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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)

On the Centenary of Great October Socialist Revolution concrete conditions of struggle in light of the historical experiences of the
revolutionary movements and in particular the struggles of working class.
Intensify the struggle for October Revolution embodied the revolutionary mass line opposing both
tailing the ruling classes in the name of masses and also formulating tasks
New Democratic Revolution of struggle without taking the preparedness of the workers and toiling people
which neglects the importance of preparing the working people for decisive
in India struggles for the revolution. In essence, October Revolution was truly a
"festival of masses" in which working class and toiling people fought for
themselves and moved ahead to build a system in the direction of their
This year Centenary of Great October Socialist Revolution is being historical mission to build a communist society.
observed. Victory of Socialist Revolution was a world shaking event. It
was a giant stride in the march of the working class towards a world free of October Revolution broke the imperialist chain at its weakest link. It
exploitation of one human being by another. Drawing on the experiences of took place at a time when capitalism had evolved into capitalist imperialism,
the Paris Commune, the first attempt by the working class to seize power, where handful of powerful imperialist countries were ruling over the world
revolutionary Marxists in Russia overthrew the rule of bourgeoisie, smashed and oppressing vast multitude of the people living in colonies and
the state machine serving the interests of exploiting classes, consolidated semicolonies, where their contention over the greater share of the resources
the power of the working class in alliance with other exploited classes, of the world had become a source of continuous war leading to wars for
particularly poor peasantry, and went on to build socialism in one sixth of repartitioning the world in the interest of their monopolies. Czarist Russia
the globe. The victorious October Revolution changed the course of history occupied a position of a participant in these wars but which was itself
not only in the then Russia but in the whole world. It affected not only the exploited by the monopolies of the western imperialist countries. Death
struggles of working class and toiling people all over the world but it also and destitution fell to the share of Russians in these wars, bringing untold
influenced the response of the ruling classes to the struggles of working miseries to the workers and peasants who demanded immediate end to
class and toiling people in different countries. war. Afraid of the rising struggles and organization of working class and
growing disillusionment and anger of peasanty, Russian bourgeoisie and
October Revolution had immense significance for the struggles of landlords were with the western imperialists and continued Russian
workers the world over. It demonstrated in practice that working class can participation in the war even after overthrow of Czarist autocracy in February
not simply lay its hand on the state machinery of the bourgeoise, it has to 1917 revolution. It was the workers and soldiers (mainly peasants) who
smash it and build a state of working class for the period of socialist wanted immediate end to war and Bolsheviks were the only party promising
construction. October Revolution underlined the role of objective and and capable of delivering on this.
subjective factors in leading the revolution to victory. In particular it
underlined the need of a working class party of a new type such as was the October Revolution took place in a backward capitalist country having
party of Bolsheviks. It demonstrated that a Party equipped with revolutionary vast peasantry oppressed by landlords and suppressed by the state
theory and having deep roots in the working class and toiling people alone machinery. Bringing peasant masses onto the side of revolution was crucial
can lead the revolution to victory. Victorious October Revolution also clearly for the victory of revolution in Russia. Bolsheviks mobilized the peasant
demonstrated that a revolutionary communist party must wage a relentless masses with their slogans of nationalization of land and confiscation and
struggle against alien trends, revisionism and anarchism and the deviations distribution of landlords' lands among peasant masses. Solving the agrarian
tending towards these alien ideologies, right and left deviations. October question correctly was essential to the victorious march of revolution in
Revolution demonstrated the need of a revolutionary programme in Russia. Russian revolution furnished immensely useful guidelines to solve
accordance with scientific analysis of society and a path acccording to the the agrarian question in countries with backward agrarian relations. Lenin

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
and Bolsheviks criticized both Narodniks and Mensheviks for their incorrect Revolution are obviously marked by the reverses faced by the working
approach towards the agrarian question in Russia and enriched Marxist class first in the Soviet Union and then in China. These reverses had
approach towards agararian question and peasantry. October Revolution emboldened the bourgeois ideologues to proclaim that the capitalist system
brought working class to power in alliance with poor peasantry. The Marxist had won and "history has ended". This bourgeois assumption was
approach to the peasant question in backward countries, colonies and shortlived. It has been badly shaken by deep crisis of the imperialist system.
semicolonies was further developed by Mao during Chinese Revolution. World financial economic crisis from 2008 has wiped out this fairy tale of
The October Revolution took place in a country where a large number capitalism from serious discussion. Today the deepening crisis of the
of nationalities had faced national oppression. The Bolsheviks took a firm imperialist system is widely acknowledged and struggles of the people
stand in favour of the right of nations to self-determination. They against the neo-liberal regimes in favour of imperialist bourgeoisie are also
implemented it after the conquest of power by the working class. October widely reported. These struggles have encompassed the working people in
Revolution struck a chord in the countries under colonial rule and subject imperialist countries. Ruling bourgeoisie are trying to direct this
to imperialist oppression. Working class in power in Russia stood against disillusionment and anger into chauvinist, racist, xenophobic channels giving
the ruling bourgeoisie of the imperialist countries and granted right to self- a fillip to fascist forces in different countries. However, deepening economic
determination to oppressed nations. October Revolution thus acted as a crisis and resultant struggles of the people have led to political crisis and
bridge between socialist revolutions in the imperialist countries and national instability in several countries. A great disorder has swept through the
liberation movements in the colonies and semicolonies. These two streams world. "Imperialism means war". If we look at the map today, there are
became part of the world proletarian revolution and continue to be so. scores of serious wars going on in different parts of the world and many
more at local levels. As the contradictions among imperialist powers
October Revolution integrated the universal theory of Marxism with the intensify, these wars engulf a larger and larger area of the globe.
concrete practice of revolution. In the process it developed revolutionary
theory to Marxism-Leninism which became the Marxism of the era of The reverses suffered by the working class, first in the Soviet Union
imperalism and proletarian revolution. It affirmed the teaching of the founders and then in China, have definitely had a world wide impact. The Great
of scientific socialism that their doctrine was a guide to action. This theory Teachers had cautioned the communists of the attempts by the overthrown
was further enriched and developed to the level of Marxism-Leninism-Mao bourgeoisie to come back to power. This understanding was further enriched
Zedong Thought by Com. Mao, leader of the Communist Party of China by Com. Mao who deepened the understanding of class struggle in socialist
and of Chinese Revolution. Mao led the revolution in a semifeudal, society and launched Cultural Revolution to combat bourgeois influence in
semicolonial country. Mao also enriched the Marxist theory on building of socialist society. These lessons are of great importance for the revolutionary
socialism through continuing the revolution under the conditions of communists to convince the people that while reversals in the course of
dictatorship of proletariat. Thus today's revolutionary theory is Marxism- socialist construction are possible, these are not inevitable and revolutionary
Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. communists have the theoretical understanding and practical rmeasures
October Revolution reaffirmed that the proletariat of every country has to prevent this. The era of revolutionary transformations has furnished rich
to settle accounts with its own ruling classes. Leader of October Revolution, experience which enables us to look at the future with greater clarity and
Lenin, termed it the primary duty of communists in every country to make with better tools to carry the revolution through to the end.
revolution in their country. It is part of their internationalist task and would On the centenary of October Revolution, it is the foremost task of the
be their biggest contribution to the world wide struggle of working class communist revolutionaries of India to intensify struggle for new democratic
and toiling people in smashing the imperialist system and marching towards revolution in the country. Making revolution in India would be our best
elimination of all exploitation and oppression. contribution to the international struggle of working class and toiling people
The discourse and discussion at the time of the centenary of October for a brave new world.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)

On the Victory of Socialist bourgeoisie could use them as a screen and preserve its power. But after
the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries had exposed themselves
Revolution in Russia as agents of the imperialist bourgeoisie, thus forfeiting their influence among
the people, the bourgeoisie and its Provisional Government were left without
a support.
(From Chapter Seven Point 6 of the History of
2) The October Revolution was headed by so revolutionary a class as
CPSU(B) the working class of Russia, a class which had been steeled in battle,
which had in a short space passed through two revolutions, and which by
There were several reasons for this comparatively easy victory of the the eve of the third revolution had won recognition as the leader of the
Socialist revolution in Russia. The following chief reasons should be noted: people in the struggle for peace, land, liberty and Socialism. If the revolution
had not had a leader like the working class of Russia, a leader that had
1) The October Revolution was confronted by an enemy so comparatively earned the confidence of the people, there would have been no alliance
weak, so badly organized and so politically inexperienced as the Russian between the workers and peasants, and without such an alliance the victory
bourgeoisie. Economically still weak, and completely dependent on of the October Revolution would have been impossible.
government contracts, the Russian bourgeoisie lacked sufficient political
self-reliance and initiative to find a way out of the situation. It had neither 3) The working class of Russia had so effective an ally in the revolution
the experience of the French bourgeoisie, for example, in political as the poor peasantry, which comprised the overwhelming majority of the
combination and political chicanery on a broad scale nor the schooling of peasant population. The experience of eight months of revolution which
the British bourgeoisie in broadly conceived crafty compromise. It had but may unhesitatingly be compared to the experience of several decades of
recently sought to reach an understanding with the tsar; yet now that the normal developmenthad not been in vain as far as the mass of the
tsar had been overthrown by the February Revolution, and the bourgeoisie labouring peasants were concerned. During this period they had had the
itself had come to power, it was unable to think of anything better than to opportunity to test all the parties of Russia in practice and convince
continue the policy of the detested tsar in all its essentials. Like the tsar, themselves that neither the Constitutional-Democrats, nor the Socialist-
it stood for war to a victorious finish, although the war was beyond the Revolutionaries and Mensheviks would seriously quarrel with the landlords
countrys strength and had reduced the people and the army to a state of or sacrifice themselves for the interests of the peasants; that there was
utter exhaustion. Like the tsar, it stood for the preservation in the main of only one party in Russiathe Bolshevik Partywhich was in no way
big landed property, although the peasantry was perishing from lack of connected with the landlords and which was prepared to crush them in
land and the weight of the landlords' yoke. As to its labour policy the Russian order to satisfy the needs of the peasants. This served as a solid basis for
bourgeoisie outstripped even the tsar in its hatred of the working class, for the alliance of the proletariat and the poor peasantry. The existence of this
it not only strove to preserve and strengthen the yoke of the factory owners, alliance between the working class and the poor peasantry determined the
but to render it intolerable by wholesale lockouts. conduct of the middle peasants, who had long been vacillating and only on
the eve of the October uprising wholeheartedly swung over towards the
It is not surprising that the people saw no essential difference between revolution and joined forces with the poor peasants.
the policy of the tsar and the policy of the bourgeoisie, and that they
transferred their hatred of the tsar to the Provisional Government of the It goes without saying that without this alliance the October Revolution
bourgeoisie. could not have been victorious.

As long as the compromising Socialist-Revolutionary and Menshevik 4) The working class was headed by a party so tried and tested in
parties possessed a certain amount of influence among the people, the political battles as the Bolshevik Party. Only a party like the Bolshevik

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
Party, courageous enough to lead the people in decisive attack, and THE WORKING CLASS IN THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION
cautious enough to keep clear of all the submerged rocks in its path to the
goalonly such a party could so skilfully merge into one common
revolutionary torrent such diverse revolutionary movements as the general
THEY MADE THE REVOL
REVOLUTION
OLUTION
democratic movement for peace, the peasant democratic movement for
the seizure of the landed estates, the movement of the oppressed B. Pradeep
nationalities for national liberation and national equality, and the Socialist
movement of the proletariat for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie and the
establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Proletarians, form ranks for the last battle
Undoubtedly, the merging of these diverse revolutionary streams into Straighten your backs, unbend your knees
one common powerful revolutionary torrent decided the fate of capitalism Proletarian army, close ranks
in Russia. Long live the joyous revolution soon to come
5) The October Revolution began at a time when the imperialist war This the greatest of all great fights
was still at its height, when the principal bourgeois states were split into
two hostile camps, and when, absorbed in mutual war and undermining
History has known
each others strength, they were unable to intervene effectively in Russian (Mayakovsky)
affairs and actively to oppose the October Revolution.
This undoubtedly did much to facilitate the victory of the October Socialist It is hundred years now since this greatest of all great fights took
Revolution. place in Russia leading to the establishment of the first workers' state in
the world. The October Revolution or the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in
1917 is one of the most significant historical events in the 20th century that
shook the world and profoundly impacted the later developments on a
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global scale. Thirteen years later in our country, on January 21, 1930 Bhagat
CPI(ML) Or
Orggans Singh and his comrades who were facing trial in the Lahore Conspiracy
Case, entered the court with red scarves and demanded of the magistrate
New Democracy English to convey a telegram to the Third International that said, On Lenin day we
Pratirodh Ka Swar Hindi send greetings to all who are doing something for carrying forward the
ideas of great Lenin. We wish success to the great experiment Russia is
Voice of New Democracy Telugu carrying out. We join our voice to that of the international working class
(Telengana) movement. The proletariat will win. Capitalism will be defeated. Death to
New Democracy Bulletin Telugu imperialism. Such was the impact of the October Socialist Revolution
that inspired a whole generation of people to struggle for revolutionary
(A.P.)
change and for a just socio-economic system, socialism as opposed to
Biplabi Ganaline Bengali capitalism. It continues to be a living example of the inherent strength of
the oppressed masses, the working class, in effecting such a change.
Inquilabi Sada Rah Punjabi
Sangrami Ekta Odia The October Revolution has a history, a history replete with instances

