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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR


Harold L. Ickes, Secretary
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
W. C. Mendenhall, Director

Bulletin 848

THE MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF


THE NONOPAQUE MINERALS
SECOND EDITION

BY

ESPER S. LARSEN AND HARRY HERMAN

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1934

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. ------ Price 20 cents


CONTENTS
" '*" ^ t**v
Page 1'f)
OHAPTER 1. Introduction_______-____-----------_---------.-----_-_ 1
The immersion method of identifying minerals.______--___-_-___-_ 1
New data._______-___________-__-_-________-----_--_-_---_-_- 2
Need of further data.________------------------------------_-- 2
; Advantages of the immersion method..___-__-_-__-_---__________ 2
Other suggested uses for the method___________________________ 3
Work and acknowledgments.___________-_____-_---__-__-___-___ 3
CHAPTER 2. Methods of determining the optical constants of minerals. __ 5
The chief optical constants and their interrelations________________ 5
Measurement of-indices of refraction____---____-__-_--_--_-_____ 8
The embedding method..___--------_-___-_-_-__--__-______ 8
The method of oblique illumination.___._-_-______-_____ 9
The method of central illumination______________________ 10
Dispersion method.----------------------.------------ 10
: Immersion media______--_---_-----_---------------------- 11
General features.--.-.-------------------------------- 11
Piperine and iodides.---.------------.----------------- 13
Sulphur-selenium melts_----------------------------_ 15
Selenium and arsenic selenide melts._____--_--_----_-___ 17
Halogens of thallium-___---_---_-_-------------------- 17
Methods of standardizing media for measuring indices of
refraction.___________----__-_-_-_-----------------_ 18
Measurement of all indices of refraction of crystals.___________ 20
Measurements of axial angles.-.--------------------------.----- 22
Dispersion of the optic axes______----------------------------_- 23
Optical character..____________-_-______--_-_-_ ---___---___ 24
Optical orientation, dispersion of bisectrices, and crystal system..... 24
Dispersion of the indices of refraction______ ________________ 27
Other tests..-.___________--_.________------------- 27
CHAPTER 3. Some statistics on the optical properties of minerals. _______ 28
Distribution of minerals with regard to optical character.__________ 28
Distribution of minerals with regard to index of refraction and bi-
refringence _______________-___-----_-___-_---------_----___- 28
Relation between index of refraction, density, and chemical compo-
sition________-__-._______.__.-_-_-___- -__-_-_-_-_--____ 30
CHAPTER 4. Tables for the determination of minerals from their optical
properties._____________________________________________________ 33
Arrangement of the data in the tables.__________________________ 33
Completeness of the data.--.--------------------.-------------- 34
Tables._____________-___-_-____________________ 35
List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices
of refraction, j8, and showing their birefringences-___________ 35
Data for the determination of the nonopaque minerals...--. 47
Isotropic group.-------------------------------------- 47
Uniaxial positive group-_--_--------------_---_-------_ 67
m
IV CONTENTS

Page
CHAPTER 4. Tables for the determination of minerals from their optical
properties Continued.
Tables Continued.
Data for the determination of the nonopaque minerals Contd.
Uniaxial negative group______________________________ 77
Biaxial positive group.__-_---___--_______--____-____-- 95
Biaxial negative group.._______________________________ 148
Minerals of unknown optical character.__________________ 213
Data on mineral groups..______________________________________ 219
Alunite group.____________________________________________ 219
Amphibole group_____._____.__________________________ __ 219
Apatite group.___________________________________________ 228
Aragonite group._____________________________:___________ 228
Barite group___._---__.---_---_-__-_-____..___---_-_-_____ 229
Calcite group....,.-_______________________________________ 229
Chlorite group__----_--_-_--_----______-_____-__--------_. 230
Epidote group..__________________________________________ 231
Feldspar group.____-_.-_-._-_-___-_-_--_--____-----_------_ 233
Garnet group._________-__-________:.___-_____-_-___-_---- 233
Melilite group. ___________________________________________ 235
Mica group.________-___-_---_-_________-____--_-____--. 236
Olivine group_________________---_-____-______-__-_____-__ 239
Pyroxene group.._________________________________________ 240
Scapolite group.___-______-_________.________-_------_---_ 245
Spinel group______---_____--__-__._-_-_-___------------. 246
Tourmaline group.._______________________________________ 247
Uranite group.___________________________________________ 247
Vivianite group.__________________________________________ 248
The zeolites..-------------------------------------------. 250
INDEX ______----------_-----------_--_-_----_----_-_-----------_- 255
ILLUSTRATIONS
Page
FIGURE 1. The error in V'a as computed from the approximate formula
Cos' V'a = 7^________-______----
a _____,-__-___-___ 7
2. Indices of refraction of mixtures of piperine and iodides_____ 14
3. Indices of refraction of mixtures of sulphur and selenium..-- 16
4. Brass frame for prism for determination of the refractive
indices of liquids._._-_------_-_-_---_----_-_--_...... 19
5. Stereographic projection of the optical elements of a triclinic
mineral (axinite)..____----_-_----_----_---__--_-_---_ 26
6. Diagram showing density of distribution of the nonopaque
minerals with respect to the intermediate index of refraction. 29
7. Diagram showing density of distribution of the nonopaque
minerals with respect to index of refraction and birefrin-
gence __--_----_-----_----_--_------_---------__-____ 29
V
NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION

In this second edition of the bulletin on the microscopic determination of


the nonopaque minerals (U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 679) the first three
chapters have been left, essentially as they were in the first edition; the fourth
chapter of the first edition, which contained the new data, has been omitted, as a
single publication of these data seemed sufficient; and the fifth chapter of the first
edition becomes the fourth in the new edition. The tables, for the determination
of minerals from their optical properties have been brought up to date by more
than 500 new entries and 100 changes in old entries. About 250 new species
and old species not given in the previous edition are included. Of these new
data about 80 entries represent measurements made by the authors. Such data
are indicated in the tables by an asterisk (*).
At the recommendation of several mineralogists, tables have been added
assembling the data of some of the mineral groups, including the alunite, am-
phibole, apatite, aragonite, barite, calcite, chlorite, epidote, feldspar, garnet,
melilite, mica, olivine, pyroxene, scapolite, spinel, tourmaline, vivianite, and
uranite groups and the zeolites.
Other new features of this edition are the addition of a column in the main
table to indicate the variability of the indices of refraction and other data given
for the mineral, and the addition of the calculations of 2E immediately below
2V.
VI
THE MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF THE
NONOPAQUE MINERALS
SECOND EDITION

By ESPER S. LARSEN and HARRY BERMAN

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
THE IMMERSION METHOD OF IDENTIFYING MINERALS
Optical methods of determining minerals with the petrographic
microscope have long been used and have been carried to a high
state of development in studies of the minerals in thin sections of
rocks and ores, yet out of about 1,000 mineral species comparatively
few can be identified readily in thin sections. A mineral whose
optical properties are known can be accurately and quickly identi-
fied, however, by the immersion method that is, by immersing its
powder in liquid media whose indices of refraction are known and
determining its optical constants. In this bulletin the authors give
a set of tables for the systematic determination of minerals from their
optical constants, describe briefly some methods for the rapid deter-
mination of optical constants, give the results of measurements of
the optical constants of more than 500 species for which data were
not previously available prior to the first edition, and present sta-
tistics on the optical properties of minerals.
The first tables prepared for general use in determinations of
minerals by the immersion method were those of Van der Kolk,1
published in 1900. Somewhat similar tables, prepared by A. F.
Rogers,2 were published in 1906, and an optical mineralogy contain-
ing tables and description of all minerals for which optical data were
then available, prepared by N. H. and A. N. Winchell,3 was published
in 1909.
1 Schroeder van der Kolk, J. O., Tabellen zur mikroskopischen Bestlmmung der Mineralien nach ihrem
Brechungsindex, Wiesbaden, 1000; 2d ed., revised and enlarged by E. H. M. Beekman, 1006.
' Rogers, A. F., School of Mines Quart., vol. 27, pp. 340-350,1006.
* Winchell, N. H. and A. N., Elements of optical mineralogy, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1000.
2 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

NEW DATA
In attempting to employ the immersion method some years age*
the senior author assembled all the data then available for its use
with the petrographic microscope in determining minerals but found
them so incomplete that the method was applicable to but few species.
Since then he has measured the chief optical constants of about 600 min-
eral species for which the data were lacking or incomplete, so that suck
data are now lacking for only about 30 very rare species. No attempt,
at great accuracy was made in these measurements, and compara-
tively few of the specimens studied represented analyzed minerals.
Only a small number of minerals of many isomorphous series were
examined, in some series only a single member.
NEED OF FURTHER DATA

Much further work on the optical constants and more complete and
accurate data on nearly all the minerals are needed, as well as detailed
studies of isomorphous series and of the effect of solid solution.
Another need is a fuller appreciation of the fact that most minerals
are of variable chemical composition and therefore have variable
optical and other properties. The science of mineralogy needs also
good connected and consistent data on minerals. Chemical analyses,,
crystallographic studies, and determination of physical properties,
optical constants, arid paragenesis should be made on identical
material. A highly accurate determination of the optical or other
constants of a mineral is of comparatively little value unless the
data obtained are definitely tied to a chemical analysis. Greater
care should be taken in examining minerals for lack of homogeneity,,
whether it is due to zonal growths or to admixed or included foreign
material. As few specimens of minerals are entirely free from foreign
bodies and without zonal growths or other elements of heterogeneity
no description of a mineral is adequate which does not show clearly
that its material has been carefully examined microscopically. Every
published analysis of a mineral should include a clear statement of the
approximate amount and the character of the foreign material it
contains and of the degree or extent of zonal growths or other elements
of heterogeneity, and this statement should be the result of a careful
microscopic examination of a sample of the same powder that furnished
the material for the chemical analysis.
ADVANTAGES OF THE IMMERSION METHOD

For determining the nonopaque minerals the immersion method has


many advantages over other methods. It appears to excel greatly
the ordinary blowpipe methods in rapidity and accuracy, and the
quantity of material required is less than that required for tests by
any other method. One who has acquired the requisite skill can
INTRODUCTION O

measure the principal optical constants of a mineral in about half an


hour, and most minerals can be determined by partial measurements
In less time. In accuracy the method is nearly as reliable as a com-
plete chemical analysis, for it is about as common for two or more
minerals to have the same chemical composition as for two or more
minerals to have the same optical constants. All the optical prop-
erties of a mineral can usually be determined from a single grain or
crystal large enough to handle with a pair of delicate pincers, and in
addition the material can be examined for homogeneity when the tests
.are made. Lack of homogeneity in material studied is one of the
chief sources of error in mineralogic work.
The skill required to measure the optical constants is little if any
greater than that required to do reliable blowpiping. The worker
must have a good knowledge of optical mineralogy, such as may be
gained by any good course in microscopic petrography, and some
special training in the manipulation of immersed grains of minerals.
The equipment required is a good petrographic microscope and a few
inexpensive liquids whose indices of refraction are known.
OTHER SUGGESTED USES FOR THE METHOD
The optical method might be used with advantage in work done in
n number of other branches of science than mineralogy and in some
industries. It should be much more generally used in chemistry, es-
pecially in analyses of artificial crystalline products, to determine
rapidly the exact nature of the material and its homogeneity, for
.artificial products have as definite optical constants as minerals.
It should also be found valuable in many metallurgic processes, as
well as in the cement and ceramic industries and other industries in
which a knowledge of the exact nature of any material is desirable.
WORK AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The senior author began his work on the tables in 1909, intending to
measure the constants of only a few of the commoner minerals, but the
desirability of having optical data on all the recognized species of
minerals became so apparent that he afterward undertook the task of
making all the measurements desired. Most of the work was done in
the laboratory of the United States Geological Survey at Washington,
D. C., but a considerable part was done at the University of California
at Berkeley, Calif., during the winter of 1914-15. The work of pre-
paring this new edition was done in Harvard University. To measure
the optical constants of 500 selected minerals is no great task, but
difficulties appeared continually as the work progressed, owing to the
frequent necessity of selecting suitable material from specimens con-
sisting largely of other minerals, to the large number of specimens that
were found to be incorrectly labeled, and to the difficulty of procuring
many rare minerals.
4 MICKOSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

The senior author wishes to express his sincere thanks to Messrs.


H. E. Merwin and Fred E. Wright, of the Geophysical Laboratory,
W. T. Schaller and C. S. Ross, of the Geological Survey, and E. T.
Wherry, formerly of the National Museum, for help and encourage-
ment in the work. Thanks are due also to Messrs. Ross and Schaller
for critically reading the manuscript and proof of this bulletin and
offering many helpful criticisms and suggestions and for furnishing
unpublished data on a number of minerals. The senior author wishes
also to express his appreciation of the generosity of the officials of a
number of museums and of several private collectors of minerals in
furnishing specimens of many rare and valuable minerals. He is
especially indebted to the late Col. Washington A. Roebling, of
Trenton, N.J., who very generously placed his remarkable collection
at the writers' disposal; to the late L. P. Gratacap and the American
Museum of Natural History; and to Drs. Edgar T. Wherry and
William F. Foshag and the United States National Museum. He is
also grateful, for many valuable specimens of the rarer minerals, to
Prof. W. E. Ford and Yale University; Prof. Charles Palache and
Harvard University; the late Prof. A. S. Eakle and the University of
California; Prof. A. H. Phillips and Princeton University; Johns Hop-
kins University; the late Dr. Oliver C. Farrington -and the Field
Museum of Natural History; Mr. F. McN. Hamilton and the Cali-
fornia State Mining Bureau; the.late Mr. F. A. Canfield, of Dover,
N.J.; Dr. Per Geijer, of Stockholm, Sweden; and Prof. A. Lacroix, of
Paris.
CHAPTER 2. METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL
CONSTANTS OF MINERALS
In this chapter the writers describe briefly the special methods
which they have found most satisfactory for the rapid determination of
the principal optical constants of minerals by the immersion method.
The chapter is not intended to be a complete discussion of optical
mineralogy, and in order to understand it properly, the reader should
have an elementary knowledge of crystallography and of the methods
of optical mineralogy.4 Theoretical discussions are avoided as far as
possible, and no attempt is made to describe the methods of measuring
accurately the optical constants of minerals.6
THE CHIEF OPTICAL CONSTANTS AND THEIR INTER-
RELATIONS
The significant fundamental optical constants of crystals are the
principal indices of refraction, the crystallographic orientation of the
directions of vibration corresponding to these indices of refraction,
and the amount of absorption of light vibrating in these directions,
all for one or more standard wave lengths of light. For most minerals
some of the constants, particularly the last, are known only in a
qualitative way. The other properties commonly mentioned among
the optical constants birefringence, optical character, optic axial
angle, dispersion of the optic axes, dispersion of the bisectrices, extinc-
tion angle, color, and pleochroism are fixed by the fundamental
constants and are significant only because they are often easily
measured or estimated under the microscope.
Different symbols are used by different writers in referring to
certain optical properties. Those used here are perhaps as commonly
used as any in the textbooks listed below.4 Refractive indices a,
-/8, 7 have directions of vibration X, Y, Z; birefringence is represented
by B and equals 7 a or w e or e w.
* Iddings, J. P., Eock minerals, John Wiley & Sons, 1911. Weinschenk-Clark, Petrographic methods,
McOraw-Hill Book Co., 1912. Winchell, N. H. and A. N., Elements of optical mineralogy, 3d ed., pt. 1,
John Wiley & Sons, 1928. Qroth-Jackson, Optical properties of crystals, John Wiley & Sons, 1910. Dana,
E. S., A textbook of mineralogy, 3d ed., John Wiley & Sons, 1921.
A comprehensive treatment of the accuracy and limitations of the methods of optical mineralogy, based
upon theory and checked by observations,.is given by Fred. Eugene Wright in The methods of petrographic-
microscopic research: Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub. 158, 1911. Albert Johannsen's Manual of petro-
graphic methods, published by the McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1914, is an excellent compilation of the methods
that have been proposed for optical measurements with the microscope. Eosenbusch's Mikroskopische
Physiographic, 2d ed., Band 1, Erste Halfte, by E. A. Wulflng, 1924; Qroth's Physikalische Krystallo-
graphie, 4th ed., 1905; and Tutton, A. E. H., Crystallography and practical crystal measurement, vol. 2,
London, Macmillan & Co., 1922, are valuable books of reference, as is also Duparc and Pearce's Traitfi de
technique mine'ralogique et petrographique, pt. 1,1909. The most precise treatment of the subject is given
in Pockels, F., Lehrbuch der Kristalloptik, B. F. Teubner, 1906.
6 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

