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Caleb Tash The effects of Marijuana

(Over 120 studies including source links)


1.In a study done by Harvard led researchers there was found to be brain alterations in both human and animal
subjects.(Humans non dependant)
https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ending-addiction-good/201404/studies-show-long-term-effects-
cannabis-the-brain

2.A study published online ahead of print November 10 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Cognitive tests showed that chronic marijuana users had lower IQ, compared with age-and gender
matched controls, but the differences did not seem to be related to the brain abnormalities, because no
direct correlation could be drawn between IQ deficits and OFC volume decrease.Whats unique about
this work is that it combines three different MRI techniques to evaluate different brain characteristics,
said Sina Aslan, PhD, Founder and President of Advance MRI and Adjunct Assistant Professor at the
University of Texas at Dallas.
http://www.mdedge.com/neurologyreviews/article/88896/alzheimers-cognition/marijuanas-long-term-effects-
brain

3.Published on the National Institute For Drug Abuse is a useful page with many sources (Scholarly Studies)
showing the effect of marijuana. I strongly encourage you to read through a few. One study shows impairment
from marijuana.
Several studies, including two large longitudinal studies, suggest that marijuana use can cause
functional impairment in cognitive abilities but that the degree and/or duration of the impairment
depends on the age when a person began using and how much and how long he or she used. (paragraph 3
click 41 for 116 studies)
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/marijuana/what-are-marijuanas-long-term-effects-brain

4. The Journal of The American Academy of child and adolescent psychiatry published a study done by
GerryJagerPh.D, Robert, I.BlockPh.D, MaartjeLuijtenM.Sc, Nick, F.RamseyPh.D. showed the following-
Early-onset cannabis use has been associated with later use/abuse, mental health problems
(psychosis, depression), and abnormal development of cognition and brain function.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890856710001085#!

5.Proceedings of the national academy of sciences published a study showing the Neurological decline from
childhood to midlife.
Participants were members of the Dunedin Study, a prospective study of a birth cohort of 1,037
individuals followed from birth (1972/1973) to age 38 y. Cannabis use was ascertained in
interviews at ages 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 y. Neuropsychological testing was conducted at age 13 y,
before initiation of cannabis use, and again at age 38 y, after a pattern of persistent cannabis use had
developed. Persistent cannabis use was associated with neuropsychological decline broadly across
domains of functioning, even after controlling for years of education.
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/40/E2657.short

6.National Institute on Drug Abuse published a page showing the addictive properties of marijuana.
Marijuana use can lead to the development of problem use, known as a marijuana use disorder, which takes the
form of addiction in severe cases. Recent data suggest that 30 percent of those who use marijuana may have
some degree of marijuana use disorder.18 People who begin using marijuana before the age of 18 are four to
seven times more likely to develop a marijuana use disorder than adults.19
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/marijuana/marijuana-addictive
7. Current marijuana use was significantly correlated (p< 0.05) in a dose- related fashion with a decline in
IQ over the ages studied. The comparison of the IQ difference scores showed an average decrease of 4.1
points in current heavy users (p< 0.05) compared to gains in IQ points for light current users (5.8),
former users (3.5) and non-users (2.6).
http://www.cmaj.ca/content/166/7/887.short