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
of workers' struggles, of peasant revolts leading to the making of the to move out of their villages. The impoverishment of the rural masses led
revolution. It was the working class that stood in the forefront taking along them to the cities in search of livelihood. The Tsarist Russian empire was
the peasant masses and the soldiers. The seizure of power in October a veritable prison house of nationalities suppressing the cultures of different
1917 by the working class under the leadership of the Bolshevik Party did nationalities with forcible Russification. Under the Tsarist regime people
not happen all of a sudden on October 25. It was preceded by several had no political rights whatsoever.
events and developments in Russian society. It was not a conspiratorial
coup by a handful of Bolsheviks as portrayed by bourgeois historians. It It was in the later part of the century that modern factories began to
was the first of its kind in the history of the world and brought into power grow in Russia. Heavy industry like metal, coal and oil industries developed
the oppressed classes of society as against the rule of the capitalists. It in this period with foreign capital. British and French capital held sway over
therefore incurred the wrath of the capitalist class, out to destroy the first these modern industries. In the 33 years from 1865 to 1898 factories
socialist state. Revolution and socialist construction were sought to be employing more than 100 workers doubled and there were about a million
destroyed by counter revolution. and a half workers in 1905 working in the oil, mining and metal industries.
There was a high concentration of workforce in many of the industries, a
This year is the 100th anniversary of the Revolution. Russia of 1917 or factor facilitating the organization of the workers. Russia also had the rail
the Soviet Union of the first half of the 20th century is no more as there has construction industry and also huge textile mills. Two cities, St. Petersburg
been a return to capitalism with all the associated evils. It is not the same (later called Petrograd and Leningrad) and Moscow developed as the major
Socialist Soviet Union that beat back the aggressive onslaught of Hitler's industrial centers; while the former was known for its huge metal industry
fascism in the 2nd World War. Enemies of Socialism may gloat over this the latter had a concentration of textile. It was estimated that these two
restoration and parade a farce of a theory of end of history, of permanence cities which comprised of 19% of the population employed 60% of the
of capitalism. The working class and its organizations learn from the workers in industry. The specific character of the factories of these industrial
experience of the revolution, socialist construction and from the causes of sectors was their huge scale with many factories employing more than
the fall. While this is another subject matter which obviously is a serious 1000 workers. These factories provided the necessary ground for workers'
one, the following pages are devoted to the subject of the revolution. We struggles and political activity. The working class of Russia under the
start with a short narrative of the events, developments leading to the autocratic rule of the Tsar, had no rights and the conditions were miserable
October Revolution of 1917 with specific reference to the role played by with long working hours ranging from 12 to 15 hours, lack of proper housing,
the working class in it. low wages, imposition of fines and cut in wages being some of the grave
issues that confronted the working class.
The Russian Empire and the First Revolution of 1905
It was against this backdrop that the workers began to rise in struggles
Russia was an empire across three continents in the 18 th century that for betterment of their working conditions. The working class that was toiling
ended in February 1917. The empire, like the other empires of the period, in the rail construction, metal industry, textile industry began to struggle
had a supreme ruler called the Tsar or Czar. Tsarist Russia was dominated against long working hours. This coincides with the struggles for an 8 hour
by serfdom as a result of which there was not much of industrial development working day in America and in other parts of the world. Even before workers
in the first half of the nineteenth century. The vast masses of the rural got organized in unions, there were struggles of the workers whose anger
population were burdened with forced labour. The oppressed peasants and discontent against their conditions took the forms of Luddaism, that
slogging in the big manorial estates often rebelled against their conditions is, destroying the machinery. In 1875, the first of the unions came up in
of existence and in the face of the revolts, the Tsarist government was Odessa that was called the South Russian Workers Union, but given the
compelled to formally abolish serfdom in 1861. This did not radically alter autocratic character of the Czarist state, it was suppressed within a span
the conditions of life of the peasantry as it was subjected to exploitation by of nine months. In 1878, the Northern Union of Russian Workers was initiated
the landlords in myriad ways, though the peasants were now relatively free by a carpenter and a fitter named Khalturin and Obnovsky respectively.
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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
But that too was suppressed. One of the significant workers' struggles in women.
this period was the struggle of Morozov factory workers in Orekhozo.
During the years 1900-03, as a result of the industrial crisis in Russia-
Workers had their wages cut as fines for petty issues like talking aloud,
a manifestation of the crisis in Europe - some 3000 units were shut down
wearing a cap and moving about. The 11,000 workers' pent up anger against
rendering jobless over a lakh workers. But this did not deter the workers
this system burst and on 7th December, 1885 a strike was launched. The
from organizing strikes that were distinctly political too. There were several
workers smashed the factory food- store, troops were summoned and there
strikes in which the slogan against the autocracy became the main. In
were Cossacks too. Workers submitted a representation to the Governor
1901 a May Day strike was held at an arms unit Obukov in St.Petersburg.
but the response was in the form of repression, arresting some 600 workers
Armed troops confronted the unarmed workers but the later resisted with
and scores being sent for trial. They were forced to work under the iron
stones. 800 workers were arrested. A wave of sympathy emerged and
heels of the troops of the government. Though the struggle could not stop
similar strike battles took place in other parts of country. In 1903 there
the dubious method of cutting wages as fines, on 3rd June a Law on Fines
were huge mass political strikes in Tiflis, Baku, Odessa, Kiev etc. In
was passed that made the proceeds of fines to be deposited as a special
January 1904, Japan attacked the Russian fort of Port Arthur and with this
fund for the workers. The leaders of the struggle were tried, including
began the Russo-Japanese war. The imperialist states which had already
Moiseyenko, who exposed the factory conditions. He was earlier a member
carved up various countries of Asia and Africa as colonies by 1860s were
of the Northern Union led by the carpenter Khalturin and was a politically
engaged in the brutal suppression of an uprising of the Chinese people.
conscious worker. He was in exile in Siberia.
Czarist Russia along with Japan, Britan, France and Germany were part of
The Morozov textile workers' struggle exhibited the inherent strength of the suppression. But the annexations of territories in the far east by Russia
the workers as a class.It inspired the working class. The year 1887 brought it into conflict with Japanese imperialism. Russia suffered huge
witnessed more number of strikes than the previous years. The strike losses. Some 1,20,000 soldiers died in this war. Bolsheviks', as Russian
struggles of this period showed that the large mass of the workers were revolutionaries were then called, view was that the weakening of the Czarist
prepared to fight. In 1896, 30,000 textile workers struck work on the demand regime in the war would weaken the government and strengthen the
of shorter working hours. There was a strong element of spontaneity in revolution. The post war scenario in Russia was that there were again a
these strike battles. As one writer put it, The army was there, what was spate of strike struggles. In the oil fields of Baku in December 1904 workers
necessary was to prepare the future general staff. went on strike. On June 3rd 1905 a strike began at one of the biggest plant,
the Putilov Works. The dismissal of 4 workers was the cause of the strike
While Russia of that time had huge capitalist enterprises, it was still a and it spread to other factories in St.Petersburg. This strike turned into a
backward economy when compared to the economies of the West. The general strike and on January 5th over 24,000 workers were on the streets.
size of the working class was also not as big as in the other capitalist And by 7 th January this swelled to 10,5000. It had acquired a political
countries. But what was significant, in the context of the autocratic rule of character with demands to convene a constituent assembly, political liberty,
Czar denying all rights, is the use of strikes, particularly political strikes end to war and release of political prisoners. Most of these demands were
to wrest concessions from the employers and the government. These a result of the campaign done by the Social Democrats. Gapon, a priest
political strikes were against the autocratic government of the day. If we who had close links with the government, had his following among the
take as an example of the mass participation of workers in such strikes, workers of Putilov Works. He had his union in this factory and in the rising
the number of participants from 1903 to1905 immensely increased. In 1903, tide of the workers' militant mood he came forward with the suggestion that
it was 87,000 and in 1905, that grew to 8, 43,000. 1905 was the year of the a petition containing the demands be given to the Czar. This petition was
uprising that is otherwise called the first revolution. At the centre of these read out in mass meetings and was greeted with applause. The plan was to
strikes was St.Petersburg, the capital. Moscow was another industrial centre march to the Winter Palace, the seat of Czar Nicholas-II. On 8th January,
with high concentration of textile units in which 50% of the workforce was Gapon wrote to the Interior Minister for permitting the Assembly at the

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
Winter Palace to submit the petition, Czar has nothing to fear. I as the workers deputies. The soviets of workers' deputies which were assemblies
representative of Russian workers, my colleagues, worker comrades and of delegates from all mills and factories represented a type of mass political
even the so called revolutionary groups of different trends guarantee the organization of the working class which the world has never seen before.
inviolability of his person. Let him come forth like a true Czar with courage (History of CPSU(B). The Soviets in the later revolution of 1917 were to
in his heart to meet his people and take unto his hands our petition. There play the role of alternative centres of power. In Moscow there were also
was to be no display of red flags. The social democrats, with their own deputies of soldiers' soviets. In the country side peasant revolts were rising
reservations and differences, decided to participate in the programme. They with occupation of lands. A very significant event in this period was the
were told not to be in the front line but at the back of the march which in mutiny of the Naval crew on the battleship Potemkin. This was the first
fact saved many of their lives. On January 9th at 2 in the afternoon the instance where a large unit of the armed forces sided with the revolution.
workers began to assemble at the Winter Palace. It was a Sunday and There were series of mutinies in the army as well. There was a definite
they came along with their families including old people. About a lakh and upsurge of the masses in this period against the Czarist regime that
forty thousand people were there that day. But they encountered the armed responded with heavy repression. Arrests, executions, detention in jails
troops that fired every where on the unarmed people killing and injuring as were all part of the policy of repression. Apart from using the stick the
many as 4,600 people. Many bodies were buried secretly by the police. In Czarist government also used the carrot by announcing that a Duma
the history of Russia this massacre by the Czarist regime is known as the (Parliament) will be convened but without any legislative powers. This Duma
Bloody Sunday that ignited the revolutionary surge of the working class. was called the Bulygin Duma.
All that belief in the Czar vanished and enraged as they were, they took to
Meanwhile the Restov regiment of the army mutineed but it was
the streets calling for taking up arms. The working class has received a
suppressed, which demoralized the soldiers and they could not move over
momentous lesson in civil war. The revolutionary education of the proletariat
to the workers. Yet the situation in the factories was such that workers
made more progress in one day than it could have made in months and
were impatient for action and this mood influenced the Moscow Soviet. In
years of drab, humdrum, wretched existence. The slogan of the heroic St.
the meeting of the Moscow Soviet, as one participant recalled It was written
Petersburg proletariat death or freedom is reverberating throughout Russia,
on workers faces referring to this mood. The decision to launch a general
stated Lenin the leader of the Bolsheviks.
political strike on 7th December was unanimous and on that day over a lakh
The next day St. Peterburg was on fire, with barricades and the workers workers participated in the strike action and the next day the number swelled
coming on to the streets. St. Peterburg, the centre of the workers' to a lakh and a half. Street demonstrations were met with police violence,
movement, witnessed strikes in all the 650 industrial units and 1,60,000 barricades were erected and workers began arming themselves. They fought
struck work. The strike battles were not confined to this city alone but took bravely and in Presnaya district, a centre of the textile industry, the fight
place almost throughout Russia. In some places there was armed resistance was more vigorous. Despite all this, the troops did not go over to the workers'
to the Czarist troops. The influence of the Social Democrats during this side and they were technically weak. Moreover the movement's weakness
period grew rapidly. In May alone some 2 lakh workers went on strike in St. Petersburg helped Tsarist troops to concentrate in Moscow. Thus by
throughout Russia. Starting from a Rail strike in Moscow there were strikes 16 December the strike movement ended with Presnaya holding fort for
in October which transformed into a general strike. As a result of the general another two days when factories from where the workers were fighting were
sweep of the political strikes, the government was paralysed. It had to bombarded. In this period there were armed uprisings in other cities also
come out with a manifesto on October 17 with promises of civil rights, including those inhabited by other nationalities like Ukraine, Finland, Georgia
freedom of speech and Legislative Duma with the right to vote to all sections. etc. They too were suppressed.
Though this was a fraud to water down the rising tide of the movement it The 1905 insurrection was defeated but not wiped out entirely as the
was still an act forced upon the government. It was in this period that a future events leading to the revolutions of February 1917 & October 1917
new form of organization came into the being and that was the Soviets of have shown. Lenin while refering to the uprising said, All classes came

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
into the open. All programatic and tactical views were tested by the action In 1883 a group emerged under the label of Emancipation of Labour led
of the masses. In its extent and acuteness, the strike struggle had no by Plekhanov, who was earlier a Narodnik. He was a Marxist and the work
parallel in the world. The economic strike developed into a political strike, of this group was to propagate Marxism among workers and other sections
the latter into insurrection. The Soviet form of organization came.. without of Russian society. The group translated and published the writings of
the dress rehearsal of 1905, the victory of the October Revolution of 1917 Marx-Engels, like the Communist Manifesto, Wage-labour & Capital.
would have been impossible.
There were many Marxist circles and local level organizations in various
A reign of terror was unleashed by the Tsarist government after the cities and towns of Russia. A League of Workers' Struggle for the
defeat of the December uprising. Over 15,000 people were executed, some Emancipation of Working Class existed in St. Petersburg and Lenin was
20,000 were injured either by gunshots or by other means and over 45,000 the leading light. Similar leagues were there in other cities. The Russian
were deported or sent to live in exile during their period. In the rural areas, Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) was constituted with the various
the Cossacks indulged in innumerable atrocities against the peasants. Many Marxist circles and leagues. Formally founded in its First Conference in
in villages were hanged from the trees and the womenfolk subjected to March 1898, within the RSDLP there were Bolsheviks (majority) and the
physical assaults. By April 1906, it was said that some 75,000 were Menshiviks (minority) and in 1912 the former had its own political
languishing in different prisons of the country. Many who were killed or organization named as RSDLP(Bolshevik).
were in jails were Bolsheviks. Special private militias were formed by The Constitutional Democrats, called Cadets, was the main bourgeois
recruiting the lumpen elements who would spread terror in the villages. liberal party. There was the Social Revolutionary Party that advocated
These were called the Black Hundred gangs. Popov, a central committee peasant socialism. This was a petty bourgeois party that had its roots in
member of the Bolsheivks and leader of the movement in Siberia, wrote to the earlier Narodniks.
his mother before his killing, I leave this world of darkness and repression
with complete peace of mind, giving way to the other younger forces. If we The February 1917 Revolution Overthrow of Tsarist Regime
have achieved little, they will finish off what we started. I die fully convinced
This was war time, a war for re-division of the world between the
that our bodies will provide a firm foundation upon which will arise a better
imperialist countries. Tsarist Russia was a party to this imperialist war
future for my long suffering native land.
with Britain, France that constituted the Entente. Britain and France had
Before we end this narrative of the various workers' struggles upto the their own investments and industries in Russia. The metal industry was
defeated December uprising, it is necessary to have an overview of the dominated by French capital and about half of oil production was in the
political forces that played an important role in the making or otherwise of hands of Britain and France. Russia was tied to these countries economically
the first revolution and of the subsequent revolutions. The working class and became a part of the war machine. But it could not withstand the
movement was not delinked from the political forces at any given point of aggressive efforts by the German forces and suffered huge losses. By
time or rather it was the political forces that led or misled the working 1916 it lost Poland to Germany. Millions died in the war and the economy
class. of the country was in shambles. Factories were shutting down while the
war was eating away the resources. The workers and peasants were the
There were the Narodniks who believed that the Tsarist regime and the worst hit with no bread and fuel. Almost all the political forces, including
landlords' exploitation of the peasantry could be ended by peasant revolts the Mensheviks and socialist revolutionaries, were in one way or the other
alone and that working class had no leading role. They failed in organizing supporting the war in the name of defending the fatherland. It was only
the peasantry upon which they formed a secret outfit and assassinated the Bolshevik party that took the firm position of opposing the war. It believed
Alexander-II, the then Tsar in 1881. This was a method of individual that the war situation should be utilized to unleash a war against the Tsarist
terrorism that did not change the situation. regime.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
Under these conditions, on January 9 strike demonstrations were held Q: What police forces are at your disposal at present?
in Petrograd, Moscow, Baku and in other industrial centres. It was estimated
that some 2,70,000 workers were an strike of whom 1,77,000 were from A: None whatever.
Petrograd. Petrograd witnessed one of the biggest strikes and there were Q: What technical and supply institutions of the War Department are
mass meetings and demonstrations. 30,000 workers of the Putilov Factory now in your control?
formed a strike committee. The demands were higher wages and
reinstatement of discharged workers. On Feb. 22 the factory was locked A: I have none."
out. Around this time working class women were standing in queues for
bread. Feb 23 (8 March) was the International Womens Day. None expected By February 28th (March 12) Khablov was left with no troops, a general
that the day would be a catalyst for the events that followed. The most sans soldiers. Such was the situation when the mighty empire of the Tsar
oppressed part of the working class, the women textile workers, came out fell like nine pins. In the words of Faiz Jab zulm-o-sitam ke koh-e-giraan,
on to the streets for bread, against the war and the Tsar. None thought that Roohi Ki tarah ud jayengehum dekhenge, (when the cruel mountain of
this will be the first day of the coming storm. This was supported by the injustice, blows away like cotton wool).
other workers in the city and the following day the women textile workers in
The revolution was made uprooting the Tsarist regime. It was the working
several factories went on a strike appealing for support from the metal
class rallying behind it the peasantry that made this revolution. What is
workers. Some 2,00,000 workers were on strike that day. There were
significant to note is that while the uprisings did happen in several cities of
demonstrations at the main avenue of the city, the Nevsky, with workers
the country, it was still the Petrograd uprising that became the bulwark of
singing revolutionary songs and the slogans of down with war, down with
the revolution. The content of this revolution was democratic. But the
autocracy rent the air. On 26 February (March 11) the workers disarmed
bourgeoisie did not play any role in this revolution and on the contrary,
the police while a reserved Battalion of the Pavlovsky Regiment rebelled
realising the futility of drowning the revolution in bloodshed, what it did was
and fired upon the mounted police in conflict with the workers. On the
to dish out a provisional government from the provisional committee of the
same day the Bolshevik party came out with a programme for continuing
Duma. The paradox of February Revolution was that it was a working class
the uprising against the regime. It called for the formation of a Provisional
led revolution but those who held the seats of power were the capitalists
Revolutionary Government. By 27th evening the number of soldiers who
propped up as they were by the support of the Mensheviks and Socialist
crossed over to the side of the uprising was more than 60,000. The situation
Revolutionaries.
was best explained by a questionaire sent by General Ivanov to General
Khabulov, a part of which is being reproduced here. One such representative of this class, Shulgin, stated the reasons for
"Q: Which railroad stations are guarded? the formation of the Provisional Government if we donot take power, others
will take it for us, those rotters who have already elected all sorts of
A: All the stations are in the hands of the revolutionists and strictly scoundrels in the factories. With what contempt this filthy gentleman
guarded by them. addressed the workers and the Soviets! Soviets were in the hands of working
Q: In what parts of the city is order preserved? class and the soldiers, that is, power was already in their hands. But at the
same time the Revolution brought to power those who had no role in it, the
A: The whole city is in the hands of the revolutionists. The telephone is Cadets, the party of the bourgeoisie with its allies. The new Provisional
not working, there is no communication between different parts of the city. Government constituted on March 2 comprised mainly of industrialists and
the landlords. Lenin explains that the workers were not fully organized and
Q: Are all the ministries functioning properly?
were not fully conscious to carry the revolution through to the end and
A: The ministers have been arrested by the revolutionists. hence the paradox.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
The October Bolshevik Revolution: Bolsheviks to patiently explain.

