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THE USE OF REALIA TO IMPROVE

STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY IN PROCEDURE TEXT

(A Classroom Action Research with the Ninth Grade Students of

MTs. Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara in the Academic Year of 2010/2011)

A Final Project
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requierement
For the degree of Bachelor of Education
In English Language Education

By:

ERNY ROKHMAWATI
063411041

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF TARBIYAH FACULTY


WALISONGO STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES
SEMARANG
2010
KEMENTERIAN AGAMA
INSTITUT AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI WALISONGO
FAKULTAS TARBIYAH
Jl. Prof. Dr. Hamka Kampus II Ngaliyan Telp. 7601295 Semarang 50185

ADVISOR APPROVAL

Dear Sir,

Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah

State Institute for Islamic Studies

(IAIN Walisongo Semarang)

Matter: A Final Project Manuscript Approval

Asslamu alaikumWr.Wb

After reading and revising, we as advisors declare that the final project of:

Name : Erny Rokhmawati

Students Number : 63411041

Faculty/Mayor : Tarbiyah/ English Departement

Title : The Use of Realia to Improve Students Speaking Ability in


Procedure Text (a Classroom Action Research with the Ninth
Grade Students of MTs. Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara in the
Academic Year of 2010/2011)

is approved. Therefore, we appeal in order to examine it as soon as possible. We thank


you for your attention.

Wassalmu alaikumWr. Wb.

Advisor I Advisor II

Siti Tarwiyah, S.s M. Hum Drs. Mahfud Junaidi, M. Ag


NIP. 197211081999032001 NIP. 19690320199803100

ii
KEMENTERIAN AGAMA
INSTITUT AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI WALISONGO
FAKULTAS TARBIYAH
Jl. Prof. Dr. Hamka Kampus II Ngaliyan Telp. 7601295 Semarang 50185

RATIFICATION
Name : Erny Rokhmawati

Students number : 63411041

Title : The Use of Realia to Improve Students Speaking Ability in Procedure


Text (a Classroom Action Research at the Ninth Grade Students of MTs.
Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara in the Academic year of 2010/2011 )

Had been ratified by the team of final project examiner of Tarbiyah Faculty of Walisongo State
Institute for Islamic Studies Semarang on:

Day: Monday

Date: December 20th 2010

Chairman Secretary

Drs.H. Fatah Syukur, M.Ag. Daviq Rizal, M.P.d


NIP. 19681212 199403 1 003 NIP. 19771025 200701 1 015

Examiner I Examiner II

Dra. Hj. Siti Mariam, M.P.d Drs. H. Rahardjo, M. Ed, St


NIP. 19650727 199203 2 002 NIP. 19651123 199103 1 003

iii
MOTTO

#Yy Zwqs% (#q9q%ur !$# (#q)?$# (#qZtB#u t%!$# $pkr't

O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth1

To learn anything fast and effectively

You have to see it, hear it, and feel it2

1
Muhammad Muhsin Khan and Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, Interpretation of the Meanings of the
Noble Qur an in the English Language, (Riyadh Saudi Arabia: Dar-us salam Publications, 1999), p. 558.
2
Muhimmatul Ulya, Using Song Lyrics to Improve Students Understanding on Present Perfect Tense an
Action Research at the 8th Grade of Mts. Matholibul Huda Jepara in Academic Year of 2009/2010(Semarang: IAIN
Walisongo, 2009), unpublished.

iv
DEDICATION

This final project is dedicated to:

My beloved grandmother (Mbah Zulaichah)

v
A FINAL PROJECT STATEMENT

I certify that this final project is definitely my own work. I am completely responsible for the
content of this final project. Other writers opinions or findings included in the final project are
quoted or cited in accordance with ethical standards.

Semarang, December 20th 2010

The Writer,

Erny Rokhmawati
Students number: 63411041

vi
ABSTRACT

ErnyRokhmawati(Student Number: 63411041).The Use of Realia to Improve Students


Speaking Ability in Procedure Text (A Classroom Action Research with the Ninth Grade Students of
MTs Mathalibul Huda MlonggoJepara in the Academic Year of 2010/2011).Final Project. Semarang:
Bachelor Program of English Language Education of Tarbiyah Faculty Walisongo State Institute for
Islamic Studies, 2010. Key words: Realia, Improve, Speaking, Ability, Procedure Text.

Speaking ability is an important aspect and beneficial skill in learning language, it is a part of the
goal or skill in learning English in the curriculum besides writing, reading, and listening. Through
speaking, people convey what they mean by arranging a set of words which contain a subject talked about
and the situation. But some people including language learners think that speaking is difficult. However,
some language learners are not interested in speaking lesson. One of the reasons is the teacher doesnt
give them an interesting activity. To make them interested and easy to catch what the teacher teaches, the
teacher should give them interesting activities because speaking will be easy if it is always practiced.
When they practice it in real situation, it means that they dont need to imagine, they can see, hear, feel
the situation directly. It will make materials be more memorable. Thus, in this research, the researcher
used realia to improve students speaking ability, because realia is real object that can be used as a
medium in teaching learning process and most of students are interested in it.

The objectives of this research were to describe the implementation of realia to improve students
speaking ability in procedure text and to identify the improvement of the students speaking ability in
procedure text.

The subjects of this research were the ninth grade of students MTs.Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo
Jepara in the academic year of 2010/2011. The number of the subjects was 44 students. This research was
a classroom action research. The process of this research was conducted in three stages, including cycle 1,
cycle 2, and cycle 3. The data were collected by using observation guide in order to know the events in
the classroom during teaching learning process. Besides that, she also used test to get the students score,
in order to know the improvement of students ability in speaking from their score. The data were
analyzed by using quantitative analysis.

In this research, the researcher used kinds of realia. In the first cycle, the researcher used candles,
match and candle holder. Then, in second cycle she used water faucet, soap and towel. In third cycle, she
used pencils and sharpener.

The result of research shows that realia used in teaching speaking procedure text with the ninth
grade of students MTs Mathalibul Huda Jepara in The Academic Year of 2010/2011 can improve
students speaking ability. This successfulness can be seen from the result of students average score and
good responses by students. The result after getting all of the treatment using realia, the students average
score increased in line with the increase of the students achievement in each cycle. Before getting the
treatment students average score was 4.3, and after giving treatment was 6.8, so it increased 2.4.the
average score of students in the first cycle was 4.9, second cycle was 5.2, and the third cycle was 6.8.

Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that by using realia in teaching speaking,
teacher can improve students ability in speaking. And it is hoped that it can be valuable as the
information resource for students, teachers, and the researcher herself.

vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Praise is to Allah, the merciful, and the compassionate that the writer can finish this the
final project completely. Shalawat and Salam for the Prophet Muhammmad who brings us from
darkness to the brightness.

The writer realizes that there are many people who are already helped her in arranging
and writing this final project directly or indirectly. In this chance, the writer would like to
express deeper appreciation to:

1. Dr. Sujai, M.A as the Dean of faculty of Tarbiyah.


2. Siti Tarwiyah, M.Hum. as the Head of English Department and the first advisors thank for
providing careful guidance, helpful corrections, very good advice as well as suggestion and
encouragement during the consultation.
3. Drs. Mahfud Junaidi, M.Ag, as the second advisors thank for providing careful guidance,
helpful corrections, very good advice as well as suggestion and encouragement during the
consultation.
4. My beloved father Masud and my mom Anis Istianati.
5. My beloved my grandmother, my aunts, my uncles, and all my big family who always gives
inspiration and motivation to continue this study.
6. My sweet heart who will always be my best a part of my life. He have been helping me the
best he can do. He makes me so special and meaningful of my life.
7. Zainudddin, S.Pdi the headmaster of MTs Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara who had
allowed the writer to carry out the research in his school
8. Turkani, S.Pd the English teacher of MTs Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara who had helped
the writer during the study in that school.
9. My beloved family in Tanjung Sari.
10. My beloved friends in boarding house (Itak, Indah, Diyah, Dewi, Fikri) thank for
accompanying me.

viii
11. All of my friends in TBI 06 especially for TBI B 06, team KKN posko 25 Loireng and team
PPL at SMA 7 Semarang.
12. Last but not least, those who cannot be mentioned one by one, who have supported the writer
to finish this final project.
Finally, the writer realizes that this final project is far from being perfect therefore, the
writer will happily accept constructive criticism in order to make it better. The writer hopes that
this final project would be beneficial to everyone. Amin

Semarang, December 20th 2010

The Writer,

ERNY ROKHMAWATI
Students number: 63411041

ix
TABLE OF CONTENT

PAGE OF TITLE ........................................................................................ i


ADVISOR APPROVAL ................................................................................ ii
RATIFICATION ........................................................................................ iii
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................ iv
FINAL PROJECT STATEMENT ................................................................. v
MOTTO ........................................................................................ vi
DEDICATION ........................................................................................ vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.............................................................................. viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................... x
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Research .............................................. 1
B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic ........................................ 5
C. Statement of the Problem .................................................. 5
D. Objective of the Research.................................................. 6
E. Advantages of the Research............................................... 6
F. Scope of the Problem .............. 6
G. Definitions of the Key Terms ............................................ 7

CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND ACTION


HYPOTHESIS
A. Theoretical Review
1. Realia ................................... 9
a. Definition of Realia......... 9
b. Implementation of Realia.. .......... 10
c. Realia in Teaching Speaking.. ..... 13
1. Speaking.. ........... 17
a. Definition of Speaking .............. 17
b. Speaking Ability........................... 18
c. Teaching Speaking Ability................................... 20

x
d. Factor of Teaching Speaking Ability 25
2. Procedure Text 28
e.Definition of Procedure Text 28
f. Generic Structure in Procedure text .. 28
g.Significant Lexica Grammatical Features 29
B. Previous Research ............................................................. 29
C. Action Hypothesis ........................................................... 31

CHAPTER III: METHODS OF THE RESEACRH


A. Research Approach .......................................................... 32
B. Subject of the Research.................................................... 32
C. Time and Setting.............................................................. 32
D. Method of Data Collection ............................................... 33
E. Method of Data Analysis ................................................. 33
F. Procedure of the Research...... 34
G. Limitation of the Research... 39

CHAPTER IV: RESULT OF RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION


A. Result of Research ............................................................ 40
B. Discussion................................................................ 49

CHAPTER V : CONCLUSION
A. Conclusion....................................................................... 62
B. Suggestions...................................................................... 63

REFERENCES 64
CURRICULUM VITAE.. 67
APPENDICES.. 68

xi
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Research


Language is very important in our lives, because it is always used in our
daily activity to communicate with the others. We cant communicate each other
without language, because it is one of the communication tools used by people in
general. We can use language to convey our messages or to express our ideas
through oral, written, or signal languages.
There are some more countries that used the kind of languages in this
world including English. One of the countries is Indonesia that has been our
beloved country. It has Indonesian language and the other countries do too.
Although there are many kind of languages in this world, all of the people from
over the world can communicate each other by using English because it is an
international language used among them to communicate. It is identic with the
Janet Holmes state in his book by saying: A world language or international
language is English language. It was used by people such as in economic,
political and also education.3
In Indonesia, English as the foreign language that was taught in every
school from the elementary to the university level. The study of foreign language
as the main lesson for the students who learn their first foreign language. They
study it by mastering the four basic languages namely: listening, speaking,
reading and writing. The first is mastering listening skill. Students listen to every
sound in the environment. The second is mastering speaking skill. In this step,
they try to practice what they listen. The third is mastering reading skill. Usually
they start learning this skill when they study in kinder garden or elementary
school. The fourth skill is mastering writing skill. Those are four language skills
which should be started by people when they study language.

3
Janet Holmes, An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, (U.K: Longman, 1992), p.51.

1
2

Speaking is a crucial part of the foreign language learning and teaching,


because it can be used for the student to express their ideas orally in foreign
language. Without speaking skill they will just keep silent. In order to speak well,
they must practice their skill in everyday live. Therefore, the teacher should give
students opportunity to practice their speaking skill by giving some more
example or activities that put them into the real practice communication.
In English lesson there are many text types which is should learn by
students. One of them is procedure text. According to Oxford Learner Pocket
Dictionary, procedure is usual or proper way of doing something. When we
talked about procedure we also talked about process, because procedure is
process of doing something. We also have taught about procedure in islamic
teaching, for example the process or procedure of making human. It was
explained in the holy Quran surah Al-Muminun: 12-154

And indeed We create man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and
earth).Thereafter We made him ( the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah
(mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge and lodged it) in
safe lodging (womb of the women). Then We made the nutfah into a clot
( a piece oof thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little
lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then
We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brougt it forth as another
creation. So Blessed is Allah, the Best of creators. After that, surely you
will die.

4
Muhammad Muhsin Khan and Muhammad Tagi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, Interpretation of the
Meanings of The Noble Qur an in the English Language, (Riyadh Saudi Arabia: Dar-us-Salam
Publications, 1999), p.448-449.
3

The explanation of versus above is actually We take the oath that We


created human, that is kind of human that you witnessed, started from extract of
clay that is from ground. Then, We made the extract become nutfah (mixed
drops of the male and female sexual discharge and lodged it) then We safe it in
womb of women. Then We created nutfah become alaqah, after that We created
alaqah became mudhghoh that is a clot ( a piece off thick coagulated blood), then
We made it into a little lump of flesh, then We made of out that little lump flesh
with flesh bones, then we clothed the bones with flesh, then we gave a life and
we made a creature that different with other creature. So, Allah is the best
creator. After that, its mean after thoughing that processes and processes in the
earth strated from baby, child, tenageer, adult and old, you will die.5 From the
explanation above, we can see that there are many steps before human is created.
That was example of procedure in islamic teaching, besides that
procedure also taught in junior high school. It is useful for students when they
will give their instructions to other students . The problem of teaching procedure
text is the students cant arrange the steps of procedure text so the students less
active to express their skill. The teacher needs media in teaching and learning
process in the classroom, because it can motivate the students in teaching and
learning process. Besides that an interesting way for them to follow the learning
English activity. It is suitable with our prophet Muhammad did to teach Islam
religion to His followers. He also used media to teach the islamic teachings to his
followers in the fisrt time as the prophet of Allah. He used his good behaviour as
media to teach his followers. He always gives good example to his
followers.6This condition is expressed in the holy Quran surah Al-Ahzab: 217

5
M. Quraish Syihab, Tafsir Al-Misbah, (Ciputat: Lentera Hati, 2008), p.165-166.
6
Asnawir and M Basyirudin Usman, Media Pembelajaran,, (Jakarta: Ciputat Pers, 2002),
p.115.
7
Muhammad Muhsin Khan and Muhammad Tagi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, op.cit, p.548.
4

Indeed in the messenger of Allah (muhammad) you have a good


example to follow for him who hopes for (the meeting with) Allah and
the Last Day and remember Allah much.

