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Steel Structures

Steel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 1


Steel
Types:
Stress-strain curve -  Strain  + • Light gauge steel
• Heavy steel
Advantages:
• Can be recycled
• Ductile (absorbs seismic energy)
• Lighter than concrete and masonry
(small seismic forces)
• No limitation of height or floor area
Challenges:
• Requires much energy to produce
• Higher cost than other material
Hysteresis loop
• Requires fire proofing
(test stress-strain curve)
• Requires accurate workmanship
E = Energy absorbed by
• Limited availability in some countries
ductility

1 Mild steel
2&3 High strength steel strand
4 Steel strand
5 Steel tendon (for pre-stressed concrete)
Steel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 2
Light-gauge steel (cold-rolled)
Channel stud (2 ½ – 6“)
1. C-stud (2 ½ – 6“)
2. I-stud (3 5/8 – 8“)
3. C-joist (6 – 12”)
4. I-joist (6 – 12”)

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http://www.dietrichmetalframing.com/ultrasteel/menu.asp

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Light-gauge steel curtain wall
Attached to steel frame

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Heavy steel shapes
Profiles: typical labels
1. W-shape, light (W14x22)
2. W-shape, heavy (W14x730)
3. S-shape, Standard (S12x50)
4. W-shape, wide flange (W16x40)
5. C-shape, Channel (C10x30)
6. T-shape
Cut from S-shape (ST6x25)
Cut from W-shape (WT8x20)
7. Angle, unequal legs (L6x4x½)
Double angle (DL6x4x½)
8. Angle, equal legs (L4x4x½)
Double angle (DL3x3x½)
9. Pipe
Standard (P4)
Extra strong (XP4)
Double extra strong (DXP4)
10. Structural Tubing
Square (ST6x6x½)
Rectangular (ST8x4x½)
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Steel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 8
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A Concrete slab on steel deck
Floor / roof framing B Steel Q-deck
C Truss joist
D Support bracket
E Alternate prefab concrete slab
F Wide-flange steel beam

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Steel joints
1 Pin joint, transfers only beam shear to column
2 Classic moment joint, transfers shear and bending moment
3 Dog-bone moment joint, reduces seismic joint stress
4 Joist to beam joint with top flange cut back
5 Beam to beam joint with both flanges cut back

A Column
B Beam
C Connector angles, usually shop welded, field bolted
D Machine bolts, usually installed in field to connect beam
E Welded connection of beam flanges to column
F Stiffener plates resist bending stress from beam flanges
G Secondary beam / joist supported by primary beam / girder

Steel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 11


Dog-bone moment frame Classic moment frame

Steel structures
Dog-bone joints – reduced flange reduces joint stress

Copyright Prof Schierle 2011


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Steel production

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19th Century Train Station (3-hinge arch)
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19th century hinge support

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Coalbrookdale bridge by Darby (first iron bridge, 1777-79)

30 m

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Gustav Eiffel 1884

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Fourth Bridge Edinburgh, 1890

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Truss floors
X-braced towers
provide lateral resistance

Joist / beam roof


Optimal spacing:
Joists ~ 10’
Beams ~ 30’
Posts ~ 30’x30’

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Stayed structures
Architect: Richard Rodgers

Imos factory
Engineer: Antony Hunt

Patscenter Princeton
Engineer: Ove Arup

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Currigan exhibit hall, Denver
Architect: Muchow, Ream, and Larson
The space truss is expressed inside and along
the roof edge outside. Inverted truss pyramids
support define the organization.
The space truss has four modules of 240’x680’
combined length.
The truss is two layers deep to reduce buckling
length of web bars.
Top and bottom grids, 10’x10’. are offset by half
a module and joined by pyramidal web bars.
Truss bars consist of twin-Ls, joined by gussets.
The span/depth ratio is 6.5, DL = 13 psf.

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Festival Plaza, Expo 70, Osaka
Architect: Kenzo Tange
Engineer: Yoshitomi Suga

• Six towers support the 108x292 m space truss


providing about equal span both ways
• Equal spans assure equal deflection
(both spans equally efficient)

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Larkspur Ferry Terminal, San Francisco
Architect: Jacques De Brer
Engineer: Kaiser Engineers

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Olympic Arena Barcelona
Architect: Arata Isozaki
Engineer: Mamoru Kawaguchi

The 1992 106x128 m Olympic Pentadome


space truss consists of 5 units assembled at
ground and lifted to final position.

Assembly at ground Erection

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Javits Convention Center New York
Architect: I M Pei
Engineer: Weidlinger
SPACE TRUSS

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Airport terminal Stuttgart
Architect: Von Gerkan / Marg
Engineer: Weidleplan
Features:
• 12 trees, each 80’ x 80’
Tree structure

• Four pipe stems, 48 branches


• Skylights separate units

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Airport Terminal Stansted, UK
Architect: Norman Foster Associates
Engineer: Ove Arup and Partners

Steel lattice domes are supported by 36x36 m


trees that integrate mechanical services.
Four strands secure each dome to trunks for
lateral stability.

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Airport Terminal Hamburg
Architect: Von Gerkan / Marg
Engineer: Kockjoy, Schwarz, Weber
Prismatic truss

Airport Terminal, Chicago


Architect: Helmut Jahn
Folded truss

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Stadium Milan - truss span over 600’

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Centre Pompidou, Paris
Architect: Piano and Rodgers
Engineer: Ove Arup
The Centre Pompidou features six levels exhibit space 60 x 166 m
Warren Trusses span the 60 m width

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Steel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 31
CDG metro station 2 Paris
Architect / Engineer: Paul Andrew

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IBM sports hall, UK
Architect: Nicholas Grimshaw

Prismatic truss frame

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Sainsbury Center, UK
Architect: Norman Foster
Engineer: Anthony Hunt

Prismatic truss frame

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Braced frame

Office Building
Architect: David Gray
Engineer: Dimitry Vergun

Location:
Santa Monica, N/W of
Colorado Blvd/ 7th street

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Steel moment frames
(wood structure ocean front)

Beam / column moment joints


provide lateral resistance for
wide ocean view

Steel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 36


Koenig Residence
Steel moment frame

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Expressed steel

Hillside house
Architect: Helmut Schulitz

Braced frame

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Exhibit Hall Leipzig
Architect: Von Gerkan Marg

Point supported glass


Engineer: IPP, Ian Ritchie glass support
Point-supported glass with silicon joints

Central access

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Exhibit Hall Leipzig
244 x 79 x 28 m high vault - truss arches spaced 25 m

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Aluminum grid shell

HPR dome, Walla Walla, USA


Architect: Environmental Concern, Inc.
Engineer / builder: Temcor

Geodesic aluminum dome


• 206’ diameter
• 42’ depth
• Span / depth ratio 4.9
• Weighs less than 3 psf

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Steel is strong, durable and recyclable
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