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Nursing Process
Steps in Nursing Process
A = Assessment
A = Analysis
P = Planning
I = Implementation
E = Evaluation
Steps in the Nursing Process
ADPIE An Delicious PIE
A = Assessment
D = Diagnosis
P = Planning
I = Implementation
E = Evaluation
Pupillary Reaction
P = Pupils
E = Equally
R = Round and
R = Reactive to
L = Light and
A = Accommodate
H = Heat
I = Indurations (hardening)
P = Pain
E = Edema
R = Redness
O = Onset
P = Provoke or Palliative
Q = Quality
R = Region or Radiation
S = Signs, Severity, Symptoms
T = Time of onset, duration, and intensity
Acidosis and Alkalosis and pH
Alkalosis has K, therefore it is kicking the pH UP
Acidosis has D, therefore it is dropping the pH DOWN
Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs)
R = Respiratory
O = Opposite
M = Metabolic
E = Equal
pH pCO2 HCO3
Metabolic Acidosis Low Normal Low Equal
Metabolic Alkalosis High Normal High Equal
Respiratory Acidosis Low High Normal Opposite
Respiratory Alkalosis High Low Normal Opposite

Hyponatremia S&S
S = Stupor/coma
A = Anorexia, N&V
L = Lethargy
T = Tendon reflexes, decreased
L = Limp muscles (weakness)
O = Orthostatic hypotension
S = Seizures/headache
S = Stomach cramping
Hypocalcemia S&S
C = Convulsions
A = Arrhythmias
T = Tetany
S = Spasms and Stridor
Hypocalcemia is low levels of calcium in the blood. Calcium in the blood can be bound to proteins, bound to anions like
phosphate or ionized stores of calcium, or in the bones. Calcium blocks sodium channels inhibiting depolarization of
muscle and nerve fibers. The effects of hypocalcemia are the results of muscle fibers being more excitable. So, the S&S
have a lot to do with muscles. Mnemonic to remember the S&S of hypocalcemia is CATS C: Convulsions, A:
Arrhythmias, T: Tetany, and S: Spasms and Stridor. (Tetany: Remember how calcium has a lot to do with muscle fibers
being more excitable. So, S&S include some issues with muscles. So, numbness, tingling, and maybe some twitches. A
common one is the lips, tongue, face feeling numb and tingly, that is a classic sign. So, thats what tetany is).
Hypercalcemia S&S
Groans, Moans, Bones, Stones, Overtones
Groans = Constipation
Moans = Joint pain
Bones = Loss of calcium from bones (calcium is leaving bones and going into bloodstream)
Stones = Kidney stones
Overtones = Psychiatric overtones (confusion, depression)
Causes of Hypernatremia
M = Medications/Meals
O = Osmotic diuretics
D = Diabetes insipidus
E = Excessive water loss
L = Low water intake
Hypernatremia S&S
3 Mnemonics for S&S of Hypernatremia
F = Flushed skin
R = Restlessness; irritability
I = Increased fluid retention and increased BP
E = Edema (peripheral and pitting)
D = Decreased urinary output, Dry mouth
SWINE: Bacon has high amounts of sodium
S = Sleepy (lethargy typically the very first sign)
W = Weakness
I = Irritability
N = Neuromuscular excitability
E = Edema
S = Skin flushed
A = Agitation
L = Low-grade fever
T = Thirst
Causes of Hyperkalemia
MACHINE: The hyperkalemia MACHINE
M = Medications ACE inhibitors, NSAIDs, potassium-sparing diuretics
A = Acidosis Metabolic and Respiratory
C = Cellular Destruction Burns, traumatic injury, hemolysis
H = Hypoaldosteronism Addisons disease
I = Intake Excessive
N = Nephrons Renal failure
E = Excretion Impaired
Hyperkalemia S&S
M = Muscle weakness
U = Urine Oliguria, Anuria
R = Respiratory distress
D = Decreased cardiac contractility
E = ECG changes
R = Reflexes Hyperreflexia or Areflexia (flaccid)
Management of Hyperkalemia
A = Administer IV calcium To immediately decrease cardiac toxicity
I = Increase excretion Via both stool (Kayexalate) and urine (diuretics)
R = Remove sources of potassium From all sources, including parenteral, enteral, IV, and PO
E = Enhance potassium uptake into cells Insulin, glucose, sodium bicarb, beta-adrenergic antagonists (want to increase
pulling K from outside cell to inside cell)
D = Dialysis Emergent response for pts with lethal hyperkalemia
Hypokalemia S&S
6 Ls
L = Lethargy
L = Leg cramps
L = Limp muscles