The explanation of verse above is hey..people who dont want to wage


war, you get a good example from prophet. So, you should follow Muhammad in
your behaviour. The messenger is a good example in bravery, patience and
firmness to face disaster. A person who hope reward from Allah and afraid with
Allahs torture, and always remember Allah will get a good example for the
messenger. 8
In the development of the education at the present time, there are many
kinds of media that can be used to teach. One of them is realia. In the teaching
speaking skill, realia is useful because students can see and touch it directly.
They dont need to imagine so they will be easy to express their ideas. Based on
the background above the writer tries to make a title that suitable with the real
condition above by making the title below:
The Use of Realia to Improve Students Speaking Ability in Procedure Text a
Classroom Action Research with Ninth Grade Students of MTs Mathalibul Huda
Mlonggo Jepara in the Academic Year of 2010/2011.
The writer did this research to get the data needed to complete this final
project through the school that had been choosen as the object of the reseacrh
activity. Based on the prelimenery research with the English teacher, the writer
found the students problem especially in speaking ability. The standart English
score is 6, but there were many students that did not reach it yet. It was caused
some students dont like speaking activity and the teacher didnt give the
interesting explanation activities or examples that make the students be active to
practice the speaking activity. It made the students bored and rare to practice
their speaking ability. Based on the problems above, the writer offered a suitable
solution to over come the problems. The writer tried to use realia as a media to
solve the problem.

8
Tengku Muhammad Hasby Ash-shiddieqy, Tafsir Al-Qur anul Majid An-Nuur, (Semarang:
PT. Pustaka Rizki Putra, 1987), p.3269.
5

The writer used a classroom action reseacrh, because it is a number of


procedures that can be used to improve teaching learning process in the
classroom. Usually it is used by teachers because they found some problems in
the teaching learning process.
The writer hoped that realia could improve students speaking ability in
procedure text because realia has many advantages both for the teacher and the
students in the teaching learning process.

B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic


There are some reasons underlying choice of the topic. There are:
1. Speaking is one of skills in studying language, it is very important in our
lives, because it can convey our mind or ideas each other.
2. Some of students at Junior High School of MTs. Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo
Jepara in the academic year of 2010/2011 still have the difficulties in
understanding the procedure text, especially in speaking skill.
3. The appropriate media is one of the keys to find out the successful in the
teaching learning. Realia is one of the media in the teaching learning. So the
writer choosen realia to improve students speaking ability in procedure text.

C. Statement of the Problem


Based on the description of the study above, the writer would like to
make statement of the problems. The problems that are discussed in this study
can be stated as follows:
1. How does the implementation of realia improve students speaking ability in
procedure text at ninth grade of MTs. Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara in the
academic of year 2010/2011?
2. How is the improvement of the students speaking ability in procedure text
after being taugth through using realia ?
6

D. Objective of the Research


As the writer states to do a research, automatically there is an objective
why she does this research. The objectives of the research are:
1. To describe the implementation of realia to improve students speaking ability
in procedure text at ninth grade of MTs. Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara in
the academic year of 2010/2011.
2. To identify the improvement of the students speaking ability in procedure
text.

E. Advantages of the Research


It is very important for us to know the advantages of the research. It is
hoped that realia is one of the media that can be used as an alternative way to
teach speaking. In addition, it can contribute some benefits as follow:
1. The Researcher
The result of the study is used to answer the available questions in this
final project based on the data got a long the reseacrh.
2. The Students
It is hoped that the students can improve their students speaking ability
by using realia in procedure text and there are some efforts to develop their study
English in order to be successful.
3. The Teacher
The teacher can use this result of research as a feedback on the teaching
activities and he can increase his method in teaching learning program well.
Beside that he also can use the result of the research as an alternative way to
teach speaking in the class for his students.

F. Scope of the Problem


Research should be limited in its scope, so that the problem being
examined is not too wide and the research is effective. To limit the scope of the
discussion and to analyze the problem, the researcher limited the research in the
students speaking ability in procedure text. It means that she analyzed only on
7

the students speaking ability in procedure text. This research was applied only to
the ninth grade students of MTs. Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara in the
academic year of 2010/2011.

G. Definition of the Terms


Definition of term is needed to avoid different explanation from different
point of the readers. The researcher defines some terms according to her point of
view. It will avoid misunderstanding that can drive us to ambiguous meaning.
1. Realia
Realia is a term used in education and library science. In education
realia are objects from real life used in classroom instruction.9 Realia usually
use by educators to improve students understanding of other language or
culture using real things and bring them into the classroom.
2. Improve
According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, the term
improve has meaning become or make somebody or something better.10
3. Ability
Ability is skill or power11. It is also the quality of being able to do
something, especially the physical, mental, financial or legal power to
accomplish something. In this case, ability is a natural or acquired talent or
skill that have by students.
4. Speaking
Speaking is one skill in studying language, not only in English
language but also in other language. Speaking is talk to somebody about
something, we use our voice to say something.12 We learn speaking skill in
order to communicate each other, using speaking we can deliver our message
to other people.

9
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/realia.(accessed December 25, 2009)
10
A S Hornby, Oxford Learner s Pocket Dictionary, (New York: Oxford University Press,
2000), p.216.
11
Ibid. p. 1.
12
Ibid. ,p. 414.
8

5. Procedure Text
A procedure text is one of material that given in junior high school. It
is about instruction how to make or how to use something. There are many
steps to make something in this text type. The purpose of a procedure text is
to describe how something is accomplished through a sequences of actions or
steps.13

13
Gerot and Wignell, Making Sense of Functional Grammar, (Australia : AEE, 1994), p.206.
9

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
AND ACTION HYPOTHESIS

In this chapter, the research would like to discuss some theories related to the
research. They are theoretical review, previous research and action hypothesis. In the
theoretical review, the researcher presents realia (definition of realia, implementation
of realia and realia to teach speaking), speaking (definition of speaking, speaking
ability, and teaching speaking ability) and procedure text (definition of procedure
text, generic structure and significant lexica grammatical features). Previous
researches are several researches related to the topic of this research.
a. Theoretical Review
1. Realia
a. Definition of Realia
Realia is consisting of actual objects or items facsimiles therefore
which are used in the classroom as aid to facilitate language acquisition
and production. 14Realia is an objects or activities used by teacher to
demonstrate real life (particularly of peoples studied), objects that
educators use to help students understand others cultures and real life
circumstance, real things, things that are real.15 Realia or real items are
useful for teaching and learning in the classroom. Objects that are
intrinsically interesting can provide a good starting point for a variety of
language work and communication activities. Realia also make learning
process more enjoyable.16
Realia is a term for any real, concrete object used in the classroom
to create connections with vocabulary words, stimulate conversation, and
build background knowledge. Realia gives students the opportunity to use
all of their sense to learn about a given subject, and it is appropriate for any
14
http://www.usingenglish.com/webblog/archieves/000228.html (accessed December 25,
2009)
15
http://dictionary.babylon.com/Realia (accessed 8 November 2009.)
16
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (UK. 2002), p.140.
10

grade or skill level. When the real object is not available or impractical,
teacher can use models or semi-concrete objects, such as photograph,
illustrations, and artwork.
Based on the explanation above, the writer concluded that realia is
on of media in teaching learning process, it is a real thing that can see, hear
or touch directly. It makes students more interesting and easy to understand
the lesson.
b. Implementation of Realia
Using realia in the EFL classroom serves to foster a more creative
and active teaching-learning environment and promotes cultural
understanding. Realia refers to the practice of using real, tangible things in
the classroom to help your students connect with English on a different
level. It involves visual, tactile and functional methods for teaching ideas,
concepts, vocabulary or grammar. Its also extremely useful to help your
students grasp the cultural differences or learn practical skills if they are
planning to travel or are already living in an English-speaking country.
Many teachers are leery of using realia, but here are some easy and helpful
ideas for using it in ESL lessons.
There are many ways to use realia in teaching learning. In
education, realia include objects used by teacher to improve students'
understanding of other cultures and real life situations. A teacher of a
foreign language often employs realia to strengthen students' associations
between words for everyday objects and the objects themselves. There are
many ways to use realia, because it is useful for any topic of English
lesson, however teachers can improve their creativity in teaching their
students using realia.
Actually, realia is appropriate for any level of students, for beginner
until advanced. Guariento & Morley (2001) claim that at post-intermediate
level, the use of authentic materials is available for use in classroom. This
might be attributed to the fact that at this level, most students master a wide
range of vocabulary in the target language and all of the structures. They
11

also note that at lower levels, the use of authentic materials may cause
students to feel de-motivated and frustrated since they lack many lexical
items and structures used in the target language. Matsuata (n.d.) states that
the use of authentic materials is a burden for the instructors teaching
beginning students as they have to spend a lot of time to prepare for
authentic materials regarding the ability level of the students. Do all these
mean we are not able to use authentic materials in lower-level classes apart
from post-intermediate and advanced levels? According to the findings of
the survey carried out by Chavez (1998), learners enjoy dealing with
authentic materials since they enable them to interact with the real
language and its use. Also they do not consider authentic situations or
materials innately difficult. However, learners state that they need
pedagogical support especially in listening situations and when reading
literary texts such as the provision of a full range of cues (auditory and
visual including written language).17
There were many teachers have used realia in teaching learning
process. Here some examples the use of realia in the classroom:
1) To illustrate and teach young learners vocabulary for animals,
clothing, and fruit for example, I use actual objects or facsimiles there
of (pieces of clothing, toy animals, and plastic fruit). For transition
period, its a very useful tool in making the abstract concrete.18
2) Bring in a number of objects from everyday life, such as fruit, utensils
or articles of clothing. Sitting in a circle, pass one of the objects to the
student on your left, saying the name of the object (for example:
"tomato" or "sock") and then have the student pass on the object to the
next one, speaking the word as well. Have your students keep passing
on the object, repeating its name, until it comes full circle back to you.

17
Ferit Kilickaya, Authentic Materials and Cultural Content in EFL Classrooms, ( Turkey:
Middle East Technical University), accessed from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kilickaya-
AutenticMaterial.html
18
http://www.usingenglish.com/webblog/archieves/000228.html, op.cit, (accessed December
25, 2009)
12

You may use photos of the objects instead of the actual objects
themselves.
3) Use an object, such as a ball, to teach prepositions of place like on,
under, above. Place the ball on the table, and ask where it is. Elicit the
reply Its on the table, and so on.
4) Write or print out recipes for work on the imperative. Read out the step
by step recipe instructions and have the students mime them as you
read them out.
5) This is suggested by television program hosts, who control
conversations by the use of the microphone. Put students in groups,
and give one student the microphone (imaginary, or a real microphone,
disconnected, or something to represent a microphone). Say a group of
six students are talking about 'holidays', the person with the
microphone can move around the group giving different people the
chance to speak, ensuring everyone gets an equal chance to
contribute.19
From the explanation above, the writer concluded that the
implementation of realia is useful for students, it makes them enjoy to
learn. Realia is one of media that can use to teach students in any topic of
lesson, from some examples above, it can use to teach vocabulary,
grammar like preposition and imperative sentence and realia also can use to
teach speaking ability.
It is appropriate with this final project, because the writer concern
on realia to improve students speaking ability in procedure text. So the
implementation of realia is different with previous example. The steps of
implementation of realia in improving students speaking ability in
procedure text are: first, teacher prepares some material that needed to
reach the goal. Second, the teacher shows the material to the students, and
then asks them to mention the name of the material. Third, teacher explains

19
An eHow Contributor, How to Use Realia in ESL Lessons accessed from
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/language-assistant/teaching-tips/realia
13

the definition of procedure text, after that the teacher gives an example
about a certain procedure text, then the teacher gives an example by
demonstrating every steps using realia orally. Next, the teacher asks
students to practice the procedure text orally in a group or individually. It is
not a patent way, the teacher can improve their ability to teach speaking
using realia.
c. Realia in Teaching Speaking
The success or failure of teaching learning process is depend on
several factors, one of them is media that used by teacher. Media is a
means of communication to help transfering the message and give power to
the material presentation so it will be understood easier and staying longer
in memory retention.20 If the teacher uses a good media and students give
good respond, teaching learning process will run well. Therefore, the
teacher should choose appropriate media. There are many kinds of media.21
1) Audio media : radio, tape recorder, telephone.
2) Visual media : picture, magazine, news paper, ilustration, film strip,
poster, etc.
3) Audio visual media : television, movie, CD, slide and sound.
4) Diverse media : realia, diorama, display, sample, simulation.
According to explanation above, realia is one of media that can use
in teaching learning process .Realia is include in media diverse. The use of
realia in common place in the ESL/EFL classroom and is widely
considered to have great value in fostering an active teaching learning
environment. By presenting information through diverse media, realia
helps to make English language input as comprehensible as possible and to
build an associative bridge between the classroom and the world. Realia
are not only a series of artifacts that describe the custom and traditions of
culture. Realia provides language learners or students with multi sensorary

20
Listyaning Sumardiyani dan Zullfa Sakhiyya, Speaking For instructional Purpose,
(Semarang: IKIP PGRI PRESS,2007), p.47.
21
Azhar Arsyad. Media Pembelajaran., (PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003), p.33-34.
14

impressions of the language which learned partly at least trough seeing,


hearing, touching, and manipulating items. And interaction with authentic
material aids in contextually grounding instructions by bringing students
into contact with language as it is used in the target culture in order to meet
actual communication needs. The use of realia then can enhance linguistic
and cultural comprehensibility, which are both prerequisites for real
language learning.22
Teaching speaking is not easy. Not only for students but also there
are some teachers said that their speaking ability are less than other skill.
To make or to build students interest in teaching learning speaking. The
teacher should find a way how to make students interest. In this study is
using realia. There is evidence that through the use of realia, teacher may
increase the number of students responses and therefore overall
participation and interest in learning activities.
Realia is one of way to build students interests in teaching learning
speaking. Realia can motivate students to express their idea orally. Because
realia is real objects which are brought into classroom, it allows the
students to see or hear and in some cases touch the material directly. The
function of real things or realia are:23
1) The instruction can be more interesting.
Real things can attract the students interest. If they are interesting, they
will give much attention to what is being taught. They will be corious
to know about the lesson.
2) Learning becomes more interactive.
Many activities can created trough applaying real thing in the teaching
learning processes. A teacher can bring models into classroom.

