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Name: Milas Ceren Hke - 140408011 CE 462.

1 Water Resources Management


Exercise #2 Izmir Katip Celebi University

To be turned in: a) a table of the indoor water use;

Baseline
Standard Consuption Daily Use Indoor Wat. Use
Indoor Water Use (gpd/person) Quantity Unit Quantity Unit Quantity (%)
Laundry (see table on the right) 16.1 gpd* 1 day 16.1 24%
Dishwasher (see table on the right) 4.7 gpd* 1 day 4.7 7%
Faucets (2.2 gpm X 6 minutes = 13.2 gpd) 2.2 gpm** 6 minutes 13.2 19%
Shower (2.5 gpm X 10 minutes = 25 gpd) 2.5 gpm 10 minutes 25.0 37%
Toilet (2.2 gpf X 4 times/day = 8.8 gpd ) 2.2 gpf*** 4 flushes 8.8 13%
Total Indoor Water Use (gpd/person) 67.8

b) Did you have an idea of your indoor water use before this exercise? Do you think this value is too high? Too

low? How does it compare with other sources?

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-03/documents/ws-facthseet-indoor-water-usein-the-us.pdf

http://www.gracelinks.org/124/indoor-water-use-at-home

Not in the unit of gallons but as the exercise justifies, I always thought that with little effort our current water

use can be reduced.

I dont think this value is much greater than the average but its much more than we need. We can minimize the

amount of water we use, but still complete the daily chores.

The average water use was estimated very close to our estimation in both sources, but Gracelinks.org includes

the household leaks to their calculations, and that actually takes up 14% of the total use. Even though the

estimation perspectives vary between sources, the end results were approximate.

To be turned in: a) the summary table comparing the baseline and scenario I;

Baseline Scenario I
(gpd/person) (gpd/person)
Indoor 67.8 47.0

10/24/2017 3:29 AM 1
Name: Milas Ceren Hke - 140408011 CE 462.1 Water Resources Management
Exercise #2 Izmir Katip Celebi University

b) What is the reduction in indoor water use (in volume and percentage) of moving from the baseline

consumption to the Scenario I consumption?

Reduction in % ---- 30.68%

Reduction in V ---- 20.8 gallons

c) There is a lot of discussion about water conservation and water use efficiency; this discussion is centered in

the concept of consumptive use of water. Consumptive water use is the water effectively used or consumed for a

particular purpose. Water conservation refers to reducing the consumptive water use, or in other words,

because the need for water is reduced (consumptive use is reduced), water is saved (conserved). Water

efficiency refers to reduce the losses of water in its use. This means that the consumptive use is the same but,

because inefficiencies are fixed (leakages, better irrigation methods, reduction in evaporation losses, etc.), less

water is used.

Question: Can Scenario I be catalogued as a water conservation or water efficiency policy? For more

information about water conservation, water efficiency and consumptive water use go to

http://www.gracelinks.org/6062/the-difference-between-water-conservation-and-efficiency, and

https://eros.usgs.gov/lir/consumptive-water-use .

To my understanding water efficiency means efficient appliances are preferred and water conservation means a

conscious effort is made to change a persons behavior regarding water use. According to this argument

scenario 1 is a water use efficiency policy. A water conservation policy would be something along the lines of

limiting the daily quantities of actions.

To be turned in: a) the summary table of the outdoor water uses;

Baseline Scenario I
(gpd/person) (gpd/person)
Outdoor 53.0 26.5

10/24/2017 3:29 AM 2
Name: Milas Ceren Hke - 140408011 CE 462.1 Water Resources Management
Exercise #2 Izmir Katip Celebi University

b) What is the reduction in outdoor water use (in volume and percentage) of moving from the baseline

consumption to the Scenario I consumption?

Reduction in % ---- 50.0%

Reduction in V ---- 26.5 gallons

c) Similar to the indoor analysis, can Scenario I be catalogued as a water conservation or water efficiency

policy?

Choosing a crop that has a smaller predicted ET value thus a smaller Kc value, therefore landscaping with

native crops is a conservative approach.

d) If we DID NOT change the plant factor Kc (from 0.8 to 0.4) and we proposed to improve the irrigation

efficiency by changing the irrigation method from sprinklers (0.75 efficiency) to drip irrigation (0.95

efficiency), would this new Scenario II be catalogued as a water conservation or water efficiency policy? Did

the Evapotranspiration of the Landscape (ETLandscape) change or the Landscapes Water Requirements (WaterET)

change compared to the Baseline Scenario?

Choosing a water delivery method that is more efficient while ETLandscape and WaterET remain the same, same as

the baseline scenario, means we use less water to achieve the same growth, reducing waste. This classifies this

scenario as an efficiency policy.

To be turned in: a) How much water could be saved indoors? b) How much water could be saved outdoors?

Baseline Scenario I Possible Saving


(gpd/person) (%) (gpd/person) (%) (gpd/person)
Indoor 67.8 56% 47.0 64% 20.8
Outdoor 53.0 44% 26.5 36% 26.5
Total 120.8 73.5

10/24/2017 3:29 AM 3
Name: Milas Ceren Hke - 140408011 CE 462.1 Water Resources Management
Exercise #2 Izmir Katip Celebi University

c) Where can more water be saved, indoors or outdoors?

