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Semi-supervised Support Vector Machine

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Semi-supervised Support Vector Machine

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DOI 10.1007/s00521-015-2113-7

REVIEW

Shifei Ding1,2 Zhibin Zhu1 Xiekai Zhang1

The Natural Computing Applications Forum 2015

learning method based on statistical learning theory. It has

a lot of advantages, such as solid theoretical foundation, In recent decades, the ways of collecting data are more

global optimization, the sparsity of the solution, nonlinear diverse, and the amount of data is also growing. With the

and generalization. The standard form of SVM only rapid development of various technologies, it becomes easy

applies to supervised learning. Large amount of data to collect large amounts of data, but most of them have no

generated in real life is unlabeled, and the standard form label. Usually, a huge amount of work is required to label

of SVM cannot make good use of these data to improve its the data. However, the data that people obtain in every day

learning ability. However, semi-supervised support vector are massive, and this means that it is unfeasible to invest a

machine (S3VM) is a good solution to this problem. This lot of resources in the work. The generalization ability of a

paper reviews the recent progress in semi-supervised learning system often depends on the number of labeled

support vector machine. First, the basic theory of S3VM is training samples. If there are small amounts of labeled data,

expounded and discussed in detail; then, the mainstream combining labeled and unlabeled data to change or

model of S3VM is presented, including transductive sup- improve the learning behavior would be an interesting

port vector machine, Laplacian support vector machine, work, and the semi-supervised learning [13] is supposed

S3VM training via the label mean, S3VM based on cluster to do that.

kernel; finally, we give the conclusions and look ahead to Support vector machine is a machine learning method

the research on S3VM. based on statistical learning theory. It has a lot of advan-

tages, such as solid theoretical foundation, global opti-

Keywords Semi-supervised Support vector machine mization, the sparsity of the solution, nonlinear and

Semi-supervised support vector machine generalization. And it also shows a good prospect in

practical engineering fields [48]. The standard form of

SVM only applies to supervised learning, which training

data must be labeled. However, in many practical prob-

lems, unlabeled data are always the majority. It is difficult

to get a learner with strong generalization ability by using

limited labeled data in supervised learning. When the

& Shifei Ding labeled data are scarce and the unlabeled data are suffi-

dingsf@cumt.edu.cn cient, semi-supervised learning method can help improve

1

the classification performance of SVM in this situation.

School of Computer Science and Technology, China

Thus, introducing the idea of semi-supervised learning into

University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116,

China SVM and combining them will overcome the shortcomings

2 of SVM and get better classification results. Obviously, this

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Mine Mechanical and Electrical

Equipment, China University of Mining and Technology, will be an important research field. The development of

Xuzhou 221116, China semi-supervised support vector machine is mainly to make

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Neural Comput & Applic

and large amounts of unlabeled data for training and Lw; b; a jjwjj2 ai yi w xi b 1

2 i1 2

classification. Furthermore, those data can be fully utilized

to improve the classification accuracy of SVM and increase s:t: ai 0

its generalization performance.

Here, ai are the corresponding Lagrange multipliers to

In 1999, Bennett and Demiriz [9] proposed semi-su-

each sample. The solution of formula (2) is determined by

pervised support vector machine. In the next more than

the saddle point. At saddle point, the partial derivative of

10 years, scholars tried using various semi-supervised

w and b is zero.

learning method to improve S3VM and presented many

effective semi-supervised support vector machine algo- o Xl

Lw; b; a w ai y i x i 0

rithm [10, 11]. This paper reviews the latest research pro- ow i1

gress on the semi-supervised support vector machine 3

o Xl

algorithm and expatiates on the idea of several existent Lw; b; a ai y i 0

mainstream semi-supervised support vector machine algo- ob i1

rithms and its improved method.