22
Bryan Smith, Virtual Realia, (University of Arizona) from http://itselj.org/Articles/Smith-
Realia.html
23
Mustain, Teaching Writing Procedure Text Using Real Things an Action Research at the
Sevent Grade of Students Mts N Mranggen Demak in the academic year of 2009-2010, (Semarang:
IAIN Walisongo, 2009), p. 21, unpublished.
15

3) The leghth of time required can be reduced.


Most media presentation requires as short time to transmit their
messages, so does the real things. During this brief period, much
information can be communicated to the students.
4) The quality of learning can be improved.
If there is good preparation of using real thing. It will be possible for
teacher to create a good learning process in which the students
participation is dominant. As a result, the students knowledge and
skills can be improved.
The added advantages with this media is that realia based lessons
need not to be bound to cities and places that the teacher has physically
been to but rather can based on materials from a variety of places collected
from a variety of people with various interests. Further, the students
interact directly with these materials rather than with someone elses
interpretation and analysis of them and thus may find virtual realia even
more appropriate for their interest. Another benefit of realia is that the
materials are truly interactive and more flexible that they can be easily
adapted and up dated.
According to Wrigth (1989) as quoted by Thoyyibah, there are 5
criteria that provide for making of realia in activity, there are:24
1) Easy to prepare
When teachers want to use a media their activities, they have to
decide whether it is difficult to prepare or not. Realia is a simple media
that can be brought in the classroom and easy in preparing.
2) Easy to organize
The teacher has to decide whether the organizing a more complicated
activity worth while. The teachers can use realia because it is easy
organizing.

24
Thoyyibah, Using Realia to Improve Students Writing Organization of Descriptive Text
a Classroom Action Research with the Seventh Grades of Mts Nahdlatussyubban Ploso Karang
Tengah Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009, (Semarang : IAIN Walisongo, 2009), unpublished.
16

3) Interesting
Before applying realia in the activity, the teacher has to justify the
students interest toward it. Bringing realia (authentic objects from
culture), or manipulating to the classroom helps teacher in providing
comprehensible input in a second language.
4) Meaningful and authentic
Students are going to gain more if the language use is vital to the
situation or if they use the language appropriatly.
5) Sufficient amount of language
The activity should give rise to a sufficient amount of language in
order to justify its conclusion in the language lesson.
Realia is useful to teach speaking skill especially in teaching
procedure text. Because realia is learning experience memorable for the
students, so they can practice how to make something using real object
easly. It makes students easy to mention the name of the object. The
students shouldnt imagine the media because they can see and touch
directly.
Besides there are many advantages realia also has disadvantages.
Teacher should prepare the media before teaching learning proses is
starting more than usual. Teacher should buy the media if he or she dont
have it and sometime realia is not always available. Activities with real
object might lose the class path, spending too much time in one activity
with real object in the class.25
2. Speaking
1. Definition of Speaking
Speaking is many things, it is thinking of what one wishes to say,
choosing the right words from our vocabulary, putting the words in the

25
Marta Elena Munos B.Norma Constanza Basto S., Language Learning Resources in ELT
Methodology (Universidad de Caldas, 2008) from http://www.slideshare.net/DIEGOFMACIAS/using-
realia-in-languge-teahing, on Monday, August 2, 2010.
17

proper grammatical framework, communicating the feelings we have, and


so on.
Speaking is the utterance of intelligible speech, it is also speech
production.26 Speaking is also ability say articulations sound or words to
express or to submitt mind, feeling and idea. Speaking is ability which is
used for communication in daily activities. People send and receive
message through speaking. They give reports, idea, advise, instructions,
complaint, apologize, agree, disagree and so much means by speaking.
The major goal or English learning is to enable students to
communicate with other people by using engling language being learned.
The communication here means to talk to other people orally in spoken
form. So what does speaking mean, it means a process using a language
that is done by speakers by combining both codes and message. 27
Speech combines both of code and mesaage. The code consist of
sound, vocabulary and sturctutes of language. These components are
organized into apropriate in order to convey the speakers ideas or opinion.
So speaking is the verbal use of language to communicate with others.28
From explanation above, the writer concluded that speaking is
ability or skill which is haven by people to express their idea orally or to
communicate with other people. It is important skill that must we have
because only through this skill we can express our messeage orally.
2. Speaking Ability
According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary definition of
ability is skill or power29, however speaking ability is skill or power to
express ideas, opinions or message orally. Speaking ability is the ability
to communictae orally. It is not only to applay the grammatically correct
sentence, but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to

26
A S Hornby, Oxford Pocket Learner s Dictionary, (New York: Oxford University Press,
2000), p. 443.
27
William Boletta, Fast Fluency,(California: Logos International,1992), p.53.
28
Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach English, (England : Longman, 1998), p.269.
29
A S Hornby, op.cit, p. 1.
18

whom. The ability to communicate is related to the rules of alnguage use


and rule of grammar.
Speaking ability is an important aspect and beneficial skill in
learning language, it is a part of the goal or skill in learning english in the
curriculum besides writing, reading, and listening. Through speaking
people convey what they mean by arranging a set of words which contain
a subject talked about and the situation.
In language teaching, we often talk about the four language skills
(reading, listening, speaking, and writing). Reading and listening are
called receptive skills, because receptive skills are the ways in which
people extract meaning from the discourse the see or hear.30 When we are
listening or reading something it means that we receive something from
what we listen or read. And other skills are speaking and writing. When
we are speaking and writing it means that we are producing something.
So that, speaking and writing skills are called productive skills.
Broughton states that, however good a student may be at listening
and understanding, it need not follow that he will speak well. A
discriminating ear does not always a fluent tongue. There has to be
training in the productive skill of speech as well.31
Nunan in Language Teaching Methodology, states that to most
aspect of learning a second or foreign language, and success is measured
in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language.32
For most second or foreign language learners, speaking skill is
somewhat difficult. This probably because they think that the target
language is different with their native language. And sometimes they feel
it affects the mastery of another language.

30
Jeremy Harmer, op.cit, p. 199.
31
Geoffrey Broughton et, al., Teaching English as Foreign Language, (London: Routledge &
Kegan Paul Ltd., 1978), p. 76.
32
David Nunan, Language Teaching Methodology a Textbook for Teachers, (NY: Phoenix
Ltd., 1995), p. 39.
19

Just like other abilities, speaking is complex. Teaching students


speak a second language is not easy. It needs a hard work and along
process. At least there are five components in speaking:33
1) Pronunciation
2) Grammar
3) Vocabulary
4) Fluency
5) Comprehension
All of those components will produce speech that can be
understood in communication, good pronunciation, grammatically
knowledge, vocabularies mastery, comprehension in meaning and fluency
are needed in building a speech. However it must be remembered that
language and speech are meant for communication. It is not enough for
students to learn words, phrases and grammatical only. They have to
produce speech in their daily communication. Learning language is about
practicing and generating speech. Students need to express their meaning
by doing much practice in speaking.
Thus, the writer concluded that speaking ability is ability or skill
to convey our ideas, opinions or message orally. Speaking ability is
always used in everyday life, it is the only one way when we want to
communicate to each other orally. Some people think that speaking
ability in foreign language is difficult because the target language is
different with mother language. In order to have a good ability in
speaking we must always practice it.
3. Teaching Speaking Ability
Teaching speaking ability is very important part in second
language learning. The ability to communicate in second language clearly
and efficiently contribute to the success of the learner in the school and
success later in every phase of life. Therefore it is essential that language

33
David P. Harris, Testing English as Second Language , (New York: Mc Graw Hill
Company, 1969),p.83.
20

teacher pay great attention in teaching speaking ability so that the teacher
should make various activities to promote speaking to students, the
teacher should motivate students to learn more about speaking. Some
reasons speaking ability is very important in our life are trhough a
speaking we can convey our ideas or minds, according to Sukarnos book
by Madya in Maskur.34
First, speaking is ability or skill to understand the content of
English text book and references. Second, speaking ability is to lectures
delivered in English. Third, speaking ability is to take note at lectured
delivered in English. Fourth, speaking is to introduce Indonesian culture
to other country. And the last, speaking is to communicate orally with
foreign lectures or students.
Speaking is general activity, it means that speaking has more
purpose not only in the classroom. Speaker or students will not speak any
sentences inside the classroom in teaching learning process, but also
outside in the free space. It means that they will not speak at the school,
but also they will speak fluently in daily activities. We usually speak
whatever language just we know.
There are many purposes and aim of speaking activity, someone
speak relationship with friend at school, book store or on bus for getting
information and knowledge like asking the new gossips, or for curiosity
like speaking about sports etc. At least, speaking purpose dont mean only
to asking and answer but also train our tongue to usual in English. From
wide speaking activity the students will absorb more vocabularies that
have a lot of benefit in communication interaction. This fact, of course
shows that teaching speaking could have special interest and attention.
We should exactly understand that the aim of teaching speaking ability is
to improve and develop students speaking skill. Then, the teacher has to

34
Panggih Budi Sulistyo, The Speaking Ability of Eleventh Grade Students of SMA Negri 1
Kersana Brebes, (IKIP PGRI SEMARANG.2009), unpublished.
21

ensure his/her students that speaking learning process is the pleasure


activity. There are some principles for designing speaking teqniques:35
1) Use techniques that cover the spectrum of the learners.
2) Provide intrinsically motivating techniques.
3) Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful context.
4) Provide appropriate feedback and correction.
5) Give studnets opportunities to initiate oral communication.
6) Encourage the development of speaking strategies.
Some students think that speaking ability is difficult, however
they dont like to folllow the speaking lesson. It is might caused by kind
of activities that did not make them interest. Some teachers did not give
an activity that make them enjoy to follow the speaking lesson. Actually
there are many activities to promote the speaking ability that can used by
teacher to make their students speak up. Good speaking activities can and
should highly motivating. If all the students are participating fully and if
the teacher has set up the activity properly and can then give sympathetic
and useful feedback, they will get tremendous satisfaction from it. 36 Here
some activities that can motivate students.
1) Discussion
After content based lesson, a discussion can be held for various
reason. The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share idea
about an event, or find solution in their discussion groups. Before
discussion, it is essential that the purpose of the discussion activity is
set by the teacher. In this way, the discussion points are relevant to this
purpose, so that students do not spend their time chatting with each
other about the irrelevant things. For example, for example students
can become involved in agree or disagree discussion. In this type of
discussions, the teacher can form groups of student, preferably 4 or 5
35
H. Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles : An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy, (Longman, 2001), p.275-276.
36
Jeremy Harmer, op.cit, p.88.
22

in each group, and provide controversial sentences like people learn


best when they read vs. people learn best when they travel then each
group work on their topic for a given time period and presents their
opinions to the class. It is essential that speaking should be equally
divided among the group members. At the end, the class decides on
the winning group who defended the idea in the best way. This activity
fosters critical thinking and quick decision making, and students learn
how to express and justify themselves in polite ways while disagreeing
with the others. For efficient discussion, it is always better not to form
large group, because quiet students may avoid contributing in large
groups. The group members can be either assigned by the teacher or
the students may determine it by themselves, but groups should be
rearranged in every discussion activity so that students can work with
various people and learn to be open to different ideas. Lastly, in class
or group discussions, whatever aim is, the students should always be
encouraged to ask questions and paraphrase ideas, express support,
check for clarification, and so on.37
2) Role Play and Simulation
Many students derive great benefit from simulation and role
play. Students simulate a real life encounter(such as a business
meeting, encounter in an aeroplane cabin, or an interview ) as if they
were doing so in the real world, either as themselves in that meeting or
aeroplane, or taking on role of a character different from themselves
or with thoghts and feelings they do not necessarily share. Simulation
and role play can be used to encourage general oral fluency, or to train
students for specific situation.
Simulation have the following characteristics:

37
Jeremy Harmer, op.cit, p. 272-273.
23

a) Reality of function : the students must not think of


themselvesas a student, but real
partcipants in the situation.
b) A simulated Environment : the teacher says that the
classsroom is an airport chek-in
area, for example.
c) Structure : students must see how the activity
is constructed and they must
given the necessary information
to carry out the simulation
effectively.38
Role plays are effective when they are open-ended, so that
different people have diferent view of what the outcome should be and
the consensus has to be reached.
Simulation and role play went through a period of relative
unpopularity, yet this is a pity since they have three distinct
advantages. In the first place they can be good fun and motivating.
Second, they allow hesitant students to be more forthrigth in their
opinions and behaviours when they speak. Third, broadening the
world of he classroom to include the world outside, they allow
students to use a much wider range language than some more task-
centered activities may do.39
3) Problem Solving
Many speaking skills materials start from the premise that a
communacative purpose can be established in the classroom by means
of information gap. An example of information gap principle using the
jigsaw, the material primarily for listening in this case, nevertheless
include purposeful speaking activities. By getting students to listen to
different chunks of information gap whereby the students have to

38
Jeremy Harmer , op.cit, p.274.
39
Jeremy Harmer, op.cit, p.275.
24

share with other groups the information their group has acquired in
order to build up a complete picture of particular situation.40
4) Story Telling
Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from
somebody, or they may create their own stories to tell their classmate.
Story telling fosters creative thinking. It is also helps students express
idea in the format of beginning, development, and ending, including
the characters and setting a story has to have. Students also can tell
riddles or jokes. For instance at the very beginning of each class
session, the teacher may call a few students to tell short riddles or
jokes as an opening. In this way, not only will the teacher address
students speaking ability, but also get the attention of the class.
5) Interview
Students can conduct interviews on selected topics with various
people. It is a good idea that the teacher provide a rubric to students so
that they know type of questions they can ask, but students prepare
their own interview questions. Conducting interviews with people
gives students a chance to practice their speaking ability not only in
the class but also outside and helps them becoming socialized. After
interviews, each student can present his or her study to the class.
Moreover, students can interview each other and introduce his or her
partner to the class.
6) Picture Narrating
This activity is based on several sequential pictures. Students
are asked to tell the story taking place in the sequential pictures by
paying attention to the criteria provide by the teacher as a rubric.

