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Agents and Actions, vol.

2/I (1971) 21

Agents and Actions 2, No.1, pp.21-26 (lUT1). PSI 284


)ting ttud
Interna-
'9. Basel,

All Electroencephalographic Analysis of Personality-Dependent


Estinta-
Performance under Psiloeybin
_/g/ate- by KARE TItA1('HER, W.C. \V1EDERIICOLT 1} and ROLAND ]JlSCIIER
Division of Behavioral and Neurobiological Sciences, Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, College
of Medicine, 'Ihe Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210. USA

Ahst,.act extend GOLDSTt:IN'S data by differentiating the lit


An eleetroeneephalographic analysis of personality- personality trait-dependent psycho-motor per-
dependent psychomotor performance _*as investigated in 11 formance of college-age voltlllteel5 tinder psilo-
volunteers under 160 :lg kg psilocybin-ind_eed
arous,ql. Significant p,filocyt)in-indueed
ergotropic
changes in mean
cybin, another ertzotropic
'
arousal-inducine hallu-
energy content of i']5(;, reaction time, and latency and cinogen. Itl addition to MEG and CV. we have
duration of alpha attenuation to photie stimuli _'ere noted also measured changes in reaction time. and
in all subjects, as well as significant correlations beB_een latency and duration of alpha attenuation to
EEG parameters, personality types and psychomotor (band- photic stimuli.
writing) test results. Moreover, a _clustering' of certain EEG,
personality, and hanth_riling characteristics in speeitie snb- Methods
jeets seems to justify their elassitieation into t_o general The subject x_as seated in a reclining chair in a
groups, neutral, moderately lit room. and gold-plated Grass 1E EG
Psilocybin can imlmir a particular performance in electrodes were pi.iced over his right occipital and midline
certain snb ieets, but nmy itnpro_e the same performance in frontal areas (0.2 and Fz of the international system}, with
others. Moreover, certain interindividual differences may interelectrode impedanc: kept belo_x 10.000 ohms.
disappear in re,_pouse to the drug, or become manil;est only Each sub.i%t _as instructed to immediately press a
under drug influence, button x_ith his right index finger in response to a bright
light flashed randoml._ at intervals of 5 to 20 seconds by a
l_ltrorluct/on Grass PS 2 photo-stimulator placed 8-10 inches b_fore
GOLDSIEIN [1 ] in 1963 reported a decrease in the subject's eyes. Brain-wave activity, the photic stimulus
mean energy content* of alpha activity (MEG) and the signal from the button s,aitch were recorded on a
and a decrease of its coefticient et' variation* Grass Modell Ill 15[;G recorder (calibration 50 microvolts
(CV} dttring states ofergotropic arousal* induced per 10 millimeters).
by I.SD in human volunteers. The quantilied Brain-wave activity was fed into a Dao!toc_a [3]

EEG parameter of'CV was found to be strikingly imcgrator*, and its output pulses recorded by the Grass [
sJnlilar ill 'llornlals' under LSD and itl chronic recorder as a measure of mean energy content*. The into-
grater was calibrated so that a 10 Hertz sine wave with
male schizophrenics withottt an5 drug. MARJER- a 50 microvoh peak-to-p_ak amplitude produced 148--152
RISEN Ct al. [2] aNo found a similar decrease in pulses per 20 s;'co_ds, an output xerified baforc and after
CV, as well as a relation between such decrease etch session.
and the hallucinatory activity of acute schizo- After subj._cts adapted to thc laboratory environ-
phrcllics, m_nt, thirty 20-second periods of resting brain-wave
Using tile same DROIIOCKI [3] integrator '2} actMty (with eyes closed) were recorded. The mean num-
b:r of integratorpulsesper 20-secondperiodwasan ex-
which employed in his studies to
(JqIl.r)s-[}:lX r
' measure M FC, we have set out to reprod ucc and pression of the mean energy content of the subject's brain-
, _ave activity. Thc coefficient of variation* of the mean
, encrgy content wasobtained b3 dividing the standard
_) Departrnent of Medicine, Division of Neurology. deviation of the number of pulses per period by the mean
2) Dr. l._.oN_t_i Got.t_srE_ graciously provided us with the number of pulses per period, and multif, lying by 100 [4].
same Drohocki integrator he used in his studies. Latency* and duration of alpha attenuation* were
* This sign denotes an expression described in the Glos- measured for' each of 50 randomly pre.,ented photic flashes.
sar3', and mean values calculated foreach block of 10successive
_.!,a,._,_&,,_ _ ._,;_:. 4_,.,x_._,_ _.._ ,,,_,.,rj
.;...._ _._e._..,:_ ,.,: __ _ :;_,g::,:_i ,/_e_i_._!_.._&L_
L,_,_O'_.,_'_._?,_._
_/2._'_&'?._,,_._i:_&,_._ .e:_'_ ;_x_;.,4-'_ ,L>)_-'_=4" '-_;,._,,_2,_/,_
_W-_i_..-..,-3J:.
,-,'-...,i_L&-.d._ _ _,_,_,,,_g,i..t _,X.&'
_" _3. __,,,_i

