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新东方听力特训 CD1

CD1-track2
Sunday’s Run
1. What is the main topic of the conversation?
A Running and its danger.
B Pregnancy and weight.
C Marathon for charity.
D How to collect money.
(C)
2. What is the main reason for the woman to have gained a lot of weight?
A She had a baby.
B She was diagnosed with cancer.
C She ate a lot without doing any exercise.
D She could not go to a gym due to lack of money.
(A)

CD1-track3
Exam Schedule
1. What is the conversation mainly about?
A How to use the faculty lounge.
B How to avoid clashes with students.
C How to exam the scheduling computer.
D How to schedule the exam.
(D)
2. In the conversation, what is Dean Acheson’s main job?
A Taking care of the bulletin board.
B Consulting students.
C Scheduling the exams.
D Singing the sheet in the faculty lounge.
(C)

CD1-track4
Registration
What is the main topic of the conversation?
A The traffic accident.
B How to enter the university.
C How to register in courses and pay tuition.
D How to register and use a credit card.
(C)

CD1-track5
Stress between Work and Study
1. What is the man’s main problem?
A He has a sleeping disorder.
B He needs money but his part-time job does not pay enough.

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新东方听力特训 CD1

C He finds it hard to balance between work and study.


D He wants to take time off from the work but the manager does not allow him to
do so.
(C)
2. What does the woman mainly suggest the man do at the end of the conversation?
A He should take some rest from sleepless nights.
B He should quit his part-time job for a while to study for the examination.
C He should wait for 20years to learn how to enjoy working.
D He should bite the bullet and study hard and work.
(D)

CD1-track6
A General Intelligence
1. What is the main topic of the lecture>
A The importance of intelligence in education.
B Sperman’s theory of General Intelligence.
C The function of the lateral prefrontal cortex in human psychology.
D The problems in the scientific community.
(B)
2. What is the main idea of Spearman’s “g” theory?
A There is a single intelligence that helps us to solve all kinds of problems.
B There is a part of the brain called “lateral prefrontal cortex” which controls blood
flow.
C The social background is the main factor in determining intelligence.
D We cannot measure our mental activities with the “single intelligence” theory.
(A)

CD1-track7
The Golden Age of American Agriculture
What are the main reasons that made the early 20th century the golden age of
American agriculture? (Click on 2 answers)
A The improvement of farming methods due to advanced technology.
B The governmental involvement with pesticide control.
C The introduction of newly-developed seeds.
D The increase of the female labor in farming.
(A,C)

CD1-track8
Consumer Price Index
What is the lecture mainly about? (Click on 2 answers)
A How to forecast interest-rate out of the Consumer Price Index.
B The disadvantages of the Consumer Price Index.
C The function of the Consumer Price Index.
D How to measure the Consumer Price Index.

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新东方听力特训 CD1

(C,D)

CD1-track9
Boston Tea Party
1. What is the main topic of the lecture?
A The background of the Boston Tea Party.
B The importance of the Boston Tea Party in American history.
C The relationship between patriots and Mohawk Indians.
D The consequence of the Boston Tea Party.
(A)
2. According to the lecture, which of the following is the main problem of the TEA
ACT?
A It would make the East Indian Company bankrupt.
B It would put colonial smugglers out of business.
C It would make the tea price skyrocket.
D It would impose taxes on the Americans living in the colonies.
(B)

CD1-track10
Stonehenge
What is the main topic of the lecture?
A Two different views on the original purpose of Stonehenge.
B The detailed history of how Stonehenge was built.
C The geological explanation about the stones used in building Stonehenge.
D The Astronomical significance of the midsummer sunrise and eclipses.
(A)

CD1-track11
New York’s Economy
1. What is the main idea of the lecture?
A In the late 20th century, the economy of New York was not affected much by the
national economy.
B In the late 20th century, the economy of New York didn’t contribute to the national
economy.
C In the late 20th century, the urbanization in New York created a big discrepancy in
financial situations between urban people and suburban people.
D In the late 20th century, the pay or living conditions of New York workers
worsened.
(A)
2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the lecture?
A The economy of New York is not necessarily related with the national economy.
B The influence of the economic growth on New York workers varies in regions.
C The state government should take actions on helping families get some benefits our
of the booming economy.

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新东方听力特训 CD1

D The workers living in New York City are struggling because the stock market
does not influence their living standards.
(D)

CD1-track12
Discrimination
1. What is the lecture mainly about?
A The development of anti-discrimination regulations.
B The disadvantages of anti-discrimination laws.
C The advantages of anti-discrimination laws.
D The development of women’s right to equality.
(A)
2. According to the lecture, what are the main changes since the 1970s? (Click on 3
answers)
A Most jobs became open to ethnic groups.
B The word used to refer to the fireman was changed.
C Women began to be trained together with men in the military.
D Individualism has been reflected in the hiring process.
E Women were allowed to flight in the battlefield like men did.
(A,B,C)

CD1-track13
The Book of the Dead
1. What is the main topic of the lecture?
A Three Kingdoms in Ancient Egypt.
B Burial ritual and The Book of the Dead in Ancient Egypt.
C Mummification and pyramids in Ancient Egypt.
D Funeral in Ancient Egypt and modern religious rituals.
(B)
2. What is the main method that the professor uses for the explanation?
A Comparing.
B Giving examples.
C Quoting researchers’ words
D Telling related fables.
(A)

CD1-track14
Losing Weight
1. What is he man’s main idea about diets?
A Diets are unnecessary but exercise and proper nutritional supplements are
important.
B Neither the Atkins Diet nor nutritional supplements are necessary.
C Exercise is really important and supplements and diets are not useful.
D Both the Atkins Diet and exercise are important.