L = Low, shallow respirations
L = Lethal cardiac dysrhythmias
L = Lots of urine (polyuria)
Cancer Early Warning Signs
C = Change in bowel or bladder
(common sign of colorectal cancer)
A = A lesion that does not heal
(if on skin or in mouth, skin cancer or oral cancer could be cause)
U = Unusual bleeding or discharge
(any bleeding from bladder, vagina, or rectum could mean prostate, cervical, or colorectal cancer)
T = Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
(lump on breast can be sign of cancer. Lump on testicle can mean testicular cancer)
I = Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
(can be symptom of stomach, throat, esophagus, or mouth cancer)
O = Obvious changes in wart or mole
(most common sign of skin cancer)
N = Nagging cough or persistent hoarseness
(cough that lasts for 4 wks or longer can be symptom of lung and/or throat cancer)
U = Unexplained weight loss
P = Pernicious anemia
To Assess Moles Malignant Potential
A = Asymmetry Is the mole irregular in shape?
B = Border Is the border irregular, notched, or poorly defined?
C = Color Does the color vary (e.g., between shades of brown, red, white, blue, or black)?
D = Diameter Is the diameter more than 6 mm?
A = Anemia
N = Neutropenia
T = Thrombocytopenia
Respiratory System
Pulmonary Edema
M = Morphine Causes vasodilation, resulting in decreased BP
A = Aminophylline Relaxes airways to make breathing easier
D = Digitalis Improve heart function in pulmonary edema
D = Diuretics (Lasix) Pull excess fluid off
O = Oxygen Improve oxygenation
G = Gases (Blood Gases/ABGs) Assess respiratory status
Early Hypoxia:
R = Restlessness
A = Anxiety
T = Tachycardia/Tachypnea
Late Hypoxia:
B = Bradycardia
E = Extreme Restlessness
D = Dyspnea
6 Ps
P = Pulmonary Bronchial Constriction
P = Possible Foreign Body
P = Pulmonary Embolus (PE)
P = Pneumothorax
P = Pump Failure
P = Pneumonia
A = Adrenergic (Albuterol)
S = Steroids
T = Theophylline
H = Hydration (IV)
M = Mask (oxygen)
A = Antibiotics
Cardiovascular System
Circulatory Checks
5 Ps
P = Pain
P = Paresthesia
P = Paralysis
P = Pulse
P = Pallor (Paleness)
Cardiac Valves Blood Flow
TPMA Toilet Paper My Ass
T = Tricuspid
P = Pulmonic
M = Mitral
A = Aortic
ECG Lead Placement
White Right, Clouds Over Grass, Smoke Over Fire, and Chocolate on the Stomach
White Right Youre grabbing your white lead first, put that on upper right chest shoulder. Kind of lower shoulder
Clouds Over Grass White (clouds) over green (grass). Grab green lead second, and put it on the right side, kind of
lower chest area.
Smoke Over Fire Black over red. So, put black lead on left side, kind of opposite where the white one is. Same thing
with red one, for smoke over fire, and thats kind of opposite where the green one is
Chocolate on the Stomach Put brown lead directly on the stomach, but somewhat on the center of the chest.
Coronary Arteries
I have a RIGHT to CAMP if you LEFT off the AC
C = Coronary
A = Artery
M = Marginal artery
P = Posterior intraventricular artery
A = Anterior ventricular artery
C = Circumflex artery
Cardiac Auscultation
All People Enjoy Time Magazine
All = Aortic (2nd intercostal space, right sternal border)
People = Pulmonic (2nd intercostal space, left sternal border)
Enjoy = Erbs Point (3rd intercostal space, left sternal border)
Time = Tricuspid (4th or 5th intercostal space, left sternal border)
Magazine = Mitral (5th intercostal space, left midclavicular line)
Beta Blockers
1 heart, 2 lungs
Beta 1: Heart
Beta 2: Lungs
You have one heart, and two lungs
Hypertension (HTN)
4 Cs
C = Coronary artery disease
C = Coronary rheumatic fever
C = Congestive heart failure
C = Cerebrovascular accident
I = Isoproterenol
D = Dopamine
E = Epinephrine
A = Atropine Sulfate
Isoproterenol: Acts on beta2-adrenergic receptors, causing relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle; acts on beta1-
adrenergic receptors in heart, causing positive inotropic and chronotropic effects and increasing CO. Also lowers PVR in
skeletal muscles and inhibits antigen-induced histamine release.