Combining (2) with (3), the quadratic programming

This paper is organized as follows: Sect. 2 discusses the

problem will be transformed into the corresponding dual

basic theory of SVM. In Sect. 3, we analyze the current

problem and then maximize the objective function:

research on semi-supervised support vector machine algo-

rithm in detail. Section 4 contains some useful concluding X

l

1X l

Maxa ai ai aj yi yj xi xj

comments. i1

2 i;j1

4

X

l

s:t: ai 0; i 1; 2; . . . l: ai y i 0

2 Support vector machine i1

Support vector machine, proposed by Vapnik, is a machine We can get the optimal solution a* = (a*1, a*2, , a*l )T

learning method based on VC dimension and structural risk by solving Eq. (4), so the optimal weight vector w* and

minimization and is a specific realization for statistical optimal bias b* can be expressed as:

learning theory. Considering from the learning mode, SVM X

l

i1

The basic theory of SVM is to find an optimal classifi-

cation hyperplane which meets the requirements of clas- b yi w xi 6

sification. As shown below, the solid black dots represent

Finally, the optimal classification decision function can

one class of sample, and the white dots represent another

be defined as:

one. H is the classification hyperplane. H1 and H2 are the

plane which contains sample points and have the closest f x sgnw xi b 7

distance with the classification hyperplane. H1 and H2 are The optimal classification hyperplane discussed and

parallel to H. The distance between H1 and H2 is called solved above is in the linear case. For the nonlinear case,

maximum margin. The optimal classification hyperplane of kernel functions which map input vector to high-dimen-

SVM requires not only separating the samples correctly, sional feature vector space are used to help SVM construct

but also maximizing the margin. Those sample points the optimal classification hyperplane. The optimal classi-

contained in H1 and H2 are support vector. fication decision function can be written as:

Let (xi, yi), i = 1, 2, , l, x 2 Rn, y 2 {1} denote the

f x sgnw Ux b 8

sample dataset, where yi is the label. Also, let the hyper-

plane be denoted as (w x) ? b = 0. When the two classes Here, U(x) is the mapping of x from input space Rn to

are linearly separable, the optimal classification hyperplane feature space. By using kernel function, it avoids to com-

can be summarized to solve quadratic programming prob- pute in high-dimensional space, because it only needs to

lems as follows: care the inner product operation between input vectors.

1 From the above formula, we can find that the label

min jjwjj2 information of samples is used in computing, which is the

w;b 2 1

s:t yi w xi b 1; i 1; 2; . . .; l key of supervised learning. In supervised learning, we

always need to get the mapping relationship between the

The formula above is a convex programming problem. feature and label by training from labeled sample. How-

A solution to this problem is to use Lagrange function: ever, the labeled samples, which are in a tiny minority in

123

Neural Comput & Applic

reality, cannot represent the detailed characteristics of a enough labeled data for training, so that it could get a

class. If only trained by a few labeled samples, the gen- learner with strong generalization. However, it is difficult

eralization of SVM would be not strong. And it would also to obtain labeled data in practical applications, and it would

result in lower classification ability. S3VM is a good also cost a great resource to label the data. In order to take

solution to this problem. S3VM takes full use of the a good advantage of the large amount of unlabeled data,

unlabeled samples by combining SVM with semi-super- scholars proposed the semi-supervised learning.

vised learning algorithms. Currently, a variety of semi-supervised learning algo-

rithms is based on two common assumptions, that is,

cluster assumption and manifold assumption [17]. Cluster

3 Semi-supervised support vector machine assumption means that samples in the same cluster have a

greater probability in having the same label. Manifold

3.1 Semi-supervised learning assumption considers that close points along the manifold

flat have a similar nature or similar label. In these two

Machine learning is a core research area in artificial assumptions, cluster assumption reflects the global feature

intelligence. According to containing labeled data or of models. However, the manifold assumption reflects the

unlabeled data in training sets, the type of machine learning local features.

can be divided into unsupervised learning, supervised There are several classical methods in semi-supervised

learning and semi-supervised learning. learning, such as self-training method [1820], expecta-

In unsupervised learning, there are only some given tionmaximization method [21], multiview method [22

input data, and we should find the hidden structure or law 24], graph-based method [25].

of the input data through using a certain learning method.

Clustering algorithm is an unsupervised learning method. 3.2 S3VM

In supervised learning, those data contain the label which

indicates the classification of data. Its core idea is to get a Semi-supervised support vector machine was proposed by

mapping relationship between the feature and label by Bennett and Demiriz [9], which is a semi-supervised

training from labeled sample, and this mapping relationship learning method based on cluster assumption. The optimal

should be consistent with the labeled sample. Most of the goal of S3VM is to build classifier by using labeled data

classification algorithm belongs to supervised learning and unlabeled data. Similar to the idea of SVM, S3VM

[12, 13]. requires the maximum margin to separate the labeled data

Semi-supervised learning is the research focus on and unlabeled data. And the new optimal classification

machine learning in recent years. It is a learning method boundary must satisfy that the classification on original

combining unsupervised learning and supervised learning. unlabeled data has the smallest generalization error.