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新东方听力特训 CD1

(A)

2. What does the woman think about diets mainly?


A Dieting is an easier way to stay fit than exercising.
B Exercise and nutritional supplements are also important part when it comes to
diets.
C Diets are necessary because they help you lose weight.
D Diets are better than exercise and supplements can be quite helpful.
(C)

CD1-track15
Report on Beluga Whales
1. What is the main topic of the conversation?
A Computer problems.
B Future jobs in the billogy field.
C Re-arrangement of assignments.
D Problems of the student’s friends.
(C)
2. What is the main reason that the student could not sleep last night?
A He worked on the computer to restore some files.
B He was excited about the interview with the beluga whale specialist.
C He was very upset when he heard the news of his friend’s accident.
D He was sure that he would not be able to submit the report on time.
(D)

CD1-track16
Summer Break
1. What is the main topic of the conversation?
A How to have fun in summer.
B How to make money during summer break.
C How to keep the family business during summer break.
D Tentative plans for summer break.
(D)
2. What is the woman’s main dilemma?
A Going to Italy vs. helping her mother.
B Going to Nepal vs. joining the Air Force.
C Having fun vs. making money.
D Doing the family duty vs. improving her engineering skills.
(A)

CD1-track17
Journalism: Newspapers and Journalists
1. What is the lecture mainly about?
A Freedom of speech and newspapers.

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新东方听力特训 CD1

B Journalism and freedom of the press.


C How the media distorts the truth.
D The history of journalism.
(B)
2. According to the lecture, why is “prizemanship” mainly problematic?
A Journalists may distort the truth.
B Journalists can be invading some privacy.
C Newspapers feel humiliated when their journalists do not win the prize.
D The truth must always be found and never interpreted.
(A)

CD1-track18
Geography: American Southern Coastlands
1. What is the main topic of the lecture?
A The geographical division in the Southern Coastlands.
B The impact of the climate on agriculture of the Southern Coastlands.
C The economic situation in orange markets of the Southern Coastlands.
D The importance of rainfall in the food market of the Southern Coastlands.
(B)
2. According to the lecture, what are the main consequences of the warm weather
and a lot of rainfall in the Southern Coastlands? (Click on 2 answers)
A People in the region can grow crops more than once in a year.
B It helped people in the region develop a wonderful system of irrigation.
C The region attracts a lot of migrant workers.
D People in the region can grow specialty crops.
(A,D)

CD1-track19
Law: Law in America
1. What is the main topic of the lecture?
A The history of the law system in America.
B The difference between British law schools and American law schools.
C The development of education laws in America.
D The history of law schools in America.
(D)
2. According to the lecture, which of the following is NOT mentioned as main
changes in the late 19th century at Harvard University?
A Some applicants were required to test an entrance examination to get admitted to
the school.
B Case studies became the main method of teaching.
C Studying law became a 3 year endeavor.
D Students should pass the comprehensive examination to graduate from the school.
(D)

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新东方听力特训 CD1

CD1-track20
Biology: Sunshine
1. What is the main idea of the lecture?
A The lack of Vitamin D is the main cause of skin cancer.
B Sunbathing for a long time causes no problems.
C The danger of the sunshine has been ignored because of its benefits.
D The advantages and disadvantages of the sun .
(D)
2. According to the lecture, when concerned with our bodies, what is the main
function of sunshine?
A It changes ergosterol to Vitamin D.
B It suppresses serotonin.
C It can cause Seasonal Affective Disorder.
D It can cause skin and bladder cancer.
(A)

CD1-track21
Film Studies: Western Movies
1. What is the main topic of the lecture?
A Western movies are made in America and are always about cowboys.
B The basic form of the western movie turns up in many forms of movies today.
C American western movies come from Japan.
D Western movies are stories about past history.
(B)
2. What is the main reason that the professor does not like Western movies?
A Western movies are entertaining but immoral.
B Western movies are only for kids.
C Western movies follow the same pattern repetitively.
D Western movies do not present any stereotypes.
(C)

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新东方听力特训 CD1

CD1-track2
Sunday’s Run
Hi, Alison.
Oh,hi, Julian.Have you been training hard for Sunday's run for a cure for breast
cancer?
You bet! I have been running three times a week for over an hour each time.It's great.
I can't believe I've gotten to this point so quickly! Only six months ago I would run
for five minutes and almost collapse in exhaustion.
I hear you. I decided to run in this marathon because I needed a motivator to get
myself back into sharp. During my pregnancy I gained a whopping eighty pounds
and I'm still trying to trim down. Also, I totally believe in the course.I know so many
poeple who have been touched by the disease.
Wow! Eighter pounds! That's nuts! Did you have triples?
No, just a big little boy. He was born 9 pounds, 5 ounces.Hi, Julian, what inspired
you to want to run this weekend?
Well, a bunch of my running buddies thought it would be a great idea. We all
started running at the same time and when we heard one of the guys' mother was
diagnosed with cancer, we thought the marathon was something positive we could do
as a group. It should be a lot of fun , and I've been collecting lot of sponsors from the
school. So I'll hopefuly make tons of money for the cause.
That's so cool, Julian.Hey, I've got to dash. I'll see you finish line on Sunday.

CD1-track3
Exam Schedule
Hi, Mabel.
Hi,John.
Could you please give me some information of exam schedule?
I will be happy to. The dates for the first term are December 9 to December 23 . The
dates for the second term are April 11 to April 30.
How long are exams?
Exams are normally three-hour long. You must book a room for a three-hour
exam.The department will arrange an invigilator. Early next month, there will be
a sign up sheet posted on the bulletin board in the faculty lounge. You can choose a
square on this draft shedule. The dean then receive it, then draws up the final
schedule to avoid students in the Science Faculty having two exams scheduled at the
same time.
That's a good idea. So I just have to sign the sheet in the faulty lounge asking when I
want my exam.
Yes, it is not at all certain that when the exam will be , but it gives Dean Acheson a
place to start. He still have to do most of it manually,consulting his computer to see
which students registered in each course have oder exams. Doing an exam schedule is
quite complex. Quite often, he consults the schedule from the previous year.