22 Karen Thatcher, W. C. Wiederholt and Roland Fischer Psik,_

stimuli. After atobrief trainingsession,in which subjects __ 13f. -_ .... ?r_-l_fUg Voh.:
were instructed immediately press a button in response _-_-
'! to tile light flash (reaction time*), 20 photic stimuli were _ 1.1 + -- Drug-peak
randomly presented during alpha activity (,.vith eyes _,o 09 '-.. .......___q
closed)and whilealpha activitywasabsent(witheyes == '-- ,-' I J.G.
open). _ 0,7 ._
Thetestswere performed on eachsubject priorto _ P.S.

trationof themoderateoraldoseof 160izg,kgpsilocybin, ._ \V.K


(TOandatthepeak,i.e.,90mim_tes after(Ta)theadminis- _ 05_ B.M
v.hich with mescaline and LSD form the group of classical _ O._ L.('
S.S.
hallucinogenic drugs.
Subjectswerecollege-age
volunteers
witha median _ lB --
_- Z -- 3 t, 5 R.S.
I Y.t
:{ age of 23 years, satisfactory academic records, and 'nor- I'naticstimulation(blacks
oflO1rials) S D.
;:_ real' Minnesota Muhiphasic Personality Inventory [5] F(gure 1 R.M
;: profiles_ All had established M3ers-Brh,gs (Jungian) Alpha-attenuation (habituation) curves for 50 successive J.D.
Type lnd cater (MBT1) Profiles [6, 7], Ma(;K_xxox [8, 9] light-flashes {blocks of ten) under pre-drug conditions
:_ creati,,it_* scores (v [N + P]), and hand,ariting parameters and 90 minutes at'te_ the ingestion of 60 _zg"kg psilocy-
i such as area* (in cme). the standard deviation of the area
and the total hand,_ritim; ' force* (pressure in l0 t d'.nes)
' bin (drug
trials peak,). subjects.
foreleven Each point lepl-esents the mean of ten
:' averaged over time as the subject copies 4 times on separate
lnfit;
sheets of paper a 28-x_ord text under standardized con- The mean duration of alpha attenuation at COIl t,