Lenin, the undisputed leader of the Bolsheviks and the revolution, while In the meanwhile Milyukov, the Foreign Affairs Minister in the
in exile wrote the Letters from Afar in which, addressing the Party and Government, informed the war Allies that the Russain people want to
the working class writes, Workers, you have displayed marvels of continue the war and assured that all obligations will be fulfilled. When on
proletarian heroism, heroism of the people in the civil war against Tsardom. April 19, people came to know about this there was indignation and the
You must display marvels of organization, organization of the proletariat Central Committee of the Bolshevik party gave a call to protest. On 21
and of the whole people in order to prepare the way for your victory in the April about a lakh workers and soldiers participated in a demonstration with
second stage of the revolution. banners against the war. They demanded the government make public the
secret treaties. As a result the minister was stripped of his post while a
At the time of the February Revolution, Lenin was in exile in Switzerland. certain General Kornilov, a counter revolutionary, was hatching plans for a
Though Tsardom was overthrown, the war was still continuing and he still take-over through a coup. In the meantime on 24 April the Bolshevik party
had problems travelling to Russia. He planned to travel as a deaf and held its Seventh Conference, openly for the first time and called for All
dumb Swede but shelved this idea. Finally with the help of some Swiss power to the Soviets as the central task which in effect meant that the
social democrats, arrangements were made to travel to Russia. When Lenin power of the Provisional Government should go.
arrived at the Finland rail station on April 3 rd the International was sung
and to his surprise thousands of workers and soldiers had gathered there On 18 June (July 1) a demonstration of four lakh workers and other
to welcome him. He was literally lifted in the air with enthusiasm by the sections of people was held in Petrograd with slogans and banners, All
workers. From the armoured vehicle, Lenin spoke with the slogan Long power to the Soviets, end the war, etc. The same day the Kerensky led
live the socialist Revolution. This slogan that Lenin gave upon his arrival government organized a patriotic demonstration at the Navsky Prospect
had its echo in the developments in the following days that eventually in which neatly dressed etile men and women participated along with the
paved the way to the first ever socialist revolution in the world. officers, supporting the war offensive and using invectives against the
Bolsheviks. On July 3, spontaneous demonstrations took place eventually
On 4th April, he addressed a meeting of the Bolsheviks attended by turning into big armed demonstration. It should be recalled here that during
some Mensheviks as well. He spoke on war and the revolution. He advanced the February clashes, workers seized a large number of arms that gave
his famous April Thesis that envisaged the transition from the bourgeois rise to the workers' militias that had close links with the Soviets.
revolution to the socialist revolution. In this thesis he stated that the
overthrow of Tsardom did not place power in the hands of those who From 3 June to 24 June, the first All Russian Congress of Soviets was
overthrew it. The predatory imperialist war cannot be supported and it was held in Petrograd in which the Bolsheviks were in a minority, 105 delegates,
necessary that if the war had to end then the rule of capitalists should end. while the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries together had 533. By
Analysing the political situation he stated that there existed two power this time both these parties had already become part and parcel of the
centres the Provisional Government and the Soviet of Workers and Provisional Government.
Soldiers Deputies and strongly contended that there can be no question of
On 4 July, more than half a million were on the strects of Petrograd
supporting the former and that all power should be vested with the Soviets.
while the meeting of Soviets was going on. A worker waving his rifle shouted
But the Soviets were still dominated by a bloc of Mensheviks and Comrades! How long must we workers put up with treachery? You are all
Socialist Revolutionaries who were supporting the capitalist Provisional here debating and making deals with the bourgeoisie and the landlords
Government. It was this that was one of the main reasons for not immediately you are busy betraying the workers. There are 30,000 of us all told here
giving a call to revolt against the Government. Lenin sought to alter this from Putilov. We are going to have our way. All power to the Soviets! We
situation by winning over the majority in the Soviets. He would direct the have a firm grip on our rifles. Your Kerenskys and Tseretellis are not going

November, 2017 19 20 November, 2017


NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
to fool us. That was the unrest and mood of the workers. him. It was only the Bolsheviks who had the capacity to mobilize and arm
the workers and soldiers.
The Kerensky govt. responded that day by unleashing the police and
the Cossacks who fired on the workers from roof tops, troops were called With this defeat of the counter revolutionary drive of Kornilov, the political
from the front and disarmed the workers. Arrests of and violence on the landscape of Russia was changing. By September the composition of the
demonstrators was the order that day. Lenin was branded as a German Soviets changed drastically in favour of the Bolsheviks and a turning point
agent and the offices of the paper Pravda were attacked. Hundreds were was when the control of the Petrograd Soviet went into the hands of the
killed. While the Bolsheviks had their own views on the demonstration Bolsheviks. This transformation in the composition was due to the fact of
they were the ones who were there leading it, giving it an organized shape. the growing mood of the mass of workers for a decisive break with the
Had it not been the case then there would have been more casualities. capitalist government and for all power to the Soviets. The Bolsheviks
The workers learnt from their experience and reposed more confidence in became the most powerful force not only in Petrograd and Moscow but in
the assessement of the Bolsheviks who while warning them of the other provinces also. On September 12-14, Lenin wrote letters to the Central
consequences, participated with them. With these incidents and the Committee of the party in which he wrote, The Bolsheviks having obtained
repression the pendulum began to swing in favour of the counter revolution a majority in the Soviets of Workers and Soldiers Deputies of both capitals,
and the government. The millionaire Rybushinsky declared that the Soviets must take state power in their own hands.
and Committees should be taken by the throat and General Kornilov
Procrastination is fatal, he wrote. This meant the hour had arrived for
demanded that death penalty be brought in. In the Grand Theatre in Moscow
the final blow to seize power. How did the workers respond to this need for
the Govt. convened the Council of the State in which, apart from the
insurrection? What was their role? In Moscow thirty eight plants representing
representatives of the bourgeoisie and landlods, the Soviets represented
some 54,000 workers passed resolutions in support of all power to the
by Mensheviks and SRs were also present. In the meanwhile, Kornilov
Soviets. The Putilov Metal workers, who had a long tradition of struggle,
who was demanding the abolition of Soviets, was planning a coup to install
extended support to the Military Revolutionary Committee as it would be
himself as the dictator. A campaign was unleashed that the Bolsheviks
able to protect Petrograd. These workers urged the MRC to disarm the
were conspiring to organize an uprising on 27 August while intensifying
officer training schools that produced military personnel loyal to the
repression on the Bolsheviks. On 25 August Kornilov with his force
Provisional Government. Many of these Putilov metal workers were members
advanced towards Petrograd but the workers and the Bolsheviks moved
of the Red Guard controlled by the MRC. The Red Guard was responsible
swiftly for the defence of Petrograd. While Kerensky had some tacit
for the capture of the Winter Palace on October 25th. On that day the streets
understanding with Kornilov on this plan, the fear of the people forced him
were full of armed detachments from the factories that marched to counter
to go against Kornilov. The reformist leaders in the Soviets called upon
the forces of the government.
the workers to fight Kornilov and in the process a broad front came into
being that included the Bolsheviks. We are changing the form of our struggle While the Congress of the Soviets was to meet from the 24th October at
against Kerensky. Without in the least relaxing our hostility towards him, Smolny, the headquarters of the Bolsheviks, the Provisional Government
without taking back a single word said against him, without renouncing the on 24 October passed a resolution to shut down the Bolshevik newspapers,
task of overthrowing him, we say that we must take into account the present to arrest the MRC. At 5.30 next morning a detachment of Junkers went up
situation. We shall not overthrow Kerensky right now. We shall approach to the printing press of the Bolsheviks and sealed the building. But that
the task of fighting him in a different way. Lenin made this tactical comment was soon removd by a regiment of the MRC and the newspaper came out
to show that reformists were incapable of fighting counter revolution and under the protection of troops of the MRC that itself was a target for arrest.
in defence of the workers and peasants. In this fight against Kornilov's All night of 24th Red Guards had begun to encircle the Winter Palace, the
attempt to take control of Petrograd, it was the Bolsheviks and the workers centre of the Provisional Government. On 25th rail stations, postal and
and soldiers in thousands who protected Petrograd and eventually defeated telegraph offices, the State Banks were all taken into control.

November, 2017 21 22 November, 2017


NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
The Provisional Governement was taking shelter in the Winter Palace
and on the night of 25 the workers, sailors and soldiers took control of it. PB Statement on R
Statement ecent
Recent
De
Devvelopments
The insurrection had won. The Revolution had won. This brief narrative of
some events on October 24, 25 does not appear to project a picture of an
insurrection. It does not conform to a picture of armed street clashes,
barricades and all that one associates with insurrections. Lenin, a little
before the revolution, wrote that Insurrection must rely upon a revolutionary
US Imperialism: Aggressive Rhetoric, Declining Power
upsurge of the people. It is precisely this upsurge coupled with the leading US President Trumps speech at the United Nations General Assembly
role of the Bolsheviks that paved the way for the success of the insurrection. could be dismissed as a madmans rants but this mad man is the leader of
In Petrograd the centre of the insurrection, there was not much of the big the strongest power on the earth. It appeared that Trump was not addressing
fighting between the two contending forces as the resistance by the ruling a gathering of diplomats from across the world but his domestic constituency
class to the insurrection was not that big either. The government just white supremacists, unemployed and of course big business. Despite
crumbled paving the way for the success of the insurrection. But the same the lunatic streak in his ravings, Trump has been intensifying attacks on
was not the case in Moscow where the junkers were responsible for acts of third world countries to force them to submit to US dictates. Trump wants
violence and killing of revolutionaries. these countries to buy more from America while America closes its markets
There are concrete factors that helped the socialist revolution to a to them. This means more sales of armaments. However, Trumps thrust
relatively easy victory. The comparative weakness of the enemy, the is being checked by other sections of US establishment, in some respects
experienced working class taking along with it the masses of the peasantry, toning down his war rhetoric and in other cases blunting the edge of his
the split and war in the imperialist camp are some important factors in this attempted rapproachment with Russia.
success with relative ease. The leading role played by the Bolsheviks Trump selected Govts. of North Korea, Iran and Venezuela for special
obviously cannot be underplayed. Lenin, emerging out from the underground, attack though he did mention those of Cuba and Syria as well. He threatened
said The third Russian Revolution must in the end lead to the victory of North Korea with nuclear annihilation while appreciating efforts by China
socialism. and Russia on this issue. His threats were criticized by the leaders of most
countries who favoured that the issue be resolved through discussions.
Reference : US Secretary of State also admitted that US is opening negotiation channels
* Ten Days that Shook the World, John Reed, with North Korea while US Army chief in his briefing to the Congressional
Committee said that North Korea's steps are because they perceive an
* History of the CPSU(B) existential threat. US imperialism has been adopting aggressive postures
* Bolshevism- Road to Revolution, Alan Woods towards North Korea since armistice at the end of Korean war. The real
motive behind this sudden acceleration of threats by Trump is to keep
* Marxist Internet Archive South Korea firmly with the US while a large section of the South Korean
people want improvement of relations with North Korea. US and Japan are
portraying threats to them from North Korea as primary while the latter is
only responding to provocations from these powers. Ruling classes in Japan
too are trying to whip up hysteria on this issue to divert from the increase
in their attacks on working people and increase in their defense spending.
Hoping to benefit from the propaganda of danger from North Korea, Prime
Minister Abe of Japan has gone for midterm polls.