Dopamine: Causes norepinephrine release (mainly on dopaminergic receptors), leading to vasodilation of renal and
mesenteric arteries. Also exerts inotropic effects on heart, which increases HR, blood flow, myocardial contractility, and
Epinephrine: Stimulates alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors, causing relaxation of cardiac and bronchial smooth
muscle and dilation of skeletal muscles. Also decreases aqueous humor production, increases aqueous outflow, and
dilates pupils by contracting dilator muscle.
Atropine Sulfate: Acts on beta2-adrenergic receptors, causing relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle; acts on beta1-
adrenergic receptors in heart, causing positive inotropic and chronotropic effects and increasing CO. Also lowers PVR in
skeletal muscle and inhibits antigen-induced histamine release
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
M = Morphine
O = Oxygen
N = Nitrates (Nitroglycerin)
A = Aspirin (ASA)
T = Thrombolytics
A = Anticoagulants
S = Stool softeners
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
M = Morphine sulfate
O = Oxygen
N = Nitroglycerin
A = ASA (Aspirin)
Heart Failure (HF)
Right Sided: HEAD
H = Hepatomegaly
E = Edema (Bipedal)
A = Ascites
D = Distended Neck Vein
Left Sided: CHOP
C = Cough
H = Hemoptysis
O = Orthopnea
P = Pulmonary Congestion (Crackles/Rales)
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Treatment
U = Upright (sit Upright)
N = Nitroglycerin
L = Lasix
O = Oxygen
A = Aminophylline
D = Digoxin
F = Fluids - Decrease
A = Afterload - Decrease
S = Sodium - Decrease
T = Tests Digoxin level, ABG, K+
Cor Pulmonale
PRHT Please Read His Text
P = Peripheral edema
R = Raised JVP
H = Hepatomegaly
T = Tricuspid incompetence
Hematologic System
Blood Types
Type O Blood
Picture type O as a huge circle, like the universe, because they are the universal donor. They can give to everyone.
However, also think of them as the odd man out because they can only receive type O as well. They are universally
odd, able to give to all but only receive from themselves!
Signs of Minor Bleeding
B = Bleeding
E = Epistaxis (nose bleed)
E = Ecchymoses (bruising)
P = Petechiae
Bleeding Precautions
R = Razor Electric/Blades
A = Aspirin
N = Needles Small gauge
D = Decrease needle sticks
I = Injury (Protect from)
Digestive and Gastrointestinal System
A = Airway Closed
I = Increased Pulse
R = Restlessness
R = Retractions Occur when the muscles between the ribs pull inward
A = Anxiety Increased
I = Inspiratory Stridor High-pitched breath sound resulting from turbulent airflow in the larynx
D = Drooling
P = Position
O = Output
O = Offer fluids
P = Privacy
E = Exercise
R = Report results
S = Size (Amount)
C = Consistency
O = Occult Blood
O = Odor
P = Peristalsis
Treatment for Severe Dehydration
B = Banana
R = Rice
A = Apple
T = Toast
P = Pain (RLQ) Pain in RLQ of abdomen
A = Anorexia Loss of appetite
I = Increased temperature, WBC (15,000 20,000)
N = Nausea
S = Signs (McBurneys, Psoas)
Biliary System
Cholelithiasis (Cholesterol Gallstones) Risk Factors
6 Fs
F = Female (gallbladder disease and gallstones are most common in women d/t the high levels of estrogen)
F = Fair (gallstones more common in Caucasians, fair skin)
F = Fat (overweight overweight people have more cholesterol in their bile, and more gallstones are deposits of
F = Forty (age near or above 40 40 is an indicator of premenopausal time for women, bringing on spikes of estrogen
F = Fertile (premenopausal-increased estrogen is thought to increase cholesterol levels in bile and decrease gallbladder