The relations that exist between the various optical properties are
of considerable significance, and the authors believe that they are
not sufficiently emphasized in the textbooks nor are they kept clearly
enough in mind by workers in optical mineralogy. The best available
data on over 30 mineral species, or nearly 10 per cent of those for
which data were available before 1922, could be seen at a glance to
be strikingly inconsistent, and this happened even where the data
appeared to have a high degree of accuracy. The following exam-
ples will serve to illustrate.
Leucosphenite was said to be optically negative, but the values given
for the indices of refraction (% = 1.6445, /3tf = 1.6609, yv = 1.6878) are
those of an optically positive mineral. Tests by the senior author
show that leucosphenite is optically positive.
Lawsonite was stated to have the following properties: a =1.6650,
0 = 1.6690, 7 = 1.6840, 2V = 84 6', optically +. The axial angle, as
computed from the indices of refraction, is 2V = 54. It seems
probable that the axial angle is correct and that /3 should be about
1.6735.
The relation between the axial angle (2V) and the indices of
refraction is expressed by the equation : 6
L_I
-v2 C/32 a2} S2 a2
Cos2 Va = or tan2 V = -

The approximate formula 7

7-a
holds fairly well if the axial angle is small or the birefringence not
too strong. The error in V', as computed from the approximate
formula, is shown in Figure 1. The calculated value of V' is along
the abscissa, and the correction to be added to this value is along the
ordinate. For all the curves the value of a is 1.500, and each curve
is for a particular value of 7 a = B. The curves can be used to
correct calculations made by the approximate formula. In the
accurate equation a, /3, or 7 appear in the same power in both the
numerator and denominator, so that the value of the equation will
ot, Q *v
not be changed if they are replaced by T-> T and-r- Hence to apply
6 For the development of this equation see Johannsen's Manual of petrographic methods, p. 103, 1914.
Kosenbusch (Wulfing), Mikroskopische Physiographie, Band 1, Erste Halfte, pp. 119-121, 1924; Oroth-
Jackson, Optical properties of crystals, p. 143, 1910; Duparc and Pearce, Traitfi de technique mingralogique
et petrographique, pp. 78-80, 1907. For tables and a graphic solution of this equation see Wright, F. E.,
Graphical methods in microscopical petrography: Am. Jour. Sci., 4th ser., vol. 36, pp. 517-533, 1913.
i For a graphic solution of this equation see Wright. F. E., The methods of petrographic-microscopic re-
search: Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub. 158, pi. 9, 1911.
METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS

the correction from the curves to a crystal with a different from


1.500
1.500 it is necessary to calculate B' = (7 a). The value of
B' need be calculated only approximately. To get the correct value
of V from the indices of refraction the approximate value V'a
B a.
should be found from the equation Cos2 V'a = -<Y a or from the
1 50
graph; then B' = (/3-a) and from these two values the correc-
tion to be added to V'a may be read from Figure 1.
The formulae given above indicate the value for the angle about
a, which may be either the acute bisectrix (Bxa) or the obtuse bisec-
trix ~(Bx0). By definition, if a is the acute bisectrix (Bxa) the

FIGURE 1. The error in V'a as computed from the approximate formula Cos' V'a = -

mineral is optically negative and 2V is less than 90 (Va <45).


As tan 45= 1, a mineral is optically negative if - is^^ -

and optically positive if 2 -^ < -^ 2-

Cos 45 = -7= for an optically negative mineral from the approximate


V2
formula
-
7-a V2
or 2 (/3 7)>(7 oi) approximately.
Similarly for an optically positive mineral 2 (7 /3)>(7 a) approxi-
mately.
These approximations hold only where the birefringence is not too
strong. The following values of a, 0, and 7 are for crystals where
2V = 90 and show the increasing error in the approximations as the
birefringence increases:
a= 1.5000 |8= 1.5099 y= 1.5200
a= 1.5000 0= 1.5244 7=1.5500
a= 1.5000 /3=1.5476 7=1.6000
a= 1.5000 |3=1.5906 7= 1.7000
a= 1.5000 /3= 1.6297 7=1.8000
8 MICKOSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

The axial angle is commonly measured in air, and the apparent


axial angle so measured (2E) has the relation to the true axial angle
2V expressed by sin E = /3 sin V, where j3 is the intermediate index
of refraction of the mineral.8
In the preceding equations the values are given for light of a
particular wave length. As the wave length varies the indices of
refraction and consequently 2V will vary, and even the optical
character may change. This variation is called the dispersion of
the optic axes, and 2V may be given for different colors or it may be
given for one color commonly the yellow light of sodium and the
variation with color may be expressed by r<^v (or r^>v), meaning
simply that the axial angle is less (or greater) for red than for violet.
Not only do the values of the indices of refraction change with the
color of light, but the positions of two of the directions X, Y, and Z in
monoclinic and of all three in triclinic crystals change that is, the
extinction angles vary with the color of light. This variation is
called dispersion of the bisectrices. Crossed, horizontal, and inclined
dispersion are simply phenomena due to dispersion of the bisectrices
as observed on the interference figure.
MEASUREMENT OF INDICES OF REFRACTION
The indices of refraction of a mineral can be measured most con-
veniently and accurately on a polished surface with the total refrac-
tometer or somewhat less conveniently on specially prepared and
oriented prisms by the method of minimum deviation. Most min-
erals are not suitable for measurement by either of these methods,
either because suitable plates or prisms can not be prepared or
because the mineral is zoned and so differs in its optical properties
at least as much as the error in the less accurate but much more
rapid embedding method.
THE EMBEDDING METHOD

Fairly accurate measurements of the principal indices of refrac-


tion can be made on a very small quantity of mineral by embedding
the powdered grains in media whose indices of refraction are known
and comparing and matching the indices of the media with each of
those of the mineral by either the method of central illumination
or the method of oblique illumination. The method of oblique
illumination is best used with an objective of low or moderate power
and can therefore be applied to a large number of grains very quickly.
The method of central illumination is best used with an objective of
moderate or high power.
8 For a graphic solution of this equation see Wright, F. E., op. cit., pis. 7 and 8, 1911.
METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS

THE METHOD OF OBLIQUE ILLUMINATION

The index of refraction of a grain embedded in a liquid or other


body and that of the embedding material can be quickly compared
by observing their line of contact under the microscope and shading
a part of the field by placing the finger or a card beneath the con-
denser system, by tilting the mirror, of in some other way. A number
of devices have been recommended for this purpose, and some of the
newer microscopes have special slides inserted. The observation is
best made with a low or moderate power objective and without the
condenser lens. With a low-power objective a mineral that has a
decidedly higher index than the liquid will have a dark border toward
the shaded side of the field and a bright border on the opposite side.
If the grain has a decidedly lower index of refraction the phenomena
are reversed and the bright border is on the shaded side of the field.
With the moderate-power objective and the condenser lens the phe-
nomenon depends on the position of the condenser. If the focus of
the condenser is above the object, the phenomena are as stated above;
if below the slide, the phenomena are reversed. It is best to check ;the
system used by making the test on some known grain;.a thin section
in which orthoclase, quartz, or some other known mineral is in contact
with Canada balsam is good for this purpose. At the same time the
difference in index of refraction between the grain, and liquid can be
estimated by the relief and the amount of shading required to bring
out the relief. This method is equally well adapted to thin sections
and has many advantages over the Becke method or the method of
central illumination, as it can be used with a low-power objective,
and by it every grain in contact with the Canada balsam can be com-
pared with balsam in a very short time..
For simplicity, the grain may be considered isotropic. If mono-
chromatic light is used, and if the grain and liquid have the same
index of refraction for that light and are clear and colorless, the grain
will completely disappear. As most of the liquids commonly used
have a stronger dispersion than most minerals, if the mineral and
liquid have the same index for sodium light the mineral will have a
higher index for the red end of the spectrum and a lower one for the
blue. Hence, if white light is used there is a concentration of reddish
light on one side of the grain and of bluish light on the other side.
For some of the immersion materials notably cinnamon oil the
dispersion is very great, and strongly colored borders are present even
where the index for sodium light of the grain and the liquid differ
in the second decimal place. The relative indices must be judged
from the intensities of the colors. In order for the worker to become
familiar with the color phenomena under various conditions it is well
Wrlght, F. E., The methods of petrographic-microscopic research: Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub. 158,
pp. 92-95,1911.
10 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

to immerse grains with known indices of refraction in oils of known


indices of refraction. For this purpose co of quartz or of calcite is-
constant.
THE METHOD OP CENTRAL ILLUMINATION

As the immersion method is ordinarily used nearly all fragments are1


thinner on the edges than in the center, and if the fragments differ
from the surrounding material in refractive index they will act as
small imperfect lenses toward a beam of nearly parallel light emerging
from the condenser. If such a lenticular fragment has a higher index
of refraction than the embedding medium it tends to focus the light
above its plane, and if the microscope is first focused on the grain and
then raised above focus the interior of the grain will appear more*
highly illuminated. As the microscope tube is raised higher above
focus this highly illuminated area contracts and becomes brighter
a bright line moves into the grain. If the tube is lowered below focu&
the grain appears less highly illuminated than the rest of the field and
a highly illuminated halo surrounds it. As the tube is lowered this
halo moves out from the grain.
If the grain has a lower index of refraction than the embedding
medium it will have a virtual focus below its plane, the phenomena
are reversed, and the grain becomes centrally illuminated as the micro-
scope tube is lowered below focus.
In practice the test is best made with an objective of medium or
high power one with 8-millimeter focus gives good results. The con-
denser may be in or out. The condenser system may be lowered or
the lower diaphragm closed. The most suitable arrangement for a
particular microscope and lens system can best be found by testing it
with grains embedded in media of known indices of refraction.

DISPERSION METHOD

The indices of refraction and the, dispersion can be measured more


accurately (0.001) by the dispersion method of Merwin. 10 The
mineral is embedded in a liquid with a somewhat higher index of
refraction than that of the mineral (for sodium .light). The two
should match for some color of light, and this color is determined by
changing the color of light, using a monochromatic illuminator until
the two match. The mineral is then embedded in a liquid with a
somewhat lower index of refraction, and these two are matched for
some other color of light; In this way the index of refraction of the
mineral is determined for two or more colors of light, and as the
dispersion curve of most minerals is nearly a straight line, the index of
m Posnjak, E., and Merwin, H. E., The system FezOa-SOs-H^O: Am. Chem. Soc. Jour., vol. 44, p. 1970,
1922. Tsuboi, S., A dispersion method of determining the plagioclase in cleavage flakes: Mineralog. Mag.,
vol. 20, pp.1 OM22, 1923.
METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS 11

refraction of the mineral can be determined for sodium light or any


other color of light from a simple plot.
Emmons u has recently described a method depending not only on
the dispersion of immersion media but also on the variation in index of
refraction of a liquid with change of temperature. By the proper
manipulation of the two variables, temperature and wave length, it is
possible to obtain the dispersion curve of a mineral, using only one
mount. The work is facilitated by combining all the necessary
instruments into a single unit.
IMMERSION MEDIA

GENERAL FEATURES

Immersion media should be nearly colorless, chemically stable, and


without disagreeable odor or other objectionable properties. They
should not dissolve or react with the mineral to be immersed. Low
volatility and for many purposes a moderate though not too great
viscosity are desirable. Each liquid should be miscible with the
liquids whose indices of refraction are above and below it, and two
liquids that are to be mixed should have approximately the same rate
of volatilization, as otherwise the mixture may change rapidly. The
index of refraction should not vary too greatly with changes of tem-
perature. A low dispersion is desirable for accurate work, but a rather
strong dispersion facilitates rapid determination.
The authors have found the set of media given in Table 1 satisfac-
tory, and it covers the range of nearly all the minerals.
Satisfactory liquids cover the range of indices of refraction up to 1.87
and above that point low-melting mixtures that remain amorphous on
cooling may be prepared which cover the range up to wLi = 3.17.
The values for the indices of refraction (ri) are for sodium light except
where noted for the sulphur-selenium and selenium-arsenic selenide
melts and are those determined by the senior author at about 20 C.
for liquids purchased in the ordinary market. In the column marked
T-r is given the change in the index of refraction for each degree
centigrade change in the temperature. For all the media given the
index of refraction decreases as the temperature increases. These
values are mostly taken from the literature. The liquids are rather
inexpensive, excepting methylene iodide. All the liquids, except as
noted, will form suitable mixtures with those above and below in the
table in all proportions. Amyl alcohol is unfortunately a solvent for
a number of the minerals that have indices of refraction within its
range, and measurements with it must be made rapidly.
11 Emmons, R. C., The double dispersion method of mineral determination: Am. Mineralogist, vol. 13,
pp. 504-515, 1928; The double variation method of refractive index determination: Idem, vol. 14, pp.
414-426,441-461,1929.
163287 34 2
12 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

TABLE 1. Refractive indices of immersion media 0

n at 20 C. dn
~~dt Dispersion Remarks

Water 1.333 Slight. Dissolves many of the minerals with


low indices.
1.357 "o.'oooio" Slight
1.362 Do.
Ethyl butyrate . 1.381 do
1.386 do
1.393 ... ..do .
1.409 .00042 ..do Dissolves many minerals with which it
is used.
1.448 .00035 .do .
Petroleum oil:<1
1.470 .0004 .do. ,
American alboline 1.477 .0004 ..do-
o'Monochlornaphtha- 1.626 Moderate...
lene.
aMonobromnaphtha- 1.658 .00048 ... .'.do .
lene.
1.737 to 1.741 . 00070 Rather Rather expensive. Discolors on expo-
strong. sure to light, but a little copper or tin
in the bottle will prevent this change.
Methylene iodide satu- 1.778 ..do
rated with sulphur.
Methylene iodide, sul- 1.868 do
phur, and iodides./
1.68 to 2.10
1.998Na tO Very strong,
2.716L1
Selenium and arsenic 2.72to3.17L i do
selenide.

"Another list of immersion media has been given by R. C. Emmons (Am. Mineralogist, vol. 14, pp.
482-483,1929).
' V. T. Harrington and M. S. Buerger used petroleum distillates prepared from kerosene, gasolene, etc.,
for the range from 1.35 to 1.45; the liquids with the lower indices are very volatile (Immersion liquids of
low refraction: Am. Mineralogist, vol. 16, pp. 45-54,1931).
Ordinary fusel oil may be used, but on mixing with kerosene it forms a milky emulsion, which settles
on standing, and then the clear liquid may be decanted off.
d Any of the medicinal oils may be used, such as Nujol.
Hallowax oil is satisfactory.
I To 100 grams methylene iodide add 35 grams iodoform, 10 grams sulphur, 31 grams Snli, 16 grams Asli,
and 8 grams Sbli, warm to hasten solution, allow to stand, and filter off undissolved solids. See Merwin,
H. E., Media of high.refraction: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 3, pp. 35-40,1913.