November, 2017 23 24 November, 2017


NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
North Korea is acting in self-defense and does not pose any threat to Palestinians. This was a sharp departure from such addresses by US
US, Japan and South Korea. However, they do not want to be dictated to presidents over the past decades. In fact, Trumps address particularly the
by US. Moreover, North Korean leaders want to keep the question of part dealing with Middle East bore a deep stamp of Israels influence.
protecting their sovereignty in their own hands and do not want to depend
on China. China on the one hand, does not support this stance of North Elections in Germany
Korea but it would also not like collapse of North Korea and US troops on
its border. Continuing the trend in other imperialist countries, in Germany too, the
leading party of the ruling alliance, CDU-CSU, suffered a decline losing
Targeting Iran, Trump threatened to withdraw from the deal with Iran nearly 8.7% of the vote. European countries and European Union are facing
which P5+Germany had reached with Iran Govt. in 2015. Trump wants US a serious economic, social and political crisis. European countries are facing
Congress to re-impose sanctions. Based on the estimates of its intelligence economic stagnation, even decline (though Germany has not been one of
agencies, Trump Admn. has till now been certifying that Iran is in compliance them) with unemployment at a high level and burdens on the people
with the deal but he is threatening to pull out of the deal. Even the IAEA increasing. European countries are also facing social crisis due to the large
has been admitting both full compliance by Iran of the provisions of the scale influx of people from East European countries, though refugees from
deal and the rigorous nature of the inspections. However, the real issue is Middle-East and Africa who are victims of imperialist aggression, are being
not nuclear weapons which Iran has repeatedly declared it does not want made the scapegoat. These factors are leading to political unrest in European
to build. Other signatories agree that the deal has postponed Irans countries with an anti-establishment mood prevalent among the people.
acquisition of nuclear weapons by many years. The real issue is that US This mood is basically due to stagnant or declining conditions of the people
allies in the Middle East, Israel and Saudi Arabia, do not wish to see a but it is being utilized by xenophobic, anti-immigrant racist reactionary
strong Iran. In fact Israel does not want any strong country in the Middle- forces like Alternative for Deutschland (Afd) in Germany. This is happening
East as it fears that such a situation will embolden Palestinians. US Admn. in many other European countries as well. However where establishment
wishes to weaken Iran and its nuclear programme is just an excuse. Saudi is identified with conservative rightist ruling class parties, this mood is
rulers too fear that Irans strength challenges their rule in their own country favouring anti-neoliberal opposition either within ruling parties (like Corbyn
and their influence in the region. US imperialism, in its drive to keep its led Labour) or even new parties with left programme like in Spain where
control over the region, is targeting Iran. On the other hand Iran is being such parties are opposing neoliberal policies particularly their adverse
supported by Russia and is increasing its influence in the region. As we effects on working people. But there is a serious limitation to this mood. It
have noted earlier, change in the stance of Turkey and Qatar has changed seeks to see the solution to the present problems within the present system.
the dynamics of power relations in the region. Even Trumps stance on Hence, there is small movement toward revolutionary left.
Nuclear Deal with Iran has critics in US Congress and Admn. while Israel
and Saudi Arabia are its strong supporters. Trumps stance is also being The grand coalition of CDU-SPD led by Merkel had intensified attacks
opposed by European allies of the USA, Germany, France and Britain. on the working class and had imposed severe conditions on the European
Policies of Trump in the Middle-East are also influenced by his son-in-law countries facing economic crisis. However, the grand coalition had favoured
Jaryd Kushner who has close ties with Israeli lobby in the USA and close taking in refugees to an extent and took nearly one million last year. This
business ties with Saudi royal family. was utilized by the rabid anti-immigrant fascist AfD. While CDU-CSU lost
nearly 8.7% votes, AfD gained 8.5% votes to enter the parliament as the
Indulging in vicious attacks against socialism, Trump attacked third largest party. Another partner of the ruling coalition, SPD, lost 5.3%
Venezuelan Govt. and threatened to impose sanctions. He also attacked votes which were shared by Liberals, Greens and the Left Party. Decline of
Cuba. both the partners of the grand coalition demonstrated the widespread anger
It is noteworthy that Trump did not even mention the issue of among the people. It also showed the anti-people character of their rule.

November, 2017 25 26 November, 2017


NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
In the rise of AfD, the support extended to this rabid anti-immigrant Catalonia is not the only region in the West European countries. There
fascist outfit by the corporate media as well as sections of the administration are several of them where people have an urge for independence. With
and police force is also very significant. It demonstrates that ruling classes deepening economic crisis and worsening conditions of the people and the
would like the people to go to this anti-democratic party but remain within need of the ruling classes to divert the peoples attention from its causes,
the system. AfD represents a fascist response to the growing crisis though many of these disputes are going to assume serious proportions.
yet dominant sections of bourgeoisie do not support it.
Further Turmoil in the Middle-East : Referendum in Iraqs
Catalonia Referendum Kurdish Region
Amidst deepening economic crisis in European countries, particularly Situation in West Asia was rendered even more complex with Kurdistan
in Spain, the aspirations for independence of the people of the region of Regional Govt. holding a referendum on secession from Iraq on September
Catalonia came to the fore again. The Govt. of autonomous region of 25, 2017. This referendum has alarmed the Central Govt. of Iraq along with
Catalonia conducted a referendum on October 1, 2017 which was not Iran and Turkey where sizable number of Kurds live. Iraq Govt. has refused
recognized by the Central Govt. and was held unconstitutional by the to recognize the referendum while Turkey has snapped links with Iraqs
Supreme Court of Spain. Central Govt. obstructed conduction of referendum, Kurdish regional govt. Turkey has been the main conduit of oil exports of
blocking the polling centres, dragging the polling staff, resorting to use of Iraqs Kurdish region. Taking a stand against the referendum, Turkey has
force in which hundreds were injured. Regional Govt. of Catalonia established control over the border of Iraqs Kurdish region along with Govt.
nonetheless organized the referendum in which nearly 43% voted with 92% of Iraq. Iran too has condemned the referendum. Only Israel has openly
of them favouring independence. Central Govt. has refused to recognize supported the referendum while the US Govt. has merely complained of its
the vote and has threatened Central Rule unless the regional govt. timing.
unequivocally revokes the declaration of independence which was made
after the referendum. Kurdish referendum would further deepen the Turkey-Iran engagement
in the Middle-East while Russia would support this alignment. Though
The yearning for independence is quite old in Catalonia. Not going back Russian oil giant Resneft has recently invested highly in the oil industry in
much into history, Catalonia was the centre of republican forces fighting Kurdish region, keeping the larger context of its engagement in the Middle-
against fascist Franco prior to World War II and had been a centre of East Russia would support Iraq Govt. backed by Iran and Turkey. Iraq
resistance to the fascist regime in the post-second war years. It is a Govt. would be under pressure to act against the Kurdish regional Govt.
relatively prosperous region of Spain having 15% of the population and even if the pressure is brought by US imperialism against such an action.
contributing 20% to the GDP of Spain. But leaders of autonomous Catalonia Iran definitely supports the Iraq Govt. and its influence in Iraq would grow
region want independence from Spain as they find greater opportunity as further. Russian military intervention in Syria and military successes of
an independent member of European Union (EU). However, there are Assad regime have changed the dynamics of the region and the US writ
divisions among people of Catalonia on the question of seeking does not any longer run unchallenged in the region. Kurds have relied too
independence from Spain. much on US imperialism and its dependence on Kurds in Syria but the US
is no longer in a position to impose its will. Barzani led ruling Kurdistan
Catalonia's referendum has been utilized by the Govt. of Spain to unleash Democratic Party, besides relying on US support, also wanted to check
a chauvinist current to distract the people from the deep economic crisis the influence of the forces inspired by Workers Party of Kurdistan (PKK)
and rising burden on the people. Govt. of Spain is even refusing to engage which wields influence in Syria through its allies and Kurds are increasingly
with the leadership of autonomous community of Catalonia. Govt. of Spain looking towards PKK for realization of their national aspirations.
will try to deflect peoples anger through its opposition to Catalonian
independence. The war against Islamic State being waged by Russia, Iran and Syria

November, 2017 27 28 November, 2017


NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
on the one hand and the US, Iraq and Kurds on the other has dealt definite the present state in the region. However, the real issue is that the border
blows to Islamic State which has lost the major part of the territory under between China and Bhutan should be demarcated between the two countries
its control. Thus the contention between US and Russia, along with their and India should play the role of facilitator rather than obstructing it. The
respective allies, to control maximum areas in Syria has intensified and Chinese side has also maintained silence which shows that they consider
eastern Syria has become the new theatre of their contention. US business opportunities in India to be quite important.
imperialism has flattened Raqaa and killed tens of thousands of civilians
there in order to hasten victory there. Earlier in Mosul too, tens of thousands Economic Further Slows Down
of civilians were killed by US and its allies. The western media has not The economic growth rate has declined over five consecutive quarters
highlighted these civilian casualties due to its support to the 'war against and dipped to 5.7% for the quarter ending June 2017. BJP Govt. had changed
terror'. In Iraq, the contention between US and Iran backed by Russia has the method of calculation of GDP and it is estimated that by the old method
intensified, with Iraq becoming the new battleground for this. Iraq's Govt. it would be about 3.5 to 3.7%. Moreover, quarterly GDP is calculated on
is indulging in a balancing act as different sections of the Govt. owe the basis of data from organized sector and extrapolated to unorganized
allegiance to either US or Iran. sector. In case of special factors affecting unorganized sector especially
demonetization and GST, this calculation is obviously faulty and the real
The referendum in Iraqi Kurdistan has also brought to the fore the fissures
growth rate will actually be much less if at all. This economic slowdown
among Iraqi Kurds. Some parties including Patriotic Union of Kurds (PUK)
has been much talked about in the media. BJP leader Yashwant Sinha
have opposed the referendum, mainly its timing. Of particular contention
also recently wrote about it in the Indian Express. What is clear is that this
with central govt. of Iraq is the Kirkuk region which is outside the area of
slowdown is not temporary as claimed by Modi and his ministers but signifies
Iraqs Kurdish Regional Govt. but has been under its control since 2014
deep seated causes. The two factors being highlighted by the ruling class
when Iraqi Army ran away in the face of the swift advance of the Islamic
commentators are the continuous decline in private investment over the
State. Such regions constitute nearly 45% of the area under the control of
last two years and the rise in NPAs which have reached nearly 10% of the
Kurdistan Regional Government. Kirkuk area is rich in oil, having nearly a
banks' outstanding loans and nearly 13.8% in case of Public Sector Banks.
quarter of proven oil reserves of Iraq, a country with the second largest
Banks are short of capital leading to decrease in lending by banks. The
proven oil reserves in the world. Govt. of Iraq would not acquiesce in Kirkuk
debate in the ruling class media is being confined to these questions. But
becoming part of Kurdistan. The referendum in Iraqi Kurdistan has further
the underlying questions are not being raised. Why are there rising NPAs?
added to the complexity of the situation in the region.
Why are private investments declining? In fact there has been a sharp
Doklam Standoff 'resolved' decline in manufacturing (last quarter figure is only 1.2%), slowdown in
construction industry and lower growth in services. The real question is
In the CC meeting, the standoff between India and China on Doklam demand deficit. But the ruling class politicians and commentators confine
Plateau was discussed. This plateau is part of the disputed areas between this debate within a narrow confine of fiscal and monetary policy without
Bhutan and China. Before the BRICS summit in Xiamen (China), India touching the underlying causes. Ruling classes of India are not addressing
withdrew its troops, whom India had avowedly sent to prevent road the question of raising domestic demand i.e. purchasing capacity of
construction by Chinese Army, from the area. Indian Govt. claimed the peasants, workers and broad masses of the people. On the other hand,
withdrawal to be a result of an agreement between the two countries. China demand in foreign markets is in stagnation and there is not much chance
however, denied any agreement and claimed that India had withdrawn of any significant increase in that in view of slow growth and protectionist
unconditionally. Indian Govt. has not disputed this statement from the trends. Ruling class politicians are evading this cardinal question, only
Chinese side, which sows the suspicion that Indian Govt. is hiding the true focusing on demonetization and GST. These two measures were definitely
state of affairs. Indian Govt. and the pliable corporate media are showering anti-people and taken in the interest of foreign and domestic corporate.
praise on the tough stand taken by Modi Govt. without at all discussing These measures worsened the already bad situation. Economic growth in
November, 2017 29 30 November, 2017
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the two quarters before demonetization had declined. Demonetization further and increasing the margin for peasantry i.e. difference between cost of
worsened the trend. GST was enacted to increase tax revenue and to curb production including those of inputs and prices of produce. MNREGA, which
the fiscal rights of the states. It sought to further increase tax burden on the Govt. had started to provide minimum days of employment ot rural
the people and was against the unorganized sector in the interest of poor is steeped in corruption and a number of RTI activists who have sought
corporate. Now the Govt. is talking about decreasing the GST on some to expose it have been killed. Employment days under MNREGA have
items due to sharp struggles of traders and entrepreneurs in Gujarat which declined while wages under the scheme continue to be abysmally low. To
is going to polls in a short period. The economic slowdown has spurred improve the purchasing power of the workers, contractualization must be
even corporate media into commenting on it and Modi Govt. has faced stopped and well paying permanent jobs must be created. To address this
criticism in the last three weeks which it had not faced in the past three crisis, welfare schemes should be further developed and expenditure on
years. health and education should be increased many fold. The ruling classes,
with their focus on corporate profits, will not do this. The developing
This downturn/stagnation has resulted in steep job losses. Textile to movements must bring this aspect on the agenda so that struggle for new
capital goods, banking to IT, start-ups to energy, the economys downward democratic revolution is strengthened.
spiral is leaving a trail of job losses across both old and new economy
sectors. Indian Express (October 2, 2017) According to this report, 67 The impact of Govt. policies is being felt by all sections of people.
textile units shut down between 2015 and 2017 resulting in 17,600 workers Peasantry is badly affected. If their crops are bad they suffer and if their
losing their jobs. Exports constitute 40% of the production in textile and crops are good then also they suffer because the prices collapse. The
apparel sector. Garment exports have risen only 0.21% over the last year agrarian distress which continuously affects landless and poor peasants
while domestic demand is subdued. Most of these units are in the powerloom including share-croppers is also affecting middle peasants and even rich
sector while data on the closure of textile units in the decentralized sectors peasants. The terms of trade between agriculture and industry are being
is not available. GST has particularly hit hard the SMEs in textile hubs like further changed against agriculture. Ruling classes want to decrease the
Surat, Bhiwadi and Ichalkaraji. number of people dependent on agriculture without providing any alternate
employment. They are being robbed of their existing world without being
Capital goods major Larsen & Toubro have cut 17,000 jobs in six months given a new. The situation is good for the emergence of a powerful peasant
ending March 2017. Capital goods sector is struggling as downstream movement.
sectors suffer from low demand. Even major IT companies like TCS, Infosys
and Tech Mahindra have cut jobs. HDFC bank cut jobs by 6,096 in January- The problem of employment is worsening. Any way ruling classes were
March 2017 period having cut 4,581 jobs in the preceding quarter. According pursuing jobless growth and now with slowdown, the situation will be worse.
to the Indian Express report, renewable energy sector which the Govt. While creation of permanent jobs is any way in decline, the creation of any
claims to be one of the thrust areas, too suffered job losses as Wind Gear employment is also only one sixth of those becoming eligible for jobs.
supplier Suzlon Energy Ltd. and turbine maker ReGen Powertech have Modi Govt.s promise on jobs, like its other promises, has fallen flat. There
retrenched well over 1500 employees. A total of 212 start-ups, another is a good prospect of developing a movement of youth for jobs.
propaganda mascot of Modi Govt., have shut shop in 2016 which is 50%
Modi Govt. is serving foreign and domestic corporate along with the big
higher than in the previous year.
landlords and has no concern for the people of the country. There is
The underlying basis of this slowdown which is an expression of increasing inequality in India since the implementation of new economic
deepening economic crisis - agrarian industrial crisis - should be exposed. policies and its pace has quickened under Modi Govt. The share of top 1%
Without addressing the problem of low demand, it is not possible to address in the national income has risen from 6% to 22% over the last three decades
this crisis in the long run. For this purchasing capacity of peasants should while the share of the lower half of the population has declined from 24% to
be improved and that can be done only by carrying out thorough land reforms 15% over the same period.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
There is declining per capita availability of food as well as growing hunger Panchkula close to the court premises, there was non-enforcement of section
and starvation in the country. Rather than addressing this growing problem, 144 despite court orders, no action was taken despite intelligence reports
Modi Govt. is bent on dismantling PDS and further depriving vast sections of collection of inflammable material by Dera functionaries. The conspiracy
of people of food. was to pressurize and terrorize the Court by a huge gathering and to free
the Dera Chief if that fails. Commandos appointed by the state govt. along
Killing of Gauri Lankesh and Communal Drive with Dera officials were to free him. Punjab & Haryana High Court not only
Gauri Lankesh, a fearless journalist who supported peoples struggles foiled this conspiracy but also exposed the RSS-BJP game plan. The High
including those led by communist revolutionaries, who wrote and worked Court spoke of collusion between BJP Govt. and Dera prior to the
against Hindutva bigotry and attacks against minorities and Dalits, and pronouncement of the judgment and after Panchkula violence charged the
who was a supporter of the legacy of Basavanna in favour of treating state govt. for allowing burning of the city due to political considerations. A
Lingayats as being a separate religion, was gunned down outside her house detailed comment on this has already been published in ND, September
on September 5, 2017. Her killing followed the similar killings of rationalist 2017.
Narendra Dhabolkar, progressive writer and CPI leader Govind Pansare
and writer Prof. M.M. Kulburgi. All these intellectuals had exposed Hindutva BJP Govt. attacks girl students in BHU
brand of politics. This killing aroused wide anger among people and Yogi Adityanaths RSS-BJP Govt. of UP unleashed massive violence
progressive and democratic forces. A big demonstration was held on against girl students of Benares Hindu University (BHU) who were protesting
September 12 at Bengaluru. All India and state level committees were against lack of security for girl students. Though that incident became the
formed to organize protests in different parts of the country as well as precipitating point, the discontent among students was brewing for some
centrally. time. There has been systematic suppression of the voice of students,
Gauri Lankesh's killing has further exposed the fascist character of particularly girl students. A large number of students were injured in the
RSS and its affiliates. Not only did a BJP MLA openly admit the link between lathicharge and a number of false cases were framed against them.
her murder and her writings against RSS, Prime Minister Modi himself has This attack by RSS-BJP Govt. is part of the series of attacks on students
been following the twitter accounts of many who wrote hate mails hailing and teachers of institutions of higher learning. The aim of these attacks is
her murder. Even after comments in the media, Mr. Modi has not to terrorize the students and crush their spirit of enquiry and dissent. BHU
discontinued following them. has been added to the list of universities like JNU, HCU, Jadavpur
Even as the activities of RSS cadres in the name of Gau Raksha are University, IFFI Pune etc. RSS-BJP leaders are forgetting the lesson of
being exposed, the RSS chief has come out in defence of these elements history that whosoever suppresses students comes to grief. This
as these are none other than RSS activists and their murderous activities suppression had led to accumulated resentment among the students.
are part of the RSS design to deepen communal division in the country by Students struggles deserve the support of all the democratic, progressive
targeting Muslims. Killing of progressive intellectuals who are criticizing and revolutionary forces.
RSS led Hindtuva forces is part of the design to silence opposition.
Attacks on Kancha Illiah Condemned
BJP Conspires with Dera Sacha Sauda Hyderabad based well known intellectual and writer Kancha Illiah has
Killing of more than 41 supporters of the Dera on August 25 in Panchkula been under attack. Death threats have been issued to him and his car
after Dera Chief Gurmeet Singh was pronounced guilty by the CBI Court in attacked while he was travelling. These attacks and threats are ostensibly
two rape cases showed a deep seated conspiracy between RSS-BJP and for the printing in Telugu, as a booklet, a chapter of his 2009 book. These
Dera chief. More than a lakh Dera followers were allowed to assemble in attacks and threats display an upper caste chauvinist mindset which does