The basic idea is using a large number of unlabeled data to Before providing the formula of S3VM proposed by

help the supervised learning method improve effect [14]. In Bennett and Demiriz, we can explore how to use the

semi-supervised learning, there are labeled dataset unlabeled data in SVM. Now, we start from the basic

L = {(x1, y1), (x2, y2), , (xl, yl)} and unlabeled dataset theory of SVM and find some way to use these data.

U fx01 ; x02 ; . . .; x0u g. Now, we expect to get a function It is known that SVM is based on VC dimension and

f:X ? Y, which could accurately predict the label y for the structural risk minimization. And the regularization is

given x. Here, xi, xj0 2 X is a d-dimensional vector, and exactly a way to achieve structural risk minimization,

yi 2 Y is the label of xi. In addition, l and u are the number which is the empirical risk plus a regularization term or

of samples that L and U contain. penalty term.

The reason for proposing semi-supervised learning After adding a penalty term in formula (1), the objective

method is that the unlabeled data can indeed help improve function may be rewritten as:

the performance of an algorithm in theory. Miller and Uyar X l

1

[15] analyzed from data distribution estimations and draw a min jjwjj2 C ni

w;b;n 2 9

conclusion that the generalization ability of classifier can i1

s:t: yi w xi b 1 ni

be improved with a significant increase in unlabeled data.

ni 0; i 1; 2; . . .; l

Zhang and Oles [16] also pointed out that if a parametric

model satisfies P(x, y|h) = P(y|x, h)P(x|h), the unlabeled where ni(i = 1, 2, , n) are the slack variables. It means

data would help model get a better ability of estimating the the acceptable deviation between function margin and the

model parameters and improve its performance. From corresponding data xi. C is a parameter which controls the

another perspective, supervised learning assumes there are weight of penalty term in objective function.

123

Neural Comput & Applic

l P

n

risk as follows: min C ni sj

w;b;s;n i1 j1

( )

1 X l s:t: yi jw xi bj ni 1 14

minUw min jjwjj2 C max1 yi w xi b;0 ni 0; i 1; 2; . . .; l

w;b 2 i sj wj sj ; j 1; 2; . . .; n:

10

In fact, the above formula changes the 2-norm ||w||2 in

2

Here, 12 jjwjj can be seen as a regularization term, and (9) to 1-norm ||w||1. One of the advantages is to make the

max1 yi w xi b; 0 is the loss function of labeled dimension decreases, and another benefit is using linear

data. programming instead of quadratic programming to solve.

In order to get semi-supervised support vector machine, Moreover, if it is a nonlinear case, it only needs to use the

we must use the unlabeled data. Now assume that the kernel function and can get a good extension.

unlabeled data are labeled, and let the label be Based on formula (14), they add two restrictions on the

y^ signw x b. So, the loss function of unlabeled data unlabeled data. One restriction assumes that the unlabeled

can be expressed as: data belong to one of the class, and calculate its error rate;

max1 y^w x b; 0 max1 jw x bj; 0 11 another restriction assumes that the unlabeled data belong

to another class, and also calculate its error rate. Then, the

After using the unlabeled data, adding (9)(11) we can objective function calculates the minimum of the two

get the basic form of semi-supervised support vector possible misclassifications errors. So, the S3VM could be

machine: defined as:

(

1 Xl " #

minUw min jjwjj2 C1 max1 yi w xi b; 0 P

l lP

k

w;b 2 i min C ni mingi ; zi jjwjj

) w;b;g;n;z i1 jl1

X

lu

s:t: yi w xi b ni 1 ni 0 i 1; 2; . . .; l

C2 max1 jw xi bj; 0 12 w xj b gj 1 gj 0 j l 1; l 2; . . .; l k

il1

w xj b zj 1 zj 0

Here, C1 and C2 are the weight of two loss function. 15

i = l ? 1, l ? 2, , l ? u is the unlabeled data. In the

above formula, it needs to add constraints to avoid that where C [ 0 is a fixed misclassification penalty.