40
Jo McDonough and Christopher Shaw, Material and Method in ELT, (UK : Blackwell
Publishing Ltd, 1988), p.145.
25

Rubrics can include the vocabulary or structures they need to use


while narrating. 41
Based on the explanations above, teaching speaking ability is
giving somebody skill or ability to communicate to each other. It is
very important for students, because only through speaking ability
they can share their ideas orally. Teaching speaking ability is needed
not only for communcation in the classroom but also it also needed in
the real life situation when we communicate with other people. To
teach speaking, teacher should choose apppropriate activities in order
to make the students enjoy to join the activities.
4. Factors of Teaching Speaking Ability
There are many factors that influenced teaching speaking ability,
it can be from inside or out side of the students and the teacher. It called
internal and external factors, the example of external factors are from
situation of the classroom, media or technique which is used by teacher, it
should be appropriate with students level also the activity,etc.
For the internal factors from the teacher in teaching speaking
ability, the teacher should have a good performance when the teacher in
front of the students because it can influence of teaching speaking. The
teacher should have five components of speaking ability like have said
before, they are pronunciation: the way in which language, particular
word or sentence is spoken. The teacher should have a good
pronunciation because the students will follow what teacher said, in this
case the teacher become a model and the teacher should give the students
the rigth example. The second is grammar, rules of forming or making
sentences. Grammar is essential in teaching speaking because when the
teacher and the students use wrong grammar, it can make the meaning of
sentence is changing. Then, vocabulary is all of word that a person know

41
Hayriye Kayi, Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in Second Language,
University of Nevada, retrieved from http:// iteslj.org/Techniques/Kayi-TeachingSpeaking.html on
Desember 25 2009.
26

and uses. The teacher should have many vocabularies in order to transfer
their vocabularies to the students. If the teacher have not many
vocabularies, the teacher will teach the students with the same word and
did not any improvement in their vocabulary. The next is fluency, able to
speak easly and well. When the teacher speak fluently, its make students
enjoy to listen the teacher so the students will try to speak fluently too.
The last is comprehension, able to understand something, the teacher
should comprehence what will teach to the students.
Thus, the teacher should complete it in order to success in
teaching speaking ability. Besides that the teacher also concern some
cases when the teacher in the classroom. There are:
1) Language (Verbal Communication)
Language is the expression of thought, feeling, and worldview. It
is the manifestation of ones perspective towards anything he
encounters.42 The language presented by English teachers should
be accurate and fluent.
2) Gesture
Gesture is an integral part of any communication where people
listen and speak to each other. Gesture helps the speaker to get
meaning across. The natural gesture including movement of hands,
arms, and other parts of body emphasize keywords and other
important things.43
3) Facial expression
Face is very strong communication tool. This non verbal message
is conveyed through the up and down movement of the eye brows,
smiles, as well as the movement of forehead and mouth. Facial
expression has significant potential of carrying out the message of
curiosity, happiness, and fear.

42
Listyaning Sumardiyani dan Zullfa Sakhiyya, op.cit., p.20.
43
Ibid, p.21.
27

4) Eye contact
Eye contact is a direct look into eyes, but it does not suggest a
meaning of a stare. The main uses of eye contact in the language
classroom are:44
a) To help establishing rapport between teacher and students. The
rapport of this manner is a sense of trust given by students.
b) To indicate to a student that the teacher wants to talk to him or
want to do something.
c) To hold the attention of students.
d) To take place of naming students, for example: when
conducting a fast drill.
5) Voice audibility and speed
One of requirements of good teaching is voice projection. The
voice produced should not be a loud and booming one, but
students should be able to listen to it clearly.
6) Stance and movement
The area of teacher to move is just like a stage for drama actors.
Thus, teacher stance on the stage should be balance. In the
classroom, students become sensitive to where the teacher
stands.45Stance tells what type of activity it is, what the teacher
role is, or whether direct interaction is needed. Sometimes,
teachers need to stand in the middle at the front to control the
class. Another time, the teacher can stand back of the class to give
students comfort and security if they present something in front of
the class.

44
Ibid, p.23.
45
Ibid, p.24.
28

3. Procedure Text
1. Definition of Procedure Text
Procedure text is one of text types or genre. The use of genre in
this study is glossed by websters third as a distinctive type or category
46
of literary composition. There are many kind of genre in studying a
language, but here the writer focuses on procedure text. A procedure text
itself has meaning a piece of text that gives us instructions for doing
something. 47 According to the definition of a procedure text, it has a
social function to describe how something is accomplished through a
sequences of steps or actions.48 Some examples of procedure text are:
1) Directions
2) Instruction manual
3) Recipes
4) Itineraries
2. The Generic Structure in Procedure Text
Procedure text also has generic structures, there are as follow:
1) An introduction statement that give the aim or goal.
2) A list at the material that will be needed for completing the
procedure.
3) A sequence of steps in the order they need to be done.49
The example of procedure text:
Goal : How to Light a Candle.
Material : Candle, match, candle holder.
Steps : First, light the match.
Second, burn the bottom of the candle.
Third, put the candle in the candle holder.
Fourth, lit the candle.
Fifth, blow out the match.

46
John M. Swales, Genre Analysis,(UK: Cambridge University,1990), p.33.
47
Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson. Text Types in English. (Macmillan. Australia. 1997), p.50.

48
Gerot and Wignell, Making Sense of Funtional Grammar, (Australia : AEE, 1994), p.206.
49
Ibid. ,p.51.
29

3. Significant Lexica Grammatical Features in Procedure Text.


1) Use of simple present tense, often imperative.50
Eventually, procedure text has the social function is to tell
someone to do something. So, the instruction here is used by
imperative verb in present tense. For examples put, take, cut, stir,
add, boil, grind, etc.
2) The use of time words or numbers.
The numbers or numbering has a function to indicate
sequences, for example: first, second, third, and so on.
3) The use of adverbs.
Adverbs are to tell how the action should be done,
sometimes it is used with verbs in procedure text for example: cut
quickly, stir slowly, put carefully, look accurately, etc.
Thus, from the explanation above, the researcher concluded
that procedure text is any meaningful stretch of language in oral and
written that has social purpose to describe how something is
accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.
b. Previous Research
The pervious researches that use the researcher are:
A thesis by Ervina (06420252), the Faculty of Education, Language and
Art, IKIP PGRI Semarang, the title is Improving the Students Ability in Writing
Procedure Text Using Picture (a case of ninth year students of MTs NU Tirto
Pekalongan in academic year 2008/2009).51 The similarity this research and
previous research is concern in same text type that is procedure text. She
identifying the difference of writing achievement in procedure text between
studentss taught by picture and students did not taught by pictures. She used two

50
Depdiknas, Kurikulum 2004: Standar Kompetensi Mapel Bahasa Inggris SMA dan MA,
(Jakarta: Depdiknas, 2003), p.49.

51
Ervina, Improving the Students Ability in Writing Procedure Text using Picture ,
(Semarang:IKIP PGRI. 2009), unpublished.
30

instruments to collect data they was test and experiment .The result shows that the
picture can improve the students ability in writing procedure text.
A thesis by Thoyyibah (3104306), English Language Education of
Tarbiyah Faculty Walisongo State Institute for Islamic Studies, the title is Using
Realia to improve students writing organization of descriptive text a classroom
action reseacrh with the seventh grades of Mts Nahdlatussyubban Ploso Karang
Tengah Demak in acdemic year 2008/2009.52She used documentation,
observation, and test to collect data. The result of the research shows that the
students improve their writing organization of descriptive text using realia. They
are better in organizing the words, and the one of advantages of using realia is
that students can produce the words of the object easily and accurately.
A thesis by Dian Wahyu Sokhibiyah (06420274), the Faculty of
Education, Language and Art IKIP PGRI Semarang, the title is The
Effectiveness of Using Realia to Teach Vocabulary to the fourth grade students of
SDN 01 Kebonbatur Mranggen Demak in academic year 2007/2008.53 This
thesis concerns with using realia in teaching vocabulary. She used two
instruments to collect data, they was test and experiment. And the result of this
study is using realia was effective to teach vocabulary to the four grade students
of SDN 1 Kebonbatur.
A thesis by Umi Hani Al-Habsyi (3104269), English Language Education
of Tarbiyah Faculty Walisongo State Institute for Islamic Studies, the title is
Improving students motivation to speak by using story telling with sentence
card game in teaching speaking(A Classroom Action Research with XI IPS 2
Students of MAN Pemalang in the Academic Year of 2008/2009). She
concerned on improving speaking by using story telling with sentence card game.
She used two kinds of instruments to collect data there were questionnaire and
observations. And the result of her research is using story telling with sentence

52
Thoyyibah , op.cit.
53
Dian Wahyu Shokhibiyah, The Effectiveness of Using Realia to Teach
Vocabulary,(Semarang:IKIP PGRI, 2009), unpublished.
31

card in teaching speaking, teacher can improve students motivation in


speaking.54
However, this research is different with previous ones, but there is the
similarity both of them, that is concern on procedure text. Two researchers above
were conducted the implementation of realia in teaching vocabulary and writing,
but in this research, the researcher used realia to improve speaking ability. For the
last previous research, she used story telling with sentence card to motivate
students to speak, it has similarity with this research on speaking ability. So, those
are still having relevance and significance factors why it is interested to be
observed.
c. Action Hypothesis
In this research, the researcher has a hypothesis as temporary answer
toward some problems that occur in this research.55The hyphotesis of this
research is: There is improvement on students speaking ability in procedure
text after being taught by using realia.

54
Umi Hani Al-Habsyi, Improving Students Motivation to Speak by Using Storytelling
with Sentence Card Game in Teaching Speaking A Classroom Action Research with XI IPS 2
Students of MAN Pemalang in the Academic Year of 2008/2009, (Semarang : IAIN Walisongo,
2009), unpublished.
55
Mahsun, Metode Penelitian Bahasa Tahapan Streategi, Metode, dan Tekhniknya, (Jakarta:
PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2005),p.13.
32

CHAPTER III
METHODS OF THE RESEARCH

There are five points to be discussed in this chapter. They are research
approach, subject of the research, time and setting, methods of data collection,
method of data analysis and limitation of the research.

A. Research Approach
In this research, the researcher focused on improving students speaking
ability in procedure text. Research methodology plays an important role in the
research.The researcher used a claasroom action research, as we know that
classroom action research is a number of procedures that is used to improve
teaching learning process in classroom. Usually it is used by teachers because
they find some problems in the teaching learning process. And the result of test
in every cycle will be measured. The score shows students speaking ability in
procedure text. All of which makes this research quantitative in nature.
The researcher used a classroom action research as an attempt to improve
speaking teaching learning process and to solve the problems that students have
related to speaking ability.

B. Subject of The Research


The subject of the research were the students who got speaking class at
that time, they were from 3E students of MTs. Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara.
They consisted of 44 students.

C. Time and Setting


This research was conducted on the first semester in the academic year of
2010/2011 for about 1 month on August 2010. It was conducted in Mts.
Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo, which was located on Jl. Jepara-Bangsri Jambu
Mlonggo Jepara.
33

D. Methods of Data Collection


In this classroom action research, the researcher used two kinds of
instruments in gathering data. Those are observation and test.
1. Observation
Observation is the process of observe toward the subject of
observation by using all of sense.56 An observation task is a focused activity
to work on while observing a lesson in progress. It focusses on one or a small
number of aspects of teaching learning and requires to observe to collect data
or information from actual lesson. 57
The researcher observed the events in classroom during teaching
learning process from beginning until the end. To observe the students, the
researcher used observation guide.(see appendix 4) before making
observation guide, the researcher makes observation shceme. It is used to
describe a range of teacher and learner behaviours.58
2. Test
Test is some questions which is used to measure competence,
knowledge, intelligence, and ability of talent which is have by individual or
59
group. In this study, the researcher gave speaking test to know students
ability. The researcher focused on 3 elements of speaking there are: fluency,
pronunciation, grammar.(see appendix 3)

E. Method of Data Analysis


There are some data that are analyzed in this research:
1. The data from observation.
This research used observation guide to observe the classroom. In
selecting an observation scheme, it is necessary to match the purpose of the

56
Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, (Jakarta: PT. Rineka
Cipta, 2002), p. 156.
57
Ruth Wajnryb, Classroom Observation Tasks, (UK : Cambridge University Press, 1992),
p.7.
58
Pasty M. Lightbown and Nina Spada, How Language are Learned, (New York: Oxford
University, 1999), p.101.
59
Suharsimi Arikunto, op.cit, p. 150.
34

research.60 The researcher used the instrument of observation to know the


students participation.
2. The Data of Students Test
The researcher was given speaking test about procedure text using
realia.
In giving scores, the researcher referred to the rating scale modeled by David
P. Harris, but there is modification in this scoring guide. 61
The formula that will be used to calculate the result of the test are:
a. Measuring the students individual ability
Score: 90: 9= 10
b. Calculating the mean of test. The mean is the arithmetical average which is
obtained by adding the sum offset score and dividing the number of the
students. The formula as follow:62

X =
x
N
X = the mean of score
x = the total of score
N = the sum of students number

F. Procedure of The Research


According to Carr and Kemmis, classroom action research is a form of
self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants (teachers, students,
principals,etc) in social (including education) situation in order to improve the
rationally and justice of their own social or educational practices, their
understanding of these practices, and the situation( and the institutions) in which
the practices are carried out.63