November, 2017 33 34 November, 2017


NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
not tolerate any enquiry or writing about their role in society in the past or Whatever the outcome of the forming of the government, the new Merkel
present. On the other hand, a number of books demeaning Dalits and government will be significantly weakened. It will have less support in the
oppressed castes are being freely published and even revered. These population and many internal contradictions.
attacks and threats must be strongly condemned as an attack on
democratic rights. 2. Left-wing extremism campaign played into the hands of the
AfD
The Politburo also noted the growing attacks on democratic rights by
the Central and various state Govts. As peoples anger and dissatisfaction The shift to the right by the Merkel/Gabriel government against
is increasing, the Govts. are trying to decrease the avenues for the refugees and migrants and so-called left-wing extremism played directly
expression of the same. There are attempts to bar protests at Jantar Mantar into the hands of the Alternative for Germany, AfD. Vlkisch and racist
in Delhi which had been allowed after protests were barred at the Boat Club positions were made socially acceptable in talk shows and newspapers;
and India Gate. Now even this site is being taken away. In Telengana, open fascists and previously hidden fascists in the AfD ventured from the
KCR Govt. has barred holding of protests at Indira Park which has been cover of the partys bourgeois-conservative image.
the venue of protests since long. Similar curbs are being placed in other
states as well. Thus, chiefly the tendency to the right was strengthened this time in
the societal polarization. However, votes of potential supporters also went
to the Left Party or the Greens, seeking to prevent AfD from becoming the
(Statement issued by the Politburo of CPI(ML)-New Democracy third strongest force. ...
on October 5, 2017)
3. Best result to date for the Internationalist List/MLPD
With 29,928 second votes (for the party list; 0.1 percent) and 39,411
first votes (for direct candidates from the MLPD and individual candidates
from the Internationalist Alliance) we significantly increased our voting
results compared with the votes for the MLPD in 2009 and 2013. And the
results stack up well against the previous best result attained in 2005.
Owing to the many votes for our direct candidates we won more voters
than in 2005.
Hea
Heavyvy defea
eatt ffor
defea or g
goover nment par
ernment ties
parties
Str engthened Inter
Strengthened na
Interna tionalist Alliance
nationalist At least 62,000 persons, compared with 56,000 in 2005, gave us one or
both votes. In North Rhine-Westphalia, Hamburg and Berlin the
The Central Committee of MLPD issued the following Internationalist List/MLPD scored its best results to date, in absolute terms,
leaflet on September 25, 2017 (excerpts) also for second votes. In most cases it was workers and young people who
did particularly well as candidates for direct mandates.
1. Merkel government rebuked and weakened
The government parties CDU, CSU and SPD suffered a dramatic loss
of votes, far more than were predicted in the polls. More than six million
voters turned their backs on these parties politics for billionaires, not
workers.

November, 2017 35 36 November, 2017


NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)

Sang
Sangrr ur (Punja b) : Con
(Punjab) Convvention on Land Struggle and Dalit
Str ug
Strug
ugggle of Dalits ffor
or Land
A day long convention was held in Sangrur (Punjab) on October 2, 2017
Question
on the struggle of Dalits for land. The Convention was organized by Zameen (Paper presented by Zamin Prapti Sangharsh Committee and Pendu
Prapti Sangharsh Committee (ZPSC) and Pendu Mazdoor Union (PMU) Mazdoor Union at the Convention held in Sangrur on October 2, 2017)
Punjab. In this Convention held in a Hall at Sidhu Place, Sangrur, nearly
five hundred militant activists from ZPSC and PMU participated. The Division of society on the basis of castes is a distinct and inseparable
proceedings of the Convention were conducted by Com. Mukesh, a leader part of Indian society. It began in the age of slavery. So many changes
of ZPSC. occurred, the era changed but the caste system did not vanish. This system
has been providing the ruling classes with cheaper and surplus labour in
The inaugural speaker at the Convention was Shri Colin Gonsalves, every age and the exploiting classes have been maintaining it for their
Senior Advocate at the Supreme Court and noted human rights activist. He selfish interests. The reason for persistence and stability of this obnoxious
said that oppression of Dalits is part and parcel of the Hindutva being system is that it is a hierarchical system. Specific castes are lower than
propagated by BJP Govt. He further said that the struggle against caste others or higher than others in the caste hierarchy. The feeling of some
oppression cannot be successfully waged remaining within the confines of Dalit castes that they are superior to their brothers of other castes weakens
law. their resolve to smash the Caste system and this gives life to this system.
Com. Gurmukh Singh Mann, leader of the ZPSC, presented a paper on
Brahiminism linked division of labour tightly to the birth of the human
behalf of ZPSC and PMU which outlined both the roots of caste oppression
being and through hierarchical order developed it into a rigid and tight noose
as well as the present struggle. ZPSC has been waging a struggle for the
i.e. the caste system. The division of labour helped in the development of
share of Dalits in the Panchayat lands which are leased every year. This
productive forces at a specific stage of social progress when it was
struggle has been on since the past three years and has braved many
occupation based. But Brahaminism turned the very same into the caste
attacks by the police and landlords. The major part of this paper is being
system. It became a stumbling block in the further development of
published in this issue. Com. Tarsem Peter, President of PMU, spoke
productive forces and it has been one of the reasons for persistence of
about the struggle of Dalits for homestead land in the different districts of
backwardness of Indian society.
Punjab.
Shri Dalpatbhai D. Bhatia, President of Banaskatha Zila Dalit Sangathan Undoubtedly the Caste system emerged in the age of slavery but it
from Gujarat participated in the Convention and stressed the need for unity took its present form in the age of feudalism. The Caste system is extremely
among struggles in different states for land for Dalits. Com. Sirimane oppressive, suffocating and undemocratic. This system forces an inhuman
Nagaraje, Convenor of the Struggle Committee of Right to Land & Housing life upon human beings. The fight against Caste system is deeply linked to
presented a paper on the oppression of Dalits. He too stressed the need of the struggle for democratization of our society. It is an inseparable part of
forging unity among the forces struggling for the right of Dalits on land in the struggle for democratization of society and it is part and parcel of India's
different states in the country. New Democratic Revolution. Without smashing this undemocratic system
the real democratization of society is not possible.
This Convention has started the process of forging closer links between
the forces which are waging struggles of Dalits for land in different forms in Many movements and people came forward to challenge the inhuman
various states across the country. This process needs to be developed Caste system and for social reforms. The most important among those
further to forge a united forum of such forces. was the Bhakti movement. Bhakt Kabir challenged the Brahmins that if

November, 2017 37 38 November, 2017


NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
you are so distinct from other humans why are you not born differently. colonial character turned into semi-colonial. Caste oppression relaxed to
Bhakt Ravidas also said he wanted a society where equality is observed, some extent but the system persisted.
I want a regime where everyone gets food; the downtrodden and high caste
people have equality, only then I will be happy. Even Guru Nanak, on one Reservation provided few benefits to Dalits. A section of society got
hand spread the message of equality when he said, Nanak seeks the education and employment rights. All democratic forces should support
company of the lowest of the low class, the very lowest of the low. Why this system. As a result of reservation a middle class section has emerged
should he try to compete with the great? On the other, he stressed that among Dalits. This category is aware of the sub-human conditions of Dalits
God is the creator of all and lives in the heart of every human. He made it and raise its voice for their rights. But the benefits of reservation are confined
clear by saying that he was always with the downtrodden people. to middle classes as they alone are in a position to avail it. The broad
masses of Dalits are still living in sub-inhuman conditions as semi-slaves.
In colonial India, one can see revolts against colonialism as well as for
social reforms. Jyotiba Phule and Savitri Bai Phule initiated a powerful Ambedkarite organisations raise their voice against caste oppression
movement to educate and make Dalits literate. Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar and for Dalit rights. But they insist that only those who are born in Dalit
brought caste question on the centre stage of political agenda. Ambedkar familes could be pro-Dalit and they reserve exclusive right to raise their
believed that caste and creed are inseparable parts of Hindu traditions. voice for Dalits. This approach is wrong. They think that the communists
(This was a presentation sent to Jat-Torak Mandal Lahor which later was did nothing against casteism; this reflects their lack of knowledge of history.
printed as a book named "Annihilation of Caste"). He raised this point in By this they negate the whole democratic movement in the struggle against
that book. He opined that Dalits cannot be freed from Caste system as casteism. Ultimately, this approach goes against struggles of Dalits. The
long as they follow the Hindu religion. For emancipation they will have to Ambedkarite organizations and all the other democratic forces will have to
come out of this slavery. Following this belief he along with his supporters unite in this fight. The danger of communal fascism is lurking over our
adopted Buddhism en masse but it is apparent that this didnt succeed in heads today so the unity of all the democratic forces has become the
abolishing the Caste system. Dalits adopted Sikhism, Christianity and immediate and burning necessity of our times. We must realize this.
Buddhism but they remained Dalits in these religions as well.
There are two wrong trends among those who claim to be followers of
In colonial era there were two trends. One which believed that raising scientific ideology. One trend is of the opinion that castes are a phenomenon
an issue such as caste system is detrimental for the unity of the people of superstructure only. It means that first of all political system would be
and it weakens the struggle against colonialism. The main representative completely changed i.e. the revolution accomplished, only then the question
of this trend i.e. Gandhi, was in favour of Varna system but was sending of castes should be addressed. The other deviation has been that the castes
appeals to upper castes against untouchability. In essence, these people exist only in structure. When the class struggle will change the political
were in favour of Brahminism and caste system. On the other hand, there system, then the problem of casteism will solve automatically. Both these
was another trend, which believed that it was the proper time to solve the wrong trends lead to the same result i.e. they ignore the necessity of
problem of casteism. struggle against casteism or at least underestimate its significance in the
Ambedkar said that India (upper castes) had been enslaved for 200 course of class struggle and struggle for revolutionary transformation.
years but Dalits have been always slaves. What is primary for Dalits is The roots of the caste system are in the economic structure and its
their fight for emancipation. Both these trends remained in conflict but Dr. expression is in the super structure. The question is Where do the roots of
Ambedkar was forced to yield to Gandhis views at a critical juncture. He it lie? The answer lies here: the Dalits are deprived of means of production.
had to give up his demand of separate electorate for Dalits and he accepted They were not provided their due share in the means of production. In
constitutional guarantee of reservation for the Dalits. villages the main resource of livelihood is land. That is why, the land
Ultimately, both trends failed. India got formal independence but its question is the central question of Dalit emancipation. Its expression is in