those unlabeled data would be divided into a same class: They use integer programming to solve this problem. By

adding a zero or one decision variable dj for each xi, they

1X lu

1X l

formulate the semi-supervised support vector machine as a

f xj yi 13

u jl1 l i1 mixed integer program:

" #

Until now, we get a reasonable semi-supervised support P

l lP

k

min C gi nj zj jjwjj

vector machine. Support vector machine is a convex opti- w;b;g;n;z;d i1 jl1

w xj b nj M1 dj 1; nj 0; j l 1; . . .; l k

convex optimization can refer to supervised tensor learning w xj b zj Mdj 1; zj 0; dj f0; 1g

[26]. However, this semi-supervised support vector

16

machine is a non-convex quadratic programming problem

and has a complex calculation in solving. With the new However, with the increase in unlabeled data, the

data adding, it needs to resolve the programming problem. complexity of computation will rapidly increase. It is dif-

In order to solve this problem, scholars have proposed a lot ficult to solve for large unlabeled data. To overcome this

of optimization techniques for non-convex optimization difficulty, in 2001, Glenn et al. [37] proposed concave

problem [27]. Some typical optimization methods include semi-supervised support vector machine (VS3VM). Its

gradient descent [28, 29], concave convex procedure [30], main idea is to formulate the problem as a concave mini-

deterministic annealing [31], continuation method [32], mization problem which is solved by a successive linear

semi-definite programming [33], DC programming and approximation algorithm. That reduces some complexity in

DCA [34], branch-and-bound algorithms [35] and genetic calculation and makes it able to handle large unlabeled

algorithm [36]. datasets.

Bennett and Demiriz proposed semi-supervised support Although Bennett and Demiriz proposed S3VM ini-

vector machine on the basis of the robust linear program- tially, in most cases, the S3VM does not refer to the for-

ming (RLP) approach to SVM. The corresponding robust mula (15). We prefer treating the original form [i.e.,

linear program for SVM was defined as: formula (12)] as the S3VM. Except mentioning Bennett

123

Neural Comput & Applic

and Demiriz, the S3VM in this paper refers to formula (12). On the application side, semi-supervised support vector

Now, we will present some good improvements in S3VM. machines can be widely used in some classification prob-

In 2011, Li et al. [38] proposed safe semi-supervised lems. At present, we can see there are a lot of applications

support vector machine (S4VM). S3VM is based on low- which semi-supervised support vector machines have been

density assumption and tries to find a low-density separator applied in, and the potential applications are image clas-

which favors the decision boundary going across low- sification and text classification. On these two issues, semi-

density regions in the feature space. However, S4VM tries supervised support vector machines have shown good

to exploit multiple candidate low-density separators and results.

then select the representative separators. In 2014, Hu et al.

[39] combined traditional S3VM with multikernel learning 3.3 Transductive support vector machines

and proposed a multikernel S3VM optimization model

based on Lp norm constraint (Lp - MKL - S3VM). In this In 2009, Joachims [44] proposed transductive support

multikernel framework, both basic kernels and manifold vector machine (TSVM). TSVM is an important method in

kernels are used to achieve a combination of two semi-supervised support vector machines. It is based on

assumptions (i.e., cluster assumption and manifold cluster assumption. It is interesting that TSVM and S3VM

assumption). By adding Lp norm constraint to kernel are not only proposed in the same year, but also similar in

combination coefficients h, they get the non-sparse solution their main idea and optimization problem. The objective of

for h and improve the interpretability and generalization of TSVM is to focus on a particular working set, making it

S3VM. possible to achieve the optimal classification in this

Semi-supervised support vector machine is non-smooth working set. And this leads to a poor ability in dealing with

and non-convex. To tackle this problem, scholars use the new data, i.e., poor generalization.

quasi-Newton approach [40] in S3VM. In 2011, Reddy There are labeled data (x1, y1), , (xn, yn), xi 2 Rm, -

et al. [41] applied a modified quasi-Newton method for yi 2 {- 1, ?1} and unlabeled data x*1, x*2, , x*k . In lin-