contractions) (women who are pregnant have higher levels of hormones or estrogen, therefore increasing risk)
F = Family Hx
Metabolic and Endocrine Systems
Adrenal Gland Hormones
3 Ss
S = Sugar (Glucocorticoids)
S = Salt (Mineralocorticoids)
S = Sex (Androgens)
T = Tachycardia
I = Irritability
R = Restlessness
E = Excessive Hunger
D = Diaphoresis/Depression
Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia
Hyper = Hot/Dry = Sugary High
Hypo = Cold/Clammy = Needs candy
Renal and Urinary Systems
Transient Incontinence
D = Delirium
I = Infection
A = Atrophic urethra (atrophy of the urethra)
P = Pharmaceuticals BP meds, antidepressants, diuretics, sleeping pills
P = Psychologic
E = Excess urine output
R = Restricted mobility
S = Stool impaction
Who Needs Dialysis? Check the Vowels: AEIOU
A = Acid-base problems
E = Electrolyte problems
I = Intoxication
O = Overload of fluids
U = Uremic symptoms
Male Reproductive System
S&S of Prostate Problems
Prostate problems are noFUN
F = Frequency
U = Urgency
N = Nocturia
Musculoskeletal System
B = Bathing
A = Ambulation
T = Toileting
T = Transfers
E = Eating
D = Dressing
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs)
S = Shopping
C = Cooking and Cleaning
U = Using telephone or transportation
M = Managing money and medications
Causes of Osteoporosis
ACCESS leads to osteoporosis
A = Alcohol use
C = Corticosteroid use
C = Calcium low
E = Estrogen low
S = Smoking
S = Sedentary lifestyle
Interventions for Sprains and Strains
R = Rest
I = Ice
C = Compression
E = Elevation
Canes and Walkers
C = Cane
O = Opposite
A = Affected
L = Leg
WWAL Wandering Wilma Always Late
W = Walker
W = With
A = Affected
L = Leg
T = Temperature (Extremity, Infection)
R = Ropes hang freely
A = Alignment
C = Circulation Check (5 Ps)
T = Type and Location of fracture
I = Increased fluid intake
O = Overhead trapeze
N = No weights on bed or floor
OB and Peds
Altered Mental Status
Things to Assess For:
A = Alcohol/drugs
E = Endocrine
I = Insulin
O = Overdose
T = Trauma
I = Infection
P = Psychiatric
S = Shock
Tracheal Esophageal Fistula
3 Cs
C = Choking
C = Coughing
C = Cyanosis
Signs and Symptoms
F = Feeding difficulty
I = Inspiratory stridor
N = Nares flares
E = Expiratory grunting
S = Sternal retractions
Cleft Lip Repair
Things to Assess For:
Cleft Lip
C = Choking
L = Lie on back
E = Evaluate airway
F = Feed slowly
T = Teaching
L = Larger nipple opening
I = Increased incidence in males
P = Prevent crust formation and aspiration
Child Abuse
Child Abuse
C = Childs excessive knowledge of sex and abusive words
H = Hair growth in various lengths
I = Inconsistent stories from the childs parent(s)
L = Low self-esteem
D = Depression
A = Apathy, no emotion
B = Bruised
U = Unusual injuries
S = Serious injuries
E = Evidence of old injuries
Umbilical Cord
Two Arteries, One Vein
Two Umbilical Arteries
One Umbilical Vein
Oral Birth Control Pills
A = Abdominal pain
C = Chest pain
H = Headaches
E = Eye problems
S = Severe leg pain
Non-Stress Test
N = Non-reactive
N = Non-stress test is
N = Not good
Intra Uterine Device
P = Period (Menstrual: Late, spotting, bleeding)
A = Abdominal pain, dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
I = Infection (abnormal vaginal discharge)
N = Not feeling well, fever or chills
S = String missing
Severe Pre-Eclampsia
Signs and Symptoms
H = Hemolysis
E = Elevated
L = Liver function tests
L = Low
P = Platelet count
Fetal Well Being
A = Amniocentesis
L = L/S ratio
O = Oxytocin test
N = Non-stress test
E = Estriol level
Fetal Accelerations and Decelerations
What we are trying to understand with this mnemonic is when to be concerned while monitoring the fetal heart rate.