For fairly accurate work it is desirable to have a set of liquids from


7i = 1.400 to n = 1.87, differing from each other by 0.010, and a set of
the solid media to carry the series up to 7i=2.72, the index of these
media differing by 0.020. For less accurate work the set can be re-
duced to suit the requirements. The most important range is from
1.45 to 1.87, as j8 for about 80 per cent of all the known nonopaque
minerals.falls within this range. There are only about, 11 minerals
in which /3 is below 1.40 and only about 27 in which /3 is above 2.72.
Care should be taken to prevent contamination and evaporation of
the liquids. They are most conveniently kept in tall dropping bottles
that have the combined ground stopper and dropper with glass cap.
However, the oils with an index above about 1.75 tend to crystallize
around the glass stoppers, and these keep much better in cork-
stoppered bottles. A 15 cubic centimeter bottle is the smallest that
is kept in stock by dealers, and even that size is larger than is required
for the ordinary amount of work. It is best to keep the bottles at
least half full, but with methylene iodide economy may dictate the
use of a smaller amount. The bottles should never be allowed to
stand without the stopper and cap in place. A convenient and easily
METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS 13

made case for the bottles is composed of a covered box that opens on
hinges at one end. Ten bottles are kept in a 2-inch board which has
10 holes just large enough to hold the bottles. The box is made to
take as many of these boards with the bottles as desired. The box
should be kept closed, as light affects some of the liquids, notably
methylene iodide.
With proper care a set of liquids made up as directed above will
remain constant, within the limits of error required for most deter-
minative work, for years. A set of 40 such liquids, used constantly
for five years and checked once or twice a year, has rarely shown a
change in any of the liquids of as much as 0.003. One or two liquids
that have methylene iodide as a constituent were nearly all used
up and had changed as much as 0.006. In general the liquids whose
indices of refraction are above 1.75 are less constant.
The embedding media whose indices of refraction are above 1.87
&YQ solid at ordinary temperature and are not quite so convenient
nor accurate as are the liquids. They must not be heated too hot
nor too long or they will change considerably. A small electric
plate with three grades of heat is a convenient means for making
embeddings with these melts. In practice a very small amount of
the embedding medium is melted on a glass slip, a little of the powder
to be examined is dusted into the melt, and a cover glass is pressed
down upon it. In the highly colored melts that are rich in iodides
-or selenium the mineral must be powdered very fine, otherwise the
thick film of the melt is nearly opaque. Borgstrom m has prepared a
series of immersion media made up of AsS and AsBr3 in methylene
.iodide which remain liquid in the region of n = 1.90 .
PIPEKINE AND IODIDES 12

Molten piperine dissolves the tri-iodides of arsenic and antimony


and forms solutions that are fluid at slightly over 100 C. and are
resinlike and amorphous when cold.
In general it has been found that the arsenic and antimony iodides
.available in the market are too impure to use in the preparation of
the piperine-iodide melts, although they are quite satisfactory for.
solution in methylene iodide where impurities are filtered out. Even
small proportions of impurities give a dark or even an almost opaque
melt. The commercial iodides may be dissolved in hot xylene, fil-
tered hot, and allowed to crystallize out on cooling. The cooled
xylene, with part of the iodides still in solution, may then be used to
dissolve a new lot of iodides. However, the same procedure may
be used to make the iodides, as arsenic or antimony readily combine
with iodine in hot xylene. By using iodides prepared in this way, and
with proper precautions to avoid overheating during solution of the
" Borgstrom, L. H., Bin Beitrag zur Entwicklung der Immersionmethode: Comm. ggol. Finlande
Bull. 87, pp. 68-63,1929.
12 Merwin, H. E., Media of high refraction for refractive index determinations with the microscope:
Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 3, pp. 35-40,1913.
14 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQTJE MINERALS

iodides in the piperine, it is possible to procure melts of comparatively


light color and perfect transparency. If overheated, the piperine
decomposes, so it must be heated only slightly above the melting
point but enough for complete solution of the iodides. Piperine
recrystallizes readily after slight heating, but after continued heating
at a proper temperature a change takes place that renders it a perma-
nent amorphous resinlike material. It is advisable to heat the piperine
for about half an hour before adding the iodides.

//
205

200

/;
) I
'/
I,

195

1 //
(j 190
2
L.
U
a //
b 185
X
LJ
O /^
- 180
S >;
-f
175 A
^
170
^
^
5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 9C
9& IODIDES
FIGURE 2. Indices of refraction of mixtures of piperine and iodides

To make such preparations having constant indices of refraction


anywhere within the range n = 1.68 to 2.10, mix three parts by weight
of SbI3 to one part of AsI3, add this mixture to the piperine in the
proper proportion, and heat carefully and stir in a test tube, large
porcelain crucible, or glass flask just above the melting point of
piperine until a homogeneous melt is obtained. A few grams of such
a melt are sufficient for a large number of immersions. The heating
may be done in a bath of crisco or paraffin, in an air bath, or over
but not in the low flame of a bunsen burner or on an electric plate;
stirring is essential to secure homogeneity. Such preparations can be
standardized on the goniometer by measuring a prism molded be-
tween two pieces of cover glass, or weighted quantities of the con-
stituents can be used and the refractive indices of the resulting
preparation obtained from Figure 2. The indices of refraction of
METHODS OF DETEKMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS 15

stich media increase rather rapidly on standing, and they are not
entirely constant for about a month. The total increase in this time
amounts to a few units in the third decimal place. After that time
the indices remain constant and reheating does not affect them. In
Figure 2 curve a shows the indices of freshly made preparations
and curve b the indices of the preparations after they have stood
until constant. The indices of refraction as measured in white light
in these melts (above n = 1.70) are almost those for sodium light.
SULPHUR-SELENIUM MELTS
Melted sulphur and selenium in any proportion readily form a
homogeneous solution which has a constant index of refraction on
cooling and remains amorphous long enough to allow measurements
to be made. Suitable preparations with any index of refraction
from 2.05 to 2.72 can be made by mixing the constituents in the
proper proportion by weight and heating in a test tube just above
the melting point until homogeneous. The mixture must be stirred
and any sulphur that condenses on the upper part of the tube scraped
back into the melt. The refractive indices for melts with different
proportions of sulphur and selenium for light of different wave lengths
are given in Figure 3, and preparations having approximately any
index of refraction can be made by using weighed quantities of the
constituents.
The indices of refraction of melts that contain more than 50 per
cent of sulphur differ considerably according to the treatment, and
this difference, which is probably due to the presence of X and /x
sulphur in different proportions, increases with the amount of sul-
phur. 13 By high heating and quenching the index of refraction may
even be raised 0.05 above that obtained by cooling in air. 14 The
proper treatment is to heat a small amount of the material on an
object glass considerably above the melting point until the dark form
of sulphur is obtained, then to add the mineral grains, press down a
cover glass, and cool rather rapidly on a damp but not wet cloth or
on 'an iron plate. It must also be remembered that sulphur is rather
volatile. If the mineral to be tested is not decomposed by heating,
it is well to mix the powdered embedding material and the mineral
and to cover with a cover glass before heating, or to add the grains
and cover before the final high heating. With proper care an accuracy
of about 0.01 can be attained.
Indices of refraction for sodium light below about 2.20 can be
readily measured in the sulphur-selenium melts, but above that
point, on account of the deep-red color of the melts and the very
_____________________________________________________V____________________________
18 Merwin, H. E., and Larsen, E. S., Mixtures of amorphous sulphur and selenium as immersion media
for the determination of high refractive indices with the microscope: Am. Jour. Sci., 4th ser., vol. 34, pp.
42-47, 1912.
n The piperine-iodide melts are preferable within their range.
16 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

strong dispersion of selenium, it is best to make the measurements


for the red light of lithium. This operation can be easily done by
5
1 7.Se 6O 7O 8O 9O 2 " 1OO
650

Li
2.7
700}

2.6

2.5

2.4

23

n
550

eso eso
Li
7OO 700,

2.)

2.0

n
TO^ 2O 3O 4O SO
. Indices of refraction of mixtures of sulphur and selenium

placing over the eyepiece a color screen made by pressing a thin


film of the melt composed of 70 per cent selenium and 30 per cent
METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS 17

sulphur between two glass plates, as such a film transmits chiefly


light that is about equivalent to lithium light. Such a film crystal-
lizes very slowly. Mixtures containing over 70 per cent selenium
transmit chiefly lithium light, and index measurements made in
such mixtures with white light give nearly the indices for lithium
light.
SELENIUM AND AESENIC SELENIDE MELTS

Dr. Merwin 15 has found that mixtures of selenium and arsenic


selenide cover the range of indices of refraction from nLi=2.72 to
Tin = 3.17. These mixtures melt at rather low temperatures and are
generally satisfactory, although they are deeply colored and measure-
ments must be made for red light. Measurements can be made with
these mixtures with a probable error of less than 0.02, but only under
the most favorable conditions. The mixtures can be made by heating
together metallic arsenic and selenium in weighed quantities or by
first making As2Se3 and then adding the proper proportion of selenium.
Thorough stirring is necessary to insure homogeneous melts. The
following table gives the indices of refraction for different wave
lengths of light for several mixtures of selenium and arsenic selenide.
Indices of refraction for mixtures of selenium and arsenic selenide

60 per 22.6 per


cent Se, cent Se,
* Se 40 per 77.4 per AssSes
cent cent
AssSes AssSes

640 2.78 2.90


660 2.74 2.86 3.06
680 2.71 2.83 3.01 3.17
700 2.68 2.80 2.97 3.13
720 2.66 2.77 2.94 3.10
740 2.64 2.75 2.92 3.07
760 2.02 2.73 2.90 3.05

Dr. Merwin has also stated that a mixture of 10 per cent tellurium
and 90 per cent As2Se3 gives indices of refraction 0.04 higher than the
As2Se3 but is almost too opaque to use with an ordinary tungsten
lamp. By means of direct sunlight or a "pointolite" lamp even more
nearly opaque mixtures can be used.
HALOGENS OF THALLIUM

The halogen compounds of thallium, T1C1, TIBr, Til have been


suggested by Barth 16 as satisfactory immersion media of high refrac-
tion. The index range is large for mixed crystals of TIBr-TlI (2.4-
2.8). These melts transmit a considerable range of the spectrum and
are in that respect superior to the sulphur-selenium melts of the same
index of refraction.
u Merwin, H. E.( private communication. The data are preliminary.
is Earth, Tom, Some new immersion melts of high refraction: Am. Mineralogist, vol. 14, pp. 358-361,1020.
18 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

METHODS OF STANDARDIZING MEDIA FOR MEASURING INDICES OF


REFRACTION

A number of methods of standardizing the embedding media by


the microscope have been devised, 17 but the method that employs
the total refractometer or the method of measuring minimum devia-
tion with a prism are much more satisfactory, and with either method
accuracy to a few units in the fourth decimal place is easily attained.
The Pulfrich refractometer may yield quicker results than the
prism, but it can not be used with media whose indices are greater
than about 1.86, and even with reasonable care it may be seriously
injured by scratching or by corrosion from some of the liquids. The
liquids containing methylene iodide in particular should not be allowed
to remajua on the hemisphere any longer than is necessary, and liquids
from which crystals may separate should not be used, as the crystals
may scratch the hemisphere. 18
The Abbe refractometer is more sturdy and convenient for the
ordinary range of index liquids. Daylight can be used for illumina-
tion.
The method of minimum deviation with a prism is not quite so
rapid as that with the refractometer, but it can be used for the whole
range of embedding media. 19 Any hollow prism can be used, but
suitable prisms can be quickly made from two optically true glass
plates about 5 by 20 millimeters in size by fusing them together at
one corner in a blast lamp, taking care not to bend the glass, so as to
form a prism that has nearly the desired angle. About one in a hun-
dred of a good grade of petrographic object glasses is suitable. The
glasses can be very quickly tested by watching the reflection on all
parts of the glass of a cord in front of a window at a distance of about
10 feet. If the two surfaces are not parallel two reflections will be
seen; if they are not plane surfaces, the reflections will be distorted.
The unfused end of this prism can be pressed onto a small drop of
melted soft glass and a base to the prism thus made. Surface tension
will keep the liquids in place. Instead of being mounted on a glass
base the prism may be mounted in plaster of Paris coated with dental
cement to glaze it. The glass plates should fit closely together, and
it is well to cement the contact on the outside with dental cement to
make a tight joint.
C. S. Ross 20 has shown that better prisms can be made by grinding
a piece of glass to a rough prism of any desired angle by measuring
Johannsen, Albert, Manual of petrographic methods, pp. 265-270,1914. Wright, F. E., Measurement
of the refractive index of a drop of liquid: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 4, pp. 269-279,1914.
18 For a description of the crystal refractometer and its use see Rosenbusch (Wiilflng), Mikroskopische
Physiographic, Band 1, Erste Halfte, pp. 650-59,1924. Qroth, Physikalische Krystallographie, pp. 704-711,
1905. Duparc and Pearce, Trait6 de technique mineralogique et pfitrographique, pp. 385-392, Leipzig, 1907.
19 For a description of this method see Groth, op. cit., pp. 27, 690-696,1905; Duparc and Pearce, op. cit.,
pp. 26, 369-376, or any textbook on light.
so Private communication.
METHODS OF DETEEMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS 19
with a contact goniometer, grinding the edges of the two glass plates
so that they will fit tightly together, and cementing the glass plates to
the prism with bakelite so that a few millimeters of the glass plates will
project above the top of the glass prism. The edges of the glass
plates are also cemented with bakelite. It is convenient to have the
top of the prism slope into the angle between the plates and thus
make a tight receptacle for the
drop of liquid.
A prism angle of about 60 is
best for liquids that have mod-
erate indices of refraction. A
much smaller prism angle one
of 30 or less must be used for
liquids that have high indices of
refraction. If a prism is to be
used for a series of measurements
a curve or a table should be con-
structed to show the index of
refraction corresponding to any
angle of minimum deviation.
For the mixture of sulphur and
selenium, the pipeline prepara-
tions, or other solids, the prism
can be molded between fragments
of cover glass.
In Figure 4 the front and side
view of a prism made at the Har-
vard laboratory is shown. As
this prism has rendered excellent
TE
o
service over a period of years, it is
recommended as a completely
satisfactory means of measuring
liquids by means of the minimum
deviation method. The device
consists of a plate A, which fits
into the goniometer head by
means of the pin B. On the FIGURE 4. Top and side views of brass frame for
plane surface of A two guide pins, prism for determination of the refractive indices
of liquids. One-third actual scale
G, project into holes in D, which
is carefully fitted to the lower plate. The upper portion of the prism
and the plate upon which it rests are constructed of one piece of brass
to prevent unnecessary movement. The upper part of the prism is
cut at the desired angle, in this instrument about 50, and sloped
somewhat, as shown in the side view, so that the introduced drop
20 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQTJE MINERALS

will, tend to lie in the narrow portion of the prism. The glass plates,
beveled to fit closely together at one end, are held in place by two
brass clamps, as shown in the figure. Canada balsam or a glass
cement will hold the glass.plates together.
The whole top portion of the prism may be removed from the plate
clamped to the goniometer, without altering the adjustment of the
prism. This convenience enables one easily to clean the prism. The
dimensions given are those for the prism in use at. the Harvard
laboratories.
MEASUREMENT OF ALL INDICES OF REFRACTION OF CRYSTALS