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
superstructure. Casteism is entrenched in the mind of society. It does not serious criminal penal sections such as of attempt to murder etc. Police
permit inter-caste marriages and hence inter-caste marriages should be lathi-charged the Dalits indiscriminately to the extent of breaking bones of
propagated and encouraged because these challenge the caste system. many of them. Such a cruel and inhuman reaction of the villages ruling
But the main fight after revolution will be in cultural sphere on this issue. establishment to the Dalit agitation is indicative of the importance of land
ownership in rural life.
Casteism is based on two pillars. These are: Deprivation of Dalits from
the means of production and marriages within castes. The struggle for All this shows in very clear terms that ruling classes are not present in
their share in the means of production is the main struggle before revolution. cities like Delhi, Mumbai or Chandigarh only but are very much present in
But the struggle against the system of inner-caste marriages and other every village also. Ruling classes at lower rung provide the support base to
cultural spheres would be the main struggle after revolution. ruling classes wielding power at higher levels who in return protect this
lower village level ruling dispensation. It is not without any rhyme and reason
The struggle of Dalits for land had started in the British period. It was
that the hordes of police personnel attack the people just for raising their
initiated by a Ghadarite revolutionary Baba ManguRam Mugowalia. When
rightful demands. If struggle is not waged against ruling classes working at
the Republican Party was founded it raised the issue of land as a prominent
local levels, all loud talk of waging class struggle is simply a hollow slogan.
issue. The Republican Party organized a march from Phagwara to Delhi. A
sit-in was held in front of the Prime ministers residence. Today, the Zameen When the Dalits as of now are not raising any demand of taking
Prapti Sanghrash Committee has been fighting for the share of land for the possession of surplus land of any individual big landlord, then why are they
Dalits in Dist. Sangrur and in some parts of Dist. Patiala also. The struggle so strongly and brutally opposed by local and state establishment just for
started from village Sekha, Dist. Barnala, to occupy the common (Nazool) asking for their share of common village lands to which they are legally
land of the village. The struggle has expanded to more than hundred villages. entitled? Because the issue of land ownership is just not an economic
The struggle is focused on the right of share of Dalits in the land of issue, it is the basis of political power at village level. The ruling classes
Panchayat these days. are well aware of the fact that demand for land share by Dalits is a challenge
to their political base at village level. The hue and cry raised by the
The struggle for the right of 1/3rd share of Panchayat land is a struggle
sarpanches ( panchayat heads) and panches in presence of Sukhbir Singh,
to execute and enjoy a constitutional right. This struggle is not for ownership
Deputy Chief Minister and Shiromani Akali Dal chief, is a proof that they
now but to get the right to utilise the land. The question of Nazool land
see a lurking danger. The agitation for share of village common lands is
comes under this category. The Nazool land is offered to a society
directed against the local level political base of ruling classes.
(cooperative organization). No rent is charged from this land but its
ownership rights are limited. This land cannot be sold at the time of need. Land is not just an economic issue, it is a political (challenge to the
What is the real issue? It is lowering the land ceiling to 10 acres and political power) as well as a social issue also. The life of every villager is
distributing the surplus land among landless people (Dalits) and poor deeply attached to the land. For animal fodder and vegetables such as
peasantry. The struggle of Zameen Prapti Sanghrash Committee in still at sarson da saag everyone is dependent on land. When the Dalits, non-
an initial stage. It still has to reach the stage of struggle for real ownership. owners of land, go to the fields to fetch such things they face humiliation.
The Dalit women are the foremost bearers of such humiliation. Sometimes
Uptill now the struggle is being kept within available legal precincts.
they are abused sexually also. Agriculture on thier own land (even on leased
Though the issue of distribution of surplus land has not been taken up so
land) ensures them dignity and they can lead lives keeping their heads
far but even at this stage of the agitation, the big landlords, wealthy village
high. That is the reason why the Dalit women have participated in large
heads and feudal bigwigs have bullied, suppressed and opposed the agitators
numbers in this agitation for land share.
tooth and nail. Murderous attacks were executed, grievous injuries inflicted
on Dalits and one very old Dalit lady Mata Gurdev Kaur, was martyred. Caste and class are deeply inter-connected. This inter-connection is
Dalit leaders and activists in large numbers were put behind bars under dialectical in nature. Caste in its content is class also. But caste obfuscates

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
and overlaps the class divisions. For example almost all the Dalits are
agricultural or rural labourers while almost all the Jats are land owners. In Russian Revolution and
the World Outlook
this context it (Dalit) is a class while all Jats cannot be called a class in
this sense. Among them there are landless peasants, marginal, poor, small,
middle level, rich peasants and big landlords. But caste covers and confuses
these class divisions. That is the reason why big landlords, wealthy village
heads and feudal bigwigs, in the name of caste, are able to organize all
classes of Jat peasantry behind them. During Jalloor agitation also, the
Suryam
village bigwigs organized the majority of Jat peasants on their side. After
the Jalloor agitation we realized that the favoruable outcome of the agitation This year marks the centenary of the socialist revolution in Russia, a
would not have been possible without the active support we got from revolution that has inspired the people of the world. It traversed through
peasants unions. This agitation made us realize the necessity of taking many a difficulty. Every step in the revolution went through the tests of the
along the lower layers of Jat peasants such as landless, marginal and tortuous process. Each of its tasks were evolved and refined in the course
small peasants. It is now crystal clear that to take the struggle forward, we of the revolution. Its fundamental principles were questioned when it faced
have to work in unison with lower layers of peasants. From all this we can certain setbacks. The old rulers and their obsolete state were bent upon
easily conclude that the question of caste also has to be addressed from clinging to power and continue their rule. They resorted to both repression
the class angle. and reforms in an attempt to continue their rule. At times they even sought
These days the reports of Dalit agitations for land are being reported the direct and indirect intervention of foreign imperialist powers in all spheres.
from many parts of the country such as Punjab, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, The imperialist powers in turn utilized the situation to establish their control
Telengana, Andhra Pradesh, U.P. etc. The slogan raised by Dalits of Una and exploit the people. A hundred year ago, these were the conditions
(Gujarat) to keep the tail of the cow with you and give us our share of land obtaining in Russia prior to the revolution.
was a befitting reply to antics of the communal fascist forces. All these Russian revolution, no doubt, was a product of conditions obtaining in
agitations are different forms of land agitation and are at different stages. Russia. But it provides valuable lessons and these lessons are still relevant
But still one common thread is running through them that they are all Dalit for the present as well the future. Leadership of the Revolution have
agitations and are regarding land issue. In Punjab while Zameen Prapti developed Marxism and enriched the world outlook.
Sangharsh Committee (ZPSC) is fighting on issue of land share in common
panchayat land, the Pendu Mazdoor Union (PMU) is continuing its struggle How did the leadership of the communist party apply Marxism to the
for residential plots, land for cattle sheds and wastage-disposal-sites in concrete conditions obtaining in Russia? How did they develop the
districts of Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar, reolutionary theory? How did they succeed in this? This article intends to
Moga,Gurdaspur and Jagraon. cover these aspects.
It is the utmost need of the hour that all the organizations spearheading Application of Marxist Principles to the Concrete Conditions
the Dalit land agitations in different parts of the country must form a common
platform where they can extend help to each other during their agitations, The communists in Russia adopted a scientific outlook to study the
exchange their experiences and in light of these experiences sort out their conditions obtaining in Russia and change them. The scientific outlook is
differences with open mind and discuss matters with the spirit of learning dialectical in its approach and is based on historical materialism. Marxism
from each others experiences. Thus we can move forward step by step in emerged through a relentless struggle against bourgeois ideology. It was
the direction of raising a countrywide movement. In this movement all developed from the best of nineteenth century thought German philosophy,
communist revolutionary and Ambedkarite organizations should be partners. English political economy and French socialism.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
The Marxist philosophy was developed by Marx and Engels based on feudalism. Feudalism, its remnants and semi-feudalism still persist in Asia
Hegels dialectical method and Feuerbachs materialism. Thus it is known and other continents. They continue to exist at various levels and in varying
as dialectical materialism. forms. While the old was destroyed and dented, the new is yet to take its
place and there are numerous reasons behind these developments.
Value is created by the labour. Adam Smith and David Ricardo developed
classical political economy in England and laid the foundations of labour Marx and Engels lived during the days of laissez-faire capitalism. They
theory of value. Marx analysed the relationship between people in the analysed the historical developments and formulated their doctrine indicating
production and the exchange of commodities. He highlighted that the surplus the future course from the history of class struggles in the past and present.
value produced by the labourers is the source of profit and the wealth of They gave an organizational form to their ideas and formulations. The
the capitalist class. This theory of surplus value is the corner stone of Communist League was formed in 1847. The League entrusted the
Marxs economic theory. He showed that the contradictions within the responsibility of drafting its manifesto to Marx and Engels. The result, the
capitalist system will lead to a revolutionary change. Communist Manifesto, was written in February 1848. It remains as an
Marx and Engels underscored the limitations of utopian socialism of important and inspiring document in history. Lenin mentioned that the
the utopian socialists Saint Simon, Owen and Fourier and laid the Communist Manifesto elucidated the revolutionary role of the working class
foundations for a scientific socialism. They enunciated that the working as the harbinger of a new social order. The First International came into
class is the social force capable of creating a new social order that abolishes existence to further consolidate the struggles of the working class as laid
the exploitation and oppression of people and oppression of nations. out in the Communist Manifesto.
Scientific socialism is based on the theory of class struggle as the driving
Laissez-faire Capitalism and the French Revolution
force and the working class as the social force driving the change.
Thus Marxism comprises of three components dialectical materialism, The Communist Manifesto provided guidance to the working class. Many
political economy based on the theory of surplus value and scientific a struggles developed world over and Europe witnessed a powerful
socialism. There three components are inseparable and form the basis of movement. In 1871, Paris saw the rise of workers' state. Even as Marx
our theoretical framework. wasnt convinced of the preparedness of the working class in France in
establishing the workers' state, when the uprising became a reality he
The concrete conditions may vary with the time and place but the greeted the proletarian revolution with enthusiasm and praised the heroism
fundamental principles of Marxism remain valid. The fundamental principles of the Communards as storming the heavens. The working class lacked
need to be applied to the concrete conditions in a specific context. the organization and the support of the peasantry. The Second Empire was
Revolutionary tasks need to be formulated based on the specific conditions terrified by the seizure of power by the working class. The new national
obtaining in a country. Many a times we see people swinging towards right government headed by Adolf Thiers, whom Marx called that monstrous
deviation or a left deviation or abandoning the fundamental principles gnome was ready for peace with Germany with whom it was engaged in a
altogether when they fail to grasp the specific conditions and do concrete war till then. The prospect of working class take over united the rulers of
application. They become victims of outmoded ideologies. They may desert France and Germany. This shows that the ruling classes can go to any
the path of revolutionary change and turn into reactionaries. The Russian extent to prevent the working class from taking over the state. They would
revolution teaches us that Marxism advanced through its struggle against even unite with their arch enemies to stall such a revolutionary seizure of
such tendencies and trends. power by the working class. The later days also witnessed Millerand, who
Harbinger of a Newer Order claimed to be a socialist, accepting a ministerial berth in a cabinet which
included General Galliffet, known as the butcher of Paris Commune. The
History shows that capitalism in Europe advanced by overthrowing Paris Commune was suppressed brutally and the Communards were

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
subjected to massacre. One is reminded of the fate of heroic Telangana Ripening Revolution in Russia
armed struggle and the guerillas massacred by Nehrus Indian army when
the same was betrayed by the leadership. Eugene Pottier wrote the famous Class contradictions intensified in Russia and a wave of working class
Internationale, the anthem of working class, in June 1871, in the back struggles engulfed it. As the Tsar was battling the Japanese, Lenin
drop of suppression of the Paris Commune. It still inspires and arouses the recognized the ripening revolutionary situation and called for an armed
toiling people across continents. insurrection. Mensheviks, who were functioning separately despite being
part of the party organisation, opposed this call. They proposed to defend
The Second International was formed under the guidance of Engels. the Tsar against the Japanese. The Second International led by the German
During the Post-1871 period, the Laissez-faire Capitalism underwent Social Democratic Party and Bernstien sided with the Mensheviks. After
changes and the subsequent period is characterized by export of finance the death of Engels, the Second International had turned revisionist and
capital, rise of monopoly and the re-division of markets. abandoned the principles of Marxism.
Imperialism and the Era of Proletarian Revolution In the era of imperialism, due to the uneven nature of development of
capitalism, the revolutionary conditions can ripen in any individual country.
Lenin undertook the task of analysing these changes. He enunciated Russia was in the throes of revolution and the Russo Japanese war
that the days of the Laissez-faire Capitalism were over and it had given could be actively utilised to hasten the process. The establishment of
rise to the era of Imperialism. Marx and Engels believed that the revolution Soviets came to the fore as the embryo of revolutionary power.
would first take place in England where the working class was well
developed. Under Laissez-faire Capitalism, they envisaged that revolution Lenin advocated that working class cannot keep itself aloof from the
in one country would no longer be possible and even if it breaks out in one bourgeois revolution and it cannot allow the leadership of the revolution to
country it would quickly engulf many other countries. However, the be assumed by the bourgeoisie. On the contrary, it should take energetic
conditions in 20th Century were different from those in the days of Marx. part in it to fight most resolutely for consistent proletarian democracy, for
carrying the revolution towards socialism. It was only possible for the working
In Russia capitalism developed from semi-serfdom in the 1860s. Lenin class to lead the revolution towards socialism as the bourgeoisie could not
expounded this development after a thorough analysis in his Development be expected to lead the revolution. The 1905 revolution in Russia began
of Capitalism in Russia. Japan came into conflict with Russia in this context with the December 1904 strike in Baku. The revolutionary storm engulfed
of development of capitalism in Russia and hostilities started. the entire country. It was suppressed by the Tsarist government with brutal
The developed capitalist countries were striving to expand their markets ferocity. The Mensheviks separated themselves from the upheaval. It aided
and competition has increased for the control over sources of raw materials. the Tsar in suppressing the revolt.
The imperialist countries were bickering over the world for markets. In Intensification of Working Class Struggles The Rivals
January 1904, without declaring war, Japan suddenly attacked the Russian
fort of Port Arthur and thus began the Russo-Japanese war which lasted
Compromise
for one and a half years. The tsarist government miscalculated the situation The Russian rulers were threatened by the sweep of revolutionary
and reckoned that it would help to strengthen its position. The Russian movement and were compelled to conclude an ignominious peace with
communists worked to utilise the contradictions to intensify the class Japan on 23 August 2005. Tsar compromised with the Japanese. The
struggles. Lenin characterized the era as the era of imperialism. He imperialists were concerned with the prospect of the rise of working class
formulated the concrete tasks of revolution after the concrete analysis of power and the fall of Tsar which would mean an end to the domination of
the evolving conditions. Comrade Stalin affirmed that Leninism is Marxism their capital. They encouraged Tsar for a compromise. The developments
of the era of imperialism and the proletarian revolution. prove how the contending imperialist powers compromise and unite when