CD1-track4

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新东方听力特训 CD1

Registration
Hello , are you Aren Beaychamp?
Yes, I am . I am sorry I'm late for my appointment but there was an incident on the
bridge and traffic was backed up.
That's okay. I am Rodney Cakdwell.How may I help you?
How are my registration date and time determined?
First year students are mailed a designated date and specific time with their
admission letter. For continuing studentes the dates and time for registration are
determined by the average from the previous winter session and by the year that the
students is in. Are you a first year student?
Yes, I am.
Have you received your admission letter?
Yes, I have.But I also have some questions on how to pay for the courses.How do I
pay if I have don't use credid card?
Other options are, by going to a bank and paying the teller on your course
confirmation slip, or by coming to the campus and paying in-person at the Students
Service Buiding on the third floor.

CD1-track5
Stress between Work and Study
Hi,Stuart.how's school going?
Oh, hi, Lisa. School is really , really tough right now, exams are coming into two
weeks.
Geez. Stuart, you sound stressed. Exams, yes, I used to dread this time of year. I used
to cram the night befor and hope I was studing the right stuff.
That's the hard part of studing last minutes;you run out of time, have to pick and
choose areas of focus and guess what will be on the exams. It's always a bit of a
gamble. To add more stess I have a part-time job on top of studing!
Can't you take some time off from your job, Stuart?
No, I need the money to help pay my board. I thougt I was doing pretty well all term
balancing school and work, but now I'm finding it's next to impossible finding the time
to both study and work. After coming home from my job I have to hit the books for a
few hours every night, whether I have the energy or not. Sometimes I just want to go
to sleep...I'm so tired1
Well if it's any consolation, Stuart, you know it's not going to last forever. It's like you
just have to find that extra energy to get through it all. Before you know it, you've
graduated! Twenty years from now you will look back on this time and remember all
the fun you had.
No doubt, thanks, Lisa. I know you're right. I'll probaly even look back on my menial
job with fondness too.

CD1-track6
A General Intelligence
Today we will look at this problematic concept known as "intelligence". What is it? Is

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新东方听力特训 CD1

there an "intelligence" that help us to solve all kinds of problems? Or are there
different intelligences that help us deal with particular problems and
solutions? What do you think?
I think it depends on other things, such as cultural background.
Indeed. There is also a body of research that states mental ability is a function of
social factors such as education and not one's inherent biological make-up. The
scientific community is devided on the issue. One of the beliefs behind the idea of
single entity "inteligence" is the concept of "General Intelligence" or "g". The
English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early 20th century made "g" stand for
a statistical measures of performance across a variety of tests. He found that the
same people who did well in variety of mental tests tended to use a part in their
brains that he termed "g".This "g" laid the foundation for the notion of a single
intelligence, allowing us to undertake everyday mental tasks. Can you think of any
problems inherent in this theory?
Well, for one thing, it seems there are a lot of t mental activities that go on and that we
can't always measure their activity so easily.
Ture enough. Nonetheless, a recent study seems to confirm Spearman's theory.
Reseach has found that a part of the brain called the "lateral prefrontal cortex" is the
only area of the brain to increase in blood flow when volunteers tackle complicated
puzzles. However, Spearman's concept is still highly controversial with many people
questioning both the the statistical process and the simplistic nature of "g"

CD1-track7
The Golden Age of American Agriculture
We call the first two decades of the 20th century the golden age of American
agriculture. What were the factors that made the periad the golden age of American
agriculture? Who can offer some reason?
New strains of crops, improved farming methods, and what about greater use of
pesticides and fertilizers?
Absolutely. Technical advances continued to improve productivity. The U.S.
Department of Agriculture set up demonstration farms to show how new techniques
could improve crop yields. In 1914. Congress created the Agriculture Extention
Service, to advice farmers and their families about everyghing from crop fertilzers to
home sowing projects. The Department of Agriculture undertook new research .
developing hogs that were fattened faster on less greain as well as fertilizers that
increased grain production. New hibrid seeds that develped into healthier plants,
treatments that prevented or cured plant and animal diseases, and various methods
for controlling pets were all introduced around this time. Anything else?
Wasn't there also some kind of population boom around then ?
Good! Farm prices were high as demand for goods increased, and land values rose.
Howerver, the good years of the early 20th century ended following World War 2.
What was happening then?
Maybe a lot of people, women especailly , were moving from the farm to the cities.

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新东方听力特训 CD1

CD1-track8
Consumer Price Index
And now class, let's swith gears and discuss a different topic? Consumer Price Index,
CPI for short. If you switched on the TV and heard on the news that the CPI in
Canada was 2.1%, what does that mean? In a nutshell, it means that Canadian
consumers paid 2.1% more than in the previous year for the goods and services
included in the CPI basket. Although prices of goods and services rise and fall over
time, when prices change too dramatically, they can have negative effects on an
economy. In order to tell if an economy is experiencing inflation, deflation or
stagflation, we use the CPI as a gauge of the price of goods and services. Believe it or
not, when the Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistic releases the CPI date
monthy, you might ask? Well, the CPI play a role for many key financial decision
makers, including individual investors, the Bank of Canada in Canada and the
Federal Reserve in the U.S. The CPI helps the Bank of Canada forecast the interest
rate policy and other decisions of major banks and corporations. I mentioned the CPI
basket before and now I want to expand on what this basket is and how wer get the
information. The base-year market basket, which makes up the CPI, comes from
detailed expenditure information collected from surveys of thousands of families.The
information is not randomly collected, instead, the information is gathered through
interviews and diaries kept by participants who have agreed to disclose their buying
havits. The basket is divided into eight groups: food and beverages, housing, apparel,
transportation, medical care, recreation, education and communication, and other
goods and services, and inclues more than 200 categories. Finally, the prices of 80
000 items in the market basket are collected nonthly from thousands of retail stores,
wervice establishments, rental units, and doctors' offices.

