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SOIL MECHANICS II

CIVL 311
COURSE NOTES
2017

PART 2
FOUNDATIONS & EARTH RETAINING
STRUCTURES

Instructors: Dr J. A Howie, P.Eng.


Dr. A. Lizcano, P. Eng.
Department of Civil Engineering
University of British Columbia
CIVL 311 1
Topics in Part 2
Module 6:
The Geotechnical Model, Foundation Design
Considerations, Intro to Geotechnical Earthquake
Engineering
Module 7:
Engineering and Design of Shallow Foundations
Ground improvement
Module 8:
Engineering and Design of Deep Foundations
Module 9:
Engineering and Design of Earth Retaining Structures
2
SOIL MECHANICS II
CIVL 311
COURSE NOTES
2017

Module 8
Selection and Design of Deep Foundations

Instructor: Dr. J.A. Howie, P. Eng.


Department of Civil Engineering
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, B.C.
Canada
3
Learning outcomes
When you complete this section, you should:
Be able to list the pile and pile hammer types most common in
the Lower Mainland of BC
Be able to explain the difference between large and low
displacement piles and the different soil responses to their
installation
Be able to estimate the ultimate load capacity of single piles and
pile groups and explain how allowable loads are selected
Be able to describe how piles and soil interact to mobilize shaft
and toe resistance and identify the relative deformations required
Be able to describe how piles resist uplift and lateral loads
Know the difference between geotechnical and structural
capacity

Module 8 CIVL 311 4


Pile topics
Pile types and installation methods
Load transfer by pile-soil interaction
Estimation of pile capacity from dynamic
and static pile load testing
Design approaches for:
Estimating allowable load on single piles
Estimating allowable loads on pile groups
Estimating settlement of piles and pile groups
Lateral loading
Module 8 CIVL 311 5
Use of Pile Foundations
Pile foundations are used when
the soil near the surface does not have sufficient
bearing capacity to support the structural loads
the estimated total and/or differential settlement of
shallow foundations exceed tolerable limits, i.e.
deformations greater than the serviceability limit state
the structural loads consist of lateral loads and/or
uplift forces
excavations to construct shallow foundations on a
firm soil layer are difficult or expensive.

Module 8 CIVL 311 6


Terminology

Shaft
Adapted from Coduto
Figure 11.2
Parts of a deep foundation
(a) straight foundations;
(b) tapered foundations;
or base
(c) foundations with an
enlarged base also
known as under-reamed
or belled pile.
Module 8 CIVL 311 7
Types of pile
Driven-
large displacement pile if driven closed-ended
Low displacement pile if driven open-ended
Driven and cast-in-place
Franki or Pressure Injected Footings
Jacked
Bored and cast-in-place
Composite Piles
Screw-in Piles Helical, Auger-cast, etc.
Module 8 CIVL 311 8
Typical Pile Materials
1. Timber
2. Concrete
Precast
Cast-in-Situ
3. Steel
H-Pile
Pipe (open or closed-end)

Module 8 CIVL 311 9


Selection of Pile Type
Applied loads
Required diameter
Required length
Local availability
Durability in specific environment
Anticipated driving conditions

Module 8 CIVL 311 10


Timber Piles

Naturally tapered
Creosote-treated
Low capacity
Low cost
Difficult to extend
Easy to damage by
hard driving
UNTREATED TIMBER PILES USED TO DENSIFY SOIL

Module 8 CIVL 311 11


Pile Driving Rig

Module 8 CIVL 311 15


Types of Hammers

Module 8 CIVL 311 16


Drop Hammer

Module 8 CIVL 311 18


Precast Concrete Piles

Reinforced
Durable
Moderate to high
capacity
Moderate cost
Precast hard to splice
Cumbersome to
handle
SUITABLE FOR ALL KINDS OF LOAD SINCE
CAN BE DESIGNED

Module 8 CIVL 311 19


Steel Piles

H and pipe piles


Robust
Easy to splice
High capacity
High cost
Subject to corrosion
SUITABLE FOR ALL LOADS
CAN BE WELDED AND CUT OFF
FLEXIBLE SO CAN GO OF COURSE

Module 8 CIVL 311 26


Vibratory Hammer Extracting H-Pile

Module 8 CIVL 311 28


Kobe K25 Diesel Hammer

Module 8 CIVL 311 29


Driven and Cast in Place
Expanded Base Concrete Pile
Pressure injected
footing (PIF)
Also known as
Franki piles YOUTUBE VIDEO
Stages in installing a Franki tube
(a) Drive piling tube
(b) Compact concrete in shaft
(c) Pour or compact concrete in
piling tube
(d) Completed pile

Module 8 CIVL 311 33


Drilled Shaft Dry Method
SILT
SAND
DEEP SILT

Coduto Figure 11.27 Drilled shaft construction in competent soils using the dry method;
(a) Drilling the shaft; (b) Starting to place the concrete; (c) Placing the reinforcing steel
cage; and (d) Finishing the concrete placement (Reese and ONeill, 1988).

Module 8 CIVL 311 34


Drilled Shaft Casing Method

Coduto Figure 11.38 Using casing to deal with caving or squeezing soils: (a) Installing the casing; (b) Drilling
through and ahead of the casing; and (c) Placing the reinforcing steel and concrete, and removing the casing
(Reese and ONeill, 1988)

Module 8 CIVL 311 35


Drilled Shaft Slurry Method

Coduto Figure 11.40 Using drilling fluid to deal with caving or squeezing soils: (a)
Drilling the hole using slurry; (b) Installing the reinforcing steel cage through the slurry;
(c) Placing the concrete using a tremie pipe and recovering slurry at the top; and (d)
The completed foundation (Reese and ONeill, 1988).

Module 8 CIVL 311 36


Helical Piles
Useful videos
Bored and cast in place piles
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwqF075AzaE

Driven steel piles


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUZAoUu44Xs

Auger cast or CFA piles


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fCANsnCXXYY

Driven expanded base concrete


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R8S2duDIZL0

Module 8 CIVL 311 38


Summary
Many types of hammer available check
with local piling contractors
Many types of pile available check local
practice and availability of materials and
equipment
Select pile type and size such that
geotechnical capacity matches structural
capacity
Module 8 CIVL 311 39