Most crystals have two (o> and e) or three (a, 0, and 7) principal
indices of refraction, and for accurate work it is desirable to measure
them all. If it is not necessary to measure all of the indices it is best
to measure a .particular one, preferably 3, as otherwise any value
from the lowest to the highest may be measured. If /? is measured
the others can, be estimated from the birefringence and the axial angle.
The measurements of all the indices of refraction of a mineral can
be made very quickly and within the limits of accuracy of the immer-
sion method if the powdered grains show no marked tendency to
lie on a particular face or cleavage, as do those of the micas, calcite,
and many other minerals. Grains of minerals with such cleavages
as the amphiboles, pyroxenes, and feldspars can generally be turned
to any orientation without much difficulty. To test the lowest and
the highest indices of refraction of such minerals against the embed-
ding media a grain should be chosen'that appears to show strong
birefringence, both the thickness of the grain and the interference
color being taken into account. The grain should be turned to
extinction and tested against the embedding medium, then turned' to
the other extinction (or the lower nicol should be revolved 90) and
tested again. This procedure should be repeated on a number of
grains, and with a little practice, unless the birefringence is extreme,
many of them will show the lowest index of refraction, equal to a, or
the highest index equal to 7, within the limits of error of the immersion
method. For any gram or any orientation of a crystal plate /3 lies
between the highest and the lowest values measured. Therefore /3
can be measured on a grain that shows no measurable birefringence.
Such a grain is nearly normal to an optic axis and is suitable for
observing the optical character, the size of the axial angle, and the
dispersion of the optic axis. If the dispersion is considerable it will
give abnormal interference colors without extinction.
Uniaxial minerals may be considered simply as a small group of
biaxial minerals in which is equal to a for a positive mineral and
METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS 21

to 7 for a negative one. The lowest index of every grain of a uniaxial


positive mineral and the highest of. a uniaxial negative mineral is
equal to w and can be measured on any grain.
It may be desirable to turn the grain over. This can be done by
shifting the cover glass with the point of a pencil. The movement can
be controlled better with a viscous immersion medium than with one
that is very fluid. Small cover glasses are more satisfactory than
large ones, as they are much more easily manipulated. A cover glass
11 millimeters in diameter, divided into quarters or even ninths, is
most used by the author. By turning and transferring a single small
crystal to different media all the optical properties can be measured.
Some grains may be conveniently oriented by observing interference
figures. A section normal to the acute bisectrix will give ]8 normal
to the plane of the optic axes, and in that plane a for, a positive
mineral or 7 for a negative mineral. A section normal to the obtuse
bisectrix gives /3 and 7 or a; one parallel to the plane of the optic axes
gives a and 7. Any section normal to the plane of the optic axes
gives. 0.
Fibrous or prismatic fragments require a somewhat different
treatment. If their extinction is nearly or quite parallel they will
give one of the principal indices when turned with their length par-
allel to the plane of vibration of the lower nicol. The other two indices
can be measured across the fibers by measuring a number of fibers,
provided the mineral does not persist in lying on a particular face.
In that event it may be necessary to roll a fiber, keeping it parallel
to the cross hairs, and to observe the maximum or minimum index
as it revolves. With a little practice this work can be done easily,
unless the mineral is composed of very thin, broad laths. The face
or cleavage on which a mineral tends to lie is likely to be normal to
one of the principal optical directions. This tendency may be tested
by an interference figure. On grains that show this tendency two of
the indices of refraction can readily be measured and the other index
can be obtained by turning the flake on edge. Winchell 21 proposed
inclosing a fibrous or lath-shaped mineral in a capillary tube and
turning the capillary.
Monoclinic minerals that are prismatic along (c) or (a) show
parallel extinction for prisms that lie on any face parallel to crystal
axis b and nearly the maximum inclined extinction if turned parallel
to the face (010) which is normal to that axis. Prisms that lie on
a face parallel to axis b will give for the ray vibrating across the
prism the index of refraction (a, /3, or 7) of the ray which vibrates
parallel to axis b. Prisms that lie on the face (010) will give the
other two indices of refraction and also the extinction angle, X
(Y or Z) to c (or a). Triclinic fibers that have inclined extinction
11 Winchell, A. N., Camsellite and szaibelyite: Am. Mineralogist, vol. 14, pp. 48-49,1929.
are more difficult to measure, but with a little ingenuity measure-
ments can usually be made. The stronger the birefringence, how-
ever, the more accurate must be the orientation to obtain accurate
results.
Platy minerals, such as mica, are more difficult to manipulate,
and if their birefringence is considerable they require skill and
patience in order to get good results. Fortunately in nearly all such
minerals the rays corresponding to one index vibrate nearly or-quite
normal to the plate and those corresponding to the other two vibrate
in the plane of the plate and can be easily measured. The index
normal to the plate can be obtained by turning the plates and
keeping them on edge; this can often be done in a viscous liquid or
they may be measured as they are turned. It is sometimes helpful
to mix a little powdered glass with the mineral or to have grains
of varying size to separate the cover glass and object glass enough
so that the mineral plates can turn over. One of two plates that
are differently oriented and attached together may be more easily
turned on edge. Many such minerals can be cut with a knife across
the plates and the resulting fragments placed on the object glass
in the position desired.
MEASUREMENTS OF AXIAL, ANGLES

The following methods of estimating or measuring the axial angle


of mineral grains have been found most convenient by the author:
(1) Observing the curvature of the hyperbola in sections cut nearly
normal to an optic axis; (2) measuring or estimating the distance
between the hyperbolas on a section cut nearly normal to the acute
bisectrix; (3) computing the axial angle from the three indices of
refraction; 22 (4) measuring on the universal stage. All observations
are best made on grains immersed in a medium that has an index of
refraction approximately equal to that of 0 for the mineral.
From the curvature of the hyperbola of an interference figure
the axial angle can be measured, under favorable conditions, with
an error of 3.23 With a little experience a rough estimate can be
made by merely inspecting the curvature of the hyperbola. If the
bar appears straight, when turned to the 45 position the axial angle
is nearly 90, and as the curvature becomes greater the axial angle
becomes smaller.
More accurate and rapid measurements can be made on sections
approximately normal to the acute bisectrix, provided the axial
angle is not so large that the hyperbolas are outside the field of the
microscope. Measurements of the axial angle in air (2E), by using
22 For an excellent discussion of measurements of axial angles, see Wright, F. E., The methods of petro-
graphic-microscopic research: Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub. 158, pp. 147-200, 1911.
> 3 Wright, F. E., op. cit., pp. 155 et seq.
METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS 23

a cross-grating ocular, can be made on such sections in a few minutes


with a probable error of only a few degrees.23 A grain that is not
well oriented can commonly be turned by carefully touching the
cover glass. The Fedorov stage can be used to measure the axial
angle.
The axial angle can be computed from the values of the three
indices of refraction according to the formula

_L__L
Tan2 VY = ^ y

or by the approximate formula 24

Cos2 V'a -^
7 a
in which 2Va is the axial angle about a. For a discussion of these
formulae see page 6. As the error in measuring the indices of
refraction by the immersion method is considerable in comparison
with the birefringence of most minerals, this method is very rough
unless the birefringence is considerable.
DISPERSION OF THE OPTIC AXES
The dispersion formula r^>v (or r<j)} simply means that the axial
.angle is greater (or less) for red than for violet light. For rapid work
the dispersion can best be observed on an interference figure which
shows at least one optic axis well in the field of vision. For ortho-
. rhombic minerals or for monoclinic minerals in which the plane of
the optic axes contains the crystal axis b both hyperbolas must show
the same dispersion, but for otl^er crystals the dispersion may be
different for the two optic axes, and to determine definitely the
dispersion both optic axes must be taken into account, or, better, the
axial angles should be measured for different colors of light. For
crystals in which both hyperbolas show the same dispersion, if r<w
is moderate the dark hyperbola should show on a sharp interference
figure a faint but distinctly perceptible reddish color on the concave
side and bluish on the convex side. These borders are reversed if
.r>w. If the dispersion is strong these borders become pronounced,
.and many minerals show no dark hyperbola but a series of colored
ones. If the dispersion is extreme the interference figure can hardly
be recognized in white light.
Wright, F. E., op. cit., pp. 155 et sea..
24 A graphic solution of this equation is given in Wright, F. E., op. cit., pi. 9.
24
OPTICAL CHARACTER
The optical character of a mineral can be conveniently determined
on grains that show the emergence of the acute bisectrix, the obtuse
bisectrix, either of the optic axes, or the optic normal (Y); it can
also be determined from the values for the indices of refraction. In
making any of the tests it is desirable to have the grains embedded
in a medium that has an index of refraction nearly that of the /?
index of refraction of the mineral grain, as otherwise the interference
figure will be distorted. Grains can be turned into the desired
position by gently shifting the cover glass. In a viscous liquid, such
as Canada balsam, even fibrous or micaceous minerals can readily be
turned to any desired orientation. A few grains of powdered glass,
dusted through the embedding media will raise the cover glass so
that the grains or fibers can be turned. Highly viscous liquids like
Canada balsam, Peru balsam (n= 1.593), bakelite varnish (ft, = 1.63),
or AFS mounting medium (n = 1.685) are good media in which
to turn fibers on edge. Sections that show the emergence of an optic
axis are by far the most serviceable, as they can easily be recognized
by their interference colors, which are low to zero, and in minerals
that have moderate or strong dispersion are abnormal. Moreover,
in such sections the acute and obtuse bisectrices can be distinguished,
unless the axial angle is very near 90. The tests are made in the
usual way. The authors use the red of the first order for most tests,
but for minerals that are deeply colored, especially if they have very
strong birefringence or if the grains are embedded in a deeply colored
melt, the quartz wedge is more satisfactory. It is often convenient
or even necessary to determine the position of the optic plane and
make the test on the grain itself by observing an edge where it wedges
out. The tests can be made without a wedge or plate by observing
the indices in the two directions against the embedding media,
provided it is between the two or near one of them.
The optical character can be determined from the indices of refrac-
tion. If /3 a is decidedly greater than 7 /3 the mineral is optically
negative; if decidedly less it is positive. (See p. 7.) Thi relation
should be used chiefly as a check on the other data, but for some
fibrous minerals whose acute bisectrix is along the fibers it may be
the only means of readily determining the optical character.
OPTICAL ORIENTATION, DISPERSION OF BISECTRICES,
AND CRYSTAL SYSTEM
Crystal habit and prominent cleavage, twinning, and other phe-
nomena may be quickly observed under the microscope and their
relations to the optical characters determined. By observing the in-
terference figure the complete optic orientation of any gram, such as
one lying on a cleavage or a crystal face, can be roughly made out.
METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS 25

This observation is especially suitable for determining the optical


position that corresponds to the direction normal to the grain. The
orientation in the plane of the section can best be obtained by meas->
uring extinction angles and determining the position of the slow ray
and the fast ray by means of a red of the first order or a quartz wedge,
or by testing the indices against the embedding medium. The dis-
persion of the bisectrices can be determined by measuring extinction
angles in different colors of light. For ordinary purposes it is suffi-
cient to observe the color phenomena in ordinary daylight when the
crystal is near extinction. If the dispersion is slight the extinction
should be sharp; if considerable there will be no sharp extinction but
abnormal interference colors over a range depending on the extent of
the dispersion.
It is commonly possible to determine the crystal system to which
a mineral belongs from the microscopic study. The fact that min-
erals such as biotite may be sensibly uniaxial or may give sensibly
parallel extinction introduces some uncertainty.
Isotropic minerals are amorphous or isometric. Uniaxial minerals
are tetragonal or hexagonal. Biaxial minerals with parallel or sym-
metrical extinction are orthorhombic. Biaxial minerals with inclined
extinction for fragments normal to one principal optical direction
and parallel or symmetrical for those normal to the plane of the other
two are monoclinic. Biaxial minerals with inclined or unsymmetrical
extinction for all orientations are triclinic.
Monoclinic minerals elongated in the direction of crystal axes a or c
can be conveniently examined by rolling the fragments. When such
fragments are turned so as to give parallel extinction crystal axis b
and one principal optical direction lie across the length. When the
fragments lie on a face normal to crystal axis b they should show
approximately the maximum extinction angle. In the conoscope an
interference figure should also appear in the center of the field of the
microscope. Such sections will give the characteristic extinction
angle X (Y or Z) /\c (or a). Pleochroism can be conveniently
observed at the same time.'
An adequate optical orientation of triclinic minerals may be accom-
plished by the use of the Fedorov universal stage and the convenient
accessory, the Wulff stereographic net. Recently use has been made
of this method, but no uniformity in recording results has been hereto-
fore proposed. The logical method to record an optical orientation
seems to be the one wherein the optical elements are assigned coordi-
nate values on the same projection with the crystallographic elements
in the standard orientation. As an example of this method of indi-
cating the optical positions, Figure 5, a, below gives the orientation of
axinite, measured with x (111) parallel to the section that is, the
normal to x is at the center of projection. However, this is not the
26
accepted orientation for axinite, so the entire projection has been
shifted until 6 (010) and m (110) have assumed their normal position,
90 from the center of projection. Further, by convention, the form
6 (010) is on the zero meridian; this involves one more simple shift of
the projection, so that the conventional position is obtained. (See
fig. 5, 6.) The Wulff net greatly facilitates the changes required.
The data for the preparation of a table of coordinate angles, such as
given below for axinite, may be read directly from the net, for the
measurements made on the Fedorov stage are ordinarily not more
accurate than a degree or more.
In the table the angles <j> and p are those ordinarily used by crystal-
lographers to indicate the angular.positions of face poles on a projec-
tion. Thus 0 is the angle from the zero meridian, read in a clock-

FIQURE 5. Stereographic projection of the optical elements of a triclinic mineral (axinite). Na, N>,
N-y are the poles of the vibration directions of the three indices of refraction. 6=face (010), w=(llO),
M=(lIO), i=(lll). A and B emergence of the two optic axes, a, Projection on z(lll). 6, Projection
with the prism zone vertical

wise direction. Counterclockwise from the zero meridian the readings


are negative. The angular values given are conventionally not
greater than 180. The p values indicate the angular inclination of
the point from the center of the projection. These angles therefore
do not exceed 90 in value.
Optical orientation of axinite

<t> p * p
0 0

b (010)-_.-_ .__...__. 0 90 Z_. ................... -93 42


53 55 A... ......_.. _._.__ 18 24
"Y... ................. 156 72 B._... .__--_.--__.__. 65 90
METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS 27

Extinction angles may be determined graphically when the positions


of the axial angle are placed on the projection. The graphic method
is recommended for such a determination, because, as before stated,
ordinary measurements on the Fedorov stage do not justify more
precise methods.

The dispersion of the indices of refraction is easily measured by


VTerwin's dispersion method and is a significant diagnostic property,
[t should be used more than it is.
OTHER TESTS
The optical properties are sufficient for the accurate determination
of most minerals, but the occurrence and association of the mineral
should be considered, a macroscopic examination made, and such
simple properties as hardness noticed. It may be desirable also to
determine the fusibility and the specific gravity or to make simple
chemical tests. Microchemical examinations have not received the
attention from mineralogists that they deserve. X-ray photographs
are valuable aids and in some determinations are indispensable.