CD1-track9
Boston Tea Party
Okay calss, I know you must be up to your ear in history, but let's talk about another
important event in American history called the Boston Tea Party. On the evening of
December 16, 1773, a group of American patriots went to the Boston Harbor. The
men were dressed as Mohawk Indians and boarded three British vessels, the Beaver,
the Eleanor, and the Dartmough of th East Indian Company. After they boarded the
docked ships, they dumped all the tea that was on the three ships, which amounted to
45 tons or 342 chests with a value of 10 000 pounds, into the ocean. You must be
asking yourself why on earth these grown men would dump all that tea in the water.
Let's back up and start from the beginning and discover what led to this interesting
chapter in American history. It all began when the British East Indian Company had
total control of the tea trade between India and the British colonies. To offest this
domination of tea, the colonies would smuggle their tea in from Holland. As a result
of the Tea Act OF 1773, which was passed by Parliament to save the British East
India Company from bankruptcy,the colonies refused to buy British tea, The Tea Act
basically elininated all taxes on tea and offered Americans tea at a lower price than
that of colonial smugglers. This Tea Act was put in place to save the British East

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新东方听力特训 CD1

Indian Company from bankruptcy,m but would cause the colonial smugglers to go out
of business, Because the patriots feared the Tea Act would create an illegal monopoly,
they discouraged people from importing tea, Fearing that some people would
continue to buy their tea from the British East Indian Company because it was so
cheap, the patriots took control by taking matters into their own hands, The paatriots
decided to reject tea shipments and they demanded that tea ships be permitted to
returen to England without paying the duty required by law.Over 5 000 townspoeple
of Boston and surrounding towns gathered at Old South Meeting House to beg the
governor to send the ships back to England, Howerver, the governor rfused and it was
on the night of December 16 that 60 men dressed as Mohawk Indians went over to the
Boston harbor and boarded the shops and dumped the tea into the Boston harbor.
Needless to say, Parliament was furious and reacted by closing the Boston
harbor.This event was just the beginning of a long clash between England and the
colonies.

CD1-track10
Stonehenge
Moving on to another ancient discovery, let's discuss the magnificence and mystery of
Stonehenge. Theree kilometers west of a town called Amesbury stands a large, tall
stone ruin known as Stonehenge. This unique monument has stood for over 5 000
years in an open downland of Salisbury Plain in Southern England.Stonehenge is not
a single structure, but consists of a series of earth, wood, and stone structures that
were revised and re-modeled over thousands of years. How were the stones moved
into place? No one knows exactly, but it is definite that it took a lot of muscle power
and numerous men to move these heavy stones in place. The next logical question
might be: why was Stonehenge built? Well, to answer this question, we can look at the
findings of an 18th century British scholar named William Strukeley who noticed that
the horseshoe of great stones and the houseshoe of 19 smaller stones called
bluestones opened up in the direction of a midsummer sunrise. He concluded that
these stones were placed not accidentally, but deliberately positioned and planned so
that on a midsummer's morning the sun rose directly over the Deel Stone and the fist
rays shone into the centre of the monument between the open arms of the horseshoe
arrangement. This discovery has had tremendous impact on how Stonehenge has been
interpreted. Both Stukeley in the 18th century and Sir J. Norman Lockyer, a British
astronomer and scientist, in the 20th century, belived that this alignment implied a
ritualistic connection with sun worship. Their conclusions led to the belief that
Stonehenge was built as a temple to the sun. Nowadays, an astronomer named Gerald
Fawkins disagrees with Stukeley and Lockyer's conclusions and instead argues that
Stonehenge is not simply aligned with solar and lunar astronomical events, but can be
used to predict other events such eclipses. In a nutshell , he believes that Stonehenge
was not built as a temple; instead it was built as an astronomical calsulator.

CD1-track11
New York’s Economy

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新东方听力特训 CD1

This time we'll talk about the state of New York in the USA. A report by the Fiscal
Policy Institute, which is an economic think-tank or committee that generally focuses
on issues that affect the quality of life and economic well-being of New York workers,
claims that although America as a nation has enjoyed many years of record-setting
economic expansion, the same cannot be said about the state of New York. Although
median incomes for America as a whold. This led to very little improvement in the
workers' standards of living from where they were in the last ten or even twenty years
ago. The new analysis by the Fiscal Policy Institute also suggests that there are severe
regional differences in New York's ten regions. Case in point, the Upstate economy
has not benefited at all from America's booming times. In fact, their economy has
been relatively sluggish. At the same time,the Downstate region's economic growth
hinges on Wall Street. and many New Yorkers living in the city's suburbs are still
struggling. Looking at government date, we can see that although New York enjoys
many resources, these resources do not seem to benefit the state by means of pay or
living conditions for New York workers during economic good or bad times in
America. Using this same date, we can conclude that in order for all New Yorkers to
benefit from the economy , we cannot rely just on grouth. Instead, we nne to analyze
the growth and find out how it affects not only the workers, but also their families
across the entire state. Clearly , the state must take some responsibility and step in
ande help families that are not benefiting from a growing economy.

CD1-track12
Discrimination
Let's talk about the pros and cons of discrimination in the USA. I'm sure you are
thinking to yourself why I have included pros and cons in my opening statement.
Aren't there only bad things that result in discrimination? Well, the answer in nost
cases is yes. When we discriminate, a negative outcome usually results. However ,
let's say you are an employer of a business and the goverment has told you that you
must hire a certain number of women or a certain percentage of black and white
people. This would restrain you from hiring , promoting and firing your emplyees,
Okay, let's take a step back and discuss why in some cases individual freedome to
choose or discriminate who will work for you can be a good thing. During the past 40
years , the American goverment has put rules in place to increase the protection of the
environment and groups such minorities, women, workers and consumers. These new
rules have resulted in numerous regulations and new bodiew of law, which in some
cases have resulted in extreme policies like the one I described before about
an employer not being able to select an employee of his or her choice based on sex or
color. As a result, opponents argue that individualism had been lost with these new
laws. On the other side of the ccoin, some anti-discrimination proponents argued
against the traditional division of occupational roles between men and women, These
arguments led to major legal cases, which in turn led to stong requirements to recruit
women for jobs usually held by men such as skilled manual and mechanical work on
construction sites. The U.S. Congress also allowed the entry of women into the
military academies, In fact, a strong effort was made, particularly those directly