S3VM. In 2012, Gieseke et al. [42] proposed a sparse early non-separable cases, the optimization problem of

quasi-Newton optimization for S3VM. Both of them made TSVM is shown as follows:

an effective improvement. In 2015, by using a general

three-moment method, Jiang et al. [43] constructed a Minimize over y1 ; . . .; yn ; w; b; n1 ; . . .; nn ; n1 ; . . .; nk :

1 X n Xk

quantic spline symmetric hinge approximation function jjwjj2 C ni C nj

with three-time differentiability at origin. They applied to 2 i0 j0

smooth S3VM model and proved that it has a good s:t: yi w xi b 1 ni ; i 1; 2; . . .; n

convergence. yj w xj b 1 nj ; j 1; 2; . . .; k

When should people use semi-supervised SVM? In fact, ni 0; i 1; 2; . . .; n

it can be used on all two-class problems in semi-supervised nj 0; j 1; 2; . . .; k

learning. Now, assuming that there is a dataset D with 1000

17

sets of data and D is a two-class problem, we will use these

data to get a classifier. In dataset D, 100 sets of data have Here, ni and n*j stand for the relaxation factor of labeled

been labeled, and the others have no label. If we use SVM, data and unlabeled data, respectively. C and C* are weight,

we can only use 100 sets of data. However, semi-super- which represent the effect of labeled data and unlabeled

vised SVM can make full use of 1000 sets of data. Finally, data, respectively, in objective function.

the performance of resulting classifier would be better by The most important thing in TSVM is the transductive

choosing semi-supervised SVM. All in all, if there are approach. It will have a good classification ability in a

small amounts of labeled data and large amounts of unla- particular working set. As for unknown working sets, its

beled data, semi-supervised SVM is the great choice. performance is just ordinary. In addition, TSVM has a high

With the increase in unlabeled data, semi-supervised time complexity and needs to preset the number of positive

support vector machines also present a rising trend in samples. To solve these problems, scholars have done a lot

practical application. Semi-supervised support vector of work to improve the algorithm. In 2003, Chen et al. [53]

machine used initially in text classification [44] and made a proposed a progressive transductive support vector

good result. Semi-supervised support vector machines have machine (PTSVM). In this algorithm, it is no need to preset

been also applied in other areas, such as image classifica- the number of positive samples. Instead, according to

tion [19, 4547], iris image recognition [48], face recog- certain principles, PTSVM gives a possible label for the

nition [49], physical education effect evaluation [50], unlabeled data in the training process and retrains the new

cancer classification [51] and rapid identification between dataset of labeled data. However, this algorithm requires

edible oil and swill-cooked dirty oil [52]. labeling the unlabeled data frequently. And with the

123

Neural Comput & Applic

increase in unlabeled data, the time complexity of this It should be noted that the support vector machine and

algorithm will increase rapidly, which makes the training most of supervised learning methods all use the regular-

speed slow. ization theory. Their optimization goals can be written as:

The primary deficiency of TSVM is that the number of

1X l

positive samples Np in unlabeled data must be appointed min Vxi ; yi ; f cjjf jj2K 18

before training, and the main cause of this problem is the

f 2Hk l i1

pairwise exchange criterion. For this problem, Wang et al. where c C 0 and V is a loss function. K is an effective

[54] proposed individually judging and changing criterion kernel function. Hk corresponds to the reproducing kernel

and then put forward an algorithm to label the unlabeled Hilbert space. jj jjK is the inner product on Hilbert space.

data progressively and adjust the Np dynamically. Unlike Basing on this framework, Belkin proposed a manifold

TSVM, the algorithm is not sensitive to the unreasonable regularization framework [59]. Its main idea is to add a

number of positive samples. When Np is given randomly, regularization term in formula (18), so formula (18)

this method will also show a better performance than becomes:

TSVM.