'i_ ditions[101. To for all subjects decreased significanfiyunder [:It(


the influence of psilocybin ft'on_ 0.992 seconds subj,
Results (SD--0.264, range 0.5-1.42) to 0.674 seconds the,
i The results fall in three categories: (1) (SD=0.359, range0.g95__l.15)(t=7.38,t;<0.01), thc,,.
:;._ Group restdtx referrin_ to dru?induced_ (-1-_-1'D A pro_ressive_ decrease in duration of the alpha sift.i:,.
s changes in the following dependent variables for attenuation response (increased habituation) was
the entire sample of subjects' mean energy con- observed with each block of 10 trials from Tt to
:_ tent (MEC). its coefficient of variation (CV), T2 [11]. with the slopes of the curves for the S_
":_ latency and duration of alpha attenuation to control and drug periods being identical (see 87
+i photic stimuli, and reaction time' (2)/nrta-group }rig. 1). &
4 results rcl/ealin_ the influence of personality Reaction time was significantly longer 8'
_; traits, as',4Deasured by the .lungian Myers-Briggs during alpha actMty (eye closed) than without ;'_
i_ Type Indicator, upon drug-induced changes in alpha activity (eyes open) (t = 2.19, p < 0.05), _.... 7.
i the EEG; and (3) lntercorrelations among our and increased significantly under the influence of U '_
dependent and independent variables, psilocybin (eyes closed' t = t.74, p < 0.05; g
_:: (1) Group resuhs.' All 11 subjects displayed - eyes open: t = 2.44, p <:, 0.05). >, 5
_,
normal (clinical control) EEG recordings, as Although the coefiScient of variation (CV) _==i
_
judged from the limited information derh.'ed for all subjects increased fi'om the control value _ :'5
from an O._,-F_ montage. Periods of drowsiness of 16a) at T_ (SD = 7, range 6-28) to 20 at Ts2
and eye-movement artifacts were eliminated from (SD = 8, range 5-30), the change was statistically
the analysis, not significant (t - 1.65, p > 0.05) (see Table).
The mean energy content (MEC) for all (2) hm'a-grot_prcsuhs.' MBTI extravertsdis- -,
subjects decreased From 85 a) (standard deviation play higher mean energy content (MEC) than
[SI)] - t9, range 58-112) at'F_ (pre-drug), to 53 introverts under no-drug conditions (Ti) and
(SD 16, range 34-82) at drug peak, 90 mitmtes show a greater decrease in MEC at T2 than the f:_,
after ingestion of psilocybin (T2). The decrease introverts (see [:ig.2). The interaction is signi- Ip,!',,
occurred in all subjects and could be easily re- ficant by an analysis of variance _) (F = 12.92, o,:_
cognizcd in most of them by inspection of their
EEG records. The drtm-induced (T.,-T1)
.. differ- P <: 0.01). Ira!,
si?
ence in MEC for all subjects is significant a)A valuex_ellwithinthe ,normal. range, wr:
(t = 3.98, p < 0.01) (see Table). 4) Alt analyses of variance in this paper are two-way with dei'
Latency of tile alpha attenuation response one repeated measure. The 'unweighted means' solution du,
for all subjects decreased significantly from was used because of tmcqual group sizes [12]. of_

i_
,i 0.150
(t seconds
= 2.62, at TI,
p < 0.01). to 0.118 seconds at Tz * l'his sign dcnotes an expression described in thc Glos-
sary. scl,
Icrc

i
_r:..... 'a_,a,,;a_.._.:..a_'"_-
"-: ' ,, c_',,*0,1a_
'.;_,_'"? '? TM v., _, '_,x.i';"
_ "_,s_x,i.
it_'r'
:_'_se,,tl_:"'
.... "_,;'_._,_'_.._,_a,'_
';'_'_ '%_%_'
''''_ ""4'::'
'::,_,&
' _:'_._i_:k_.._t,_,:_'g/._'_'?
' ::',j _:-'_:'.,i,,llgi_,_?'
"_.",i
'_?,_'i _'.: :':," ,? ' _ '_'_'_" _-', "'?_._/i_;a'za',
3:' ,, ?'_.?,,_,;_,3_,_,,:.4,_r_;''%4% _:_.,,,.,a.,_;/,,_:
',Z.

~ Li,I

Fischer Psilocybin and Personality 23 :!_


'l

Z6 ;_
Volunteers Meanenergy Coefficient
of

T_ T.* TI T_ 2/* !4

.... _ J.G. 112.6 77.2 5.7 5.2 -_ 22, ,_


P.S. 81.4 (M EC)
content 46.5 27.8
variation 25.4
(CV) ._-_- 5'%%%"X%X\_/'
_ ' :,]
:.:1

W.K. 85.3 82.6 13.3 6.4 _ :_


L.C. 59.4 45.4 27.0 24.2 _ 18
'[5
S.S. 102.4 39.9 15.0 29.2 '_ '_
BM.
R.S. 1080
58.1 424
54.8 83
16.1 280
19.3 _ zo
1 /nrr0verts _t
Y.F. 98.0 53.8 12.8 23.4 :j
S.D. 89.1 68.5 20.8 19.5 ll_ ' '

ccessive
R.M.
J.D.
67.9
75.5
34.0
36.7
13.0
15.8
17.4
21.6
?re-drutU Orog-peaktD
/0
[hilt.
i]0Sl
Il)
[, .
,:_
:.t