V = Variable deceleration C = Cord compression
E = Early deceleration H = Head compression
A = Acceleration O = Okay!
L = Late acceleration P = Placental insufficiency
Evaluation of Healing
R = Redness
E = Edema
E = Ecchymoses
D = Discharge, Drainage
A = Approximation
Cyanotic Defects
4 Ts
T = Tetralogy of Fallot
T = Truncus Arteriosus
T = Transposition of the Great Vessels
T = Tricuspid Atresia
Mental Health
Manic Attack
D = Distractibility
I = Indiscretion
G = Grandiosity
F = Flight of ideas
A = Activity increase
S = Sleep deficit
T = Talkative
S = Sleep disturbances
I = Interest decreased
G = Guilty feelings
Make sure they dont have problems with:
D = Drugs and alcohol
E = Eyes and ears
M = Metabolic and endocrine disorders
E = Emotional disorders
N = Neurologic disorders
T = Tumors and trauma
I = Infection
A = Arteriovascular disease
Alzheimers Diagnosis
5 As
A = Amnesia Loss of memories
A = Anomia Unable to recall names of everyday objects
A = Apraxia Unable to perform tasks of movement
A = Agnosia Inability to process sensory information
A = Aphasia Disruption with ability to communicate
Anorexia and Bulimia
A = Amenorrhea
N = No organic factors accounts for weight loss
O = Obviously thin but feels FAT
R = Refusal to maintain normal body weight
E = Epigastric discomfort is common
X = X-symptoms (peculiar symptoms)
I = Intense fears of gaining weight
A = Always thinking of food
B = Binge eating
U = Under strict dieting
L = Lacks control/over-eating
I = Induced vomiting
M = Minimum of 2 binge eating episodes
I = Increase/persistent concern of body size/shape
A = Abuse of diuretics and laxatives
W = Weight loss of 15% of original body weight
A = Amenorrhea
S = Social withdrawal
H = History of high activity and achievement
E = Electrolyte imbalance
D = Depression/distorted body image
5 Ds
D = Denial
D = Dependency
D = Demanding
D = Destructive
D = Domineering
T = Tissue perfusion problems
R = Respiratory problems
A = Anxiety
U = Unstable clotting factors
M = Malnutrition
A = Altered body image
T = Thromboembolism fat embolism
I = Infection
C = Coping problems
A = Airway (with simultaneous cervical spine protection)
Keep airway open to allow body to take in oxygen and excel carbon dioxide. Use head-tilt chin-lift technique to open
airway. Check or remove obstructions. A blocked airway can lead to respiratory or cardiac arrest.
B = Breathing
Once airway is open, check for normal breathing, make use of look, listen, and feel techniques. Look at chest and
observe rising and falling for normal respiration. Listen for air movement. Feel for air coming through mouth or nose. If
there is no breathing or abnormal breathing, CPR must be initiated with 2 breaths.
C = Circulation
Oxygen-rich blood cannot be circulated without breathing. Hence, its unnecessary to check for pulse to determine
whether CPR is needed; commence immediately if no breathing is detected.
D = Disability (neuro status)
Check pts neurological status and for obvious deformities or disabilities.
E = Expose/Environmental controls (remove clothes and keep pt warm)
Remove clothing to properly assess pt; be sure to keep pt warm
F = Full set of vital signs
Note any changes in the following signs: Pulse (carotid, brachial, radial), pupils, breathing, LOC, BP, and skin color and
G = Give comfort measures
Continue to rest and reassure. Provide comfort measures and prevent further injury (verbal reassurance, touch, and
pharm and nonpharm management of pain)
H = Hx and Head-to-toe assessment
Use the mnemonic SAMPLE to obtain health Hx and do a head-to-toe assessment after
I = Inspect posterior surfaces
Inspect for wounds, deformities, discolorations, etc.