163287 34
CHAPTER 3 SOME STATISTICS ON THE OPTICAL PROPER-
TIES OF MINERALS
DISTRIBUTION OF MINERALS WITH REGARD TO
OPTICAL CHARACTER
The tables in chapter 4 contain data for about 1,200 mineral
species, but some species appear more than once, and there are about
1,700 entries. They are distributed as follows:
Per cent Per cent
Isotropic.._______---___-___- 14. 9 Biaxial-K_---_-_---_-------- 30. 3
Uniaxial-f-__-__----_-______ 6.8 Biaxial-..---.-.-.------__ 31.8
Uniaxial-_____________ 13. 8 Optical character unknown 1 _ _ _ 2. 4

Many of the-iso tropic minerals are amorphous, and some minerals


that are placed under the uniaxial groups are strictly biaxial but
have small axial angles or their apparent uniaxial character is due
to aggregate polarization of fibers or lamellae. A few of those
included in the biaxial groups are uniaxial and appear biaxial on
account of strain.
The small number of uniaxial positive minerals as compared with
uniaxial negative minerals is noteworthy. A significant feature of
the revised edition is the lowering of the percentage of minerals
entered as of optical character unknown.
DISTRIBUTION OF MINERALS WITH REGARD TO INDEX
OF REFRACTION AND BIREFRINGENCE
The distribution of the minerals with regard to their intermediate
index of refraction 0 is shown in Figure 6. For only 10 minerals, or
less than 1 per cent of the total number, is 0 less than 1.400, and for
only about 28, or about 2 per cent, is 0 greater than 2.70. For
about 54 per cent of all the minerals 0 is between 1.475 and 1.700.
The distribution of the minerals with respect to their birefringence
is shown in Figure 7. Curve 1 shows that the greater number of the
minerals have a birefringence of about 0.018 and that the number
rapidly decreases on both sides of this value. Curves 2 to 5 show the
distribution as regards birefringence of the minerals whose indices
of refraction 0 lie between certain values. The greater number of
minerals in which 0 is lower than 1.80 have birefringence of about
0.015. For minerals in which 0 lies between 1.80 and 2.00 the
greatest density of distribution is for a birefringence of about 0.035,
and for those in which 0 is greater than 2.00 there is no marked.
28
SOME STATISTICS ON THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES 29
30
maximum for the curve. These curves show a striking tendency for
minerals which have high indices of refraction to have also strong
birefringence. This tendency is equally well shown by the per-
centage distribution of minerals which have birefringence greater
than 0.20.
Percentage of minerals with /3 between given values and with birefringence greater
than 0.2
Per cent . Per cent
less than 1.80______---------- 2 (S between 2.2 and 2.6---_-_----_ 10
between 1.80 and 2.0__---_--_- 11 /3 greater than 2.6____--_------_ 48
between 2.0 and 2.2___________ 14
.RELATION BETWEEN INDEX OF REFRACTION, DENSITY,
AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Gladstone and Dale long ago showed that


Every liquid has a specific refractive energy composed of the specific refractive
energies of its component elements, modified by the manner of combination, and
which is unaffected by changes of temperature and accompanies it when mixed
with other liquids. The product of this specific refractive energy and the density
is, when added to unity, the refractive index.25
Or,
n 1 -r

where K is the specific refractive energy of any substance and


k\, k2, Pi, pz, etc., are the specific refractive energies and the weight
percentages of the components of that substance. These components
may be the elements or radicals that enter into a compound or the
constituents of a solution. In general these relations hold rather
accurately for varying temperature, pressure, and concentration
in liquids and gases, but when applied to a substance in a different
state as liquid and gas the formula gives errors as great as 30
per cent. On the basis of the electromagnetic theory of light Lorentz
n2 i 1
and Lorenz independently derived the formula -2 T~o ' j = k- This
71 T" Zi CL
formula holds somewhat better for substances in a different state
but nevertheless gives a considerable error. Another formula recently
proposedJ *26 is lg n
% = TT
K.

Moreover, some substances, as oxygen in some organic compounds,


have two or more specific refractive energies, depending on the
structure of the molecule.
" Gladstone, J. H., and Dale, T. P., Researches on the refraction, dispersion, and sensitiveness of liquids:
Roy. Soc. London Philos. Trans., vol. 153, p. 337, 1864.
46 Liehtenecker, K., Phys. Zeitschr., vol. 27, pp. 115-139, 1926.
SOME STATISTICS ON THE OPTICAL PHOPERTIES 31
When Gladstone's law is applied to crystalline substances the
mean index of refraction or must be used and the
relations hold only approximately. The formula Vo>2e r V^T,
however, should be used where the birefringence is very strong.
In .applying these formulae to minerals, additional difficulties are
introduced, as determinations of density are commonly unreliable,
and the chemical composition of the material for which the indices
of refraction are available may be imperfectly known. However,,
the values shown in Table 2 for the specific refractive energies
f -j = k } of the chief constituents of minerals have been com-
puted by taking the average as derived from a number of minerals',
for which the available data seemed fairly reliable.
TABLE 2. Specific refractive energies ( j- =kj of the chief constituents of minerals',

Molecular k Molecular k
weight weight

HsO.. ................. 18 0. 3355. AsaOs- ......... - 198 0.202,0.225.


0.340, ".354 Y2 03 ............ . 226 .144!
LhO.. .............. 30 .31 SbiOs.. ................ 228.4 o . 209, < ..232:
(NHOaO. .............. 52 .503 LaaOa. ................. 326 .1491
NauO. ................. 62 .181 Cea03 . ................. 328.5 .16
K20.. ................. 04 .189 BiaOa-.. ....... ... ~ 464 .165
CuaO. ................. 143 .250 COa.... ................ 44 .21T
RbaO. ................. 187 .129 SiOa... .......... ...... 60 .207"
AgaO........... ........ 232 .154 TiO2 . .................. SO .397'
CsaO... ................ 282 .124 SeOa. ................ .. 111 .147-
HgjO. ................. 416 . 169 6 i ZrOa... ........ ...... .. 122.5 .201
TlaO. .................. 424 .120 SnOa... ......... __ ... 151 .145
BeO. .................. 25 .238 SbOa... ................ 152 . .198
MgO................... 40.4 .200 TeOa..... .............. 159.5 '.200a
CaO. .................. 56 .225 ThOa-. . ............ 264.5 .12
MnO. ................. 71 *. 191, . 224 N20j.. ................. 108 .240
FeO.. ............... .. 72 .187 PaOs. .................. 142 .190
NiO. .................. 75 .184 ClaOj.. ........ ........ 151 .218-
CoO. .......... ...i..-- 75 .184 V208 . .................. 182.4 .43
CuO. .................. 79.6 .191,.253ii 230 .169
ZnO. .......... ........ 81.4 <*. 153,'. 183 BraOs.. _ ............. 240 .183
SrO. ....... ...... ...... 103.6 .143 CbaOa..... ........... .. 268 .295
CdO. .................. 128.4 .134 SbaOj.. ...... ..I....... 320.4 . 152, .222(?>
BaO. .................. 153.4 .127 IsOs....... ............. 334 .177
HgO. .................. 216 .18 TaaOj...... ........ .... A A ft .133
PbO. .................. 223 ".137,M75 t i SOj.. .................. 80 .177
BaOs........ .. ......... 70 . 220 CrOs ................ 100 .36
CaOa ................ 72 .265 127 .165
AlaOs.. . .... ........ 102 . 193, / . 214 .24U,.
152 .27 Te03 ... .. ----- 175.6 .607
158 rf.300, '.304..1 W03 -- . ............. 235 .133
FeaOa.. ............. 160 rf . 308, . 36 ! U03 - ............. 286.5 .134

o Water and ice. / Calculated from feldspar, feldspathoids, etc..


6 Average. ' Isometric oxide.
Alums, etc. * Monoclinic oxide.
d Calculated from compounds containing the oxide. ' Orthorhombic oxide.
Calculated from the oxide.

Atomic k Atomic k
weight weight

H. .................... 1 1. 256 or 1. 44 S .. ............... .. 32 i 0. 502, * 1. 00


C. .................... 12 .403 Cl.. .................. 35.5 .303.
O. ........ ............ 16 .203 Br. ................... 80 .214
P.. ................... 19 .043 I..... ................. 127 .226

Calculated from native sulphur. * Calculated from sulphides; values vary.


32 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

These values are only approximate, but in a number of minerals


selected at random the value of k as computed from n and d and as
computed from that of its constituents agreed with few exceptions
within 5 per cent. A very few minerals show a much greater
difference.
As shown in the table for most radicals, the value of k is near 0.20.
For S, (NH4)20, Ti02, Te03, and V2O5, it is higher, and for Cs2O,
BaO, PbO, Th02, U03, and F it is much lower. There is a tendency
for the value of k in each group to decrease as the molecular weight
increases, but there are many exceptions. The values of k for
BaO, SrO, and CaO show why related minerals of these three oxides
have about the same indices of refraction but very different densi-
ties. The values for Cb205 and Ta205 show why the columbates
commonly have higher indices of refraction but lower densities
than the corresponding tantalates. The extremely low value for
fluorine accounts for the remarkably low indices of refraction and
comparatively high densities of the fluorides.
Minerals containing any of the following radicals as essential con-
stituents are likely to show strong dispersion: (NH4)20, N 205, U03 ,
:Sb206, AsaOs, P206, V20fi, Fe203, Mn203, Mo03, or Ti02.
CHAPTER 4 TABLES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MIN-
ERALS FROM THEIR OPTICAL PROPERTIES
ARRANGEMENT OF THE DATA IN THE TABLES

In Table 3 the minerals are arranged in the order of their mean


indices of refraction (|3 or w) and the birefringence is added.
In Table 4 the minerals are divided into six groups isotropic,
uniaxial positive, uniaxial negative, biaxial positive, biaxial negative,
or optical character unknown. The last group includes only a few
minerals, mostly very finely crystalline. As the indices of refraction
are the most characteristic and the most easily measured of the
optical constants, the minerals in each group are arranged in the order
of the intermediate index of refraction, /3.
The data for each mineral are arranged along a horizontal line.
The left-hand column shows the variability. For biaxial minerals
the next three columns show the three indices of refraction in the
order a, 7, /3. The birefringence is not given, for it can be determined
by subtracting a from 7. After the indices of refraction the name of
the mineral is given, and beneath it the chemical composition. Then
follows the axial angle, 2V and 2E, and beneath it the dispersion of
the optic axis. 2E becomes indeterminate as it approaches 180,
and so such values are not given. Next comes the optical orientation,
and beneath it the dispersion of the principal optical directions
(bisectrices). The crystal system is next given, and beneath it the
crystal habit. The next column shows the cleavage, and the next
the color of the mineral in the hand specimen. Then follows the
hardness, specific gravity, and fusibility. In the last column, under
remarks, is given the group to which the mineral belongs, the solubil-
ity, the pleochroism, twinning, and other properties. For isotropic
and uniaxial minerals the arrangement is the same, but some of the
columns are omitted. For a few minerals only one index of refraction
is known, and the birefringence (B) is then given.
The birefringence is said to be weak if it is less than 0.010, moderate
if between 0.010 and 0.025, strong if between 0.025 and 0.100, very
strong if between 0.100 and 0.200, and extreme if greater than 0.200.
The axial angle (2V) is said to be small if it is estimated to be less than
30, moderate if between 30 and 60, and large if over 60. The
dispersion of the optic axis is said to be perceptible if a good inter-
ference figure shows faintly perceptible colored borders, weak if a
33
34 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQTJE MINERALS

little more easily seen, moderate if easily seen, strong if the hyperbolas
are rather broad, colored bands, and extreme if the colored hyperbolas
cover much of the field of the microscope.
The attempt has not been made to describe all the phenomena ob-
served under the microscope but rather to give the chief optical con-
stants and any exceptional properties that are not simply manifesta-
tions of these optical constants. For example, the section (OK)} of a
monoclinic mineral with strong dispersion of the bisectrices will not
give sharp extinction in white light but a succession of abnormal
interference colors over an angle whose width depends upon the
strength of dispersion. Minerals that have strong dispersion of the
optic axis will give abnormal interference colors in white light on
sections nearly normal to an optic axis. In general, abnormal inter-
ference colors are due to strong dispersion. The positions of the
optical directions with relation to cleavage or other crystal direction
are easily determined, except in triclinic minerals, if the position of
the cleavage and of the principal optical directions in the crystal are
known. For example, gypsum has a very perfect cleavage {Old}
and Y = 6; hence cleavage pieces are parallel to the plane of the optic
axes and will show the emergence of Y.
Minerals for which new measurements were made for these tables
are marked with an asterisk (*). Under remarks the source of the
specimen examined is given. There are about 80 of these minerals,
and these new data have not in general been published elsewhere.
In Tables 5 to 24 we have assembled for some of the well-known
mineral groups the optical data that are most useful for distinguishing
between members of the group. The groups are arranged in alpha-
betical order, and the arrangement within the groups is much the
same as in Table 4. .
COMPLETENESS OF THE DATA

In the classification and nomenclature of the minerals Dana's


"System of mineralogy" has been followed with few exceptions,
although that classification is now greatly in need of revision. With
the exception'of the opaque minerals and a few others that are noted
in the index and elsewhere, all the species recognized in Dana's
System, including the first three appendices, are included in the tables
as well as a considerable number of minerals not considered species
in the system and many subspecies of the better known groups.
Some minerals whose optical properties differ in different specimens
have been inserted in the tables several times. The indices of refrac-
tion of about 20 very rare minerals have been roughly estimated
from the chemical composition and specific gravity, and these esti-
mated indices have determined the position of the minerals in the
tables.
TABLES FOR DETERMINATION OF MINERALS 35
It must be borne in mind that a large number of the minerals
are variable in all their properties through isomorphism and solid
solution. For the most species this variability is within moderate
limits, and if the properties of the end members are known those of
the intermediate members can be estimated. As yet only a few
mineral groups have been systematically studied and for many
groups the only available constants are for one or more imperfectly
placed intermediate members. Where the data were available the
end members are placed in the tables and, in many groups, one or
more intermediate members. Ultimately it is hoped that all optical
measurements will be closely tied to good chemical analyses. The
data given in the tables as a rule are commonly for particular speci-
mens, and other specimens, even from the same locality, may differ
somewhat in indices of refraction and other properties. If the axial
angle is large a comparatively small difference may change the optical
character and such minerals should be looked for in both the optically
positive and negative groups.
For more complete descriptions of the minerals the standard min-
eralogies should be consulted, particularly Dana's "System of
mineralogy", Hintze's "Handbuch der Mineralogie", Winchell's
"Elements of optical mineralogy", and Kosenbusch-Mugge's "Mikro-
skopische Physiographie, Band 1, Zweite Halfte."
TABLES
TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of
refraction, j8, and showing their birefringences

P Birefringence 0 Birefringence

Air................ .. 1.000 0.000 1.454 0.008


Ice........ ............. 1.309 .004 Wattevillite. ...... .... 1.455 .024
Malladrlte. ... ....... 1.312 .003 Epsomite ............... 1.455 .028
1.325 .001 Sassolite ................ 1.456 .119
Villiaumite .... ... 1.328 Alum ................... 1.456 .000
Water.................. 1.333 .000 Yttrofluorite... ........ 1.457 .000
1.339 .000 Mendozite .............. 1.458 .026
Cryolite ________ 1.339 .001 Tschermiglte ........... 1.459 .000
Cryolithlonite .......... 1.339 .000 Chrysocolla(?) .......... 1.46=b .11
ChioHte.. .............. 1.349 ftffi Opal... ................ 1.46 .000
Cryptohalite.. ......... 1.370 .000 Mallardite- _ . .......
Sellaite..... . ........ 1.378 .012 Tincalconite ............ 1.461 .013
Mirabilite........ ...... 1.395 .004 Melanophlogite ......... 1.461 .000
Chrysocolla(?). ...... 1.40 Mendozite .............. 1.461 .014
Termlerite .............. 1. 403 .000 Lechatelierite ........... 1.462 .000
Opal. __ . ............. 1. 406 .000 Plcromerite ............. 1.463 .015
1.413 .009 Mendozite ______ 1.463 .012
Thomsenollte ........... 1.414 .008 Aluminite .............. 1.464 .011
1.425 .035 Lansfordite ............. 1.468 .051
1.427 \f .000 Halloysite .............. 1. 470 .000
to weak. 1.47 .03
Opal.. ................. 1.43 .000 Omelinite. ............. 1.47 .004
1.434 .000 Tridymite- ............ 1.47 .004
Fluorite . _ ......... 1.434 .000 1.47 .000
Opal. .................. 1. 440=fc .000 1. 47=fc .000
1.440 .005 1.470 .036
1.44 .014 1.470 .009
1.44 .000 1.470 .025
Stercorite ............... 1.441 .030 Boussingaultite ......... 1.470 .010
Taylorite... _ ...... 1.448 .012 Kernite ___ .......... 1.472 .034
Covellite _ . _ - ....... 1.45 Flokite.... ............. 1.473 .002
Lecontite ...... ......... 1.452 .013 1.474 1( .001
KaJinite .. _ ........ 1. 452 .028 to . 008
Hexahydrite ............ 1.453 .030 Ptilolite................ 1.475 .003
Sulphohalite ............ 1.454 .000 Mordenite. ............. 1.475 .004
36 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of