_silocy-
itions x = 85.2 x _ 52.9 x = 15.9 _ = 19.9 Influence3 of 1601-tg/kg psilocybin on the coefficient
Figure of Il ! i
of ten _ = 18.9 _ = 16.5 a = 6.9 o = 7.9 variation (CV) of alpha activity in MBTI introverts and ,i

extraverts. Extraverts react to the drug with significantly . ]


Influence of 160 Ftg'kg psilocybin on the mean energy greater changes in CV than introverts (F = 7.00,
_tion at content (M EC) and coefficient of variation (CV) of the P < 0.05), a pattern probably related to their lower level !
' under EEG in eleven college-age vohmteers. Whereas each of cortical arousal at T_ [21]. 71
eOonds subject's MEC is decreased by the drug (at T,2_),with ::

econds the overall decrease being significant (t = 3.98, p <: 0.01), Although the coefficient of variation at T_
0.01 ). the slight drug-induced group increase in CV is not :i
: alpha significant, was identical for both introverts and extraverts, .
m)was the lattershowa definiteincreaseat T.,,while
n Ti to ' introverts remain essentiallyunchanged(see
['or the _0 Fig. 3). The interaction is significant beyond
al (see 87 0.05 (F = 7.00).
St, There is at T_ a significant positive correla-
longer 81 tion betweenlengthof reactiontime and intro-
ithout 78 version (r = 0.741, N = 1l, p < 0.01) for eyes
' 0.05), _ 75 closed,and a nearlysignificantcorrelationwith
ence of _ '/z eyes open (r = 0.508, N = 1l, p > 0.05).
( 0.05; _ lis Thereisalsoa significant differencebetween
_ MBTIperceiversand judgers in termsof their _'"
(CV) _3 . reactiontimes at T_. Perceivershave faster i
Ivalue _ _0 reactiontimesthan judgers(SpearmanRank- l
at T2 z: _7 Order Correlation r_ - -0.830. p < 0.0l with
stically 5t_ x,x_/_o,z.
_ eyes open), a personality trait-dependent differ-
able).
rtsdis- _8
tS ence which atdisappears
psilocybin under the
%. Incidentally, influence
there of
is in our :'I
sample an association between the M BTI per- i
/ than ?re-tlru{10 0rug-paklIz) sonality traits of perception and extraversion,
]) and (90min.
posfT0 ,;
an the and between judging and introversion ;"
signi- Figure 2 (r = -0.551. p < 0.05). _ -}
Influence of 160_g;kg psilocybin on the mean energy When we define creativity in ternls of the
12.92, content (MEC} of alpha activity in Myers-Briggs Type MacKinnon creativity measure, which sums the ,t
Indicator IMBTII introvert and extravert subjects. '[he intuition (N) and perception (P) scores on the "
significantly different responses of introverts and extra-
verts (F = 12.92, p < 0.01_ illustrate a personality- Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, our more creative !
ay with dependence of drug response. Note that the drug-in- subjects display significantly shorter reaction
;olution duced (T2- T_) change m extraverts is greater than that times at T1 than our less creative subjects .{
of introverts, a phenomenon we have consistently ob- (rs -_ - 0.613, p < 0.05 with eyes closed' r, = 1
Glos- served that i, probably related to the extravert's lower -0.613,p < 0.05 with eyes open). Whereas both
lev,-!,. ,,f cortical arousal without drugs (TO [21]. groups display an increase (but not a significant