Emergency Drugs
Drugs to LEAN on
L = Lidocaine
E = Epinephrine
A = Atropine Sulfate
N = Narcan
Action: Suppresses automaticity of ventricular cells, decreasing diastolic depolarization and increasing V-fib threshold.
Produces local anesthesia by reducing sodium permeability of sensory nerves, which blocks impulse generation and
Uses: Ventricular arrhythmias, topical/local anesthetic
Action: Stimulates alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors, causing relaxation of cardiac and bronchial smooth muscle and
dilation of skeletal muscles.
Uses: Bronchodilation; anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reaction; acute asthma attack; chronic simple glaucoma
Atropine Sulfate
Action: Inhibits acetylcholine at parasympathetic neuroeffector junction of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, blocking
SA and AV nodes to increase impulse conduction and raise HR.
Uses: Decreases respiratory secretions, treats sinus bradycardia, reverses effects of anticholinesterase med
Action: Naloxone is used to treat opioid emergency such as OD or a possible OD of a narcotic med.
Uses: Opioid-induced toxicity; opioid-induced respiratory depression; used in neonates to counteract or treat effects
from narcotics given to mother during labor
6 Ts
T = Tachycardia
T = Tachypnea
T = Tremors
T = Toxic look
T = Tiredness
T = Temperature (fever)
Gluten Free Diet
B = Barley
R = Rye
O = Oats
W = Wheat
Medications and Vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins: ADEK - All Dogs Eat Kibbles
Take your Birth Control with water. Vitamins B and C are water soluble
The rest of the vitamins are fat soluble (ADEK)
All Dogs Eat Kibbles
A (vitamin A)
D (vitamin D)
E (vitamin E)
K (vitamin K)
Side Effects of Steroids
6 Ss
S = Sugary Hyperglycemia (raises blood sugar)
S = Soggy Bones Causes osteoporosis
S = Sick Decreased immunity (Get Sick easier)
S = Sad Depression
S = Salt Water and salt retention (HTN)
S = Sex Increased libido
S&S of Lidocaine Toxicity
S = Slurred Speech
A = Altered Central Nervous System
M = Muscle Twitching
S = Seizures
Drug Interactions
TDCI These Drugs Can Interact
T = Theophylline
D = Dilantin
C = Coumadin
I = Ilosone (Erythromycin)
Anticholinergic Side Effects
Cant See Blurred vision
Cant Pee Urinary retention
Cant Spit Dry mouth
Cant Shit Constipation
An anticholinergic is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous
system. They inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine and its receptor in the nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the
involuntary movement of smooth muscles present within the GI tract, lungs, urinary tract, etc. So, theres a lot of
different uses for anticholinergics. You might not even realize youre using yourself or giving to your pt are
anticholinergics. They are given for GI issues, urinary issues, respiratory issues. Atropine is actually a big one that we give
for symptomatic bradycardia, insomnia, dizziness, that kind of stuff. A few of the meds Benadryl, thats a pretty well-
known one; Wellbutrin, thats an interesting one; Atropine; Cogentin; just a ton of different ones that are out there.
The side effects, as you can imagine this like anticholinergics really affect a lot of systems of the body, so you can have a
lot of side effects from these medications. The mnemonic for side effects of anticholinergics is You cant see it, cant
pee, cant spit, and cant shit. You cant see blurred vision is a side effect. Cant pee urinary retention. Cant spit
you have dry mouth. Cant shit constipation.
Cholinergic Crisis
S = Salivation
L = Lacrimation (excessive tears)
U = Urination
D = Defecation
G = Gastric upset
E = Emesis
Another mnemonic when pts are receiving anticholinergics, is for cholinergic crisis. So, the S&S that go along with the
cholinergic crisis SLUDGE. These actually, surprisingly enough, are kind of opposite of your anticholinergic issues. If you
think of it like anticholinergics are kind of drying things up, cholinergics are kind of lubricating everything. You just have
things coming out of everywhere. So, thats kind of how to remember the two. Anticholinergic kind of drives things up,
cholinergic crisis kind of has stuff coming out of everywhere, out of your eyes, bowels, bladder, mouth (emesis and
salivation both), just a lot going on, kind of a messy situations there with the cholinergic crisis. So, thats what you want
to be thinking about when youre thinking anticholinergic and cholinergic, how to differentiate the two.