60
David Nunan, op.cit, p.96.
61
Harris D.P, Testing English as a Second Language, (New York: Mc Graw Hill Company,
1969),p.84 .
62
Igak Wardani dan Kuswaya Wihardit, Penelitian Tindakan Kelas,(Jakarta : Universitas
Terbuka, 2008),p.5.19.
63
Ibid. p.1.4.
35

According to Kemmis and Mc Taggart cited by Nunan argue that the three
defining characteristic of action research are; it is carried out by practitioners (for
our purpose classroom teachers) rather than out side researchers, secondly that it
is collaborative, thirdly that it is aimed at changing things.64 In conducting this
research, the researcher made collaborative research. The researcher was helped
by the teacher in order to reach the goal of the research which is aimed to improve
teaching method.
In classsroom action research there are many components. In this research,
the writer applied four components, like the following picture:

The Step of Classroom Action Research


Taken from: Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, LP3 (UNNES: 2007)

Set of the Acting I


Planning I
Cycle I problem

Reflecting I Observing I
New
Cycle II problem
Planning II Acting II

Reflecting II Observing II
New
Cycle III problem Planning III Acting III

The
Reflecting III Observing III
conclusion

64
David Nunan, Research Method in Language Learning, (Australia: Cambridge University
Press, 1992), p. 17.
36

This is the procedure of research:


1. Cycle of Action Research
a. First cycle(1st meeting)
1) Planning
a) The researcher prepared the material and media of the study that the
researcher need.
b) The researcher discussed about the implementation of realia in the
classroom with the teacher.
c) The researcher made a lesson plan for the first meeting.
2) Acting
In this step there were many activities that have done. The
researcher gave students material about procedure how to light a
candle. There are as follow:
a) Teacher started by greeting students.
b) Teacher elicited the materials which are used to light a candle from
students.
c) Teacher modeled the pronunciaton of the materials.
d) Students repeated after teacher mention the materials.
e) Teacher elicited the procedure how to ligth a candle from students.
f) Students expressed their idea about procedure how to light a candle.
g) Students and teacher discussed together.
h) Students practiced how to light a candle in a group.
i) Students practiced how to light a candle individually.
3) Observing
Observe students activities in teaching learning process and
while they are doing the assignment. There are many aspects that were
observed by the researcher and the teacher such as: students attention,
students ability to mention realia, students ability to use realia,
students activeness in doing task individually or group. So that the
researcher should make a note in every activities and changing in
learning process.
37

4) Reflecting
After doing the first cycle the researcher analyzed the weakness
and strengthens of implementation realia from learning and teaching.
Make reflection and conclude the result of the first cycle.
b. Second cycle (2nd meeting)
1) Planning
a) Evaluated the result of reflection and discuss to be better in the next
meeting.
b) Prepared the material and media of the study that teacher need.
c) Made a lesson plan for the second meeting.
2) Acting
In the second cycle the researcher still using realia with new
material that is procedure how to wash my hands. There were many
activities here as follow:
a) Teacher started by greeting students.
b) Teacher gave new material how to wash my hands.
c) Teacher showed the media which are used to wash my hands.
d) Students mentioned the media.
e) Teacher explained the steps by demonstrating how to wash my
hands directly.
f) Students repeated after the teacher.
g) Student came forward and practiced how to wash my hands directly.
h) Students explained the media and the steps together by
demonstrating the procedure.
i) Students practiced how to wash my hands in with their friends.
j) Students practiced how to wash my hands individually.
3) Observing
Just like in the first cycle, in this cycle the researcher and the
teacher also observed the students. For some aspects that need to
observe same with first cycle. There were: students attention, students
38

ability in mention realia, students ability in using realia, students


activeness in doing task individually or group using realia.
4) Reflecting
Evaluate and conclude the result of the second cycle by
calculating score of students test. From that score the researcher would
know there is improvement or not in students speaking ability.
c. Third cycle(3rd meeting)
1. Planning
a) Planned to review the previous lesson.
b) Planned to make the lesson plan for next meeting.
c) Prepared the material and media of the study that teacher need.
2. Acting
After doing two cycles, the researcher would do the last cycle
by giving new material about procedure how to sharpen a pencil.
a) Teacher started by greeting students.
b) Teacher gave new material how to sharpen a pencil.
c) Teacher elicited the media which are used to sharpen a pencil from
students.
d) Teacher modeled the pronunciation of the media.
e) Students repeated after teacher mention the media.
f) Teacher explained the steps by demonstrating how to sharpen a
pencil directly.
g) Students repeated after the teacher.
h) One of student came forward and practiced how to sharpen a pencil
directly.
i) Students explained the media and the steps together by
demonstrating the procedure.
j) Students answered the questions from teacher
k) Students practiced how to sharpen a pencil in a group.
l) Students practiced how to sharpen a pencil individually.
39

3. Observing
Just like in the first cycle and second cycle, in this cycle the
researcher also observed the students. For some aspects that need to
observe similar with first cycle. There were: students attention,
students ability in understanding realia, students activeness in doing
task individually or group using realia.
4. Reflecting
Evaluate and conclude the result of research. The researcher
would submit all result from the first cycle until the last cycle. She
would calculate the mean of students score. From that score she would
know the implementation of realia to solve students speaking problem.

G. Limitation of The Research


The researcher realized that this research had not been done optimally.
There were some obstacles faced during the research process.
1. Relative short of time made this research could not be done maximally.
2. The research was limited to IX E students of MTs. Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo
Jepara, so that when the same research is conducted in other subject or school,
it is possible that different result will be gained.
40

CHAPTER IV
RESULT OF THE RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION

A. RESULT OF THE RESEARCH


1. Cycle I
This research was conducted on Thursday and Sunday, August 19
and 22, 2010. Before doing the first cycle, the researcher gave test in order
to know the students speaking ability in procedure text, she gave oral test
to them and the result of the test was not satisfied yet, because the average
score of the test only 4.3, whereas the standard score (KKM) was 6. So, the
researcher decided to use realia to solve the problem. In this activity, the
researcher became a teacher. The students were enthusiastic in following
the treatment, the researcher told students that she would use realia to teach
speaking procedure text. This research was classroom action research there
were four steps; planning, acting, observing and reflecting. The activities
were:
a. Planning
1) The researcher made lesson plan as guiding to teach students in the
first cycle.
2) The researcher made observation guide to observe the students
during teaching learning process.
3) The researcher prepared the instruments test to check students
understanding.
4) The researcher made students name card in order to make easy
when she and the teacher observed the students.
5) The researcher prepared several media to teach procedure how to
light a candle like 11 candles, matches and candle holder.
b. Acting
In this step, the researcher applied realia to teach speaking
procedure text. Teacher started by greeting the students. All of
students were interest with her. Then she introduced her self to the
41

students. Some of students gave some questions to her about herself.


After introducing herself, she checked attendance list to know there
were students who absent or no. She called students name one by one,
there were two students that did not enter classroom yet, they were
Alif Nurdiana and Dwi Ariyanti, they did not enter the classroom yet,
because they were from bathroom. But some minutes after teacher
checked attandance list, they came into classroom. After that, teacher
gave building knowledge to students by asking all of students how to
light a candle. Some of students answered by using Indonesian
language and some of them used English language. Then, teacher
complete students answere and then modeled the pronunciaton of the
materials by showing the material, for example: the teacher said
candle then she showed a candle until the last material. The students
were very interest with it. Then, students tried to pronounce the
material like the teacher. After that, teacher elicited the procedure how
to ligth a candle from students. In this activity students more active
than before, they tried to answer by using their language. There were
many students who answered the question, so the teacher decided to
discuss together about the procedure how to light a candle by
demonstrating using realia. They discussed the procedure text by using
realia like candle, macthes and candle holder. The students gave their
big attention to the teacher when she demonstrated the procedure
using realia. Then, students tried to practice the procedure by making
some groups, each group consists of four students. Before students
practice, the teacher contributed the materials like candle, matches and
candle holder to each group then the students strated to practice. when
students worked in groups, she also observed the students. Actually all
of students were active in this activity but there were four students
who did not join fully in this activity, there were Fatihah Ivrayani, Iin
Nadhiroh, Nur Nikmatus Saadah and Yuli Diahningrum. Most of
them were include closemouthed students. The teacher tried to invite
42

them to use realia but they did not give respon. So the teacher asked to
their friends to invite them join to this activity. To make students more
understanding with the procedure how to ligth a candle, the teacher
gave them some questions. She gave students for about 10 minutes to
finish the assigment. After that, they discussed the students answere
together. There were some students that can answere perfectly, they
were Siti Masyitoh, Trining Tias, and Tutik Nischa. For the last
activity was students explained the procedure how to light a candle
individually.
c. Observing
In observation step, the researcher and teacher observed the
events that happened during teaching learning process. We observed
the activity by using observation guide. It was used to find out to what
extent the action result reached the objective. The steps were as
follow:
1) The English teacher observed the attention of students in the
classroom during teaching learning process. All of students gave
their attention to the teacher because it was first time she taught
them but there were two students who did not enter the classroom
yet.
2) The English teacher observed students activeness and enthusiasm
in the classroom. There were 10 students who passive in the
classroom. They looked very uninterested but after the researcher
shown the real object they started to follow the activity.
3) The English teacher monitored the students work in a group. Most
of them were enjoying the activity, they used realia by turns.
4) The English teacher observed the students ability on using realia.
She looked students can use realia as good as possible, but there
were 3 students have difficult to use it, they afraid to light a match.
Then she asked the other students to demonstrate and they gave the
step orally.
43

5) The English teacher observed the students ability on mentioning the


name of realia. All of students can mention the name of realia.
6) The English teacher observed students ability to explain the
procedure text. In this cycle just four students who can explain it
well. There were four students who need more help to finish their
procedure.
d. Reflecting
For the reflection on the activity during cycle 1, the researcher
and the teacher noted that there were some problems should be solved
in the next cycle, the problems were as follow:
1) Before teacher started the activity, class should be conducive during
teaching learning process It found some students shouted making
noise. And 2 students did not enter the classroom yet.
2) When the activity in progress, it found that ten students were
passive, they were not fully joining the discussion or the speaking
activity, although they were separated into groups. It was then the
duty of the teacher to give some more attention and motivation
toward the students in order to make them interest to join the
activity. This can be done by calling one of them, and asking them
to practice the procedure text.
3) There were four students that could not explain the procedure text,
they needed the teachers help o finish their work in front of
classroom.
4) Time management was a very crucial factor in teaching learning
process, to make students understanding and fluently in speaking
procedure text, the teacher needed a longer time, so teacher should
try to manage and provide time perfectly.
2. Cycle II
The second cycle was conducted on Monday and Wednesday,
August 23 and 25, 2010. In this cycle the researcher tried to handle
weakness in the first cycle. The teacher gave new procedure text that was
44

how to wash your hands, but she still used realia to teach it. There steps
were as follow:
a. Planning
1) The researcher made lesson plan as guiding to teach students in the
second cycle.
2) The researcher made observation guide to observe the students
during teaching learning process.
3) The researcher prepared the instruments test to check students
understanding.
4) The researcher made students name card in order to make easy
when she observed the students.
5) The researcher prepared several media to teach procedure how to
wash your hands like soap, water faucet, and towel.
b. Acting
In this cycle teacher started by greeting the students then
checked students attandence list. After that, teacher asked students
procedure text in the previous meeting. Most of them still remember the
procedure how to ligth a candle. Than the teacher gave them new
example of procedure text. Teacher showed the media which are used to
wash my hands, like soap, towel and water faucet. The teacher did not
use real water faucet but she just used or brought water faucet that there
were no the water. She just imagine that water faucet can took water
outside. Then students mentioned the media, but there were many
students mentioned using Indonesian language. Then teacher asked
students to find the word in English language. Teacher explained the
steps by demonstrating how to wash my hands using realia directly.
Students repeated after the teacher continually until they can express the
procedure text as good as possible. Then the teacher chossen one of
students to came forward and practiced how to wash my hands directly.
Students explained the media and the steps together by demonstrating
the procedure. After that, students worked in pairs and practiced the
45

procedure how to wash my hands but in this cycle the teacher did not
give the material to the students. The students just practiced their ability
to speak. There were five students did not pay attention and passive in
this activity, it was caused they did not use the material directly like in
the first cycle. The teacher asked them to try explain using realia in front
of classroom, they still passive. Thus, they were given assigment from
the the teacher, they must answer some questions in 10 minutes. There
were many students did not answer the questions perfectly, only one
students that got good score, she was Tutik Nischa. Then, the teacher
explained the steps ones more in order to make students understand.
Then, students came forward and explained the procedure how to wash
my hands individually. There were five students who explained the
procedure better than other and six students have difficult to explain the
procedure.
c. Observing
In observation step the researcher and the teacher also observed
the events that happened during teaching learning process. We observed
the activity by using observation guide, the steps were:
1) The English teacher observed the attention of students in the
classroom during teaching learning process and all of students gave
their attention to the teacher.
2) The English teacher observed students activeness and enthusiasm in
the classroom. There were 5 students who passive in the classroom.
They looked very uninteresting because the researcher did not use the
real object perfectly.
3) The English teacher monitored the students work in a group. Some
students looked bored because there was not media that they can use
to practice the procedure.
4) The English teacher observed the students ability on using realia. She
looked students can use realia as good as possible, although they did
not use real water faucet that take water out.
46

5) The English teacher observed the students ability on mentioning the


name of realia. All of students can mention the name of realia.
6) The English teacher observed students ability to explain the
procedure text. In this cycle just five students who can explain it
well. There were six students who need more help to finish their
procedure.
d. Reflecting
Generally, based on the activity in cycle 2, the result was
significant enough. This involved teaching learning process, students
activeness and attention, students ability in using realia. The reflection
results were as follow:
1) Class was conducive enough, since some students were concentrated
to join the activity. And they love to use realia.
2) In this cycle the researcher asked students to work in pairs and most
of students were enjoying themselves to get engaged in the activity,
but there were students did not active in this activity because the
teacher did not give the real media to them. The teacher tried to invite
them by give the real media to practice the procedure. Beside that,
they seemed more active expressing their opinions although in
Indonesian language. This can be shown when she asked students
opinions about the procedure. And even for student who was less
active in joining the activity in the first cycle, she was now brave
enough to speak although with her friend.
3) Some students that cant explain in the first cycle, in this cycle they
can explain it better. But, the researcher found six students that have
difficulty when they explaining the procedure text.
4) Teacher had provided enough time; this can be shown that most of
students come forward to practice the procedure text.
47