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faced with the prospect of intense working class struggle set to take over Mensheviks refused to fight against the Tsarist government. They were
the state. It also becomes evident that the contending ruling classes in the finally expelled from the party in 1912. After this the Mensheviks started
country who often bicker, will unite to thwart working class power. These openly siding with the ruling classes against the revolution. World War I
developments also indicate how the vacillating elements and degenerate began in 1914 as the imperialist camp was split into two for a division of
forces behave when the struggles intensify and take a higher and militant the world. The Russian state was steeped in a deep crisis on all fronts -
form and how escapist forces emerge in the course of struggle. economic, political and military.
As the struggles intensify, the class enemies moderate their internal The Question of Bourgeois Democracy or Socialist Revolution
contradictions and target the revolutionary forces. The struggle inside the
party highlights the dangers of deviations and degeneration. The struggles intensified in this period. Lenin undertook a study of the
changing conditions. He concluded that Capitalism has reached a moribund
After the compromise with Japan, the Tsar intensified the suppression state. His work, Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism was a major
of revolutionary movement. He also resorted to reforms to divert the contribution to Marxist theory. It remains as an invaluable document in
revolutionary movement. He attempted to form bogus workers' organisations understanding the changes in Capitalism.
under the aegis of police and gendarmes (Zubatov organisations), sought
to deceive workers through organisations headed by priests. He promised By the year 1917, the Bolshevik party developed to a stage where it
Duma. Participation in elections and limiting struggles to economism and could seize power. The imperialist powers realised that the Tsar could no
legalism when the conditions are ripe for revolution undermine the longer cling to power and a delay would mean the communists taking over
revolutionary movement. the power. The bourgeoisie was forced to unite and dethrone the Tsar and
bring a new leader and a new state in his place. The Mensheviks and
Limiting to economic struggles amounts to confining the workers to Social Revolutionaries, still proclaiming themselves to be part of the
wage slavery. One has to combine the economic and political struggles. opposition movement, helped form a bourgeois government. February 1917
The political struggle is much broader than the trade union struggle. Limiting witnessed the formation of such a bourgeois government. Thus arose dual
oneself to the economic struggle would lead to opportunism. Such struggles power bourgeois Provisional government and Soviets of workers and
should be subservient to the struggle for socialism. The Tsarist government peasants.
was able to crush the revolutionary movement of working class. The defeat
gave rise to vacillation among the petty bourgeoisie and the intellectual The aim of the communists was not to limit themselves to the confines
sections. of the bourgeois government. Their objective was to bring the government
under the worker-peasant Soviets.
Questions on the Marxist fundamental principles
The question arose in the Second Congress itself where the Programme
This was the most difficult period for the Russian revolution. The Tsarist and the tactics were discussed. The Third Congress was to discuss the
state resorted to brutal attacks on the Bolshevik communist party. There questions at length. The Mensheviks were invited to the Third Congress
were attacks on Marxism and its continued relevance. The attacks had an (April 1905) but they refused to take part in it and instead held one on their
effect on the intellectuals and attempts were made to revise Marxism and own. The programme and tactics of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks were
Marxist principles in the name of making it relevant to the contemporary diametrically opposite. Lenins Two Tactics of Social Democracy in The
situation. Lenin wrote his Materialism and Empirio-criticism as a response Democratic Revolution sums up the differences.
to those philosophical attacks by renegades and revisionists and to defend
Russian imperialism served the interests of the bourgeoisie, landlords
Marxist theory.
and the foreign capitalists. Its policies were against the interests of working
The ebb of the revolutionary movement in 1907 continued till 1912. The class, peasantry and the petty bourgeoisie. Thus the enemies of the Russian

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people are imperialism, bourgeoisie and big landlords. Other classes are demanded peace, land and bread to all and advocated right of nations to
its allies. The Bolsheviks and Mensheviks were one on these aspects. self-determination. Lenin could not attend the Sixth Congress of the Party
They were one even on the nature of the revolution, which was bourgeois as he was forced to go into hiding. Stalin led the proceedings of the Sixth
democratic revolution. But on the question of who should lead this Congress which was held in August 1917. The Sixth Congress gave a call
revolution, they differed fundamentally. Mensheviks argued that it was the for the preparations for armed uprising. It adopted the new Party Rules
bourgeoisie which should lead the revolution. which provided that all party organizations shall be built on the principles
of democratic centralism. The Sixth Congress admitted the Mezhrayontsi
The bourgeoisie led the revolution against feudalism in the era of Laissez- group and their leader Trotsky into the party.
faire capitalism which preceded the era of imperialism. The Mensheviks
followed the revisionist understanding of the German Social Democrats of General Kornilov, the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army called
Second International under the leadership of Bernstein and did not take the for a military coup and demanded the abolition of committees and the
changes in Capitalism into cognizance. Soviets. Kerensky furiously attacked Bolsheviks and intensified the terror
against the proletarian party. In face of the Kornilov revolt, the Bolshevik
The objective of the Bolsheviks was not to stop with the bourgeois Party called upon the workers and soldiers to put up active armed resistance
revolution but to continue the revolution to establish socialism and move to the counter-revolution. The Kornilov revolt was crushed.
ahead towards achieving communism. The minimum programme of the
party was the overthrow of Tsarist aristocracy and establishing a democratic On November 7 (October 25 as per the old Julian Calendar) the cruiser
republic and the maximum programme was socialist revolution. When we Aurora trained its guns on the Winter Palace, and their thunder marked the
define a maximum programme, it means that we should move ahead towards success of Russian revolution and seizure of power by the Bolshevik
the maximum programme, which is to move towards socialism, when we communist party.
accomplish the minimum programme. As the bourgeoisie becomes the
target then, it wouldnt be willing to abolish itself. Lenin explained this well Imperialists Encircle New Born Socialist Russia
when he said, to hitch the rifle from one shoulder to the other, i.e., to turn Revolutionary Russia was wounded. The Red Army and the people were
against the bourgeoisie the guns which the bourgeois revolution will place exhausted by the war and the destruction. It wouldnt just suffice to defeat
in workers' hands, the liberty which the revolution will bring, the democratic the enemy. The bourgeoisie attempts to recoup with a vengeance, regain
institutions which will spring up on the ground that is cleared of serfdom. the power it has lost and strike back with ten times more power. The land
Thus the immediate aim was to establish bourgeois democracy and could not yet be nationalized nor was the distribution of land complete.
then transform the bourgeois government into a socialist government. While This was then the situation in Russia internally. On the external front, the
Bolsheivks considered that it would have been good to achieve this in a imperialist powers were conspiring to regain the dominance of their capital,
peaceful manner, considering the concrete conditions they, under the assets and their power. The internal and external enemies were well aware
leadership of Lenin, resolved to take to arms to achieve the tasks. It would that revolutionary Russia needed time to recoup its strength and it wasnt
be futile to make a resolution and sit idle without making any attempt to prepared enough for an imminent prolonged battle.
change the conditions. That would be against Marxism. Only a disciplined The World War I had considerably weakened the Central Powers including
communist party based on the principles of democratic centralism can Germany. Even the victors, allied powers led by Britain, France and United
lead the revolution. States, were weakened by the war. Yet, all the imperialist powers led by
November 7 - The Triumph of Revolution Germany conspired to crush the revolution in Russia. The revolution
wouldnt have survived if it had continued with the war. The war had to be
The communist party gave the call, all power to the Soviets. It ended to consolidate the Soviet power. Revolutionary Russia signed an

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armistice on 5 December 1917, at the Brest-Litovsk. Trotsky, an important of the Communist party in India was contrary to the teachings of Lenin and
leader of the party then, opposed that truce. All the counter-revolutionaries, made it appear like an appendage to the ruling classes. The Third
from the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries to the most errant White International was dissolved in 1943 as the conditions of the revolutionary
guards, conducted a frenzied campaign against the conclusion of peace. movement in the world had become much more complex and it could not
They resorted to slander that Lenin had turned into an agent of Germany. continue to lead the international communist movement.
Yet the Communist party went ahead with its measures towards
consolidation. It distributed 40 crore acres of landlords' land to the peasants. Building Socialism in Russia and World War II
All large enterprises in all branches of industry were nationalised. The
By 1939, 99.4% of land with the peasants became part of the collective
Communist party took up the tasks to increase the production, improve
farms. Socialist industrial production reached 99.7% of the total output.
the distribution.
The production in Socialist Russia had grown 9 times to that in 1913.
This treaty helped the people and the Red army to get a breather. The
There were two imperialist camps contending prior to the start of World
conclusion of peace and consolidation of Soviet power alarmed the
War II. The British and American imperialists were instigating the German
imperialists. The imperialists of Great Britain, France, Japan and America
Fascist camp against socialist Russia. Russia felt that a war at that time
started their military intervention, a war against Russia, without formally
would harm their interests and opted for a non-aggression pact with
declaring a war. They provided support to the counter revolutionaries within
Germany. Subsequently, World War II started between the Allies and Axis
Russia. The Party rallied the people against the foreign invaders. It
powers. Stalin and Dimitrov called on the communists in all countries to
introduced war communism. It had temporary measures necessitated by
strive for revolution within their countries through their fight against ruling
the exceptionally difficult situation. The principal forces of intervention were
classes in the respective countries. They criticized the role of social
beaten back by the end of the year 1920. The Soviet Republic was able to
democrats in the rise of fascism in Germany. Later Socialist Soviet Union
preserve its independence and freedom.
waged a heroic war against fascist Germany and played the major role in
Collapse of Second International and the Emergence of Third saving the world from the fascist menace.
International Death of Stalin and Restoration of Capitalism
World War I had ended. The tide of revolution began to mount in Europe.
Revolutionary movements sprang up in Germany, Hungary and Austria. Stalins position that classes cease to exist under socialism resulted in
The Social Democrats who came to power in Germany after the abdication neglect of the tasks of class struggle. There were already demands for
of Kaiser, crushed the revolt. The German Whiteguards murdered with freedom for open criticism within the party. Stalin fought against various
impunity the prominent revolutionary leaders Rosa Luxemburg and Karl deviations and wrong trends throughout his life. He thwarted the attempts
Leibknecht. Two things made this possible the betrayal by Social of Trotsky and Zinoviev. Leaders like Khrushchev and Suslov who were
Democrats and the centrists like Kautsky joining hands with the traitors. praising Stalin to the skies when he was alive, resorted to launching
slanderous attacks on him after his death. Mao mentioned many times
The Second International turned reactionary with its open siding with that the anti-Stalinist propaganda was in reality a propaganda against
imperialism. The Third International was founded under the leadership of Leninism. The 20 th Congress of CPSU marked the open adoption of
Lenin. It provided guidance to the communists all over the world. The revisionism in the name of peaceful transition, peaceful coexistence and
Communist Party was founded in India during this period. It could expand peaceful competition. It led to restoration of capitalism in Russia. It resulted
its base well during the anti-colonial movement. The Communist party in in a big setback to the socialist movement. Thorez, a leader of Third
India abandoned its anti-imperialist struggle (against the British) during the International, turned into a lackey of French bourgeoisie. Togliatti in Italy
World War II after the German fascist attack on Soviet Russia. The conduct wanted to build socialism through reforms and through parliamentary means.

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Such attempts in Indonesia and Chile met with disastrous consequences Manifesto by Marx and Engels. It came to be widely used and gained usage
as the military coups dislodged them and resorted to massacres. The with the publication of Communist Manifesto. The term Marxists is used
communist parties were wiped out. The progressive Govt. in Brazil was interchangeably with Communists since long. Lenin advanced Marxism with
also overthrown. Yugoslavia under the leadership of Tito chose the path of his concrete application of theory to the changed conditions in the new era.
revisionism in 1948. When Khrushchev espoused revisionism in Russia, He was successful in accomplishing the revolution in Russia through this
there remained only two countries clearly upholding the banner of concrete application of the theory. Stalin called Leninism as the Marxism
revolutionary path at that time China and Albania. of the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution. Thus the term Marxism-
Leninism came into use. Mao further developed Marxism-Leninism with
Maos Struggle Against Restoration of Capitalism in Russia his application of the theory to the concrete conditions in the third world
The Chinese Communist party conducted a Great Debate against through the path of protracted peoples war. He succeeded in achieving a
Khrushchevite revisionism and in defense of Marxism-Leninism. Prior to revolution in China through this application. Mao also formulated the theory
this, CPC carried on the struggle on various internal fora for nine years of continuing the revolution under the dictatorship of the proletriat thus
between 1957 and 1963: Declaration of the Twelve Communist and Workers showing that class struggle continues during the stage of socialism. Thus
Parties of the Socialist Countries' Meeting in Moscow in 1957 and Statement the theory developed as Marxism-Leninism-Maos Thought. This is our world
of the 81 Communist and Workers Parties Meeting in Moscow, 1960 etc. outlook guiding us on the path to overthrow the current semi-feudal semi-
The criticism took an open form only in 1963-64 with the Great Debate. colonial set up.
The Great Debate was a principled struggle against modern revisionism Ours is the Era of Revolution We Will Succeed in Our Revolution
that defended Marxism-Leninism through this struggle. Mao Zedong Thought
came to the fore as the guide to the revolutionary forces world over. Class society continues in various forms after primitive communism.
Revisionists in India refused to accept Mao Zedong Thought. The Class system can only be abolished through class struggles. The class
Communist revolutionaries in India chose Mao Zedong Thought as the struggles will continue till the society based on the principle from each
ideological guide to struggle and are advancing on the path of protracted according to his ability, to each according to his need is established. While
peoples war in its light. However, Communist Party of China too turned to the class struggle continues against the capitalist system, it takes a different
revisionism after Maos death and they abandoned Mao Zedong Thought. form under socialism. There have been failures and setbacks in continuing
the class struggles under socialism in Russia and China. Communists in
Russian Imperialism all countries should learn lessons from these failures and strive to build
With the restoration of capitalism, Soviet Union resorted to plundering revolution in their respective countries. Let us rededicate ourselves to this
various countries through its export of capital. It turned into social task on the occasion of 100 th anniversary of Great October Socialist
imperialism with its invasion of Czechoslovakia. It started competing with Revolution in Russia.
America for the markets in the third world countries. It became a super
power contending with America for world hegemony. It turned into a prison
of nations. This gave rise to the national movements for the right to self-
determination. With time, Russia peeled off its socialist mask. Russian
imperialism is now competing with American imperialism.

Long Live Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought


The term communists was in use before the publication of Communist

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
GOODS AND SERVICES ACT 2017 the dead person is forced to carry the body on shoulder back home in the
age of bullet train !

