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SISTEM OF UNITS

CGS : Centi, Gram, Second (detik)


FPS : Feet, Pound, Second
MKS : Metre, Kilogram, Second
SI : Mass density kg/m3
Allowable Stress diperoleh dari TENSION TEST.
Sehingga akan diperoleh kurva STRESS - STRAIN.
Momen Inersua

Classification of Supports

Common supports and external reactions for two-dimensional loading of beams are shown in Figure 1

Figure 1 Common beam supports.

Internal Forces and Moments


The internal force and moment reactions in a beam caused by external loading must be determined for evaluating the strength
of the beam. If there is no torsion of the beam, three kinds of internal reactions are possible: a horizontal normal force H on a
cross section, vertical (transverse) shear force V, and bending moment M. These reactions are calculated from the equilibrium
equations applied to the left or right part of the beam from the cross section considered. The process involves free-body
diagrams of the beam and a consistently applied system of signs. The modeling is illustrated for a cantilever beam in Figure 2

Figure 2 Internal forces and moments in a cantilever beam.

Sign Conventions. Consistent sign conventions should be used in any given problem. These could be arbitrarily set up, but the
following is slightly advantageous. It makes the signs of the answers to the equilibrium equations correct for the directions of
the shear force and bending moment.

A moment that makes a beam concave upward is taken as positive. Thus, a clockwise moment is positive on the left side of a
section, and a counterclockwise moment is positive on the right side. A shear force that acts upward on the left side of a
section, or downward on the right side, is positive

(Figure 3).

Figure 3 Preferred sign conventions.

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

The critical locations in a beam are determined from shear force and bending moment diagrams for the whole length of the
beam. The construction of these diagrams is facilitated by following the steps illustrated for a cantilever beam in Figure 1.2.20.
Figure 4 Construction of shear force and bending moment diagrams.

1. Draw the free-body diagram of the whole beam and determine all reactions at the supports.

2. Draw the coordinate axes for the shear force (V) and bending moment (M) diagrams directly below the free-body diagram.

3. Immediately plot those values of V and M that can be determined by inspection (especially where they are zero), observing
the sign conventions.

4. Calculate and plot as many additional values of V and M as are necessary for drawing reasonably accurate curves through the
plotted points, or do it all by computer.
Beban Tegangan: Klasifikasi

Beban Sket Tegangan


P
Normal Stress : E
A
Thermal Stress : E T
Aksial

Geser T
Shear Stress :
As

My
Normal Stress : x
I
VQ
Bending
Shear Stress : xy
Ib

Torsi T
Shear Stress :
J

Persamaan untuk principal stress :

x y y
2

1, 2 max x xy 2
2 2

x y
2

1, 2 max xy 2
2
Persamaan dasar dalam menentukan angka keamanan:

allowable material stress


N SF
calculated stress

Untuk material ulet (ductile materials):

N= 1.25 2.0 Static loading, high level of confidence in all design data.

N= 2.0 2.5 Dynamic loading, average confidence in all design data.


N= 2.5 4.0 Static or dynamic loading with uncertainty about loads,

material properties, complex stress state, ect

N> 4.0 Static or dynamic loading with uncertainty about loads,

material properties, complex stress state, and desire to

provide extra safety.

Untuk material getas (brittle materials):

Untuk setiap tingkatan faktor keamanan diatas rata-rata menjadi dua kali lipatnya.