TSVM and PTSVM both require solving the quadratic 1X l

min Vxi ; yi ; f cjjf jj2K gjjf jj2K 19

programming problems. Zhang et al. [55] replaced the e f 2Hk l i1

insensitive function by using quadratic loss function, which

converts quadratic programming problems to solving linear The regularization term contains the labeled data and

equations and then proposed least square transduction unlabeled data, which reflects the internal structure of sample

support vector machine. data distribution. It should be noted that the manifold regu-

There are also other good improved algorithms for larization is a very important semi-supervised learning

TSVM. In 2012, Yu et al. [56] proposed a transductive method. The manifold regularization can fuse supervised

support vector machine algorithm based on spectral clus- learning and unsupervised learning into semi-supervised

tering. This algorithm uses spectral clustering to cluster learning. Its core idea is to mine the geometry of the distri-

unlabeled data and labels them and then makes transduc- bution of data and add it in formula as a regularization term.

tive inference on the mixed dataset composed by both The data consist of supervised and unsupervised data.

labeled and unlabeled data. It improves the stability Manifold regularization is a hot topic in semi-supervised

greatly. At the same year, Tian et al. [57] proposed a learning, and many scholars have done a lot work in this

multiple kernel version of TSVM which combines both field. For some deficiencies of manifold regularization,

cluster assumption and manifold assumption. And in 2014, scholars also tried to study and improve it. In 2012, Bo et al.

Zhou et al. [58] applied the quasi-linear kernel to TSVM [61] proposed ensemble manifold regularization framework

and proposed a transductive support vector machine with to automatically and implicitly estimate the hyperparameters

adjustable quasi-linear kernel. of the manifold regularization. In 2013, Yong et al. [62]

proposed multiview vector-valued manifold regularization

3.4 Laplacian support vector machines and manifold regularized multitask learning algorithm [63] to

achieve multilabel classification, and both of them were

In Sect. 3.1, we mentioned that there are two assumptions successfully applied to multilabel image classification.

in semi-supervised learning: cluster assumption and man- The Laplacian support vector machine that was pro-

ifold assumption. And S3VM is exactly based on cluster posed by Belkin is exactly based on this manifold regu-

assumption. The manifold assumption reflects mostly a larization framework. In LapSVM, the regularization term

graph-based semi-supervised learning method. Currently, is a Laplace operator, which is given by

there are a large number of graph-based semi-supervised 1

jjf jj2L f T Lf 20

learning methods. Their idea is to build a graph and regard l u2

the labeled data and unlabeled data as the node in the

graph. The similarity between these data can be repre- So the Laplacian support vector machine can be defined

sented by the edge weights in the graph. By using such a as follows:

graph, the label information of these data can be passed to 1X l

c1

the other node, and then, we can label the unlabeled data. min n cA aT Ka aT KLKa

a2Rlu ;n2Rl l i1 i u l2

In fact, the Laplacian support vector machine (LapSVM) !

P

lu

[59] which will be presented in this section is exactly a s:t: yi aj Kxi ; xj b 1 ni ; i 1; 2; . . .; l

j1

graph-based semi-supervised learning method. This

ni 0; i 1; 2; . . .; l

method is applied in image classification [60] and achieves

a good result. 21

123

Neural Comput & Applic

Lagrange function to transfer it into a dual problem, and min min jjwjj22 C1 ni C2 q

d2D w;b;p;n 2 i1

then, it can be solved easily.

s:t: yi w0 /xi b 1 !ni ; i 1; 2; . . .; l

Compared to S3VM, LapSVM is more outstanding in

1 X

lu

solving and time complexity. Certainly, it also has some w0 djl /xj b q

deficiencies. LapSVM is based on the manifold assumption u jl1

!

and reflects the local structure information of dataset. In 1 X

lu

0

fact, this assumption in some classification problems may w 1 djl /xj b q

u jl1

be too broad. When these samples are near to the classi-

fication boundary, they may exactly belong to different 22

class. In recent years, scholars made a great progress in Pu

where D fdjdi 2 f0; 1g; i1 di u g: Balance con-

LapSVM. In order to improve the training speed, in 2011, straints are contained in D. In addition, using the label

Melacci et al. [64] trained the Laplacian support vector mean does not mean to add a constraint to each unlabeled

machine in the primal programming problem instead of data. The main characteristic of the meanS3VM is highly

transferring it into dual problem. This method reduces the efficient with a short time in training. In particular, on

time complexity effectively, which reduces the O(n3) to relatively large data, meanS3VM is 100 times faster than

O(k2). In 2013, Qi et al. [65] proposed a cost-sensitive TSVM and 10 times faster than LapSVM.

Laplacian support vector machine (Cos-LapSVM), which After that, in 2010, Li et al. [70] proposed cost-sensitive

can deal with the sensitive problem in semi-supervised semi-supervised support vector machine (CS4VM), which

learning. To control the sparsity and feature selection of combines the cost-sensitive learning with meanS3VM.

