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Module 12: Reporting and Utilization

Research Finding

Module 12.2: Critical Analysis of
Research Report

Critical Analysis of Research Report
• A critical analysis paper asks the writer to make an argument
about a particular book, essay, movie, etc. The goal is two fold: one,
identify and explain the argument that the author is making, and
two, provide your own argument about that argument.
• Nurses may find critiquing a research paper a particularly daunting
experience when faced with their first paper. Knowing what
questions the nurse should be asking is perhaps difficult to
determine when there may be unfamiliar research terms to grasp.
Nurses may benefit from a structured approach which helps them
understand the sequence of the text and the subsequent value of a
research paper.
• Critical analysis is otherwise called critical appraisal or research

and relevance before using it to inform a decision” • (Hill and Spittle house. results. and its value and relevance in a particular context • “Critical appraisal is the process of systematically examining research evidence to assess its validity.Critical Appraisal Definition: • Critical appraisal is the process of carefully and systematically analyze the research paper to judge its trustworthiness. . 2001) • A critical evaluation / appraisal of a research report.

and evaluating how its findings are presented will help you to determine whether that article’s conclusions should influence practical decision-making. Asking questions about an article’s research methodology.Critical Appraisal Critical appraisal is an essential step in the process of putting research into practice. • Requires • Critical thinking. • Appraisal • Intellectual skill . scrutinizing its data collection and analysis methods.

.based nursing practice. • For implementing an evidence .Importance of Critical Appraisal • To broaden understanding for use in practice. • Encourages nurses to participate in clinical inquiry and provide evidence for use in practice.

• Seasoned researcher to help journal editions • Written critique is a guide to researcher • To advance nursing knowledge and profession .Purposes of Critical Appraisal • To assess students’ methodological and analytical skills (identify limitations and strengths).

Approaches for Critical Appraisal Principles: • Be Objective: Make comments specific to the work you are reviewing • Be Constructive: Critique should be an advisory and constructive nature .

Critical Appraisal Process • Comprehension • Comparison • Analysis • Evaluation • Conceptual clustering .

General Guidelines • Read and critique the entire study • Be objective and realistic • Comment on strengths and weakness • Give specific examples • Suggest alternatives .

methodologic.General Guidelines • Use positive terms whenever possible and say the positive points first • Avoid vague generalizations of praise and fault findings • Be sensitive in handling negative comments • Evaluate substantive. interpretative and presentational dimensions . ethical.

Initial Critical Appraisal • What type of study was conducted? • What was the setting? • Were the steps clearly identified? • Was there a logical flow .

Elements of Critical Appraisal • Substantive and theoretical dimensions • Methodologic dimensions • Ethical dimensions • Interpretive dimensions • Presentation / stylistic dimensions .

Criteria Introduction: • Is the purpose of the study presented? • Is the significance (importance) of the problem discussed? • Does the investigator provide a sense of what he or she is doing and why? Problem Statement : • Is the problem statement clear? • Does the investigator identify key research questions and variables to be examined? • Does the study have the potential to help solve a problem that is currently faced in clinical practice? .

Literature Review • Does literature review follow a logical sequence leading to a critical review of supporting and conflicting prior work? • Is the relationship of the study to previous research clear? • Does the investigator describe gaps in the literature and support the necessity of the present stu Theoretical/Conceptual Framework: • Check if conceptual framework described? • If not. does it detract from the research? • Are the concepts to be studied identified and defined? • Are measures for each of the concepts identified and described? • Does the research problem flow naturally from the conceptual framework? .

was the inter-rater reliability adequate? .Research Questions/Hypotheses • Are research questions or hypotheses formally stated? • Do the research questions and hypotheses naturally flow from the research problem and theoretical framework? • Does each research question or hypothesis contain at least two variables? • Are the research questions or hypotheses worded clearly and objectively Methodology: • Are the relevant variables and concepts clearlyand operationally defined? • Is the design appropriate for the research questions or hypotheses? • Are methods of data collection sufficiently described? • What are the identified and potential threats to internal and external validity that were present in the study? • If there was more than one data collector.

according to level of measurement.Instruments • Are appropriate instruments for data collection used? • Are reliability and validity of the instruments adequate? Sample : • Are the subjects and sampling methods described? • Is the sample of sufficient size for the study. and hypotheses / research questions? . given the number of variables and design? • Is there adequate assurance that the rights of human subjects were protected? Data Analysis: • Are the statistical tests used identified and the values reported? • Are appropriate statistics used. sampling method. sample size.

Results • Are the results for each hypothesis clearly and objectively presented? • Do the figures and tables illuminate the presentation of results? • Are results described in light of the theoretical framework and supporting literature? .

education and research)? • Are recommendations for further research stated? .For practice.E.Conclusions/Discussions • Are conclusions based on the results and related to the hypotheses? • Are study limitations identified? • Are generalizations made within the scope of the findings? • Are implications of findings discussed (I.

Research Utilization /Implications • Is the study of sufficient quality to • Meet the criterion of scientific merit? • Does the study meet the criterion of replicability? • Is the study of relevance to practice? • Is the study feasible for nurses to implement? • Do the benefits of the study outweigh he risks? .

Statement of the Phenomenon of the Interest • Is the phenomenon of interest clearly identified? • Has the researcher identified why the phenomenon requires a qualitative format? • Has the research described the Philosophic underpinnings of the research? Purpose: • Has the research made explicit the purpose of conducting the research? • Does the researcher describe the projected significance of the work to nursing? .

does the researcher complete the study according to the processes described? Sampling: • Does the researcher describe the selection of participants? Is purposive sampling used? • Are the informants who were chosen appropriate for research? .Method • Is the method used to collect data compatible with the purpose of the research? • Is the method adequate to address the phenomenon of interest? • If a particular approach is used to guide the inquiry.

Data Collection • Is data collection focused on human experience? • Does the researcher describe data collection strategies (I.E. field notes)? • Is protection of human participants addressed? • Is saturation of the data described? • Has the researcher made explicit the procedures for collecting data ? . observation. Interview.

and fittingness of the data? . auditability.Data Analysis • Does the researcher describe the strategies used to analyze the data? • Has the researcher remained true to the data? • Does the reader understand the procedures used to analyze the data? • Does researcher address the credibility.

Data Analysis Credibility: • Do the participants recognize the experience as Auditability: • Can the reader follow the researcher’s thinking? • Does the researcher document the research Fittingness: • Can the findings be applicable outside the study • Are the results meaningful to individuals not • Is the strategy used for analysis compatible with .

Findings • Are the findings presented within a context? • Is the reader able to grasp the essence of the experience from the report of the findings? • Are the researcher’s conceptualization true to the data? • Does the researcher place the report in the context of what already is known about the phenomenon? .

Conclusions . implications and recommendations give the reader a context in which to use the findings? • Do the conclusions reflect the study findings? • Does the researcher offer recommendations for future study? • Has the researcher made explicit the significance of the study to nursing? .Implications and Recommendations • Do the conclusions.

no single study can provide conclusive evidence • Evidence is accumulated through the conduct and evaluation of several studies • Reader who can do reflective and thorough critiques of research reports play a role in advancing nursing knowledge . impersonal fashion and use passive voice • Make concluding evaluation statement as to the overall worth and relevance of the study • Research is the best possible means of answering many questions.Styles in Writing • More formal.

.Conclusion A word about your style: let your presentation be well reasoned and objective. let your passion inspire you to new heights of thorough research and reasoned argument. If you passionately disagree (or agree) with the author.