Outdoor water use can be reduced 50% by our policy while indoor water use can be reduced 30.68%, so a larger

percentage of outdoor water can be saved. Indoor water used in decreases 20.8 gpd/person, while the outdoor

decreases 26.5 gpd/person.

d) Before this class, did you realize about the large consumption of water outdoors compared with indoors?

In California, houses with yards are a lot more common compared to Turkey. This alone can indicate a larger

outdoor water use. So the estimated large consumption doesnt belong to the country I live in. I can say that I

wasnt aware.

e) Have you noticed that the WUPC for the Baseline Scenario (120.8 gpd/person) is very similar to the results

obtained in Exercise 1 (120 gpd/person)!? This is not a coincidence; data was selected carefully to represent the

urban water demand in Watsonville. How do these two calculations support each other? Do you think having

these two calculations makes a stronger argument about their validity and help support one another?

This similarity means that our two different approaches leading to a common result, are supportive of each other

and that our estimation parameters are rather close to reality.

To be turned in: a) Figure 50 (chart) with both water demands, Baseline and Scenario I,

12,000
Baseline Scenario
Urban Water Use Demand (AF/year)

10,000 Scenario I: Water


Conservation
8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0
1990
1994
1998
2002
2006
2010
2014
2018
2022
2026
2030
2034
2038
2042
2046
2050

10/24/2017 3:29 AM 4
Name: Milas Ceren Hke - 140408011 CE 462.1 Water Resources Management
Exercise #2 Izmir Katip Celebi University

b) In which year will the water demand start to be less than Baseline Scenario? 2014? 2015? 2016?

The water demand for urban water use will start to be less in the year 2013.

WUPC Water Demand Percentage of Implementation WUPC Water Demand


Year Pop =939.82*Year - 1837306.8 gpd/person Gallons/year AF/Y % Baseline % Scenario I gpd/person Gallons/year AF/Y
2012 53,611 120 2349007832 7209 100% 0% 120 2349007832 7209
2013 54,551 121 2405201968 7381 95% 5% 118 2358113666 7237
2014 55,491 121 2446639572 7508 90% 10% 116 2350840462 7214

To be Turned in: a) A figure of the future water demand as shown in figure 68;

55,000

Baseline Scenario I

50,000
Agriculture Water Demand (AF/year)

45,000

40,000

35,000

30,000
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018
2020
2022
2024
2026
2028
2030
2032
2034
2036
2038
2040
2042
2044
2046
2048
2050

10/24/2017 3:29 AM 5
Name: Milas Ceren Hke - 140408011 CE 462.1 Water Resources Management
Exercise #2 Izmir Katip Celebi University

b) given the discussion of the indoor scenario about water efficiency and water conservation, is Scenario I Ag.

Water Demand Reduction a water conservation or a water efficiency policy? In this case the Consumptive use

is the Evapotranspiration (41,275 AF/year). Water conservation refers to reducing the consumptive water use

(Evapotranspiration), or in other words, because the need for water is reduced (consumptive use is reduced)

water is saved (conserved). Water efficiency refers to reducing the losses of water in its use, which means that

the consumptive use is the same but because inefficiencies are fixed (leakages, better irrigation methods,

reduction in evaporation losses, and so on) less water is used. Question: Can Scenario I be catalogued as a water

conservation or water efficiency policy?

the prospective water savings that can be achieved if all the water used in Pajaro Valley were 100%

efficient, or in other words, if every drop applied in the basin were used by the crops

This assumption clearly states that we neglect the loss of water in our estimations. Preventing or reducing the

loss is defined earlier as an efficiency increase method but I believe these savings can be provided with more

efficient irrigation systems and also some conservative ways such as watering the landscape when evaporation

rates are lower, and/or avoiding watering on windy days. As a result, this policy could be both, conservation and

efficiency, because there is not enough information about how exactly these savings are obtained.

10/24/2017 3:29 AM 6
Name: Milas Ceren Hke - 140408011 CE 462.1 Water Resources Management
Exercise #2 Izmir Katip Celebi University

To be turned in: a) A chart similar to Figure 86;

65,000
Water Demand (AF/Year)

60,000
Baseline
55,000
Scenario I

50,000

45,000

40,000
1990
1993
1996
1999
2002
2005
2008
2011
2014
2017
2020
2023
2026
2029
2032
2035
2038
2041
2044
2047
2050
b) Is it possible to keep reducing the water demand in the future? If so, which kind of policies will you apply?

Water conservation? Recycling water? Water harvesting?

I believe it can by, first and foremost, creating an awareness about its importance and focusing more to this

problem.

Improving and enhancing the irrigation systems,

encouraging the water conservation by policies,

changing the standarts for productions and regulating their applications & installations,

scheduling watering,

tiered or volumetric pricing, metering & submetering,

banning old non-efficient products and systems.

Creating a better code for use of water in general.

We no longer live in an era of cheap and plentiful water. Thomas Pape [1].

[1] https://www.buildinggreen.com/feature/water-policies-encouraging-conservation

10/24/2017 3:29 AM 7