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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

METHODOLOGY TO EXTRACT ESSENTIAL OILS FROM LEMONGRASS


LEAVES: SOLVENT EXTRACTION APPROACH
M.A.Suryawanshi1, V.B.Mane2, G.B.Kumbhar3
Department of Chemical Engg, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Engg., Navi Mumbai
*masuryawanshi@gmail.com
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Abstract—Perfume extraction is the extraction of distillation. The use of plants extracts is part of a
aromatic compounds from raw materials, using competitive market, which includes pharmaceuticals,
methods such as distillation, solvent extraction etc. food, cosmetics, and perfumery markets. The Asian
The extracts are essential oils, absolutes, butters, continent with its diversity of climates appears to be
depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted the most vital producer of essential oils. Lemongrass
product. Here, in this work solvent extraction and (Cymbopogon Citratus), a perennial plant with long,
steam distillation methods were used to extract thin leaves, is one of the largely cultivated medicinal
essential oil from lemongrass leaves. Solvent plants for its essential oils in parts of Asia, Africa and
extraction method yielded 1.85% and steam America. It contains 1-2% of essential oil on dry basis
distillation methods yielded 0.86% essential oil and the chemical composition of Lemongrass
respectively. From the analysis solvent extraction (Cymbopogon Citratus) essential oil is varying widely
method gave the highest yield because of the less upon genetic diversity. The leaves of Lemongrass
exposure to air and heat. (Cymbopogon Citratus) present lemony
Keywords: Lemongrass, solvent extraction, steam characteristic flavour due to its main content, citral
distillation. which present great importance to the industry.
I. INTRODUCTION Citral, a combination of neral and geranial isomers, is
Essential oils are extracts of various plant materials used as a raw material for the production of ionone,
and do not originate from flowers, but from herbs, vitamin A and beta-carotene. There were a number of
trees and various other plant material. It is estimated studies carried out to prove the anti-oxidant, anti-
that the global number of plants contains about 10% microbial and anti-fungal activities of Lemongrass
of essential oils and could be used as a source for (Cymbopogon Citratus). The common methods to
their production. Their extracts are formed by extract essential oil from medicinal plant, including
combination of diverse and complex volatile mixtures for Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus), are hydro
of chemical compounds. In industry, the essential oils distillation (HD), steam distillation, solvent
are extracted from fresh or partially dried leaves extraction. It is proved through a number of studies,
using various method of extraction like hydro that the quality of essential oil mainly depends on its

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

constituents which is primarily influenced by their of this work will stimulate the development of the
extraction procedures. In contrast, these common perfume industry locally because of available, cheap
methods can induce thermal degradation, hydrolysis raw materials. More jobs will be created by those that
and water solubililization of some fragrance will be engaged in planting/cultivating of the plant as
constituents. In addition, the oil obtained through well as establishing small scale extraction plants.
solvent aided extraction contains residues that There will be reduction on the resources spent on
pollute the foods fragrances to which they are added. importation of lemon grass fragrance by end users.
As a means to overcome this sort of drawbacks, an
advance and improved method such as microwave- II. MATERIALS AND METHOD
assisted extraction, subcritical water extraction and
ultrasound-assisted extraction have been applied to A. Plant Samples
shorten extraction time, improve the extraction yield Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) leaves were
and reduce the operational costs. Recently, collected from garden. The plant sample was freshly
microwave-assisted hydro distillation procedures for cut, 10cm from the root, in the morning of the day
isolating essential oils have become attractive for use they were collected. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon
in laboratories and industry due to its effective Citratus), the percentage essential oil yield for the
heating, fast energy transfers and also an partially dried leaves was found to be higher than
environmental friendly extraction technique. Its that of the fresh leaves. Thus, once collected, the
acceptance as potential and powerful alternative for plant material was dried at room temperature for
conventional extraction techniques has been proved maximum 4 days, then kept in a sealed plastic bag at
through several research. Therefore, the aim of the ambient temperature and protected from the light.
present study was to investigate the applicability of Extraction yield increase by decreasing the particle
the method to extract oils from Lemongrass size due to the higher amount of oil released as the
(Cymbopogon Citratus) extracts based on the leave cells are destroyed by milling. In order to
extraction yield and constituents of oils obtained improve the collection efficiency, the plant material
under optimized condition. The effect of operational was soaked in its distilled water for 30min before the
parameter such as extraction time and water to raw extraction performed.
material ratio were evaluated to identify its optimum
condition for extraction. B. Reagents
This technical paper focuses on the production of N-hexane was used as analytical grade reagent
perfumes from natural/plant sources as against purchased from Research Lab.
synthetic chemicals thereby will reduce any side
effect resulting from synthetic chemicals. The success