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新东方听力特训 CD1

involved in combat, but also to train women together with men. Another
anti-discriminatory example involves the Department of Justice, which began to
change the rraditional names of specfic jobas from firemen and policemen fo
firefighters and police officers and required local police and fire forces to hire women
police officers and fire fighters. Discriminatory exminations snd tests, in both the
public and private sextors, wer soon abolished and soon every business was toled to
avoid favoring one sexs over another for specific jobs. These new laws resulted in the
progress of equiliby, because most occupations were now open to women and noen
were closed to people of color.

CD1-track13
The Book of the Dead
The Book of the Dead is the name given by Egyptologists to a collection of chapters
made up of groups of spells, incantations, and mummification techiniques. This book
was designed to help the deceased live a happy afterlife in "heaven". The book was
supposed to be read by the deceased during their journey into the Underworld.It is
New Kingdom text, which is similar to many texts found in the pyranmids. The texts
found in the pyramids are classified as the Old Kingdome text, and the text found in
Egyptian coffins are classified as the Middle Kingdom text.Both texts outline the
ceremony performed at the funeral of an important person. The movies have led us to
believe that we should not read from The Book of the Dead, but in fact ,the book
needed to be read by ancient Egyptians interested in an afterlife. To put it in modern
terms, think about how modern religious rituals are run.You go to your place of
worship, and rituals and holy texts are read out to you from a book. In Ancient Egypt,
these burial rituals weren't immediately read from a book. At first ,they were read
directly off the walls of their chambers of a pyramid and later were read directly off
the sides of the coffins. The Book of the Dead was read off of papyrus sheets, much as
religious rituals today are read out of books. Like some modern day holy books, The
Book of the Dead was meant to be relatively cheap to purchase, unlike buying a
pyramid or a coffin. This would ensure that any fairly well-off person could buy a
hand-written copy of the book and use it on a loved one. if you were an Egypian with
a fair bit of money in the Neq Kingdom, you would buy a copy of the book that would
have blanks where the name of the loved one should be placed. Then all you had to do
was hire someone called a scribe to write the name in all the blank spots.

CD1-track15
Report on Beluga Whales
Jeff: “hello Dr. Christianson”
Dr. Christianson: “hello Jeff. What can I do for you?”
Jeff: “well I need an extension for my report on beluga whales. Next Wednesday I’m
supposed to present in class and hand my report in. but I won’t be ready”
Dr. Christianson: “you had 6 weeks to work on this, and I have a policy of penalizing
heavily for late assignments. You lose 20% the 1st day and 10% for each day after”
Jeff: “well my computer broke down and I lost everything. I have taken the computer

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into the campus repair workshop but they cannot retrieve any of my files. They said I
could take it to a computer store downtown, but that to retrieve the information would
probably take a while and cost me 400$. I don’t have 400$ to spare. Also the beluga
whale specialist at the aquarium who I am planning to interview has been working in
Los Angeles on a sea horse project with their aquarium for 6 weeks. He gets back next
Monday. His secretary said he would be too busy his 1st week back so I have to wait
until the following week. I was hoping to video tape the interview and show parts of it
and show it to the class”
Dr. Christianson: “quite the tale of woe you have. I can sympathize with the computer
issue though because it happened to me once when I was a student. My computer
crashed just as I was on the last page of a 10000 word essay. I hadn’t backed it up or
saved it on disk. I assume this will be a lesson to you”
Jeff: “oh yes. I also lost the work I had been doing for another biology course. I had
completed about 8 pages”
Dr. Christianson: “well lets look at the calendar and see if there’s an another
opportunity for your presentation and report. We are nearing the end of term and I’d
like to review the last week of classes”
Jeff: “what about on November 29th?”
Dr. Christianson: “let me see. No that wouldn’t work as Jane Clark is doing her
presentation that day”
Jeff: “I’m not sure I can get it finished much sooner as I have to stat writing report
from scratch”
Dr. Christianson: “well perhaps I can allow you to hand in your report on November
29th but the presentation must be sooner. Looking at my calendar the only possible
day would be November 22nd. Rob Metkaf was supposed to present that day but I
understand he was in a serious car accident and had to withdraw from university”
Jeff: “I didn’t know that. I was wondering why he hadn’t been in class this week. Is he
all right?”
Dr. Christianson: “I don’t know. I just received an email from the registrar telling me
the data and reason for withdrawal”
Jeff: “I would check with Fred. Perhaps he knows more. They were good friends.
Maybe some of us could send him a card with flowers”
Dr. Christianson: “that would be nice. So we have arranged for you to present to the
class on November 22nd and hand in your report on November 29th. No later than
3pm on November 29th for the report”
Jeff: “okay. I’m going to be really busy over the next few weeks. I still can’t believe
my computer broke down. It wasn’t even that old. I think I will to have to give up
basketball. I’m just too busy now”
Dr. Christianson: “that is too bad. But you are lucky I am in a good mood today and
not penalizing you for your tardiness”
Jeff: “thank you for not penalizing me. I really need to keep my scholarship which
means I need to keep my GPA up. If I don’t have a scholarship I will have to take a
year off and work”
Dr. Christianson: “is this your 3rd year then?”