t
ii_ 24 Karen Thatcher. W. C. Wicdcrholt and Roland Fischer i's_

one) in coefiident of variation from T; to %. the subjects with small average force (F = 7.29, ha
'* CV of the more creative subjects is higher both p < 0.05). th_
at T_ and % (at %: r = 0.503. p < 0.05; at %: Whereas the group with large handwriting ca_
r = 0.569. p < 0.05). force and that with small force display all in- pc
Subjects with large handwriting area at Ti crease (but not a significant one) in coefficient of e_ i
displayed significantly faster reaction times at T1 variation from Tt to T2, the coefficient of varia- for
than those with small handwriting area (r - tion of the group with the larger force is higher 're
-0.716. p < 0.01 with eyes closed: r - -0.55t, both at T_ and T2 (F = 9.22. p <. 0.05). sli_
p < 0.05 with eyes open). However. the superior Lastly, there is no significant difference be- co:
performance (shorter reaction time) of this tween the length of reaction umes at T_ for stable du
group with large handwriting area disappears and variable subjects (displaying small and large ps_
under the impact of psilocybin (at T2), and their standard deviations, respectively, on the area of th:
_:_ reaction time is then practically the same as that their handwriting, SDHA [10]). But under the ha
of the smaller handwriting-area group (see influence of a hallucinogenic drug like psilocybin, ch:
Fig.4). the reactiontime of only the variablesubjectsis
Subjects with large handwriting area at Ti lengthened while the reaction time of stable sub- be_
again display a longer latency prior to alpha jects is essentially unaffected, du
blocking under the influence of psilocybin than These results suggest that subjects with cer- co;
_' those with small handwriting area (r - 0.808. tam traits are substantially more affected by the thi
p <0.01). drug psilocybin: extraverts and subjects with cm
Handwriting area itself is personality trait- high MacKinnon creativity scores, large hand- th_

:il smaller
dependent:handwriting area display
MBTI judgers than perceivers (r-
a significantly handwriting
writing area. areas, and smalldeviations
large standard average on hand-
the ex_
_o'
0.758, p < 0.01). a difference which disappears writing force all display lengthened reaction gera
under the impact of psilocybin, times at the peak of the drug experience. Could illu_
A drug-dependent difference in reaction it be that all these traits reflect a particular type km_
time becomes apparent when related to another of subject, who reacts in a characteristic manner (rea
handwriting parameter, average force (pressure) not just with respect to reaction time? If so. one will'
over time. While the reacuon time of subjects would expect most of these traits to intercorrelate a ca
with small and large average handwriting force and. indeed, this is the case: more creative people, s_t '
is essentially identical at T1. psilocybin signifi- for example, have larger handwriting areas and side
cantly increases the reaction time in only those larger standard deviations on handwriting area CV'
:_ than less creative people (r = 0.527. p < 0.05; inet,

026 Smallt_an_writin_
areaSs rs = (3)
0.573.
lntercorrelations:
p < 0.05. respectively),
(a) The longer the pot _
thc

latencyof alphaattenuation at T1and at T2


,. _ 02;, _'_a%
_ reaction time (with eyes closed) the shorter the idc
_,_ ._2 . ';x% (r 0.607, p < 0.05; r p
) _ respectively). (b) The shorter the reaction time ag:"
2 = 020
=: _Z2 Lz_%_x'z
_ - -eyes open) the longer the
(with = alpha
0.564. attenuation
< 0.05, dar
no-

ILia Pre<rug(l,) Drug-peak?z) reaction time the higher the MEC at T2 (r-
iii , , at ]'t (r - _ 0.546, p < 0.05). (c) The longer the _i_
Figure 4 _- .
_i.,_ Influence of 160 ktg'kg psilocybin on reaction (90rain.pool
time in ;:) 0.627, p < 0.05).
Discussion thi-x
,,}
subjects with small and large handwriting area at Tz. The most important result of our pilot study elco
Note that reaction time deteriorates under hallucino- is that certain changes elicited by hallucinogenic P"'
bit'
genie drug influence only in subjects with large hand- drugs such as psilocybin are personality-trait- ,q'l
writingarea, who had significantlyfaster reaction times
to begin with (at 1_) (r - -0.716, p _'. 0.01 with eyes
dependent. Specifically, reaction time, and thc CV of:
closed; r =-0.551, p < 0.05 with eyes open), whereas as well as MEG change in both direction and mc,
, reaction time is unaffected or even slightly improved by extent as a function of personality type (Fig. m,'-
the drug in subjects with small handwriting area. There 2 and 3). _:_,:
" ia ,,o signiticant difference in reaction time between the We have reproduced GOLDSTEIN'S LSD-in- dc,
two groups at drug peak (T2). duced decrease in MEC by using psilocybin, and r,-'_-