refraction, ft, and showing their birefringences Continued

ft Birefringence ft Birefringence

1.474 0.029 1.505 0.005


1 471 .011 1.605 .000
1.476 .009 Mesolite ______ 1.505 .001
1.476 <vu 1.505 .172
1.477 .013 1.505 .022
1 479 .024 1.506 .17
1 J.7fl .015 . 1.506 .104
1 479 004 1.506 .011
1 479 .015 1.507 .039
1.48 nnn-i- 1.507 .007
1 4Q .027 Bischofite. . ... . ... 1.507 .033
1.480 .19 Tychite.. _____ .... 1.608 .000
1.480 nn9 1.508 .01
Boothite 1 48 .02 1.508 .041
1.480 .01 1.509 .001
1.480 m^ 1.509 .023
Phillipsite... .... 1.48 <vw 1.509 .068
1.480 .027 1.510 .071
1.480 007 Phillipsite 1.51 .003
1.48 .02 1.510 .012
i <iai .02 1.510 .03
1.481 .095 Epistilbite - 1.510 .010
1.482 004 1.51 .025
1.482 m^ 1.51 .000
1.483 .009 1. 510 .002
Sodalite. . .............. 1.483 000 1.510 .032
1.483 .012 1.51 .000
1 d.ft^ .004 1.512 .013
1.485 000 1.512 .019-
1.485 Leonhardite.. - 1.512 .011
Cristobalite..- ... 1.486 nni 1.512 .014
1.486 Hie 1. 512 .014
Aphthitalite..- ... - 1.487 .005 1.513 .009
1.487 .007 1.514 .000
1 487 nni 1.514 .003.
1 4S7 .070 1.515 .025
1.487 .012 1.515 .006
1.487 .000 1.516 .023
1.488 .014 1.516 .079
1.488 .010 1.517 .000
Vanthofflte. . .. ... ... 1.488 004 1.617 .000
1.488 .012 1.517 .018
1.489 .025 Pollucite.. _ ... _ ---- 1.518 .000
1 4Q-I- 000 1.518 .003.
1. 49 .000 Felsoebanyite ___ 1.518 .017
1.490 .000 Leiflte. _______ ... . 1.518 .004
1.490 .012 Newberyite ____ . 1.518 .01
Loeweite.. ............ 1.490 .019 1.519 .007
Fluellite...... ......... 1.490 .038 1.52 .03
.000
1 4.Q1 .008 Halloysite ____ 1.52
Trona. ........ ..... 1.492 .128 Bobierite _____ 1.52 .033.
Stellerite.. ............ 1.492 .011 Hautefeuillite . . . - . 1.52 .03
1.494 .030 1.52 Weak.
1.494 .004 1.52 .010
1.495 .017 1.52 .004
1.495 .000 Tachhydrite- . ..... 1.520 .008
Dachiardite.. . .... . 1.496 .008 1.521 .008
1 4Qfi .000 1.522 .005
1.496 .009 1.623 .01C
1.496 .000 Mascagnite . ..... 1.523 .012
1.498 .039 Hatchettite ____ - 1.523 .07C
1.498 .006 1.524 .02$
1.499 .007 1.524 .012
1.50 Strong. Orthoclase.. ... ----- 1.524 .OOS
"WfillQlf-O 1.50 .005 Bischofite..- ___ 1.524 .032
Bilinite ....... ...... 1.500 Weak. 1.525 .024
1.5 .000 1.525 .015
1.50 .000 1 Bialite ______ . 1.525 .02
1.500 .010 Anorthoclase (AbosAnss 1.525 .008
Phillipsite... . 1.500 .004 Kramerite.. . 1.525 .029
1.500 .206 Chalcoalumite __ 1.525 .005
1.50 .000 1.525 .037
1.501 .015 Pollucite.---.---- -- 1.525 .00(
1.501 .014 1.525 .07!
1.501 .114 1.525 .03(
"Paraffin 1.502 .048 Hintzeite _ ... 1.526 .042
1. 502d .021 Microcline ____ .... 1.526 .008
1.503 .039 1.527 .025
1.503 .009 Paternoite .. - 1.528 .03?
Ulexite 1.504 .029 Albite ___ . 1.529 .011
Niter .. . 1.504 .172 Copiapite........ ----- 1.529; .06i
TABLES FOR DETERMINATION OF MINERALS

TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of


refraction, /3, and showing their birefringences Continued

ft Birefringence ft Birefringence

1.529 0.055 Zepharovichite.. ....... 1.55 0.02


1.53 .000 Mizzonlte (MavjMeM).. 1.551 .013
T^ftviQtnnlritft 1.630 .022 1.552 Weak.
1.530 .024 Alumohydrocalcite . __ 1.553 .085
Tlpoito Andesine.. ............. . 1. 553 .007
1.53 .025 Qrothine... . ...... 1.554 .016
1.53 1.554 .018
1,532 .010 Bombiccite. ............ 1.555 .041
1.532 .003 1.555 .011
1.532 .056 Lepidolite. . ...... 1.555 .023
Kaliophilite..- ~ ... 1.532 .005 Halloyslte.. - - .. 1.555 .0001
1.533 .042 1.555 (?)
1.533 .027 1.555 .01
1.533 .022 1.555 .102!
1.533 .000 Whewellite. . . . ......... 1.655 .159
1.534 (M7 1. 555 .007
1.534 .068 1.556 .089'
1.534 .020 (?) (?)
1.534 .027 Louderbackite. ......... 1.558 .037'
1.535 .021 1.558 .OOOi
1. 535 .000 1.558 .019'
1.535 .002 1.558 .053,
1.535 1.558 .031
1.535 .063 Beryllonite. .. .... 1.558 . 009i
1.535 .060 1.559 .021)
1.535 .02 1.559 . 008:
1.535 .010 Ferronatrite... ......... 1.559 .068:
1.536 .036 Friedellite .............. 1.560 . 065>
1.636 '.026 1.660 .065.
1.636 TOO
1.560 .020
Siderotil . .... 1.537 .015 1.560 .020'
1.537 nfw 1.560 .02.
1.637 .01 1.56 Weak..
Beidellite ............ 1.637 .042 1.561 .19*
1.637 .029 1.561 .027;
(?) 1.561 .011-
1.538 .006 1.561 .026-.
1.539 .028 1.561 .023
1.539 fiO9 1.662 .012"
1.539 .008 1.562 .006.
1.540 .030 1.662 .014
1.54 (?) 1.56
1.54 .000 .OOOi
1.640 .017 1.562 .011
1.541 .000 1.563 .009-
1.541 .022 1.563 .006.
Teletrdite 1.542 .000 1.564
1.542 000 1.564 .006
1.542 .004 Polylithionite .... ...... 1.565 .022'
Stichtite. ... 1.542 .026 Montmorillonite __ 1.565 .022:
1.642 .130 1.565 . 000
1.543 .065 1.565 .010'
Olicoclos6 1.543 .008 1.565 .005-
Halite.. .............. .. 1.544 .000 1. 565 .01
1.644 .009 Elpidlte... ..---.-. ..... 1.565 .014;
1.544 .002 1.665 . 005
1.545 .014 1.566 .021;
1.545 .002 (?) (?)
1.54 .01 1.566 .038-
Pholldollte.. ...... ..... 1.545 .042 1.567 .027"
1.545 Wernerite (MauMeio) - - 1.567 .022'
1.545 .012 1.568 .000
1.545 fine 1.568 .015
1.546 .006 1.569 .004;
1.547 .023 Qrifflthite. ............. 1.569 . 087:
1.547 ftfifVlr. 1.57
1.547 .010 1.57 .000)
1.547 .025 1.57 Weak..
1.547 .156 1.57 .010'
1.548 .028 1.57 .030*
1.548 .014 1.570 . 013:
1.549 .013 1.57 .025,
Truscottite. . ....... 1.549 .021 1.570 .011'
(?) (?) 1.571 .03*
1.549 .016 1.571 .059'
1.549 .021 1.571 .022'
1.650 .006 1.572 .002'
1.550 .011 Beidellite- 1.572 .039'
1.55 .03 1.572 .003.
1.55 .000 1.572 .002.
Ascharite. .--..-.-..--. 1.55 .02 Nitrobarite. . . 1.572 .000.
38 MICKOSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of


refraction, /3, and showing their birefringences Continued

0 Birefringence / Birefringence

1.572 0 000 1.59 0.012


1.57 000 1.59 .018
1.572 .020 1.590 .020
1 179 .020 1.590 .033
1.572 .010 1 1.591 .018
1.573 .031 1.591 .071
1.574 .02 1.591 .022
1.574 .033 1.592 .011
1.574 09Q 1.592 .036
1.574 .034 1.592 .028
1.575 .030 1.592 .010
1.575 .044 1.594 .04
1.575 .01 1.594 .027
1.575 .024 1.594 .04
1.575 .005 1.595 .040
1.57 .008 1.595 .020
1.575 .015 1.595 .010
1.576 .030 1.595 .070
1.576 .008 1.695 .012
. 1. 576 .003 1.595 .027
1.576 .014 1.595 .027
1.576 .026 1.596 .036
.BeryL 1.577 .006 1.596 .000
1.578 .057 1.597 .037
1.578 . .06 1.597 .023
1.579 .002 1.697 .007
1.579 .021 1.597 .015
1.580 .020 1.598 .045
1.580 .009 1.598 .019
(0 .014 1.698 .008
Manganophyllite 1.598 .030
1.58 f Rather
1.598 nns
1.580 .008 1.600 .021
1.68 .000 1.599 .041
1.581 .010 1.60 .000
1.581 .006 1.600 Strong.
1.581 .009 1.60 .033
1.581 .010 1.600 .045
1.581 .036 1.60 .053
Beidellite - 1.582 .028 1.60 .03
Hydrobiotite. . 1.582 .037 1.600 .008
1.582 .008 1.60 .03
1.582 .031 1.60 .000
1.582 .011 1.601 .010
1.582 .063 1.602 .048
1.582 .027 1.602 .020
1.582 .011 1.603 .031
1.583 .019 Fremontite 1.603 .021
1.583 .012 1.603 .014
1.584 .006 1.603 .054
1 fiRd .012 1.604 .011
1 MM .000 Voltaite.. 1.604 .000
1.585 .01 1.604 .032
1.585 .025 1.605 Low.
1.585 .029 1.605 .02
1.585 .013 1.605 .023
1.585 1.605 .100
1.586 .011 1.605 .000
WcirHita 1.586 009 1.605
1.586 .009 1.606 .025
1.587 .09 1.606 .022
1.587 Low. Phlogopite _ 1.606 .044
1.587 .251 1.606 .005
1.588 .048 (?) .017
'Talr> 1.589 .050 Meionite... 1.607 .036
1.589 .011 1.607 .006
1.589 .010 Dahllite 1.608 .004
1.589 .001 1.608 .045
1.59 .000 1.609 .021
1.590 .015 1.61 .000
1.590 .000 Muscovite- 1.611 .043
1.590 .030 1.61 .07
TATorHitfl 1.590 .010 1.61 .025
1.59 .01 1.61 .007
1.59 .01 1.61 .000
1.590 (?) 1.61 .000
'Kornelite.. 1.59 .07 1.61 .000
Hisingerite. 1.59 .000 .020
'Collophanite. 1.59 .000 019
Chloromanganokalite.. 1.59 Very weak. .004
1 "iO.I. no Aphrosiderite 1.612
Oarnierite.. . -- 1.59 Low. Herderite 1.612 .029
TABLES FOR DETERMINATION OF MINERALS

TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of


refraction, /?, and showing their birefringences^G&totitiued

P Birefringence 0 Birefringence-

1.613 . 0.047 1.63 0.02


1.613 .010 Chrysocolla (?)......... 1.63 .OS',
1.613 .017 1.63 .oiaf
1.614 fni 1.634 .03
Phosphophyllite.. . . - _ 1.614 .022 1.633 .000
Stilpnomelane _ ... ... 1.615 .069 1.633 f)Ad

Zippeite. ___ _-...- ... 1.615 .012 .006


Fluocerite.. _ - ....... 1.615 .002 Voelckerite 1.633 004
Lehiite..... _____ . 1.616 .027 Melilite. 1.634 .005
Tremolite. ____ .... 1.616 .027 1.635 .011
Calamine __ ... __ .... 1.617 .022 1. 635 .000
C yanotrichite -... .. 1.617 .067 Tilleyite--.-~.~~~~ 1. 636 AOC

Chondrodite... ......... 1.617 .032 1.635 ofu


Glauconite.-... __ .... 1.618 .022 Oedrite. . ............ 1.636 .021
Chalcophyllite.. ........ 1.618 .066 1.636 .014
Pargasite.... _ ........ 1.618 .022 flOT
Edenite. ____ ....... 1.619 .019 1.636 n^f*
Chondrodite - __ ... 1.620 .036 1.636 . 02ft*
Delessite _ ............ 1.619 .014 1.636 098;
Turquoise ___ . ...... 1.62 .04 1.637 023;
Nontronite.. ___ . ... 1.62 .015 022
Topaz __ . _ . 1.620 .008 "Rarito 1.637 .012
Churchite. ______ 1.620 .034 1 638 099
Bisbeeite.. ............. 1.620 .10 1.638 .019
Afwillite.... ............ 1.620 .017 013
Torbernite. --...-._---. 1.62 .002 1.638 flcor
Gillespite...--. _ ...... 1.621 .002 1.638 .017
Eucolite __ . .......... 1.621 .003 1.639 .000
Zippeite _ ............. 1.621 .010 1 fi^8 .000.
Lehiite ____ . _ . ... 1.622 .009 1.639 .00
Pseudowavellite. . . . ... . 1.622 .009 1.639 019)
Arakawaite _ ....... ... 1.622 .040 1 f\d(\ nno
Metatorbernite . . . . . _ 1.623 .002 1 64 .015
Dehrnite. __ .. _ ..... 1.623 .011 1 64 .000
Merrillite. ...... __ .. 1.623 .003 i fi4_i_ .01
1.623 .023 i fid
Tikhvinite. --..-...-... 1.62 (?) 1 fid .02
Uranopilite. .----...... 1.623 .010 1.64 .000
Tremolite.. .. .......... 1.623 .026 1.64 .000
Uranocircite. . ___ - _ 1.623 .013 1. 640 .000
Celestite. . _ .. _ . ... 1.624 .009 Uvite-... .... . 1 641 .020
Lewistonite.... _ .... 1.624 .011 T^nlfrnitA 1 641 nno
Soda margarite (ephes- 1.642 .024
ite)..... .............. 1.625 .032 1.642 04 6>
1.625 .050 Serpierite... . ........... 1.642 !063,
1.625 .010 Mullite (pure)~--.---~ 1.642 .015,
1.625 1.642 .024,
1.625 AOO
1.642
1.625 Weak 1.642 .035
NeDouite 1.625 .037 Ransomite---. --~~-- 1.643 .064.
1.625 Castanite_ ...-..-.-.. 1.643 ' . 104,
1.625 .033 Margarite... ------- ---. 1.643 .013
1.626 .014 Humite __ -.'..-...-... 1.643 .035
1.626 .021 1.643 .020"
1.626 .033 Dioptase. . ------------- 1.644 .053-
1.627 .025 Fairfleldite. ............ 1.644 .01&
1.627 .045 Nontronite--- -- -~- 1.645 .03
1.628 .056 Rinkolite. -------------- 1.645 .01
1.628 .019 Holmquistite. . .-..----. 1.645 .019
1.628 .008 1.646 .019
1.628 .056 Elbaite (tourmaline) .... 1.647 .01S
1.629 .026 Hellendite. -------- (?)' .011
1.629 .022 Biotite. ...... ~--~~ 1.648 ; .064
1.629 .015 1.648 .039
1.63 .03 1.649 , .00ft
1.63 .02 1.649 .075
1.630 .005 1.649 .012
1.63 .000 1.65 .025
1.63 .050 T. 65 ; .000
1.630 .021 1.65 .000
1.630 .008 1. 650 I .026
1.630 .010 1'. 650 .075
Edenite ___ __ . ... 1.630 .023 Homilite (altered)... ... 1'. 650 . .02
1.630 .061 1. 650 i ..137
1.631 .025 '.Off
..65" i . 000
1.63 .01 Tritomite (altered). _ . i .000
1.632 .030 '.650 ; .028
1.632 .019 '.650
Bementite. ....... ... 1.632 .030 . 650 .027
Chalcophyllite- . _ . ... 1.632 .057 i: 65" : .03
Picropharmacolite. ..... 1.632 .009 Epistolite -..-. - 1 li.650- i .072
40 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of