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Jeff: “I hope to graduate at the end of next year. There is an ongoing NGO project in
marine biology in Indonesia that I would like to work on when I am finished. I have a
friend there now. There are not a lot of jobs for biology graduates, but I just love the
field”
Dr. Christianson: “most jobs require a graduate degree but more and more seem to be
opening up”
Jeff: “I hope so. Thanks again Dr. Christianson. I was so worried I couldn’t sleep last
night. Good bye”
Dr. Christianson: “goodbye”

CD1-track16
Summer Break
Sven: “hi Wendy”
Wendy: “hi Sven”
Sven: “only 2 more weeks of classes, 8 schooldays actually then exams start”
Wendy: “yes. I will be glad when exams are over. I get panicky and very stressed at
exam time. I find myself eating constantly and I don’t seem to find any time to
exercise”
Sven: “exams don’t bother me that much. This year most of the marks for my courses
were based on assignments and research projects. I only have 2 exams”
Wendy: “you’re lucky. I have 5. I also need to get good marks over 80% or I wont be
able to keep my scholarship”
Sven: “what are you doing for summer break?’
Wendy: “I would like to go to Italy and work at a restaurant in Florence. My uncle
owns a restaurant specializing in seafood and he has offered me a job for the summer.
In Italy there are lots of English speaking tourists so he would like to have someone
fluent in English. It would also be an excellent opportunity for me to practice my
Italian. I hope to be a translator one day so I need to be fluent in several languages”
Sven: “that would be a wonderful summer!”
Wendy: “yes I know. I really want to go. The problem is my father had a heart attack 3
weeks ago. He’s out of the hospital now and not in too much danger but he cannot do
much around the house. My brother is overseas with the air force so I am the only one
to help my mother around the house. It is such a dilemma. I don’t know what to do”
Sven: “yes I could see that would be a very difficult decision. You are only young once
though and a chance to go to Florence for the summer sounds like the opportunity of
a lifetime”
Wendy: “I’m leaning towards going to Italy but I just feel so guilty. What about u Sven.
What are your plans for the summer?”
Sven: “well I have a dilemma too. I would love to go to Nepal and volunteer with an
NGO that could use me to instruct local residents in engineering skills. It would be a
chance to share what I already know and I think it would be really interesting to
spend 4 months in Nepal. However, I don’t find out until next week whether or not I
have been accepted into the program. If I do get accepted I won’t be making any
money and I need money to return to university for my final year in September”

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Wendy: “if you don’t go to Nepal where would you work?”


Sven: “I don’t know. I have had some interviews with some construction companies.
There are a lot of new high rises and hotels going up in the south side of the city.
There were 3 companies that thought they would have a place for me to do manual
labor and the pay is good. None of the 3 companies are unionized but they all pay
union wages. I would prefer an office job where I could use the engineering skills I
have already acquired. I have applied to several companies for inside work but only 2
have responded to my applications and neither seems very promising. It would look
much better on my resume after I graduate if I had work experience in my field. Also
many engineering students get hired after they graduate by the company they worked
for the previous summer”
Wendy: “I can see your problem. If I get the opportunity to go to Nepal I would
probably go. Cant u borrow money from financial aid for your final year?”
Sven: “probably, but I hate to start out with a lot of debt. Engineering fees are rising
by 10% next year. It is not an inexpensive faculty to be in”
Wendy: “no. but if u have the opportunity to go to an interesting job in Nepal and be
of service I think that would be wonderful”
Sven: “you are probably right. I appreciate your advice.”

CD1-track17
Journalism: Newspapers and Journalists
“In the US constitution it is stated that the congress shall make no law abridging the
freedom of speech of the press. This puts forth the foundation of journalism in the
United States. The government and the press are 2 separate entities. The people who
wrote the 1st amendment understood that journalists are human beings and that they
can make mistakes. The press even though it is not perfect was to take on the job of
government critic with its responsibility to the citizens of America not to the
government. At the core of the way in which the press operates is independence.
Newspaper owners may support a particular party, but it is becoming more common
for a newspaper and its journalists to be totally independent in every way.
Unfortunately sometimes this is a goal to work towards and not a description which
shows the truth. Staff and the newspaper they represent should show freedom of
thought and action. A newspaper must not print stories for the sole purpose of
promoting people who support it. Journalists cannot receive money, holidays, or gifts
from special groups for favorable news coverage. If a newspaper were corrupt it
could not criticize the government for being corrupt. Sometimes things like a free
meal or sports tickets are acceptable though, but this is not practice written in stone.
There are not really any rewards for the type or amount of freedom that the press
enjoys, maybe devotion of the readers in trust. With freedom of the press a newspaper
can still report a story in the way it wished. However, it must still adhere to the laws
of libel. The basic idea is that there must be truth to what the newspaper prints and
the newspaper must be able to show that they are being truthful. It is common for a
newspaper to separate its ideas and beliefs from the objective presentation of truth.
The news is presented with sources identified when possible. It is only on the editorial

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page that the newspaper gives its and other staff members or syndicated writers
personal opinions. For a newspaper to not sound one sided or closed minded to
others it often has a section devoted to letters that people write to the newspaper
about how the news is being reported and other versions of the truth if one or several
happen to exist. The newspapers reserve the right to edit as necessary so that there is
fair presentation. A newspaper must also be sure to remain responsible if it does make
a mistake. Correction should be printed in the same part of the newspaper all the time
so they are easier to be found. A newspaper must also know when to draw the line
when they have crossed the boundary of invading somebody’s private life. It is at this
point that the newspaper must look at what it is saying and doing and re-evaluate the
situation. Journalists must follow the same laws as does everybody else but must be
extremely enthusiastic in uncovering the truth. In doing this they become a type of
supervisor or watchdog. Newspapers must be careful of becoming caught up in
something called prizeman-ship, presenting stories in a certain way with the sole
purpose of the newspaper or the journalist winning a prize. This has happened before.
A journalist made up the story and ended up winning the Pulitzer Prize. In the end the
journalists revealed the truth and quit her job. The newspaper gave the award back
with great humiliation. It is okay for newspapers and journalists to receive prizes, but
they should be from people or groups who have no connection to the recipient and
they should be without the recipient knowing it. There is the temptation to exaggerate
the facts but this must always be avoided. Journalists must always remember this last
rule in being a journalist. Above all one must be aware of the possibility that he or
she might be wrong, that a mistake has been made. There can be many viewpoints
which distort the truth. Journalists must remember when an error is made there is
always somebody who is going to be hurt. It is for this that the truth must always be
found and never interpreted.”