LapSVM, in 2014, Tan et al. [66] introduced an CS4VM uses the different cost for different misclassifica-

adjustable p-norm and proposed Laplacian p-norm proxi- tion based on meanS3VM. In fact, CS4VM is the cost-

mal support vector machine (Lap-PPSVM). At the same sensitive version of meanS3VM.

year, Yang et al. [67] proposed a spatio-spectral Laplacian

support vector machine (SS-LapSVM) and applied it to 3.6 S3VM based on cluster kernels

hyperspectral image classification. In 2015, Qi et al. [68]

further improved LapSVM and proposed a fast Laplacian In semi-supervised learning, kernels have been given a

SVM (FlapSVM). This method does not need to deal with certain attention. Labeled data and unlabeled data are used

extra matrix and can be effectively solved by SOR tech- to construct the kernel functions, which make kernel

nology, which makes it more suitable for large-scale function better reflect the similarity between samples. In

problems. 2002, relying on the cluster assumption, Chapelle [71]

changed the spectrum of the kernel matrix and proposed a

3.5 meanS3VM framework for constructing kernels. They applied it to

SVM and got a good result compared to TSVM. By using

We have presented the S3VM, TSVM and LapSVM above. this framework, we can get a semi-supervised support

S3VM proposed by Bennett and Demiriz needs to solve the vector machine based on cluster kernels. The key is to use

mixed integer program, whose solving procedure has a the new kernel function constructed by labeled data and

high time complexity. TSVM will lead to a large number of unlabeled data to train the SVM.

iterations. And the LapSVM needs to calculate the inverse This S3VM based on cluster kernels has an advantage,

of a n 9 n matrix. All of them have a deficiency in time which it is no need to modify the objective function of

complexity. SVM. If the objective function was modified, we would

The meanS3VM was proposed by Li et al. [69], and they face with the difficult in solving and low efficiency. Those

found that the label mean, being a simple statistic, can be semi-supervised support vector machines that we men-

useful in building a semi-supervised learner. The tioned above have a same characteristic; that is, they all

meanS3VM estimates the label means of the whole unla- need to modify their objective function. These unlabeled

beled data firstly. In fact, after we get the label means of data are added in the optimization problem, and then, it

unlabeled data, we will find that the semi-supervised sup- will bring a new objective function and optimization

port vector machine is similar to the SVM which knows the problem. The S3VM based on cluster kernels only needs to

all label of data. And this will make meanS3VM be more construct a new kernel function, which will reduce some

efficient. The goal of meanS3VM is to maximize the complexity. Certainly, this method has a high time com-

margin between the label means of the unlabeled data. The plexity, and it may have a poor performance in dealing

expression can be defined as follows: with large datasets.

123

Neural Comput & Applic

Using different method, we can get different kernels, important classification method in machine learning, and

and there are some main kernels: spectral clustering kernel combining it with semi-supervised learning seems to be

[72], random walk kernel [73], bagged clustering kernel more significant. On the one hand, semi-supervised support

[7476], mixture models of Gaussian kernel [77]. vector machines inherit the solid theory of SVM, which

will enhance its generalization ability. On the other hand,

by introducing semi-supervised learning, semi-supervised

4 Conclusions support vector machines can use the unlabeled data to

improve its performance and extend its application.

This paper presents these mainstream models of semi-su- However, semi-supervised support vector machines also

pervised support vector machines, including S3VM, have deficiency. Those methods will all cost a large time in

TSVM, LapSVM, meanSVM and S3VM based on cluster training, and it is the biggest challenge in semi-supervised

kernel. In addition, this paper gives a brief understanding support vector machines. Some methods improve this

on their corresponding improved method. situation to a certain degree, but there are still a lot of

Without a doubt, lapSVM and meanSVM are the out- works to do in the future.

standing and potential algorithm in these five mainstream

algorithms. We can analyze these five algorithms from the Acknowledgments This work is supported by the National Natural

Science Foundation of China (No. 61379101).

following aspects. Considering from the solving process,

lapSVM and S3VM based on cluster kernel are easier than

others. LapSVM is based on manifold regularization

framework, which can be solved by using Lagrange func- References

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