HOW IT AFFECTS AN
HOW To provide employment to workers is the foremost responsibility of the
state. We read at regular intervals the percentage of unemployed and
AVERA GE INDIAN
VERAGE underemployed people in developed countries, but Indian policy makers,
as a matter of policy, have refused to publish in last 70 years any such
figures even when GDP growth rate was in double digit. Is there any
Dr. N. Bhattacharya understanding among ruling politicians of different colours in the country
In 1991 Govt. of India agreed with World Bank and International Monetary not to disclose this particular information? From Aadhar Card of any
Fund to follow their policies of liberalization, privatization and globalization individual so much information is used by the state without permission
(LPG). The then Govt. agreed under the pressure of some institutions of from that individual, why is it difficult to collect his/ her working status? If
west to sacrifice the countrys sovereign right to rule India according to its the Govt. wants it can easily calculate the number of people employed at
Constitution. These organizations were to serve narrow economic interest any point of time. India claims to be a leader in information technology
of some developed Western countries. After China became a real challenge industry of the world, then it is an opportune time in national interest to
to USA, both economically and politically, new institutions were also bring out the various types of employment/ unemployment situation in
developed to compete with existing organisations. Monopoly of West to different parts of the country. In 21st century a country of India's size has
dictate the fate of world economy is being challenged! to know the occupation and employment status of Indian citizens. Govts.
in this country are totally casual on this important issue. For better planning
Recent hike in interest rate in USA has attracted major migration of of human development this information is a must. Opportunity of
international foreign investments to USA. Indias hobnobbing with Japan employment is the minimum requirement in any civilized society. It cannot
on long term loan at very low interest rate may not be beneficial to our be left only on surplus generating market forces.
future generations. 30 percent of this loan amount has to be used to make
purchases from Japan to guarantee the survival of Japans industries and Since 1991 under globalization, exploitation of Indias abundant natural
commerce. Moreover, the proposal to introduce Bullet Train in India appears resources was handed over to Multinational Corporations. The result was
to be a cruel joke on poor Indians! Immediate reaction is that those money huge scams specially in exploitation of minerals like iron ore, coal and
bags who may travel on these trains between Ahmedabad and Mumbai petroleum etc. Indias forest resources are being destroyed and tribals (8
may continue travelling by air as that will save both money and time. Ordinary percent of population) are without shelter and livelihood despite Article 21.
users of dirty, risky and slowest moving Indian Railways have now lost all Where is the Forest Right Act passed by Indian Parliament? South Korean
hope of any improvement. Overcrowded Indian Railways earn crores every Company, POSCO, was not allowed to start the Government approved
day without providing minimum civilized services. Ministers are frequently steel project by poor peasants of Jagatsinghpur of Odisha. Their livelihood
replaced for regular accidents in Railways. Railways has no fund to construct depends on agriculture and that too cultivation of betel leaves. British
and replace even old risky bridges and in the 21st century in a city like Company, Vedanta, was not allowed by the people with help from Supreme
Mumbai people still die due to collapse of an old railway foot bridge. Court to extract minerals from the hills of Nayamgiri in Odisha as tribals
were suffering. Tribals are trying to conserve natural resources of the country
It is a blessing that we have enough number of bullock carts to ferry from total destruction.
marriage parties and there are enough number of single animal driven
transport to carry washermens bundles in the villages of India! Reports World Trade Organisation (WTO) started in 1995 and its only objective,
claim that despite refusal by hospital ambulances to transport dead bodies not officially accepted, is to enforce growth of imports to India and to put
of some specific groups of people in this country, the immediate relation of maximum hurdles in the way of growth of Indias exports and that is why

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
exchange rate of both US $ and EURO of European Union are kept artificially officially, as it is run in collaboration with World Bank. Recently RBI has
high resulting in substantial increase in indebtedness of India. Under agreed with OECD estimation. Prof. Subramanian Swamy, Member of Rajya
protection of WTO, Tax Havens are now legitimate foreign trade destinations Sabha from ruling Party, critical of economic policies followed by his own
for manipulative foreign exchange transactions. Weaker countries are party, has warned that the country is heading for depression and it could
simply deprived of their legitimate foreign exchange earnings by fraudulent crash soon. GDP growth rate in 2016-17 was 7.9% and it may go down in
trade practices of over and under invoicing and many other unethical 2017-18 to 5.7%. He also said that 75% of eligible Tax payers failed to file
practices. Black money generation is a common business here. It is amusing tax returns on the last date (Financial Express 22.09.17). Debate on growing
that no Govt. has ever protested and blacklisted these companies for pain and frustration of unemployment and hunger in such a vast country is
defrauding the country. It is in the interest of the country that there must generating provocative excitement after an ex Minister (80 years old) of
be a white paper on our foreign trade through these tax havens and the NDA I was attacked by learned Ministers of Mr. Modis cabinet.
corporations involved in such anti-national trade practices should be
blacklisted. A machine, for example, is to be exported from Mumbai port to When demonetization was implemented from midnight of 9.11.2016,
USA. This can be done in ordinary course between India and USA. However, Govt. used all advertisement channels to prove that all Indians are basically
it can also be sent, say, from Mumbai port to a destination in any Tax anti-nationals, every one holding currency notes was treated as a black
Haven. Company A is registered there and is a subsidiary company of the money manipulator. It took more than 8 months for the Govt. to admit its
Indian exporting Company. Company A sells it to company B situated wrong assessment of Indians in general and economically poor Indians in
outside the tax haven- the very company which the Mumbai Company had particular because almost all the demonetized currency notes came back
to sell to in USA. Thus on paper the Mumbai company is not getting the to the issuing authority. Learned economists agree that the present all
entire foreign exchange of this deal. Bulk of foreign exchange earned in round economic disturbances in India, to a great extent received support
this deal is left in the Tax Haven. When imports take place India spends from implementation of demonetisation and remonetisation. Results are:
more foreign exchange and the cost is artificially jacked up. Companies 1. Index of industrial production increased by 1.2 percent in July 2017
accumulate foreign exchange outside India. It is now normal trade practice compared to 5.2 percent increase in July, 2016. Consumer price Index in
and the Govt. is in no mood to stop such unfair trade practices! June, 2017 increased by 1.54 percent but it went up to 3.36 percent in
II August 2017. Banks in India are virtually paralysed with outstanding loan
of $191 billion, no new loans are being disbursed by the banks. Exporters
Indian economy is not in sound health as per assessment of some are totally disillusioned. Foreign exchange rate is gradually moving against
political experts of the ruling party. Surgical operation' was performed by the interest of the country. Foreign investors are liquidating their investments
well known political leaders during November 2016 titled Demonetization as USA $ price is moving northward.
2016. Second more intensive and widespread operation is going on from
July 1st 2017 titled One Nation One Tax. 1300 million people of whom 2. Lakhs of labour in the unorganized sector are spending their worst
around 80 percent belong to rural India are suffering from an acute sense days of continued unemployment in villages of India. Capacity utilization
of frustration since demonetization in November 2016. The worst sufferers in all types of industries is going down. Govt. has miserably failed to face
are millions of unorganised workers deployed by contractors. Contract labour the worst economic crisis in the villages and semi-urban areas from where
is a growing group of Indian workers in 21st century who are deprived of all these hapless workers migrate to cities to earn their daily bread.
rights meant for organized workers. Organization of Economic Cooperation 3. Rating Agencies downgraded India to the lowest investment grade.
and Development (OECD) has reduced expected growth rate of Indian
Economy for next year (2018-19) by 0.5% to 7.2%. In the current year Under an extremely pessimistic economic environment in the financial
2017-18, growth rate was projected at 7.3% but it may end at 6.7%, a fall year 2017-18, people were assured that modern information technology
of 0.6%. (Financial Express 22.09.17). OECDs opinion cannot be ignored would help the administration to implement Goods and Services Tax Act

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
2017 (GST). However, a large section of the Business community is upset Indian context there are contradictions between states and the Centre. In
about the non-performance of Govt. machinery by the end of 2017! It is 2016 Centre had paid its employees new scales suggested by Pay
worried about delay in the disbursal of due refund to be paid under the law. Commission. States have approached the Centre for funds to meet the
demand of their employees. Fund is a problem for many states. These
III contradictions also get accentuated due to political conflicts between ruling
Taxes are levied through laws passed by either parliament and/or state parties. Politically the ruling party tries to teach lessons to other parties.
legislatures. BJPs slogan is one nation one tax. Accordingly from 1st Theoretically under GST there should not be any more taxes payable on
July, 2017 the new indirect tax law Goods And Services Tax Act, 2017 the value for which the tax has already been collected. Refund of tax already
was implemented. Large scale advertisements were displayed and people paid is getting delayed beyond reasonable time and tax payers are feeling
were informed about various aspects of this law. Govt. representatives tired. After introduction of GST in most cases prices have risen.
who have explained in detail various aspects on demonetisation, created
Now the States and the Centre are represented in the GST council and
more confusion and faced public resentment are now holding press briefings.
they review their decisions from time to time. This Council will become an
For the purpose of this specific law of GST 2017 India may be divided arena of regular fight between the two. The recent meeting of the Council
into two broad groups. In number one group, nation represents only well to held on 6. 10.17 made some changes and there was an obvious political
do people having access to modern education, access to communication motive in it. To appease Gems and Jewellery industry of Gujarat, GST
technology and latest knowledge of various laws concerning accounts, public rates were reduced. Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh will go for elections
relations etc.etc. So many chambers of commerce are working overtime over the next two months and decisions to reduce GST rate are a bribe to
day and night for the welfare of this well organised nation in India. They voters. Conventionally States are treated as junior partners though their
are concerned about reducing their tax liability by interpreting the Tax constitutional obligations are increasing with passage of time.
Law. In reality it is now not one tax system for the entire country rather
Opposition ruled states have to fight for their share. What is happening
there will be dual tax systemCentral GST and State GST.
in the small state of Delhi, is also an example of how the Centre behaves
The other nation relevant to this new tax comprises those millions who with a state ruled by an opposition party. The same behaviour we find in
run their own business with their own meagre saving and are deprived of the governance of Union Territory of Puducherry. The signal is clear. The
any formal banking or financial help. Well established banks in India never Centre is trying to destabilise states ruled by opposition parties. Previously
entertain small, medium and others in unorganised sector on the plea that it was done through the office of Governor and in future it will have a new
those business are never viable. These economically nonviable sectors and more powerful instrument like finance controlled by Centre to create
work without hired labour or with very small number of hired persons (may total destabilisation in state politics. GST is not a simple Tax System for
be child labour as cheapest commodity). Many well known firms of west India in the present context, it can be used to destroy the concept of largest
are convicted for exploitation of child labour in poor countries. democracy in the world. Concept of President Rule was misused first in
India to remove an elected Govt. in Kerala in 1959. A Communist Govt.
There are many rich individuals in the world who have accumulated was formed in 1957 and was shown the door after only 2 years.
wealth by avoiding paying taxes to Govt. and with outstanding loan to
creditors. Law of Bankruptcy is very handy for these manipulators. US India has a huge informal sector and bigger fish always try to eat smaller
Presidents company filed four petitions for bankruptcy. In India too a lot of ones. GST rate structure of 18 percent or 28 percent are on the higher
well known faces including a respected retired member of Rajya Sabha side. Demonetization, Goods and Service Tax, sick financial institutions
from ruling party at the Centre was allowed to leave India after defrauding etc. have individually and collectively brought economic hardship to our
Banks. One party is now ruling in the Centre and in 18 states. The people living in different parts of the country. Govt. appears absolutely
parliamentary opposition parties are also ruling in some 12 states. In the unconcerned about hardship and sufferings of men and women in the streets.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
agriculture. The agro processing industries which earlier were reserved for
AIKMS Appeal : Join Peasants March to the small scale sector are now controlled by MNCs. MNREGA work has
been decreased. In cooking gas and kerosene oil, first scheme for cash
Parliament on 20th November 2017 transfer was begun, now subsidies have been withdrawn. Cooking gas
cylinders have become costly. This year fertilizer subsidy too has been
* Waive all loans of Peasants and Agricultural Labourers put under cash transfers. Now fertilizer costs will go up 3 to 4 times. Subsidy
will initially go into bank accounts of peasants, then it will be stopped.
* Fix MSP at 1.5 times the cost of Production
Govt. has also stopped cheap food grains in PDS and is transferring the
* Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization have led to Costly Inputs, subsidy amount into accounts. Once PDS is wound up, procurement from
peasants also will stop and crops will fetch only a low price. Shanta Kumar
Falling Rates, Indebted Peasants, Hungry People Committee had recommended precisely this in 2015. WTO, which functions
at the behest of MNCs, too has directed India to do so by 2018.
Agriculture is in deep crises. Input costs and rates of crops are against
the peasants and in favour of companies. The Green Revolution model of Due to Demonetization, GST and cashless transfers by the Govt.,
agricultural development has favoured imperialist companies. PM Modi peasants failed to get even market rates for their crops. This has ruined
had promised to double farmers income in 5 years, waive their loans and small shopkeepers and producers also. This is providing big benefits to big
make MSP 1.5 times the cost of production as per recommendations of traders and MNCs and domestic corporations. They are buying farm produce
Swaminathan Commission. Centre announces MSP of only 24 crops but at cheap rates and selling dear.
this year it has announced MSP for 19 Kharif crops. Out of these the MSP
of 9 crops is less than the Govt. assessed cost of production of those Govt. is snatching natural resources under control of people and handing
crops. BJP-RSS govt. is reneging on its 2014 election manifesto. them over to MNCs. It is acquiring agricultural land for smart cities and
industry, making big dams in the name of irrigation and transferring water
Under pressure from peasant movements, some states announced some to industries. Narmadas water is going to Sanand, Polavarums to Coastal
loan waivers but the Central declarations were against these waivers saying Corridor, Kanhars to Sonebadra and Jamunas to Coal Thermal Power
it does not have money for loan waivers and subsidies. If that is done the Projects. Workers, fishermen and peasants are being uprooted.
banks will suffer losses. But Rs 10 lakh crore worth of corporate loans
have turned NPAs which will not be recovered. To overcome this loss it Modi claims the Congress had ruined the peasantry over 60 years and
has refinanced banks to the extent of Rs 2.11 lakh crores. As it does allowed them to die. But in 3 years of his govt. too peasants are dying. In
every year, in 2015-16 it has foregone corporate taxes worth 6.11 lakh this period bank dues on them have increased 55 % from 8.11 to 12.6 lakh
crores. UP govt. waived ridiculously small amounts of Rs 1 and 2. Laws crores. Since 1995 more than 4 lakh peasants and an equal number of
were made in Kerala, Telangana and Punjab to waive private loans of agricultural labourers have committed suicide. When peasants came out
landless and in Telangana the Govt. was forced to grant Rs. 4000 per acre on the streets, MP govt. fired on and killed them.
for input cost subsidy twice a year for each crop. Govts. of all ruling class parties implement anti peasant, pro corporate
Seeds, fertilizers, insecticides of MNCs are very costly. Govt. is policies. BJPRSS divides people on religious lines and unleashes atrocities
reducing subsidies and increasing taxes on every article. Due to taxes on Dalits. Only peoples unity can fight these forces.
diesel is sold in India for Rs 58/ litre, though it costs Rs. 40 in Srilanka,
We appeal to all democratic forces in Delhi, intellectuals, students,
Rs. 46 in Nepal, Rs. 49 in Pakistan, Rs. 51 in Bangladesh.
workers organizations. rights activists and womens organizations to support
During this period economic slowdown and unemployment have this united fight of Indias peasantry under the banner of All India Kisan
increased. Peasants are unable to fulfill their livelihood needs from Sangharsh Coordination Committee (AIKSCC).

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