CD1-track18
Geography: American Southern Coastlands
“Of anywhere in the united states it is in the southern coastlands that the climate has
greatest impact on human geography. There are several factors which affect human
activity: humid subtropical, long growing season, mild winter temperatures and warm
humid summers. There are 9months or more of potential growth for agricultural crops
for almost the whole region of the southern coastland. What is more the average
annual rainfall is more than 125cm mostly between April and October when warm
temperatures support plant growth and sunlight is plentiful. It is enough rain for most
agricultural activities for almost the entire region. These climactic conditions have
brought forth 2 important results: farmers can grow their crops until late in the fall
without fear of frost as long as agricultural conditions are met. I mean as long as
there is fertile soil, control of insect pests and appropriate ground drainage. It has
even been possible to harvest 2crops and even more for vegetable farmers. Of greater
importance is the fact that there is the chance to produce specialty crops that cannot
be produced in other parts of the United States. Although the region where citrus
fruits have been produced has slowly moved southwards along the peninsulas interior

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citrus production. Citrus production has been noteworthy in contributing to Florida’s


economy. Of the 7 major citrus growths, in Florida orange and grapefruit are most
important. Most oranges, about 80% today, are processed rather than being sold fresh.
The processing of oranges has had affects on other parts of the economy as more
people are employed in the industry and sales are not limited to the harvest period but
continue all year long. The grapefruit is produced in a similar area as the orange, but
the demand and output is only about 25% of the orange. These 2 citrus fruits are also
grown in south Texas but with irrigation. Production costs for citrus fruits mainly
come from harvesting. The fruit must be picked by hand from the trees. During the
harvesting season thousands of migrating laborers flock to Florida to do the
physically strenuous in the citrus groves. In the mainland United States it is only in
the southern coastlands sugar cane production is found. It is in production all year
round and needs more than one year to reach full maturity. It is intolerant of frost and
needs a large amount of water more than 125 cm per year. Rice has fewer climactic
requirements than sugar cane. As long as rice has sufficient water it will mature
according to the amount of heat it receives in the summer. In Louisiana and Texas rice
is grown with irrigation. Besides specialty crops there are parts of the southern
coastlands which are one of the countries main areas for growing vegetables. In the
winter urban markets are filled with fresh vegetables grown in Florida and along the
southern part of states along the gulf.”

CD1-track19
Law: Law in America
“While America was being colonized, that is from 1607 to 1776, those who were
interested in pursuing a career in law had to go to England and attend Inns of Court
for their legal training. These inns where far from schools, but were merely part of the
English law society and help students familiarize themselves with English law. It was
common for people who wanted to be lawyers to undertake a clerkship or an
apprenticeship with somebody already established in the legal world. Once America
became United States of America independent from the British the rules and
regulations for becoming a lawyer were very lax and the number of people who
became lawyers sky rocketed. The most common way for someone to enter the legal
world was by apprenticeship. But as time went on law schools were established at
various law offices which focused on training. The 1st school was Litchfield School in
Connecticut in 1784 and focused on commercial law. Colleges slowly added law as
part of their course offerings, but it was not until 1817 that Harvard University
established the 1st independent law school. From 1850 to 1900 the number of law
schools grew from 15 to 102. These schools did not require that students hold an
undergraduate degree when entering and it was norm for the program to be
completed in 1year. However in the late 1800s there were more and more 2year
programs. The teaching of law went through a radical change in Harvard University.
Students who did not already have an undergraduate degree had to take an entrance
exam. By 1871 the course was 2years long and by 1876 it was 3years long. At the end
of the 1st year there was a comprehensive exam that had to be passed if the student

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wanted to continue on to the next year of study. The most dramatic change which is
still in practice today is the way teaching is done. Instead of listening to lectures
students studied cases. From the cases that were studied students were expected to
understand the principles of law. What they meant and how they developed. Teaching
followed the ancient Greek style Socratic questioning so students would discover the
foundations of the laws represented by each case. As the need for more lawyers grew
by the late 1800s the number of law schools that opened also grew. Not a lot of money
was needed to open a law school and as a result several were opened. There were
even night schools for studying law many of which had lawyers and judges as
teachers. A problem with many of the schools that opened was that the standards were
low and the material studied had an emphasis on what was customary in a specific
region. The most important contribution of this is that studying law became available
to everybody and not just the rich of the upper class. By the turn of the century there
was a dramatic increase in the number of people studying law. By 1960s schools had
to be selective in who they permitted entrance. To better represent the nation law
schools began to look for female and minority students. The curriculum was changing
too. Civil rights along with poverty issues along with international law was being
taught”

CD1-track20
Biology: Sunshine
“Good morning class. Today I thought we would talk about something bright and
cheerful: the sun. I know most of you got to school before the sun came up, but can
anyone tell me how they feel when its sunny compared to when it’s cloudy?”
(Another voice)
“I find it’s a lot easier to get up in the morning if it’s sunny”
(Back to narrator)
“Good. How do you usually feel if it’s cloudy?”
(Another voice)
“Well I don’t mind, because I enjoy staying in on a rainy day curled up in bed with a
good book.”
(Back to narrator)
“Well, what if I told you it would rain for weeks on end with no break?”
(Another voice)
“Ya I can see your point. I don’t think I would like that very much”
(Back to narrator)
“Most of the articles we read lately regarding the sun are discussing the negative
effects of staying in the sun for too long saying that ultra violet radiation from the sun
is a major cause of skin cancer. Although these articles are factual, the sun does have
some positive side effects as well. As a matter of fact some scientists believe that
sunlight may reduce the risk of several types of cancer. “
(Another voice)
“Excuse me but many articles I’ve read blame the sun for causing cancer, stating that
it can take as little as 30min to get a sunburn”

