4. HOW DO WE GENERATE ALL THE PRIME NUMBERS LESS THAN SOME GIVEN n ?

METHODS TO FIND OUT PRIME NUMBERS IN GIVEN INTERVAL FROM 1 - n AND


TO FIND OUT WHETHER THE NUMBER IS PRIME NUMBER OR NOT ?

PROF. GOES ON EXPLAINING THE METHODS STARTING FROM ANCIENT GREECE TO


THE CURRENT RSA ENCRYPTED CODING AND HE MENTIONS THAT BY OBSERVATIONS
THE PRIME DENSITY DECREASES ALONG THE INTERVAL WITH AN EXAMPLE.PROF.
SEEMS TO BE MUCH WORRIED ABOUT FASTER METHOD TO SOLVE THE PRIME
NUMBER PROBLEMS.FROM LECTURE WE CAN UNDERSTAND THAT THE GROWTH OF
MATHAMATICS FROM ANCIENT GREECE TO THE MATHEMATICIANS WHO CHANGED
THE PHASE OF FUNDAMENTALS OF MATHAMTICS.PROF. MENSIONED THE
FOLLOWING METHODS FOR ABOVE QUESTIONS AND LARGEST PRIME NUMBER
KNOWN 213466917 1(4milliondig its)

SIEVE OF ERATOSTHENES :
1. WRITE DOWN ALL THE NUMBERS FROM 2 TO n.
2. TAKE THE FIRST UNCROSSED NUMBER AND CROSSOUT ALL THE MULTIPLES OF
IT.
3. REPEAT 2 UNTILL NO NUMBER CAN BE CROSSED OUT.

FERMATS LITTLE NUMBER:

LET n BE A ANY PRIME NUMBER THEN a(mod n) = a .

CARMICHEAL PROVED THAT THIS METHOD CAN BE PROVED FOR COMPOSITE


NUMBERS THEREFORE THERE ARE INFINITE NUMBERS OF CARMICHAEL NUMBERS
EXIST.

FERMATS NUMBER :

FOR A SUBSET OF PRIME 22 M 1 IS ALWAYS PRIME

EULER PROVED IT WRONG FOR M=5.

MERSENNES PRIME NUMBERS :

PRIME NUMBERS OF THE FORM 2 M 1 , WHERE M IS PRIME NUMBER


EULERS FORM: M 2 M 41 , FIRST 40 VALUES OF THE FORMULAE ARE PRIME
NUMBERS.

GAUSSS CONJECTURE:

THE NUMBER OF PRIME NUMBERS LESS THAN n INDEED CONVERGES TO n / log n


AS n INCREASES
HADAMARD AND VALEE PROVED THIS CONJECTURE.

RIEMANN ZETA FUNCTION : SIR MENTIONED THAT HE CHANGED THE PHASE

OF MATHAMATICS TOWARDS THE PRIME NUMBER DISTIBUTIONS FROM HIS

FUNCTION.


1
(y) = y
, WHERE Y IS A COMPLEX NUMBER.
m 1 m

HYPOTHESIS : RIEMANN CONJECTURE STATES THAT ALL THE INTERESTING


ZEROS OF FUNCTION LIE ON A STRAIGHT LINE ON COMPLEX PLAIN.

FROM THESE METHODS METHODS IT IS CLEAR THAT PRIME NUMBERS DO NOT


FOLLOW A PATTERN.PRIME NUMBERS ARE EASY TO DEFINE AND DIFFICULT TO
UNDERSTAND AS THEY FOLLOW CHAOTIC PATTERN.RIEMANNS HYPOTHESIS IS
DEEPLYCONNECTED TO PRIME NUMBERS.UNDERSTANDING FUNCTION IS KEY
TO UNDERSTAND THE DISTRIBUTION OF PRIME NUMBERS.

FAST METHODS TO FIND PRIME NUMBERS IN INTERVAL

COUNT THE NUMBER OF OPERATIONS PERFORMED BY AA METHOD.


A METHOD IS FAST IF IT TAKES AT MOST POLYNOMIAL IN logn NO. OF
STEPS.