=
Fischer Psik_,,-ybin
and Personality 25 i
i

= 7.29, have fnrther refined this finding by showing that with a certain cluster of traits such as MBTI ex- -_
the extraverts of the group contributed sign]fi- traversion, perception and a high MacKinnon ._
Jwriting cantly more to the decrease than introverts. 7'his creativity score, large handwriting area, fast i
; an itl- personality trait-dependent response is even more reaction time and a large standardderiation on the
icient of evident in relation to the CV. While GOLDSTEIN handwriting area. These variable subjects are !
)f varia- furred an LSD-induced decrease in CV using more affected by drugs such as psilocybin than
s higher 'reformatory volunteers' as controls, we find a stable subjects with a smallstandard deviation on 5
slight overall increase in our college_age volunteer their (small) handwriting area_;), with a Iow i
ence be- control group_). This increase, however, is pro- MacKinnon creativity score and MBTI personal- :
)rstable duced by the extraverts of our group whose ity traits of introversion and judging. ' '_
nd large psilocybin-induced increase is significantly higher Finally, it becomes evident that the widely- _.
area of than that of the introverts, whose C\;'s under the held generalization that hallucinogenic drugs im-
lder the hallucinogenic drug remained basically un- pair performance (see, for instance, reference [20]) ' 'i
loeybin, changed, cannot be maintained.Hallucinogenic drugscan !
bjects is The disparity in drug-induced change in CV impair a particular performance in certain sub- !
ble sub- between GOLI)SlnN'S and our subjects may be jeers, but may improve the same performance in i
due to thc fact that GOLDSTEIN'S control group others. Moreover, certain interindMdual differ- ;
_4th cer- consisted of'reformatory volunteers'. He just]tied ences may disappear under drug influence, or be- _: !
d by the this on the basis of the similarity under no-drug come manifest only itt response to the drugs, i
:t_ with conditionsbetweentile spontaneous EEG's of i
.,e hand~ the reformatory volunteers and those of staff Glossary _i
, on the volunteers. Our observations show that already- Alpha attemtation responseis the diminution or disappear- _! !!
hand- existing personality characteristics become exag- ance of alpha actMty in response to a photic p, ;
reaction gerated tinder drug-induced
' arousal, as Figure 2 stimulus.
Area ofhandwritit_g. (se_ Methods) is determined since, in _:
[il i
_. Could illustrates. In light of the very recet_t findings of 14out of 16cases,it increasesunder hallucinogenic
ilar type L1NDNERct al. [13, 14], who showed that 'simple' drug-indt,cedarousal il0, 19, 22].
manner (reasonably non-aggressive) sociopaths respond CoelTiciem of variathm (CV) is the standard deviation of
Fso, one with a significantly greater autonomic increase to mean energy content (MEC) dividedby the MEC
:orrebte a catecholandne stimulus than normals, GOLD- and multiplied by 100. [
e people, STEIN'S reformatory volunteers cannot be con- Drohockiintegrator is a device which transforms electrical _i:
reas attd sidered a normal control group. Apparently, the energyof the EEGinto a numberofpulsesreflecting
lng area CV's of GOLDS1EIN'S reformatory volunteers theduringarnoUntan
intcrval.f
electrical energy in the input signal
< 0.05; increase under LSD just as tlte autononlic res- Ergotropicarousal denotes, according to ttess, behaviour
ponse to an injection of epinephrine is greater in patterns that are preparatory for positive action
nger the tile group of _simple' sociopaths, who have been characterized by increased sympathetic actMty
or!er the identified as a group in need of stimulation [14]. and an activatedpsychicstate.
id at T2 Incidentally, it should be noted that the Force of handwriting is personality trait-dependent: it
; < 0.05, data of LANSING, ,_CHWARTZ and LINDSLEY [15] decreases in MBTI perceivers and increases in
ion time agree with our finding that reaction time under MBTt judgers under hallucinogenic drug-induced
enuation no-drug conditions becomes significantly longer arousal [6, 7, 10].
roger the with alpha activity' than witllout. Latency of alpha attenuation response Is the time from
photic stimulus to the onset of alpha attenuation.
T_ (r = In spite of the small number of subjects in A,lacKitttloncreat/r[ty score iS obtained by summing the
this study, a particular type of volunteer emerges intuition (N) and perception (P) ix (N+ P)] scores
of the MBTI [8, 9].
s) A small methodological difference in the placement of Mean energy content (MEC) is the average amplitude of
itot study electrodes should be mentioned: GOLDST[_used mono- electrical brain actiwly expressed in pulses per 20-
,inogenic polar derivation, occipital to both ears. while we used a second period (see 'Drohocki integrator').
lily-trait- bipolar sening between occipital and frontal. M),ers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a self-reporting
Id the CV ,;)The determination of stabilityor variability on the basis inventory with continous scores on four scales of
of a subject's standard deviations of repeated measure- dichotomous Jungian personality types: Extra-
tion and
mcnts of his handwriting area is only the simplest and version-Introversion (E-Ii, Sensation-Intuition
ype (Fig. most convenientmethod. Wehave found that a stable or (S-N), Thinking-Feeling (T-FL and Judging-
variable suh._.zct '_ill also display small or large standard Perceiving (J-P) [23].
'.-SD-in- devintions, respectively, on a yet-unlimited variety of Reaction time is the time fronl photic stimulus to the
yb/n, and perceptual and even behavioral tasks [6-8, 16-19]. signal produced by the subject pushing a button.
iii 'L_6 Karen Thatcher, W. C. Wiederholt and Roland Fischer Agents ar,