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(Back to narrator)
“Yes and those articles are correct. However in small doses the sun can be quite
healthy for you. In fact recent studies have found that sunlight can actually help
protect you from certain types of cancer such as breast colon bladder and stomach.
More importantly the sun provides us with our main source of vitamin D.”
(Another voice)
“Well I don’t need to worry about vitamins because I take multi vitamins everyday”
(Back to narrator)
“That’s great, but wouldn’t it be better if you didn’t have to take them and you were
able to get vitamins in a more natural way such as food and the sun? Most people
understand that nutrients strengthen our bones and muscles and heighten our immune
system to better fight diseases like the common cold. However, many people don’t
realize that the ultra violet or UV rays from the sun actually convert irgasterol which
is found in our skin to vitamin D. Vitamin D is needed for normal growth of teeth and
bones and has also been proven to prevent the development and increase of cancerous
tumors”
(Another voice)
“Does that mean we should spend all the day in the sun without any protection?
(Back to narrator)
“No spending roughly 10min per day in the sun should be enough to supply us with
all the Vitamin D that we need.”
(Another voice)
“What happens if we don’t get enough Vitamin D?”
(Back to narrator)
“Excellent question! I’m glad you asked me that. Low Vitamin D can cause many
diseases such as chronic fatigue, a softening of the bones, osteoporosis and multiple
skilerriosis. Getting back to our mood some researchers have proven that sunshine
can actually cheer you up. When I see the sun I always feel happy energetic and
generally positive. But did you realize that the sun can change your mood chemically
and might even prevent depression. There is a saying called ‘spring fever’ when many
people feel the beginning of spring as a sign of good days ahead. During the winter
many of us are stuck indoors out of the sun. The lack of sun causes for many people a
condition called SAD or Seasonal Affective Disorder. SAD is caused by suppression of
serotonin which keeps our mood, emotions, sleep and appetite in check. When we
don’t get enough we feel depressed and this is usually experienced by people who are
deprived of sunlight during the dull winter months. So class during your break why
don’t you step outside and get a bit of Vitamin D?”

CD1-track21
Film Studies: Western Movies
“Western movies are really over rated, much ado about nothing. Before the 60’s
westerns were made and shown in places called picture houses, cinemas or theaters
depending on where you lived. Kids especially boys loved them. They are all the same:
good guy sheriff, bad guy outlaw, some deputies, cowboys, townsfolk and the dancing

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girls at the local saloon for a bit of fun to appeal to the females. They were so simple
that today’s kids would be bored watching them. In the 60’s academics became
involved. They grouped movies into the different categories. Each category became
known as a genre. The name of this type of studies came to be known as genre studies.
Genre studies people are saying that western movies might be cheap, but there is a
common thread found in each one of them. Actually they do have a point. The
good guy wears a white hat and the bad guy wears a black hat. When the guy with the
white hat and the guy with the black hat come face to face in the street there’s going to
be a gunfight. Cattlemen are loners and misunderstood. Townsfolk depend on the
sheriff to protect them from the bad guys. There is something westerns have in
common with other films made in other countries. All sorts of films have been made
and the characters and plot are similar, but with some differences. The setting moves
to another country and the characters change according to that countries national
heroes. There are Japanese films with samurai, eastern block movies have the red
western films with the Russians involved and South African movies have Zulus in them.
The story is the same. The heroes create order out of chaos and make everything safe
for the average citizen. Who the hero is depends on which side makes the film,
because they can be the good guys in one film but the bad guys in another. If you
watch ‘dances with wolves’, you’ll remember that the Indians were good and the US
cavalry was bad. This is one of the exceptions to the rule in American movies. The
idea of the western film not only transcends geography but also transcends time.
Some shows made about the future are really based on the idea of the western. Gene
Roddenberry of the star track fame says his star track is based on the old wagon train
series”
(Another voice)
“I’ve never heard of wagon train. Could you tell us a bit about it?”
(Back to narrator)
“Wagon train was a really popular series located in the late 50’s and early 60’s. It
was about people who got together and formed a group to travel overland looking for
land to live and settle down on. They were opening the Wild West for Europeans in
store odds. The old Indians didn’t like it and they attacked the white people many
times. People fell ill and died. Babies were born. They got stuck in bad weather,
wheels came of wagons and the cavalry had to rush out and help them. It is fairly
light hearted compared to today’s violence”
(Another voice)
“This doesn’t make sense. I thought that in the US everyone is supposed to get along
and there are laws against discrimination.”
(Back to narrator)
“This is movies we are talking about and not the real world. It was a different time too.
American history isn’t as perfect and as kind as the history books say.
Multi-culturalism, colonization and imperialism aren’t mentioned in the same breath
as wagon train”
(Another voice)
“I am just wondering. I watched ‘outland’ the other night. It was kind of like ‘kind

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noon’. Am I right? Is that the kind of thing you mean?”


(Back to narrator)
“Yes it is. If you know this type of show, you’ll really see patterns in films. The only
thing is once you do it, it takes the thrill out of watching them. What is interesting is
that some of the films being made in the US are actually cultural remakes of movies
from other countries. ‘The magnificent 7’ was a remake of korosawa’s ‘the 7 samurai’.
‘A fistful of dollars’ and ‘last man standing’ were copies of korosawa’s ‘ugimbo’. The
twist there is that ‘ugimbo’ was based on ‘red harvest’ -- an American detective novel
by Dashil Hammond. Sometimes it gets a bit complicated when looking for the real
origin of the movie. There is another type of movie which is based on westerns. It is
called post apocalyptic. This is when a future society is trying to rebuild after
something awful has happened. Its actually format a lot on the westerns which are
about opening the Wild West frontier. ‘The postman’ and the ‘mad max’ series are 2
examples. From the Wild West to future societies they are just different costumes and
sets.”

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