3. Cycle III
The third cycle was conducted on Thursday and Sunday, August 26
and 29, 2010. The researcher gave new procedure text to the students. She
gave procedure how to sharpen a pencil. The steps were:
a. Planning
1) The researcher made lesson plan as guiding to teach students in the
third cycle.
2) The researcher made observation guide to observe the students
during teaching learning process.
3) The researcher prepared the instruments test to check students
understanding.
4) The researcher made students name card in order to make easy when
she observed the students.
5) The researcher prepared the material that needed to teach procedure
text, there were: 45 pencils and sharpeners.
b. Acting
Firtsly, teacher greeted students as usuall then checked students
attandence, there were no students who absent. She continued the
activity by asking them the procedure text in the previous meeting.
Some students still remember it. Then the teacher give new material that
was the procedure of sharpening a pencil. Teacher elicited the media
which are used to sharpen a pencil from students. All of students gave
their opinion to because the materials were very simple. After that
teacher modeled the pronunciation of the media by showing the media,
for example: she said pencil, she also showed a pencil, she said
sharpener, she also showed sharpener. The students very interested in it
even she did not pronounce yet, the students have mentioned the name
before her. To make sure their pronunciation, they repeated after her to
mention the media. Then she distributed the media (a pencil and
sharpener) to each table. The students were looked very happy because
they were given a pencil and sharpener by her. Then she invited students
48

to demonstrate the procedure of sharpening a pencil by using realia


together. Some students were confuse, they just sharpen a pencil without
give the step orally. Then she explained the steps by demonstrating how
to sharpen a pencil one by one directly and students repeated after her.
After that some students came forward and practiced how to sharpen a
pencil directly, they were Alfi Khasanah and Arika Falatif. Then
students explained the media and the steps together by demonstrating
the procedure orally. Students worked in pairs and practiced the
procedure how to sharpen a pencil with their pairs. Most of them were
active to practice the procedure because they have the material so it
make them easy to express their ability. After that they done the
assigments from the teacher about the procedure how to sharpen a
pencil. Usually she gave them for about 10 minutes to finish the
assigment, but in this cycle they just need for about 5 minutes and most
of their answer were right. So the teacher continued to take students
score by asking them to explain the procedure orally in front of
classroom individually. There were many students can explain it well.
c. Observing
In observation step, the researcher and the teacher observed the
events that happened during teaching learning process. We observed the
activity by using observation guide. The steps were as follow:
1) The English teacher observed the attention of students in the
classroom during teaching learning process and all of students gave
their attention to the teacher. Even less the researcher gave them a
pencil and sharpener to practice the procedure text.
2) The English teacher observed students activeness and enthusiasm in
the classroom. There were no students who passive in the classroom.
They looked very interesting because the researcher gave them the
real media to them.
49

3) The English teacher monitored the students work in a group. Most of


students looked enjoy and happy doing their work in a group and also
they can use realia.
4) The English teacher observed the students ability on using realia. She
looked students can use realia as good as possible.
5) The English teacher observed the students ability on mentioning the
name of realia. All of students can mention the name of realia.
6) The English teacher observed students ability to explain the
procedure text. In this cycle most of students can explain the
procedure better than last meeting.
d. Reflecting
In this cycle, the students improvement on speaking procedure
text was more significant. It could be seen from the average
improvement score of the test. For the result reflections were as follow:
1) Class was more conducive, since students were fully concentrated to
join the activity. And they love to use realia.
2) In this cycle the researcher asked the students to work in pairs and
she also gave them the media, it was make students were enjoying
themselves to practice the procedure using that media. They seemed
more active expressing their ability. And even for student who was
less active in joining the activity in the first and second cycle, she
was now brave enough to speak in front of the classroom.
3) There were no students that cant explain the procedure how to
sharpen a pencil, all of students can explain the procedure as good as
possible.
4) Teacher had provided enough time; this can be shown that most of
students come forward to practice the procedure text. There was still
provided a time to evaluate the activity that had just been done
deeply.
Teacher and researcher concluded that students understood on
speaking procedure text more after being given treatment using realia. It
50

was seen by their enthusiastic in learning process, they were serious in


paying attention when the researcher explained the material, some of
students who asked question and responded questions were increased,
they were love to use realia. The teacher and researcher decided to stop
in this cycle, because they concluded that there was improvement since
the first cycle until the third cycle.

B. DISCUSSION
After the researcher implementing realia in teaching speaking
procedure text, the researcher got the data from each cycle. It was analyzed to
get the improvement in every cycle, and then the researcher got the result of
the classroom action research. The results were as follow:
1. The First Cycle
This research was done on Thursday and Sunday, August 19 and 22,
2010. Before doing the first cycle the researcher gave test to students. After
conducting the test, the researcher gave score. There were 3 aspects which
were scored by the researcher, the first is fluency, the second is pronunciation
and the last is grammar. For each aspect the maximum score was 10. Then,
after finding the result of the students test score, the researcher went to
analyze the score by using formula as follow:
Score = total score : 9
By using the formula of scoring above, the researcher had purpose
to get the students score. Example:
Student number 1=
Aspect to be assessed
a. Fluency : 18
b. Pronunciation :6
c. Grammar : 12
Score= 36: 9 = 4
51

The test result can be seen in the table below:


Table. 1
The result test before giving treatment
No. Studnets Fluency Pronunciation Grammar Total Score
code
1. A-1 18 6 12 4
2. A-2 18 6 12 4
3. A-3 18 6 6 3,3
4. A-4 12 6 12 3,3
5. A-5 18 6 12 4
6. A-6 18 6 12 4
7. A-7 18 6 12 4
8. A-8 12 6 12 3,3
9. A-9 12 6 12 3,3
10. A-10 18 18 18 6
11. A-11 18 18 18 6
12. A-12 18 18 18 6
13. A-13 18 18 18 6
14. A-14 18 18 18 6
15. A-15 18 18 18 6
16. A-16 12 6 12 3,3
17. A-17 12 6 12 3,3
18. A-18 18 18 12 6
19. A-19 12 6 12 3,3
20. A-20 12 6 12 3,3
21. A-21 18 18 18 6
22. A-21 18 18 12 5,3
23. A-23 18 12 12 4,6
24. A-24 18 12 18 5,3
25. A-25 12 6 6 2,6
26. A-26 18 18 18 6
27. A-27 12 6 6 2,6
28. A-28 12 6 12 3,3
29. A-29 18 18 18 6
30. A-30 12 6 12 3,3
31. A-31 18 18 12 5,3
32. A-32 12 6 6 2,6
33. A-33 12 6 6 2,6
34. A-34 12 6 6 2,6
35. A-35 18 12 12 4,6
36. A-36 12 6 12 3,3
37. A-37 12 6 12 3,3
38. A-38 18 6 12 4
39. A-39 12 6 12 3,3
52

40. A-40 24 18 18 6,6


41. A-41 12 6 12 3,3
42. A-42 12 6 12 3,3
43. A-43 18 12 12 4,6
44. A-44 18 6 12 3,3

After calculating the students score, the researcher calculated the


average score to measure the improvement of students score in every cycle.
To know the mean of the students score using this formula as follows:

X= x
N
Note: X = The mean of score
x = The total of score
N = The sum of students number
The computation of the average of the score is as follow:
189,4
X= = 4,3
44
Mean = 4,3
From the data above, it showed that the average of the students score
is 4,30. It means that the result was low. The teacher and researcher decided
to use another technique to make students interested in the learning process in
order to improve students speaking procedure text. They agreed to use realia
as teaching media to facilitate the teaching learning process.
In this first cycle, the researcher used some candles, matches, and
candle holder as teaching media to teach speaking procedure text, and
students were being enthusiastic because it was their first experience. The
researcher explained about procedure how to light a candle. The students
were interested but they were still confused in arranging the steps. They
needed much help from their teacher and the teacher suggested them to use
dictionary. After that, the researcher asked students to practice the procedure
in front of the classroom. The test result of the first cycle can be seen in the
table below.
53

Table. 2
The result test of the first cycle
No. Studnets Fluency Pronunciation Grammar Total Score
code
1. A-1 18 12 18 5,3
2. A-2 12 12 18 4,6
3. A-3 6 12 18 4
4. A-4 18 12 18 5,3
5. A-5 6 6 18 3,3
6. A-6 18 12 18 5,3
7. A-7 18 18 18 6
8. A-8 18 12 18 5,3
9. A-9 12 12 18 5,3
10. A-10 12 18 18 5,3
11. A-11 6 12 12 3,3
12. A-12 18 12 18 5,3
13. A-13 18 12 18 5,3
14. A-14 12 18 18 5,3
15. A-15 18 18 18 6
16. A-16 18 18 18 6
17. A-17 12 6 18 4
18. A-18 12 12 18 4,6
19. A-19 18 6 18 3,3
20. A-20 6 6 18 3,3
21. A-21 12 6 18 5,3
22. A-21 12 6 18 4
23. A-23 12 6 18 4
24. A-24 12 18 18 5,3
25. A-25 12 6 18 4
26. A-26 18 18 18 6
27. A-27 12 6 18 4
28. A-28 18 12 18 5,3
29. A-29 12 6 18 4
30. A-30 18 18 18 6
31. A-31 12 6 18 4
32. A-32 18 6 18 4
33. A-33 18 12 18 5,3
34. A-34 12 6 18 4
35. A-35 18 12 18 5,3
36. A-36 12 6 18 4
37. A-37 12 6 18 4
38. A-38 12 6 18 4
39. A-39 18 12 18 5,3
54

40. A-40 18 12 18 5,3


41. A-41 12 6 18 4
42. A-42 18 12 18 5,3
43. A-43 18 12 18 5,3
44. A-44 18 18 18 6

After that the researcher calculated the mean of score in the first cycle.
To calculate the mean, the researcher used same formula with previous
research. The result of the mean of the first cycle is:
213,1
X= = 4, 9
44
Mean = 4, 9
Based on the result above, the result of the mean was 4, 9. It means
that the mean score in the first cycle is better than the pre cycle, although the
increasing was little. The researcher was unsatisfied because the whole of
students got bad score. Besides that, the result of observation was also not so
good, there were four students that did not give their attention to the teacher,
however they did not understand what teacher teach.
From that table and mean score of students the researcher concluded
that in this cycle there was improvement but it did not make the researcher
satisfied, because this was the first time for the students used realia to learn
speaking procedure text, it make them enjoy the media to much, they did not
focus on the steps. It make them confused when they asked by the teacher to
explain the steps. Thus, in this cycle the improvement was not make the
researcher satisfied, therefore she and the teacher continued to the next cycle.

2. The Second Cycle


The second cycle was conducted on Monday and Wednesday, August 23
and 25, 2010. In this cycle, the researcher used soap, towel, faucet and she
focused on the students who got low score in the previous cycle. The result of the
test in the second cycle as follow:
55

Table. 3
The result test of the second cycle
No. Studnets Fluency Pronunciation Grammar Total Score
code
1. A-1 24 12 18 6,6
2. A-2 12 12 18 4,6
3. A-3 18 18 18 6
4. A-4 12 12 18 4,6
5. A-5 18 12 18 5,3
6. A-6 18 18 18 6
7. A-7 18 18 18 6
8. A-8 18 18 18 5,3
9. A-9 12 12 18 4,6
10. A-10 12 12 18 4,6
11. A-11 12 12 18 4,6
12. A-12 12 12 18 4,6
13. A-13 18 18 18 6
14. A-14 6 18 18 4,6
15. A-15 12 18 18 5,3
16. A-16 12 18 18 5,3
17. A-17 18 18 18 6
18. A-18 12 12 18 4,6
19. A-19 6 12 18 4
20. A-20 6 12 18 4
21. A-21 12 12 18 4,6
22. A-21 12 12 18 4,6
23. A-23 12 12 18 4,6
24. A-24 18 18 18 6
25. A-25 12 12 18 4,6
26. A-26 18 12 18 5,3
27. A-27 18 18 18 6
28. A-28 18 12 18 5,3
29. A-29 18 18 18 6
30. A-30 18 18 18 6
31. A-31 12 12 18 4,6
32. A-32 12 12 18 4,6
33. A-33 18 18 24 6,6
34. A-34 12 12 18 4,6
35. A-35 18 18 18 6
36. A-36 12 12 18 4,6
37. A-37 12 12 18 4,6
38. A-38 12 12 18 4,6
39. A-39 12 12 18 4,6
56

40. A-40 18 18 18 6
41. A-41 18 12 18 5,3
42. A-42 12 18 18 5,3
43. A-43 12 18 18 5,3
44. A-44 18 18 18 6
After that the researcher calculated the mean of score in the first cycle. To
calculate the mean, the researcher used same formula with previous research. The
result of the mean of the first cycle is:
228,3
X= = 5, 2
44
Mean = 5, 2
The result above showed us that the average of students test in the second
cycle was 5,2. The result of the second cycle was better than the previous one. It
means that there were improvements for the students, but it was not reach the
standard score of English lesson. The result of observation guide also shown that
there were six students did not give their attention to the teacher, it caused by the
teacher who did not use real media, in this case was water faucet, the teacher just
brought it and imagine to use it. Therefore some students were not interest with it.
The researcher still unsatisfied with students score, so she continued to the next
cycle.
3. The Third Cycle
The third cycle was conducted on Thursday and Sunday, August 26 and
29, 2010. After second treatment, students showed their improvement, although it
was not significant. In this cycle, the researcher used 45 pencils and sharpeners
and she tried to handle the weakness in the second cycle. The researcher reviewed
previous lesson, she concluded that there was significant improvement of
students understanding on speaking procedure text. The result of the test in this
cycle as follow:
57