'_andarddeviathm {SD) on thc handwriting area at T1 is, [9] D. _o,J._tACKINNON. The Nature audNurture of Crea- i
for a particular day, a reliable predictor of the tire Talent. in: Personality Assessment (Ed. B. Se-
direction and extent of hallucinogenic drug-induc- meonoff: Penguin, Baltimore 1966).
'_ _ ed or naturally occurring perceptual-behavioral [10] R. FisctI[R. T. KAPPEL[R, P.WtsEcut' and K.THAT-
Measurement of Handwriting Area-to-Pressure

.iZ_ _ change [6, 7, 10, 191.


Ratios
CI-1ER,
Daring Psiloo,bin-lnduced Halluchmtions, On th
_ilckno,'lelements Agents and Actions 1, 42-52 (1969).

rtUniatric Research Foundation of Columbus, Ohio, and of the Alpha Attenuation Response in Children attd

i(I by NIMH General


This study Research
was supported Support
by administered
funds from the Psy-
through The Ohio State University College of Medicine.
[1 I] Adults with J.Psychiatric
V. MILS rE_N, STEVENSanti Disorders,
Clin. Ncurophysiol.26,
K. SACra)Er.Electroenceph.
12-18 _1970).
Habituation of L.MiR
by
Research
_llqe thank Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, Basel, Switzerland, [12] B.WtNER, Statistical Priaciples in _rperimental
lind Dr. John A. Scigliano, Executive Secretary FDA-PHS Design (McGraw-Hill. New York 1962). p. 374.
_{Psychotomimetic Agents Advisory Committee, Bcthesda, [13] L.LINDNER, It. GoLDMAN, S. DINITZ and Il. ALLEN, "
Maryland, for generously providing us with psilocybin Att Antisocial Persomdity Type with Cardiac Lability, i
_[l[under IND-3530. Roland Fischer). We are also indebted Abstract in Program of thc 251h Ann. Meeting of the
_lto Peter Gwynne, M.D.. Mary Ralstin and James Scheib Soc. of Biological Psychiatry, 8 May 1970.
for their medical, technical and editorial assistance. Dr. [14] L. LINDNER. It. GOLDMaN, S. D1NtTZ a nd H.AtLEN, Abstract
Leonide Goldstein's kind assistance m providing us with Antisocial Personality Type. with Cardiac Lability, that subpUsin
Arch. gen. Psychiat. 23, 260-267 (1970). 6 mg eau
his Drohocki integrator _s gratefully appreciated. [151 R. LANSING. E. SCHWARTZ and D. LINDSLEY, Reaction induced e
::;t Received 15 October 1970. Time arid EEG Activation under Alerted and Non-
. _ alerted Conditions. J. exp. Psychol. 58, 1-7 (1959).
}i!_ bykaolin
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establi,
consid.
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to its .,_
anti-in

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