refraction, ft, and showing their birefringences Continued

P Birefringence ft Birefringence

1.651 0.076 1.669 0.009


1.652 .011 1.669 .011
1.652 .024 Schorlite (tourmaline) .. 1.669 .031
1.652 .063 1.669 .012
1.653 nnn 1.67 .000
1.653 .008 Olivine (FeO= 11.9 per
1.653 .040 1.670 .036
1.653 .030 Siderophyllite. ......... 1.670 .052
1.654 .07 1.67 .014
1.654 .013 1.67 .000
1.654 .029 1.670 .012
1.654 .009 1.670 .032
1.654 .053 1.667 .007
1.654 .016 Titanohydroclinohum-
1.654 .022 1.670 .032
1. 654 .049 1.670 Weak.
1.654 .044 . 1.670 .046
1.655 .004 1.671 .029
1.655 .010 1.67 .02
1.655 .011 1.671 .146
1.655 .005 Hinsdalite . . 1.671 .019
1.655 .029 1.671 .030
1.655 .007 Fillowite.. -------- __ 1.672 .004
1.655 .019 Magnesium chlorophoe-
TPfllaitfi 1.656 .008 nicite __ 1.672 .008
1.656 .065 1.673 .048
1.656 .03 1.673 .022
1.656 .032 Spurrite. ____ _ 1.674 .039
1.657 .012 Natrophilite. - 1.674 .013
Vslsrdonits .004 1.674 .036
1.657 .010 1.674 .019
1.658 .013 1.674 .127
1.658 .065 Diopside jadeite. .... 1.674 .022
1.658 .055 1.674 .014
1.658 .172 1.675 .022
1.659 .013 Plazolite ___ _ 1.675 .000
1.66 .025 Cummingtonite.. 1.675 .028
Hisingerite. ............ 1.66 .000 Liskeardite.. . . 1.675 .028
1.660 .070 1.675 .044
1.660 .010 1.675 .039
1.660 .010 Chloromagnesite. - 1.675 .085
1.660 .012 Pharmacosiderite ... . . 1.676 .000
1.660 .035 Parisite... - 1. 676 .081
1.660 .012 1.676 .054
1.66 .06 1.676 .011
1.66 .015 Witherite .. 1.676 .148
1.660 .022 Kornerupine _ .. 1.676 .012
1.660 Weak. 1.677 .013
1.661 .043 Hypersthene (10 per
1.661 .073 1.678 .010
1.661 .040 Iron reddingite . . . 1.678 .031
1.662 .001 1.678 .041-
1.662 .017 Clinohumite. _ .... 1.678 .033
. 1. 662 .013 Lithiophilite __ -... 1.679 .011
1.662 .098 1.680 .025
1.663 .025 1.68 .06
1.663 .017 1.68 .060
1.664 .035 1.68 .000
1.664 .013 Florencite. 1. 680 .005
1.664 .028 1.68 .005
1.665 .02 Diopside..-. ..... 1.680 .029
Tfl-jy-v] jfrt
1. 665 .02 1.681 .037
1.665 .02 Strong.
1.665 .029 Annabergite.. ...... 1.68 .05
1.665 .020 1.68 .18
1.666 .046 Schallerite.. ...... ...... 1.681 .038
1.666 .010 1.682 .155
1.666 .016 Koettigite _ ..-- . 1.683 .055
1.666 .012 1.683 .029
1.666 .005 1.684 .161
1.667 .007 1.684 .036
1.667 .003 Svabite... .. 1.684 .012
1.667 .177 Ferroanthophyllite . . 1.685 .03
1.667 .019 Thuringite. . . ... .. 1.685 1 .015
.011 Axinite.--.- ... 1.685 .010
'Strontianite. - _ - ..... 1.667 .147 S chroeckingerite ........ 1.685 .032
Koscoelite. ............. 1.685 .094
Uranophane __ _ .--.. 1.667 .027 Uranopilite -- 1.68 .03
Symplesite. ....... -. 1.668 .068 1.685 .033
Rinkite ..... 1. 668 .016 1.686 .028
Zinkosite... .. -- 1.669 .012 Titanoelpidite. -.--....- 1.686 .017
TABLES FOR DETERMINATION OF MINERALS 41

TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of


refraction, /3, and showing their birefringences Continued

0 Birefringence ft Birefringence

Dumortierite.. - 1.686 0.011 1.711 0.010


1.687 .046 1.711 .015
1.687 .029 1.713 .019
1. 687 .005 1.714 .030
1.687 .029 1.714 .045
1.688 .031 Strengite (manganifer-
Triphylite.. _ ---- -- 1.688 .004 1.714 .025
1.689 .109 1.715 .013
Hypersthene (14 per 1.715 .023
1.689 .012 1.715 .044
1.689 .038 1.716 .000
1.690 .018 1.716 .026
Orangite (altered tho- 1.716 .190
1.69 .000 1.716 .005
1.690 .016 1.716 .050
1.690 .028 1.717 .004
1.69 .09 1.717 .101
1.69 .OOdb 1.718 .000
1.691 .028 1.718 .018
1.691 .026 Magnesium orthite 1.718 .018
Qehlenito... _ . .. 1. 691 .000 PiorAfiTlitp 1, 719 .024
1.691 .021 1.719 .028
1.694 .019 1.719 .014
1.693 .005 Epidote (12 per cent
1.694 .032 1.719 .007
1.694 .053 1.719 .021
1.695 Low? Allanite 1.72 .000
Basaltic hornblende. ... 1.695 .031 1.720 .010
1.695 .161 1.720 .016
1.695 .005 1.720 .029
1.695 .025 1,720 .000
1.695 .014 1.720 .010
Barylite. ___ 1.696 .014 1.721 .019
1.697 .045 1.721 .095
1.698 .038 1. 722 .049
Ankerite (CaCOs, 52.6 1.722 .048
per cent; MgC Os, 36.7; 1.722 .011
FeCOs, 10.7. . 1.698 .185 1.722 .044
1.698 .040 1.722 .023
Schefferite. -- 1.699 .031 1.723 .047
1.699 .046 1.723 .042
1.70 .000 1.724 .010
1.70 .000 1.724 .022
Basaltic hornblende .... 1.725 .072
Magnesite (pure) ....... 1.700 .191 1.725 .023
1.700 .006 1.725 .000
1.70 .007 1.725 .046
1.70 .022 1.726 .033
1.70 Low. Triploidite.--- - 1.726 .005
1.70 .04 Magnesite (FeCOs, 15
1.70 .021 D6r cent) 1.726 .199
1.700 .100 Tyrolite ................ 1.726 .036
1.701 .040 Picrotephroite
1.701 .011 (MgjSi04, 40.4;
1.702 .017 MnjSiOi, 59.6 per
Arandisite _ .......... 1.702 .000 . 1.727 .029
1.702 Moderate. Hypersthene (25 per
Hypersthene (FeO, 18 1.728 .016
1.702 .013 1.728 .055
1.702 .006 1.728 .015
1.703 .005 1.729 .025
1.703 .055 1.729 .010
1.703 .018 Mixite 1.730 .080
1.704 .025 1.73 .01
1.704 .025 1.73 .02
1.705 .000 1.73 .01
Tarbuttite .... - 1.705 .053 Augite (TiOj, 4.84 per
Qraftonite __ . 1.705 .024 1.73 .021
1.706 .037 1.73 .056
1.706 .008 1.730 .068
1.707 .021 1.730 .035
1.707 .000 Stibiconite (?)......... 1.73 .Old:
1.707 .018 1.731 .028
1.707 .006 1.731 .027
1.707 .009 1.731 .022
Vesuvianite.... . 1.708 .003 1.732 .032
Diopside hedenbergite. 1.708 .024 Moly bdite ..... 1. 733 .215
Sussexite... ___ ..... 1.709 .082 1.733 .019
Uranothorite ... ....... 1.710 .000 1.733 .015
Strengite.. ...... .. 1.71 .035 Curtisite.... .... . 1.734 .51
Zippeite (?)............ 1.710 .100 Qrossularite.. -...--.--. 1.734 .000
42 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of


refraction, /3, and showing their birefringences

0 Birefringence 0 Birefringence

1.734 0.013 1.77 0.000


1.735 (?) Melanocerite (altered) . . ' 1. 77 .000
Qi^lrlAritfl 1.735 .030 1.77 .041
1.735 .01 1.77 .02
1.736 .000 1.772 .019
1.736 .000 1.773 .078
1.736 .024 1.774 .032
1.736 .110 1.774 .013
1.737 .055 (?) Strong.
1.737 .000 1.774 .06
rpViQl/vnita 1.738 .013 Britholite .. 1.775 .005
1.739 .024 1.776 .037
TT^lvitP 1.739 .000 1. 778 .000
1.740 .021 1.778 .023
1.740 .025 1.778 .073
1. 74 .000 1.779 .019
Caryocerite (altered) 1.74 .000 1.779 .000
1.74 .035 1.78 .13
1.74 f Rather Alleghanyite . 1.780 .036
\ strong. 1.780 .029
1.74 .089 1.78 .005
1.741 .010 1.78 Medium.
1.742 .000 Piedmontite.. __ 1.782 .082
1.742 .027 1.782 .063
1.742 .022 1.786 .046
1.742 .028 1.785
Epidote (22 per cent 1.786 .040
1.742 .027 1.788 .218
1.744 .065 Olivenite. 1.788 .082
1.745 .042 1.788 .027
1.745 .003 1.788 .023
1.745 .085 Monazite ______ 1.788 .051
1.745 .087 1.790 .000
1.748 .103 1.79 .10
1.748 . .000 1.79 .26
1.748 .010 1.79 .020
1.749 .202 Hortonolite _ 1.792 .035
1.75 .08 1.792 .034
1.75 .21 Strong.
1.75 .08 1.793 .054
1.75 .030 1.793 .022
1.754 .000 1.793 .028
1.75 Low. 1.794 .009
1.75 .000 Barthite. _ 1.795 .035
1.752 .016 Scorodite __ - __ 1.796 .030
Mceowrnite 1.754 Very weak. 1.799 .050
1.754 .035 1.80 Strong.
1,754 .021 .000
A rQPrtrtlifa 1.754 .000 Thorite. (?) (?)
Veuasite 1.755 .065 Spessartite (pure) 1.800 .000
1.755 .030 Flinkite.. _______ . 1.801 .050
1.755 .076 1.80 .006
Tritomite (altered) 1. 757 .000 1.80 .05
1.757 .047 1.80 .08
1.757 .040 1.80 .05
1.758 .108 1. 805 .000
1.758 .000 Stibiconite.... 1.80d= .000
1.76 .13 Hercynite. . 1.80 .000
1.760 .183 1.801 .000
1.760 .000 1.801 .049
1.760 .090 Sarkinite.. __ . 1.807 .016
(?) f Rather Acmite. 1.807 .053
\ strong. Tephroite..... 1.807 .048
1.760 .015 Olivenite.---- - 1.810 .091
1.761 .000 1.810 .022
1.762 .034 Hancockite _ 1.81 .042
1. 762 .086 1.81 .05
1.763 Weak. 1.810 .029
Epidote (57 per cent 1.811 .000
1.763 .057 Bodenbenderite (?) .000
1.763 .000 Gadolinite ______ -- 1.812 .023
1.766 .000 1.812 .000
1.768 .008 Spessartite...- . 1.814 .000
1.768 .044 Molybdophyllite. 1.815 .054
1.769 .009 1.815 .050
(?) Strong. 1.816 .060
1.77 .000 Borgstroemite . 1.816 .088
Aegirite (vanadiferous) . 1.770 .037 1.817 .105
1.770 ' .016 Rhodochrosite (pure) 1.817 .22
1.770 .130 1.817 .032
1.771 .031 1.818 .000
Piedmontite.. 1.771 .061 Cerite.- - 1.818 .400
TABLES FOR DETERMINATION OF MINERALS 43
TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of
refraction, /8, and showing their birefringences Continued

ft Birefringence ft Birefringence

1.820 0.095 1.92 .14


1.82 .04 1.920 0.071
1.82 09 1 Q9-U (H-l-
1.826 .221 1.92 .000
1.826 .000 1.923 .000
1.83 000 1.923 045
1.830 .000 1.925 .000
Iddingsite (?).._........ 1 QO .072 1.925 .200
Siderite(MgCOj,24per 1.926 .059
1.830 .234 1.93 Weak.
1.831 .046 1.93 .20
1.831 .047
1.832 .082 1.930 .053
1.834 .072 1.93 .000
1.836 .041 1.935 .115
1.838 .000 1.936 .055
1.838 .050 1.94 .000
1.838 .000 1.94 .000
Toerilit-n 1.84 .16 . 1.945 .026
1 84 1.948 .010
1 84 .17 1.95
1.840 .055 1.950 .040
1.840 flQfi 1.95 .03
T\iot'7oitQ
1.842 .032 1.9 .11
1.955 .263
1.849 .234 1.96 Weak.
1.849 .228 1.960 .055
1.85 .17 i ofl_i_ 000
1.85 .15 1.96 .000
1.85 .04 1.96 .25
1.850 .003 1.961 .021
1.852 .033 1.963 .003
1. 853 .050 1.965 nnn
1.855 .242 Tscbeflkinite (altered?). 1.97 .02
1.855 .25 1.97 .04
1.857 .000 1.97 Wflnlr
1.86 .07 Wont
1.86 .000 1.973 .683
Erinite. - 1.86 .06 1.974 .010
1.86 .01 1.975 .134
1.861 .049 1.98
1.864 .050 1.98 nnn
1.866 .091 1.98 .000
1.87 .000 1.985 .10
1.87 .000 1.99 no
1.870 .078 1.99
1.87 nd 1.99 nrin
1.870 .18 1.997 .096
1. 870 .225 Bindheimite (?).- ... 2.0
1.875 .242 Wiikite.... ............. 2.00 nnn
1.875 .089 2.0d= .015
1.875 .254 2.00 nnn
1.879 .240 Leadhillite _ .......... 2.00 .14
1.88 .06 2.00 .15
1.88 .01 2.00
1.88 .08 2.01 10
Chenevixlte. ........... 1.88 f Rather Armangite .............. 2.01 .02
2.01 .02
1.882 .097
1.882 .017
(?) 000 2.01 000
1.87 .02 Volborthite.. . .... ... 9 ft1 .02
Ellsworthite _____ . 1.89 .000 2.01 19
1.89 .02 2.013 .016
1.89 .05 2.015 000
1.895 .000 2.026 .016
1.895 .20 (?) 000
Arseniosiderite. .. ...... 1.898 .083 2.026 061
lanthinite _ - .... 1.900 .246 Voltzite.. ............ .. 0 m f Rather
Trippkeite. . ........ 1.90 .22 I strong.
1.9 .000 2.03 .03
1.9 .015 2.04 no
1.907 .134 2.037 OQQ
1.910 .087 Uzbekite. ............ .- 2.04 DA
1.910 .055 2.05 IW1
1.91 .01=b 2.05 (VIA
Ilvaite. _ ..... ........ 1.91 2.05 nnn
1.91 flQK
2 nC
.02
1.913 .010 2.05
Hugelite.. .......... 1.915 .01 Eulytite..-. ........... 2.05
1.918 .016 2.050 rv\o
Fourmarierite . ........ 1.92 .09 Calcio volborthite ___ - 2.05 .00
163287 34 1
44 MICKOSCOPIC DETEEMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of