Table. 4
The result test of the third cycle
No. Students Fluency Pronunciation Grammar Total Score
code
1. A-1 24 18 24 7,3
2. A-2 24 12 24 6
3. A-3 24 24 24 8
4. A-4 18 12 24 6
5. A-5 18 12 24 6
6. A-6 24 24 24 8
7. A-7 24 18 24 7,3
8. A-8 24 24 24 8
9. A-9 18 12 24 6
10. A-10 12 18 24 7,3
11. A-11 24 18 24 7,3
12. A-12 18 18 18 6
13. A-13 24 24 18 7,3
14. A-14 24 18 18 6,6
15. A-15 18 18 24 6,6
16. A-16 18 18 18 6
17. A-17 24 18 24 7,3
18. A-18 18 12 24 6
19. A-19 18 18 24 6,6
20. A-20 18 12 24 6
21. A-21 24 12 24 6,6
22. A-21 24 18 24 7,3
23. A-23 12 18 24 6
24. A-24 24 18 18 6,6
25. A-25 18 12 24 6
26. A-26 24 18 24 7,3
27. A-27 24 18 24 7,3
28. A-28 24 18 18 6,6
29. A-29 24 24 24 8
30. A-30 18 18 24 6,6
31. A-31 18 18 18 6
32. A-32 24 18 24 7,3
33. A-33 24 24 24 8
34. A-34 18 12 24 6
35. A-35 18 18 24 7,3
36. A-36 18 12 24 6
37. A-37 18 24 18 6,6
38. A-38 12 18 24 6
39. A-39 24 18 18 5,3
58

40. A-40 24 24 24 8
41. A-41 24 18 24 7,3
42. A-42 18 18 24 7,3
43. A-43 24 18 24 7,3
44. A-44 24 18 18 7,3
After that the researcher calculated the mean of score in the first cycle. To
calculate the mean, the researcher used same formula with previous research. The
result of the mean of the third cycle was:
300,9
X= = 6,8
44
Mean = 6,8
Thus, mean or average score of the students in third cycle was 6,8. It means
the students score in this cycle is better than two cycles before. There were no
students got score under 6. The whole students were reached the standart of score
(KKM), from observation guide also there were many students were looked enjoy
and happy using realia. So the researcher and the teacher decided to stop in this
cycle. Here the result of test from pre cycle until the last cycle, from this table we
can see there was improvement on students speaking ability score.
Table. 5
Result test from pre cycle until third cycle
No. Students code Total Score Total Score Total Score Total Score
Before Giving Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3
Treatment
1. A-1 4 5,3 6,6 7,3
2. A-2 4 4,6 4,6 6
3. A-3 3,3 4 6 8
4. A-4 3,3 5,3 4,6 6
5. A-5 4 3,3 5,3 6
6. A-6 4 5,3 6 8
7. A-7 4 6 6 7,3
8. A-8 3,3 5,3 5,3 8
9. A-9 3,3 5,3 4,6 6
10. A-10 6 5,3 4,6 7,3
11. A-11 6 3,3 4,6 7,3
12. A-12 6 5,3 4,6 6
13. A-13 6 5,3 6 7,3
14. A-14 6 5,3 4,6 6,6
59

15. A-15 6 6 5,3 6,6


16. A-16 3,3 6 5,3 6
17. A-17 3,3 4 6 7,3
18. A-18 6 4,6 4,6 6
19. A-19 3,3 3,3 4 6,6
20. A-20 3,3 3,3 4 6
21. A-21 6 5,3 4,6 6,6
22. A-21 5,3 4 4,6 7,3
23. A-23 4,6 4 4,6 6
24. A-24 5,3 5,3 6 6,6
25. A-25 2,6 4 4,6 6
26. A-26 6 6 5,3 7,3
27. A-27 2,6 4 6 7,3
28. A-28 3,3 5,3 5,3 6,6
29. A-29 6 4 6 8
30. A-30 3,3 6 6 6,6
31. A-31 5,3 4 4,6 6
32. A-32 2,6 4 4,6 7,3
33. A-33 2,6 5,3 6,6 8
34. A-34 2,6 4 4,6 6
35. A-35 4,6 5,3 6 7,3
36. A-36 3,3 4 4,6 6
37. A-37 3,3 4 4,6 6,6
38. A-38 4 4 4,6 6
39. A-39 3,3 5,3 4,6 5,3
40. A-40 6,6 5,3 6 8
41. A-41 3,3 4 5,3 7,3
42. A-42 3,3 5,3 5,3 7,3
43. A-43 4,6 5,3 5,3 7,3
44. A-44 3,3 6 6 7,3
Sum 189,4 213,1 228, 3 300,9
Mean/Average 4,3 4,9 5,2 6,8
Low score 2,6 3,3 4,6 6
High score 6,6 6 6,6 8

From tables above, the use of realia in teaching speaking procedure text
could help students to understand the material and to make easier to express their
ideas. So, this Classroom action research in the implementation of realia to
improve students speaking ability on procedure text at the ninth grade students of
MTs. Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo Jepara in The Academic Year of 2010/2011 was
success. It could be seen from the result of test in every cycle.
60

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusions
The attempt to teach students speaking procedure text by using realia had
result some conclusions as follow:
1. Actually there are many ways to apply realia in teaching speaking, but in
general based on this research the implementation of realia to improve
students speaking ability in procedure text were:
a. First, teacher prepared the materials, for example: teacher preapared some
candle, matches and candle holder in the first cycle. Then, she also
prepared soap, water faucet and towel in the second cycle. In the last cycle,
she prepared 45 pencils and sharpeners.
b. Second, teacher started to teach by showing the real material and asked
students to mention the name of object.
c. Third, teacher explained the definition of procedure text.
d. Fourth, teacher gave an example by demonstrating the sequences of certain
procedure by using realia orally.
e. Fifth, students repeated after teacher to demonstrate orally.
f. Sixth, students practiced the procedure in group, pairs or individually by
using realia orally. Students divided into some groups or pairs, then teacher
distributed the material to each groups if possible. After that, they practiced
it by turn with their friends, for example: students A practiced the
sequences of steps then students B give instruction. To know the students
ability teacher asked them to practiced it individually in front of the
classroom.
2. This research shows us that the use of realia to teach students speaking
procedure text help improvement of students ability on speaking procedure
text in every test. Based on calculation result after getting all of the treatment
using realia, the students average score increased although not significantly,
61

the students average score from pre cycle was 4,3, the first cycle was 4,9, the
second cycle was 5,9 and the average score of students score in the third cycle
was 6,6. It showed us that the use of realia could improve students ability on
speaking procedure text.

B. Suggestions
This study is useful for English teachers to teach speaking or even
practicing speaking inside and outside the classroom. However, there are many
media to be used in teaching learning process, but, realia is only an alternative
media of teaching speaking. Having finished conducting this research, the
researcher considers some suggestions in order to improve motivation in speaking
skill, especially for the teacher and the students. The researchers suggestions are
as follow:
1. For the teachers
Teacher plays many important roles in teaching leaning process. Teacher
should have the ability to carry out a supportive and interesting environment in
the classroom in order to help students understanding and practicing materials
easier. Teacher is suggested to be creative in teaching speaking, because by
giving interesting technique/media like realia, students will have an interest to
learn speaking more.
2. For the students
Students should be braver in speaking. Because in speaking, a person should at
least can carry out a conversation fluently. Students should be more confidence
in speaking foreign language being learned, they need to avoid feeling scared or
shy of doing grammatical errors, wrong dictions and bad pronunciation while
they are trying to speak in English, because they should at least have an interest
to speak first, for then they should try and learn hard to solve their problems.
This can be done by searching or creating their own model of learning
speaking, such as, watching English movie, reading English magazine or
dialogue book. They may also use other media like game and listening to
62

English songs for learning pronunciation, or by practicing speaking with


friends, family, teacher, etc for then they may share their problems.
63

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66

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal details:
Name : Erny Rokhmawati
Place and date of birth : Jepara, Febuary 25, 1988.
Address : Ds.Jambu Rt 39/8, Kec. Mlonggo, Kab. Jepara
Phone : 085290770242
Education:
1. TK Tarbiyatul Athfal Mlonggo
2. MI Mathalibul Huda Mlonggo graduated in 2000
3. MTs Darul Ulum Purwogondo graduated in 2003
4. MA NU BANAT Kudus graduated in 2006
5. IAIN Walisongo Semarang 9th semester
67

Appendix 1
Students Name List
No. Nama Students Code
1 Alfi Khasanah A-1
2 Alif Nurdiana A-2
3 Ana Kholifah A-3
4 Ana Rohmaniyah A-4
5 Ani Widiana A-5
6 Arika Falatif A-6
7 Avivatul qudsiyah A-7
8 Awanda elin A-8
9 Cindi rafika dewi A-9
10 Devi Anawati A-10
11 Diah Nopiani A-11
12 Dwi Aristiyanti A-12
13 Erlina Desi Nur Hidayani A-13
14 Eva Lutfiana A-14
15 Fatihah Ivrayani A-15
16 Fitriani Fatikasari A-16
17 Iin Nadhiroh A-17
18 Iir Hidayatuz Zahro A-18
19 Khoridatul Bahiya A-19
20 Lita Tria Dewi A-20
21 Lutfi Sidayatul Mubtadiin A-21
22 Menik Khoiriyah A-22
23 Mirta Widyati A-23
24 Nahar Rejeki Romadhon A-24
25 Naila Munadhifah A-25
26 Niswatus Saadah A-26
27 Novita Nuraini A-27
28 Nur Hanifah A-28
29 Nur Nikmatus Sholikhah A-29
30 Nur Riyantika A-30
31 Nur Tika Rahmadhani A-31
32 Praptiana Larasati A-32
33 Puput Handayani A-33
34 Reka Listiani A-34
35 Reviana Kasum A-35
36 Safitri Nur Khasanah A-36
37 Sechah Nurrizkiyah A-37
38 Sinta Nurfiana A-38
39 Siti Masruroh A-39
40 Siti Masyitoh A-40
41 Trining Tias A-41
68

42 Tutik Nischa A-42


43 Widya Mufarokhah A-43
44 Yuli Diah Ningrum A-44
69

Appendix 2
Lesson Plans
RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP)
SIKLUS 1
Satuan Pendidikan : MTs. Mathalibul Huda
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : IX E /I
Alokasi Waktu : 2X40 Menit
Aspek/Skill : Speaking
Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna teks monolog berbentuk
procedure secara akurat dan lancar dalam konteks
kehidupan sehari-hari.
Kompetensi Dasar : Peserta didik mampu mengungkapkan makna dalam
teks monolog berbentuk procedure yang
menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat lancar
dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
Indikator : Peserta didik mampu menjelaskan langkah-langkah,
untuk melakukan procedure tertentu.
Tujuan Pembelajaran : Peserta didik dapat menjelaskan materi atau bahan-
bahan serta langkah-langkah yang diperlukan untuk
mencapai tujuan procedure tertentu.
I. Materi Pembelajaran :

How to Light a Candle.


Media : Candle, match, candle holder.
Steps : First, light the match.
Second, burn the bottom of the candle.
Third, put the candle in the candle holder.
Fourth, light the macth.
Fifth, lit the candle.
Seventh, candle is ligthing now.
II. Metode : Demontrasion
Audio Lingual Method

III. Kegiatan pembelajaran:


1. BKOF (Building Knowledge of The Field) (10 menit)
Guru menyapa siswa-siswa.
Guru mengkomunikasikan tujuan pembelajaran hari ini.
2. MOT (Modelling of Text) (20 menit)
Guru menanyakan bahan-bahan yang digunakan untuk
menyalakan lilin kepada siswa.
70

Guru menyebutkan nama-nama bahan.


Siswa menyebutkan bahan-bahan untuk menyalakan lilin.
Guru mempraktekkan langkah-langkah bagaimana
menyalakan lilin kepada siswa.
Siswa menyebutkan langkah- langkah, guru memperagakan
langkah-langkah bagaimana menyalakan lilin.
3. JCOT (Join Construction of Text) (20 menit)
Siswa membuat kelompok, tiap kelompok terdiri dari 4
siswa.
Siswa mempraktekkan bagaimana menyalakan lilin dengan
kelompok mereka.
4. ICOT (Independence Construction of Text) (40 menit)
Siswa mngerjakan tugas tentang langkah-langkah
menyalakan lilin.
Siswa dan guru mediskusikan jawaban siswa.
Siswa menjelaskan langkah-langkah menyalakan lilin
scecara individu.

IV. Bahan Pembelajaran : Lilin, Korek Api, Tempat lilin.


V. Instrumen Tes :
1. Answer These Questions.
1. How many steps to ligth a candle?
2. What the media are needed to light a candle?
3. What the first step to light a candle?
4. What should we do after burning the bottom of candle?
5. What the fourth step to ligth a candle?
2. EXPLAIN THE PROCEDURE OF LIGTHING A CANDLE

VI. Penilaian :
Bentuk penilaian : Lisan.
Tekhnik : Siswa diberi tugas untuk
menjelaskan langkah-langkah procedure.
Aspek yang dinilai
Kelancaran : 30
Pengucapan : 30
Struktur Bahasa : 30
Nilai untuk siswa = 90: 9 = 10
71

Jepara, Agustus 2010


Mengetahui,
Guru Mitra Peneliti

(Turkani, S.Pd.) (Erny Rokhmawati)


NIP. NIM. 03411041
Kepala Sekolah
Mts. Mathalibul Huda

(Zainuddin, S.Pd I.)


NIP.
72

RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP)


SIKLUS 2
Satuan Pendidikan : MTs. Mathalibul Huda
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : IXE /I
Alokasi Waktu : 2X40 Menit
Aspek/Skill : Speaking
Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna teks monolog berbentuk
procedure secara akurat dan lancar dalam konteks
kehidupan sehari-hari.
Kompetensi Dasar : Peserta didik mampu mengungkapkan makna dalam
teks monolog berbentuk procedure yang
menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat lancar
dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
Indikator : Peserta didik mampu menjelaskan langkah-langkah,
untuk melakukan procedure tertentu.
Tujuan Pembelajaran : Peserta didik dapat menjelaskan materi atau bahan-
bahan serta langkah-langkah yang diperlukan untuk
mencapai tujuan procedure tertentu.
I. Materi Pembelajaran :
Materials: Soap, Water faucet, Towel.
Steps:
How to wash your hands
1. Turn on the faucet water.
2. Pick up the soap.
3. Wash your hands with soap.
4. Put the soap down.
5. Rinse your hands.
6. Turn off the faucet water
7. Take the towel.
8. Dry your hands.

