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Dveloppements limits usuels

Les dveloppements limits ci-dessous sont valables quand x tend vers 0 et uniquement dans ce cas.
n
X f(k) (0) k
Formule de Taylor-Young en 0. f(x) = x + o(xn ).
x 0 k!
k=0

n
x2 xn X xk
ex = 1 + x + + ... + + o(xn ) = + o(xn )
x 0 2 n! x 0 k!
k=0
2 2n n
x x X x2k
chx = 1 + + ... + + o(x2n ) = + o(x2n ) (et mme o(x2n+1 ) et mme O(x2n+2 ))
x 0 2 (2n)! x 0 (2k)!
k=0
3 2n+1 n
x x X x2k+1
shx = x + + ... + + o(x2n+1 ) = + o(x2n+1 ) (et mme o(x2n+2 ) ou O(x2n+3 ))
x 0 6 (2n + 1)! x 0 (2k + 1)!
k=0
n
x2 x2n X x2k
cos x = 1 + ... + (1)n + o(x2n ) = (1)k + o(x2n ) (et mme o(x2n+1 ) ou O(x2n+2 ))
x 0 2 (2n)! x 0 (2k)!
k=0
3 2n+1 n
x x X x2k+1
sin x = x + ... + (1)n + o(x2n+1 ) = (1)k + o(x2n+1 ) (et mme o(x2n+2 ) ou O(x2n+3 ))
x 0 6 (2n + 1)! x 0 (2k + 1)!
k=0
3 5 7
x 2x 17x
tan x = x + + + + o(x7 )
x 0 3 15 315

n
X
1
= 1 + x + x2 + ... + xn + o(xn ) = xk + o(xn )
1 x x 0 x 0
k=0
n
X
1
= 1 x + x2 + ... + (1)n xn + o(xn ) = (1)k xk + o(xn )
1 + x x 0 x 0
k=0
n
x2 xn X xk
ln(1 + x) = x + ... + (1)n1 + o(xn ) = (1)k1 + o(xn )
x 0 2 n x 0 k
k=1
2 n n
x x X xk
ln(1 x) = x + ... + o(xn ) = + o(xn )
x 0 2 n x 0 k
k=1
3 2n+1 n
x x X x2k+1
Arctanx = x + ... + (1)n + o(x2n+1 ) = (1)k + o(x2n+1 ) (et mme o(x2n+2 ) ou O(x2n+3 ))
x 0 3 2n + 1 x 0 2k + 1
k=0
3 2n+1 n
x x X x2k+1
Argth x = x + + ... + + o(x2n+1 ) = + o(x2n+1 ) (et mme o(x2n+2 ) ou O(x2n+3 ))
x 0 3 2n + 1 x 0 2k + 1
k=0

( 1) 2 ( 1)...( (n 1)) n
(1 + x) = 1 + x + x + ... + x + o(xn ) ( rel donn)
x 0 2 n!
n  
X k
= x + o(xn )
x 0 k
k=0
1
= 1 + 2x + 3x2 + . . . (n + 1)xn + o(xn )
(1 x)2 x 0
1
On obtient un dveloppement de Arcsin x (resp. argsh x) en intgrant un dveloppement de = (1 x2 )1/2 (resp.
1 x2
1
= (1 + x2 )1/2 ).
1 + x2

c Jean-Louis Rouget, 2007. Tous droits rservs.


1 http ://www.maths-france.fr

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