refraction, /3, and showing their birefringences Continued

ft Birefringence & Birefringence

2.05 .157 2.222 .038


2.05 0.01 2.22 0.08
2.06 .000 Euxenite...... ____ 2.24 .000
Sipylite.- - 2.06 .000 2. 24L1 .29
2.06 .000 Thorotungstite_____ (?) Strong.
2.06 . .000 2.24 .09
2.06 .05 2.248 .000
2.061 .000 2.24 .17
2.065 .000 Endlichite . _____ 2.25 .05
2.07 .000 Samarskite.... __ .... 2.25 .000
2.07 .02 Bromyrite _ .. ___ .. 2.253 .000
2.076 2.74 Manganotantalite . 2.25 .07
2.08 .02 Tantalite 2.25 .15
2.087 .000 2.26 .17
2.09 .000 Cuprodescloizite.. 2.26 .15
2.09 .15 Hetaerolite...- __ 2.26 .16
2.09 .15 2.26 .00
2.09d= .01 Bismutite.. ____ .... 2.26 .05
2.095 .000 2.269 .087
2.098 .111 Tapiolite __ .. __ .--- 2.27L | .15
2.10 .05 Raspite .. . 2.27 .03
2.10 Weak. Mendipite ------ 2.27 .07
2.10 Strong. Descloizite _ .. __ 2.27 .17
2.10 .53 Pyrobelonite... (?) (?)
2.102 .310 Qoethite __ .. _ 2.29 .14
2.11 .09 Manganotantalite- . 2.29 .08
2.114 .026 Haematophanite.- . (?) (?)
2. 115 .000 Finnemanite.--- __ -. 2.295 .010
2.116 .081 Monimolite - ___ .. (?) .000
2.12 .000 Knopite ___ - ___ -. 2.30 .000
2.13 .000 Brannerite _____ ... 2.30 .000
2.13 .08 Hielmite. ... ... 2.30L i .10
2.13 .19 Plattnerite. 2. SLI . (?).12
2.135 .017 Cuprodescloizite . . 2.31L1
2.137 .000 Geikielite _____ .- ... 2.31 .36
2.142 .000 Tantalite ... ...... 2.32 .17
2.15 .000 Ecdemite ............... 2.32L| .07
2.15 .000 Wolframite 2. 32L i .16
2. 15 .000 Ochrolite __ . ___ ... (?) (?)
2.15 .11 Dysanalite..-- _ ... . 2.33 Weak.
2.15 Strong. Ochrolite- .............. 2.34Li .06
2. 15 .07 Hetaerolite. . .. ... 2.34 .20
2.15 .04 Marshite. ...... .... 2.346 .000
2.16 .05 Qoethite- _______ 2. 35L i .14
2.16 .000 Schwartzembergite. .... 2.35 .11
Bellite - ----- 2.16 .02 Valentinite _ - ......... 2.35 .17
2.16 .000 Magnesioferrite ......... 2.35L1 .000
2.17 .01 Nadorite ............... 2.35LI .10
2.17 .19 Lorettoite... ......... 2.35L1 .02
2. 175 .000 Vanadinite. ..... 2.354 .055
Euxenite... 2.175 .000 f 2.33LI .02
Kleinite (biaxial)-. 2.18 .02 1 2. 356N .022
Bunsenite.. ____ . 2. 18,ed .000 Loparite .. 2.36 .000
Eschwegeite. . 2.18 .000
Uhligite.- . . (?) .000 Kalkowskyn ............ Weak.
2.18 .58 Pyrobelonite- .......... 2.36 .15
2. 18L | .35 Franklinite 2.36Li .000
2.182 .01 Schwartzembergite- . . . . 2. 36L | .11
2.19 .000 Langbanite. -. 2.36Li .05
7irValif-O 2.19 .000 Wolframite-..- ____ . 2. 36Li .15
Kleinite (hexagonal).... 2.19 .02 2. 36L i .20
"RarlrlftlAvitfl 2.19 .07 f 2.34L1 .00
2.19 .000 Sphalerite (pure). .. \ 2.37N . .00
2. 195 .000 Grocoite..... .. ....... 2.37L i .35
2.20 .000 Perofskite. -- .- ..... 2.38 Weak.
.000 Pseudobrookite ......... 2. 39u .04
2.20 .000 Trevorite. _ ...... . (?) .000
2.20 .000 Ferberite. .. ... 2.40L1 Strong.
2.20 .000 Ferrocolumbite ......... 2.40L1 Extreme.
2.20 .000 Wulfenite...--- 2. 402 LI .12
2.20
.21' Stibiotantalite.. ........ 2.404 .083
2.20 .14 Stibiocolumbite. ------- 2.419 .061
2.200 .57 Diamond _ 2.419 .000
(?) (?) Minium ___ ..; . 2.42Li Weak.
Eschynite.... 2.205 .000 f 2. 431 LI .025
2.21 .000 \ 2.506Na .023
2.21 .000 2.45L1 Strong.
2.21 .01 2.45L1 .06
Polymignite... ... . 2.215 .000 2.46ti .31
2.217 .060 Magnetoplumbite . . (?) (?)
Huebnerite 2.22 .15 (?)
Vauquelinite. . 2.22 .11 (?)
TABLES FOR DETERMINATION OF MINERALS 45

TABLE 3. List of minerals arranged according to their intermediate indices of


refraction, /3, and showing their birefringences Continued

0 Birefringence ft Birefringence

TT'flllrAwQk'vn (?) (?) 2.81L! .6


Sphalerite (FeS, 28 per Cinnabar ............... If 2.819 Li 0.327
cent)................. 2.47N . 0.000 2.857N B 347
2.481 .271 2.849 .000
2.49L i .000 2.979.1 .268
2. 50L i 3.
2. 50Li 3.
2.5u .28 3.
.10 3.01u .28
2.554 .061 3.084 .203
fimithite................ 2. 58L i .12 Hutchinsonite .......... 3. 176NB .110
2.586 .158 3. 22u .28
2. 59i,i .15 Smithite _ . ___ . .... 3.27?
2.6Li 4.303 1.109
2. 6lLi .15 >2. 72L | .000
2. 6lLi .20 >2.72L | .000
Rutile....... ........... 2.616 .287 Chalcophanite .......... >2. 72L i
2. 62L i >2. 73L1
Tenorite.... ..._-..... 2.63red >2.72L1
/ 2. 633 Li .040 Miargyrite. ............. >2.72L i Very strong.
I 2. 654N .043 Lorandite. . . . . . >2.72L i Extreme.
2. 64L i .32 >2. 72L |
2.665L1 .130 >2.72Li
2.69L I .000 Sartorite _ .... ..... (?)
2. 70_i .000 (?)
2.75 .30 (?)

Abbreviations used in Table 4


fibs..-.-...... .absorption. isomor___...isomorphous.
acic. __-.-.---- acicular. isot_ __-_--_-_ -isotropic.
amor__....._. .amorphous. mic. _____-__- .micaceous.
anom_.......anomalous. mkd___.... .marked.
B_._ _ ___..._. .birefringence. mod__._.__ .moderate,
b. b.------....before the blowpipe. mon__ .......monoclinic.
biax__.-..--.biaxial, oct __.......octahedral.
cleav. _____--_- cleavage. opt___..--..optically,
conct. --------- concentrated. orth__ _______ orthorhombic.
conch --------- conchoidal. penet___.__ .penetration.
decpd _-.-.-_-_ decomposed. perf.. _ -_.___- .perfect.
dif _.---_-..-- .difficult; difficultly. perc__ _ _... _ .perceptible.
disp... _ ------- dispersion. pi____.___-.plane.
dist. ---------- distinct. pleoc_ - _____ .pleochroism; pleochroic.
dodec. _--..- _ .dodecahedral. poly___ _... .polysynthetic.
elong. __..... . .elongation. pris. _________ .prismatic.
ext-_----------extinction. ps_____-_-__pseudo.
extr_ ..-._--- .extreme. pyr am _ _ _____ pyramidal.
F. ------------ fusibility. rect_ ______-__- rectangular.
fib-__--------.fibers; fibrous. rhomboh..__.rhombohedral.
f us_ _ ------- .fusible. sol. -__-_---.. .soluble,
G------- -..-..specific gravity. sq___.--.-..square,
gelat.--._---.-gelatinous; gelatinize. tab___-.-...tabular,
H___-.-_-...hardness, tetrag. _______ .tetragonal.
hex..__-..-.hexagonal, tetrah.. _ ......tetrahedrons.
imperf.--..... .imperfect. tr__.........trace.
incl. ...._.-. _ .inclined. trie. ________ _ .triclinic.
indist-----... . -indistinct, trig. __--_--_- .trigonal.
anf us. -.-..-_- -infusible. tw_ __________ .twinning.
' insol. _.--.._ _ -insoluble, uniax___ _____ uniaxial.
isomet__..., -isometric.
46 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

The first column in Table 4 shows the extent and nature of the-
variability of the values for the minerals given. The symbol A means-
that an entry has been made of the same mineral or one of an isomor-
phous series of which this mineral is a member, having a lower mean,
index of refraction. The symbol v indicates that an entry has been
made of the mineral, or a related isomorphous member of the series,
for which the mean index of refraction is greater. The symbol 0"
denotes a variability in both directions according to the above method.,
The symbol u indicates the probable variability of a mineral entered',
in the tables, although no other entry has been made. The probable
variability in the other direction is indicated by the symbol n , and
the double variability by the symbol C. The combination symbol \/
indicates the entry of a mineral or isomorphous member of the series
of higher index of refraction and the probable variability toward a.
mineral of lower index of refraction. The combination symbol ,
indicates the entry of a mineral of lower index of refraction and
probable variability toward a mineral of higher index of refraction.
TABLES FOB DETERMINATION OF MINERALS 47

' '"
Ofc

|3 Qg
'5 e a
a
g
Tfl
91
.11

.2
I 8.9
M Q

bili
Hardnes gravity,

II II II II II II II II II II II II II
en
O
wo o o o wo& wo
.-H O
,Q 03
_03.

32
O 0 o

i
*
I I
I

Js-a

1.2
.20

3-O
aF" -2i2 !<5 O fa O S.

al I ss Ig 12 |l f || |f. <U
n 25 ^ t?

II p 1 !l
>^Wo
1 II
o^
ll
otf
II 1
ll Ib
O>H
|8 1
_ . _

8 MO5O1
CO CO
O
t>Q
CO Pt*
ON
^^
COC^

<>
48 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

J? c3 . "S""
g . qO
( 9 ^ .2 (il o
tf 3 Jj-S'B
3 * 'Co t>>'3
p. 3 a <=
a ft
i1
.S1
T3
W 08 Pt
-^ rt 3
HH O S H W

"i 73
1g
a> 6
W
T3
1
S
S
*3 5~
2J
s 9 S .S _g -9 -2.J 's'gl
W "3o''3 -^"s 1 01 -5
S w m | .s ""a -d 1^--
!^5 ^"3 1
't

o
-15 IS 1
**^^*
sof
9*^^
M ^ <a "3 ^.M a H -a ^^g
9 "Es "a -9s -9 ^ 9o p. 9,5
coP ra f^ OT*3 CQ fl J5Q cj
3
' C .i
ao f s
w

ft*o
O M'CO.'S
w ~-3 41'
H 41 *T
1*e 0 *^ 4J* t . u^ 10 10^4 t^ to 10 <o ~f|c^ >oo sd *
<
e 11
W&
f7| "I?! "77 <i?li'7 T" 'ti'77 "M! "^-g
WC?>H WO3 WOPH MOPn WO MOP^ wOt3 tdO>2
H"?lf "75
S
< & ^ c
3 0 a a
&
C3 o
"3
^ 2 ea
& -8 O Jc i ' 9.
s % ^
cc
1 .- . 1 cc c
1 a
1 2 0 =3 | S "1 I
5 g ' > W O (H ^ > 0 5
^s o
* 1> P

i ! 1 |c i
a

1! !i O
1

T:
!
cc 1-^
rH
ic
c
.

C
a
t
"o
^
fe ~
^
O fc -v 1? O O W
'e -a
9
03
5
W

W

^ *
^"S
"S
e
I s
. c
1 b
c c c
e
1
o 1 c
fi
t
0 1

5 1 0 <
t
T* a
_o O 0
H so W O W

H
o.
a
8 S
o"
fe
!?
0
W
W
"
8
1
e 5 ^ m o
GO o 0
PH W
a 0
? KjO.Al2Os.4SO Yt rofluorite.- ^0 MnO.SiOz.nHs e

" 1 1 0 'Sfl'm
OCT t
)F(i
(Cas,
Y2 O
"3
d >l^
1 >3
?o ll i50 i|
j $4 1
i* i
0}
a o |g !

c
UD
Ct i s
.2
1$ 1 !5 1im
>
2o
S
3 S
fl !z P

~H~Hrh(oro 1-1 N "H "H


8
~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ rt' ~ ~

<> c> < c c> o


||
TABLES TOR DETERMINATION OF MINERALS 49

-t- ii a
iJ
O
S O O W;
'1 ' ^ Intw.
tricate J3
e g-
O
^U S*
1
w'S "jj" a>
i
g ~ T3
T3
O *3
'*
1->.1 .
ite
Decpd.
group.eight in
HaO.
Tastes
b *3 '
fro
segments alite
Qela
group. in
HsSOi
only
hot in
il.
acid.
B=O.OC P alite
Near
group. Qelalite
groaup.t O eEasi
vITansite.

lb.
b?
ackens
16
centper.
1 E
D.
3

si
?!
it.
o P
o o
**
m

N
OO t3 f*'
CO CO
3 M
a N
85
*Q

03
*JJ!

O
^o
to 03
o
73
ra A
SCP

S
_. ^s A

t7 T?7" T7| 7| "M" ttT 1*71 "77 T77 TM


HON MOPH WC?M wo5 wofe MOfa wo>9 wofe WOP^ no s
17"
WOPH II
S ! S
2
*& "> ^
a 0 1.4 S

1 , .a 9,5 & ^ cc 1
2-35 " S
i C
; 1C I?
t>
' I
c
0
?4S8 3

-3
O PP
a
|l

^
|

< >
i
* .

i I
r-l C
1 i
.A.
P

C
*.
1! 3

S,
'**" 1^
'

I
c
T: -^
C
?
fe
g
ll

C C -V ^ W c ^
! 4.
i t t 0
i P C
!
1
c
O
O
w

a | 0
s o
o.
! e c oS'

ti 1 1 o
; *^
1o
=c ^
1
g -ce I
-scc E4
r
I
0 P < SJ P S P < c <

|o | 1
>
; 0
S Pn
iS !n o ! w co

N3
ajO.3A]jOs.6SiOj.2Na 3NasO.3AljOs.6SiOj.2Naj HydrphosAJ
ofpohauste
NasO.CaO^AlsO.lOSiOj- 3Naj0.3AljOs.6SiOj.2Na< 5NajO.3AJb)Os.6SiOj.2SOa 5(O.3NAlajOs.,6CSiOas)
NajO.AljOs.4SiOa.2HiO Some
rClj
Seplaces
3AlsO8.PjO.l8HjO Analclt_e. . Hackmani.te. o Hai ynit.e. Bolivarit_e. _ . 3MgO.4SiOj.nHsO
Cristobalite_. _ W 2AljOs.PjOj.4HjO Lazurit_e. Rosito&ite-._
Fanjas_i.t_e Sodalit_e._ _ Evansite_. Al oDhane._- <5 Stevensit_e._
S Noselit_e_ CD
evnd
SiOj 6" J KC1
^ 1CO

0 <> Cl
50 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

a s
. 1 -2 ^
O CS 33

2 J
"2
i s ^
^
2
b
^
2
a *> H
fa .S "3
51 | 2 S
- aj
S

S 3 ^* Oi a co a W
"- w o .^ W ^Q.
44 'S.
as 5-3
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TABLES FOE DETERMINATION OF MINERALS 53

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54 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS
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II
TABLES FOR DETERMINATION OF MINERALS 55
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56 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS

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O CD <> <> <> CD <> O CD <> <>


58 MICROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF NONOPAQUE MINERALS
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TABLES FOB DETERMINATION OF MINERALS 65
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