II. Metode : Demontrasion


Audio Lingual Method

III. Kegiatan pembelajaran:

1. BKOF (Building Knowledge of The Field) (10 menit)


Guru menyapa siswa-siswa.
Guru mengkomunikasikan tujuan pembelajaran hari ini.
73

2. MOT (Modelling of Text) (20 menit)


Guru menunjukkan bahan-bahan untuk mencuci tangan.
Siswa menyebutkan nama-nama bahan.
Guru memperagakan cara mencuci tangan.
Siswa mengulang-ulang langkah-langkah bagaimana
mencuci tangan.
Siswa menyebutkan langkah- langkah, salah satu siswa
memperagakan langkah-langkah di depan kelas.
3. JCOT (Join Construction of Text) (20 menit)
Siswa membuat kelompok, tiap kelompok terdiri dari 2
siswa.
Siswa mempraktekkan bagaimana membersihkan tangan
dengan kelompok mereka.
4. ICOT (Independence Construction of Text) (40 menit)
Siswa mngerjakan tugas tentang langkah-langkah mencuci
tangan.
Siswa dan guru mediskusikan jawaban siswa.
Siswa menjelaskan langkah-langkah mencuci tangan secara
individu.

IV. Bahan Pembelajaran : Soap, Water faucet, Towel


V. Instrumen Tes :
Fill the blank to complete the directions
1. Turn on the faucet water.
2. ..
3. Wash your hands with soap.
4. .
5. Rinse your hands.
6. Turn off the faucet water
7. .
8. Dry your hands.
Explain the procedure of washing your hands.
VI. Penilaian :
Bentuk penilaian : Lisan.
Tekhnik : Siswa diberi tugas untuk
menjelaskan langkah-langkah procedure.
Aspek yang dinilai
74

Kelancaran : 30
Pengucapan : 30
Struktur Bahasa : 30
Nilai untuk siswa = 90: 9 = 10

Jepara, Agustus 2010

Mengetahui,
Guru Mitra Peneliti

(Turkani, S.Pd.) (Erny Rokhmawati)


NIP. NIM. 03411041
Kepala Sekolah
Mts. Mathalibul Huda

(Zainuddin, S.Pd I.)


NIP.
75

RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP)


SIKLUS 3
Satuan Pendidikan : MTs. Mathalibul Huda
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : IXE /I
Alokasi Waktu : 2X40 Menit
Aspek/Skill : Speaking
Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna teks monolog berbentuk
procedure secara akurat dan lancar dalam konteks
kehidupan sehari-hari.
Kompetensi Dasar : Peserta didik mampu mengungkapkan makna dalam
teks monolog berbentuk procedure yang
menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat lancar
dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
Indikator : Peserta didik mampu menjelaskan langkah-langkah,
untuk melakukan pcedure tertentu.
Tujuan Pembelajaran : Peserta didik dapat menjelaskan materi atau bahan-
bahan serta langkah-langkah yang diperlukan untuk
mencapai tujuan procedure tertentu.
I. Materi Pembelajaran :
Materials: a pencil, sharpener.
Steps:
How to sharpen a pencil
1. Hold the sharpener in the left hand.
2. Hold a pencil in the right hand.
3. Enter the bottom of pencil into the hole of sharpener.
4. Twist it until the pencil is sharp.
5. Take out the pencil from the hole of sharpener.
6. The pencil is ready to use.
II. Metode : Demontrasion
Audio Lingual Method

III. Kegiatan pembelajaran:


1. BKOF (Building Knowledge of The Field) (10 menit)
Guru menyapa siswa-siswa.
Guru mengkomunikasikan tujuan pembelajaran hari ini.
2. MOT (Modelling of Text) (20 menit)
76

Guru menanyakan bahan-bahan yang digunakan untuk


menajamkan pensil.
Guru menyebutkan nama-nama bahan.
Siswa menyebutkan bahan-bahan untuk menajamkan pensil.
Salah satu siswa mempraktekkan langkah-langkah
bagaimana menajamkan pensil.
Siswa menyebutkan langkah- langkah, guru memperagakan
langkah-langkah bagaimana menyalakan lilin.
3. JCOT (Join Construction of Text) (20 menit)
Siswa membuat kelompok, tiap kelompok terdiri dari 2
siswa.
Siswa mempraktekkan bagaimana menyalakan lilin dengan
kelompok mereka.
4. ICOT (Independence Construction of Text) (40 menit)
Siswa mngerjakan tugas tentang langkah-langkah
menajamkan pensil.
Siswa dan guru mediskusikan jawaban siswa.
Siswa menjelaskan langkah-langkah menajamkan pensil
secara individu.

IV. Bahan Pembelajaran : Pensil, Rautan pensil.

V. Instrumen Tes :

1. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box to complete the
directions.
How to sharpen a pencil
Hold the sharpener in the left hand. a pencil in the right hand. . the
bottom of pencil into the hole of sharpener. . it until the pencil is sharp.
.. out the pencil from the hole of sharpener. The pencil is ready to use.

Twist Hold Enter Put Open

2. Explain the procedure how to sharpen a pencil


VI. Penilaian :
Bentuk penilaian : Lisan.
Tekhnik : Siswa diberi tugas untuk
menjelaskan langkah-langkah procedure.
77

Aspek yang dinilai


Kelancaran : 30
Pengucapan : 30
Struktur Bahasa : 30
Nilai untuk siswa = 90: 9 = 10

Jepara, Agustus 2010

Mengetahui,
Guru Mitra Peneliti

(Turkani, S.Pd.) (Erny Rokhmawati)


NIP. NIM. 03411041
Kepala Sekolah
Mts. Mathalibul Huda

(Zainuddin, S.Pd I.)


NIP.
78

Appendix 3
Scoring Guide for Speaking Test
The scoring guide as follow:65

Elements of Speaking Score Description


Fluency 30 Speech is fluent and effortless.
24 Speed of speech seems slightly affected by
language problems.
18 Speed and fluency seem strongly affected by
language problems.
12 Usually hesitant often force inti silence by
language limitation.
6 Speech is also halting and fragmentary as to
make the conversation imposible.

Pronunciation 30 Has few of foreign accent.


24 Always inteligible, though one is consious of a
definite accent.
18 Pronuntiation problem necessitate concentreted
listening and occasionally lead to
misunderstanding.
12 Very hard to understand because of
pronuntiation problems, must frequently be
asked to be repeted.
6 Pronuntiation problems are severe.

Grammar 30 If students make few noticable error of


grammar or word order.
24 If the students occasionally make grammatical
errors which do not obscure meaning.
18 If students make frequent errors of grammar
and word order which occasionally obscure
meaning.
12 If frequent grammar erors occur which make
rephrasing and reconstructing of utterance.
6 If errors in grammar is severe.

65
Harris D.P, Testing English as a Second Language, (New York: Mc Graw Hill Company,
1969),p.84 .
79

Appendix 4
Observation Guide
This is the example from the instrument of observation:
No Name of students Description
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Note:
a. Students give attention to teachers explanation.
b. Students show their activeness and enthusiasm in the classroom.
c. Students can join the activities in classroom using realia.
d. Students can use realia to understand the material.
e. Students can mention the component of realia
f. Students can explain every step in procedure text using realia.
g. Students can do their speaking test individually using realia.
The criteria of scoring are:
a. Score 1 if the students participation is a little.
b. Score 2 if the students participation is enough.
c. Score 3 if the students participation is a good.
d. Score 4 if the students participation is a very good.
80

Appendix 5
The observation result of students participation
Cycle 1

No. Students Name Description


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total
1. Alfi Khasanah 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 24
2. Alif Nurdiana 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 24
3. Ana Kholifah 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 24
4. Ana Rohmaniyah 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 24
5. Ani Widiana 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 24
6. Arika Falatif 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 24
7. Avivatul Qudsiyah 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 25
8. Awanda Elin 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 25
9. Cindi Rafika Dewi 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 25
10. Devi Anawati 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
11. Diah Nopiani 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 25
12. Dwi Aristiyanti 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
13. Erlina Desi Nur H 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
14. Eva Lutfiana 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
15. Fatihah Ivrayani 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
16. Fitriani Fatikasari 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
17. Iin Nadhiroh 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 21
18. Iir Hidayatuz Zahro 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
19. Khoridatul Bahiya 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 23
20. Lita Tria Dewi 4 4 4 2 4 3 3 23
21. Lutfi Sidayatul M 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 25
22. Menik Khoiriyah 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 23
23. Mitra Widyati 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 24
24. Nahar Rejeki R 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 23
25. Naila Munadhifah 3 4 3 4 4 2 2 22
26. Niswatus Saadah 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 23
27. Novita Nuraini 4 2 3 3 4 2 2 20
28. Nur Hanifah 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 24
29. Nur Nikmatus S 4 3 2 2 4 2 2 19
30. Nur Riyantika 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 22
31. Nur Tika Ramadani 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 22
32. Praptiana Larasati 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
33. Puput Handayani 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
34. Reka Listiani 4 3 2 2 4 3 3 20
35. Reviana Kasum 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
36. Safitri Nur Khasanah 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
37. Sechah Nurrizkiyah 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
38. Sinta Nurfiana 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
81

39. Siti Masruroh 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 28


40. Siti Masyitoh 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
41. Trining Tias 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
42. Tutik Nischa 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 26
43. Widya Mufarokhah 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 26
44. Yuli Diah Ningrum 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 26
82

The observation result of students participation


Cycle 2

No. Students Name Description


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total
1. Alfi Khasanah 4 4 3 4 4 2 2 23
2. Alif Nurdiana 4 4 3 4 4 2 2 23
3. Ana Kholifah 4 3 3 3 4 2 3 22
4. Ana Rohmaniyah 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
5. Ani Widiana 4 3 3 3 4 2 2 20
6. Arika Falatif 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
7. Avivatul Qudsiyah 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 24
8. Awanda Elin 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
9. Cindi Rafika Dewi 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 25
10. Devi Anawati 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
11. Diah Nopiani 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 25
12. Dwi Aristiyanti 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 25
13. Erlina Desi Nur H 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 25
14. Eva Lutfiana 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
15. Fatihah Ivrayani 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 20
16. Fitriani Fatikasari 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
17. Iin Nadhiroh 3 4 4 3 3 2 3 20
18. Iir Hidayatuz Zahro 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
19. Khoridatul Bahiya 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 21
20. Lita Tria Dewi 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 23
21. Lutfi Sidayatul M 4 4 4 3 4 2 3 23
22. Menik Khoiriyah 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 23
23. Mitra Widyati 4 3 3 4 4 2 3 23
24. Nahar Rejeki R 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 25
25. Naila Munadhifah 3 3 2 4 4 2 3 21
26. Niswatus Saadah 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 24
27. Novita Nuraini 3 2 3 4 4 3 3 22
28. Nur Hanifah 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 24
29. Nur Nikmatus S 4 2 3 4 4 3 3 23
30. Nur Riyantika 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 24
31. Nur Tika Ramadani 4 2 3 4 4 3 3 23
32. Praptiana Larasati 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
33. Puput Handayani 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
34. Reka Listiani 4 2 4 3 4 2 3 22
35. Reviana Kasum 4 2 2 3 4 2 3 20
36. Safitri Nur Khasanah 4 3 2 2 4 3 3 21
37. Sechah Nurrizkiyah 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 23
38. Sinta Nurfiana 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 24
39. Siti Masruroh 4 4 2 4 4 3 3 24
83

40. Siti Masyitoh 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 26


41. Trining Tias 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 25
42. Tutik Nischa 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 26
43. Widya Mufarokhah 4 4 2 3 4 3 4 24
44. Yuli Diah Ningrum 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 25
84

The observation result of students participation


Cycle 3

No. Students Name Description


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total
1. Alfi Khasanah 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
2. Alif Nurdiana 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
3. Ana Kholifah 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 25
4. Ana Rohmaniyah 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 25
5. Ani Widiana 4 2 4 3 4 2 3 22
6. Arika Falatif 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
7. Avivatul Qudsiyah 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 28
8. Awanda Elin 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
9. Cindi Rafika Dewi 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
10. Devi Anawati 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
11. Diah Nopiani 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
12. Dwi Aristiyanti 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 27
13. Erlina Desi Nur H 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 27
14. Eva Lutfiana 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 27
15. Fatihah Ivrayani 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
16. Fitriani Fatikasari 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 27
17. Iin Nadhiroh 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
18. Iir Hidayatuz Zahro 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
19. Khoridatul Bahiya 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 26
20. Lita Tria Dewi 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
21. Lutfi Sidayatul M 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 26
22. Menik Khoiriyah 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 25
23. Mitra Widyati 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
24. Nahar Rejeki R 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 27
25. Naila Munadhifah 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 27
26. Niswatus Saadah 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 27
27. Novita Nuraini 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
28. Nur Hanifah 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
29. Nur Nikmatus S 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
30. Nur Riyantika 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 26
31. Nur Tika Ramadani 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 27
32. Praptiana Larasati 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 25
33. Puput Handayani 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 27
34. Reka Listiani 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 27
35. Reviana Kasum 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
36. Safitri Nur Khasanah 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
37. Sechah Nurrizkiyah 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
38. Sinta Nurfiana 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
39. Siti Masruroh 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
85

40. Siti Masyitoh 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28


41. Trining Tias 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 28
42. Tutik Nischa 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 26
43. Widya Mufarokhah 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 26
44. Yuli Diah Ningrum 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 26
86

Appendix 6

Picture during the Research

Students work assignments from the teacher.

Students work in groups to practice procedure how to light a candle.


87

The researcher demonstrated the procedure how to sharpen a pencil.

Students work in pairs to practice the procedure of sharpening pencil.