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
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C. Solvent Extraction Method condense the ensuring steam. When the water
150g of the dry sample of lemongrass were weighed reached 100oC it started boiling ripping off the
from the sliced lemongrass sample and placed in a 1 essential oil from the lemongrass. When the
lit clean flat bottom flask. 500ml of N- hexane solvent lemongrass got heated up, the essential oil that was
were poured into the flask. The flask and content extracted from the leaf mixed with the water vapor.
were allowed to stand for 36 hrs; this was done to Both passed through the condenser and the vapor
extract all the oil content in the lemongrass and for was condensed into liquid. With the use of ice block,
complete extraction. After which the extract was cooling was made possible and volatilization of the
decanted into another 1 lit beaker. 200ml of Ethanol essential oil was avoided. The condensate was
were added to extract the essential oil since essential directly collected using a 500ml beaker and then
oil is soluble in Ethanol. The mixture was then poured into a separating funnel. This formed two
transferred to 500ml separating funnel and layers of oil and water. The tap of the separating
separated by a process called liquid/liquid funnel was opened to let out the water while the oil
separation process. The content of the separating was immediately collected into a 100ml stoppered
funnel was and allowed to come to equilibrium, bottle. The bottle was closed tightly to prevent
which separated into two layers (depending on their vaporization of the essential oil. The oil was collected
different density). The lower Ethanol extract and the and the volume of oil obtained was weighed.
upper Hexane layer were collected into two separate E. Formulation of Perfume
250ml beaker and were placed in a water bath at 10ml of lemongrass essential oil extract were
78oC. This was done to remove the Ethanol leaving measured and placed in a 120ml beaker containing
only the natural essential oil. The yield of oil was 5ml of Methanol. 5ml of the Fixatives were added to
determined by weighing the extract on an electronic the mixture (to improve the longevity of the
weighing balance. The difference between the final perfume). The solution was shaken and poured into a
weight of the beaker with extract and the initial 50ml bottle.
weight of the empty beaker gave the weight of Yield of oil that obtained was calculated by:
essential oil.
Yield of essential oil =
D. Steam Distillation Method a m o u n t of essential oil (g) obtained / amount of
150g of fresh lemongrass sample were placed into a 1 raw materials (g) used
lit round bottom flask containing 250ml of distilled
water. The flask was fitted with a rubber stopper III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
connected to condenser and heated. Water at 0oC Quality and quantity of oil essential mainly depends
flowed counter currently through the condenser to on the extraction procedures. In this research, the

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
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following methods were studied to obtain the The result of steam distillation process was 1.01g
maximum yield to formulate the perfume from weight of 150g of lemongrass sample giving 0.70%
lemongrass leave. Extraction time was 180 min, 360 yield of oil.
min, 540 min, 720 min, 900 min, 1200 min.
Solvent Extraction Method— Method of % Yield
0.8 Extraction

0.6 Solvent extraction 1.30%


weight (g)

Steam distillation 0.70%


0.4
Table I: Result of Essential Oil Extraction
0.2 S…
The oil produced was pale yellow, with an odour,
0
180 360 540 720 900 1200 pungent and cooling taste. Because of its high
time (min)
volatility, it was stored in a well fillld air-tight
Fig. (a) Graph of the weight (g) of essential oil to the container protected from light in cool place. The
time (mins). essential oil was insoluble in water, miscible in
The amount of essential oils obtained by solvent alcohol and in oil.
extraction method was 1.9 g of essential oil per 150g
From the experiment carried out it was observed that
of dry lemongrass sample. This gives about 1.30%
the best method used in extraction is solvent
yield of essential oil per 150g of dry lemongrass. The
extraction method because it gave more oil than any
temperature used was 78oC i.e. the boiling point of
other method. This conforms to works done by other
ethanol. The volume of oil was measured at every 3hr
researchers. Steam distillation method yielded less
interval to determine the oil yield at varying time. As
oil ompared to the solvent extraction this is because
the time increases the Ethanol solvent reduces
most volatile content gets lost during the heating
thereby leaving the essential oil in the mixture.
process.
. Steam Distillation Method—
0.8 IV. CONCLUSIONS

0.6 In this paper, extraction of essential oil from


weight (g)

lemongrass which has high essential oil content,


0.4
S…
which will be used for used for perfume formulation.
0.2
Analyses will be carried out to determine the various
0
180 360 540 720 900 1200 oil yields using different extraction methods and the
time (min)
formulation of perfume with the essential oil will be
Fig. (b) Graph showing the weight (g) of essential oil produced. All these methods of extraction are special
against the time (mins). type of separation process used for heat sensitive

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

materials like essential oils, resins, hydrocarbons, etc. [6] J. Behboud, E. Amirreza, M. A. Babak, and H.
which are insoluble in water and may decompose at Zarifeh, “Antibacterial Activities of Lemon Grass
their boiling point. The temperature of the steam Methanol Extract and Essence on Pathogenic
must be high enough to vaporize the essential oil Bacteria,” Journal of Agricultural and Environmental
present, yet not destroy or burns the essential oils. Science, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1042-1046, 2012.
[7] G. T. Nikos and D. E. Costas, “Antifungal activity of
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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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