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# Client: XXX Problem Description: Six Storage tanks [rectangle in shape] are filled up with Isopropanaol (liquid 1) at the

nks [rectangle in shape] are filled up with Isopropanaol (liquid 1) at the initial temperature of 45 oC and it is required to maintain the liquid temperature at 30oC
Project No: XXX All the tanks are placed adjacent to each other with minor gap in between. Tanks are stored in a closed building maintained at room temperature let's say 10 oC and a wind speed of around 2miles/hr.
Project Title: XXX How long will it take to drop down temperature from 45 to 30 oC with/without insulation OR after what time tanks are required to heat up with/without insulation ? Data is given as below.
Document: Storage Tank Heat Loss Calculation Colour Key
Sheet Ref: Tank Heat Loss Calcs - Liquid 1 Manual Input
Revision: 0 Results
Last Updated: 9/28/2009 Do not use

## Revision detail: Original Assumptions and important notes

Sources and titles
Important values
Reference Method Used: Predict Storage Tank Heat Transfer Precisely - By J.Kumana and S.Kothari and calculations

Important Notes:
1) Uniform temperature inside the tank
2) Provision is made to select back wall area - However, to calculate the maximum heat loss back wall area should be considered-- (see the cell number C330 and C335)
3) Provision is made to select insulation thickness --- (See the cell number C221)
Main Data Input
Physical Properties Units Air density at room temperature and pressure

## Liquid Air Vapor Room Pressure P 101.325 kPa

Mol. Wt of air M 29 kg/kmol
Liquid in the tank ISOPROPANOL Gas const R 8.31 kJ/kmol K
Density,ρ 790 1.25 1.25 kg/m3 Room Temp t 10 o
C
Specific Heat,Cp 3 1.005 1.005 kJ/kg K T 283 K
3000 1005 1005 J/kg K Air Density, PM/RT ρair = 1.25 kg/m3
Viscosity,µ 2.42 - - cP or m.Pa.s
0.00242 0.0000198 0.0000198 kg/m.s Thermal Conductivity of ISOPROPANOL
Thermal conductivity,k 0.199 0.0257 0.0257W/m.K k = 3.56 x 10 -5 x Cp ( ρ4/M)1/3 ------------> from Coulson & Richardson. Vol 6, Page 321
Co-efficient of volumetric expansion, ß 0.00075 0.00343 0.00343 1/K Thermal Conductivity k= 0.199 W/m.K
Moecular Mass of liquid,M 60 - - kg/kmol
Boiling Point, oC 82 - - o
C

## Assumed fouling coefficient, hF Units

Dry wall 7000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640
Wet wall 5000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640
Roof 7000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640
Bottom 4000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640

## Thermal Conductivities Units

Metal walls (Carbon Steel, max 0.5% Carbon),kM 54 W/m K Source: Engg Toolbox : Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials
Insulation (Glass wool), kI 0.04 W/m K Source: Engg Toolbox : Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials
Ground (Earth), kG 1.5 W/m K Source: Engg Toolbox : Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials

## Wall and roof, ε 0.9 Assumed - less than 1

Temperature Units

## Vapour in tank, TV 33 oC Assumed - just below the liquid temp

Liquid in tank. TL 35 oC Minimum temp requirement by process
Outside air, TA 10 oC Assumed - as tanks are inside the building
Ground, TG 12 oC Assumed - just above ambient temperature

## Gravitional constant, g 9.81 m/S 2

Calculation
Calculation for Grashof Number (NGr)
Grashof Number, NGr = L3 x ρ2 x g x ß x ΔT /µ2
NGr for the liquid phase
( ρ2 x g x ß x /µ2 ) 7.84E+08
( ρ2 x g x ß x /µ2 ) L3 x ΔT 7.84E+08 x L3 x ΔT

## NGr for the vapour phase

( ρ2 x g x ß x /µ2 ) 1.34E+08
( ρ2 x g x ß x /µ2 ) L3 x ΔT 1.34E+08 x L3 x ΔT

## Calculation for Prandtl Number (NPr)

Prandtl Number,NPr = Cp x µ /k

## Coefficient of vapour at wall, hvw

Note: as an initial approximation, assume that the wall temperature is the average of the vapour and outside air temp
Tw = (TV + TA )/ 2
Tw 21.5 oC
NGr 7.84E+08 x L3 x ΔT

## total height of the tank, L 2.55 m

% of liquid full (in terms of height) 95%

L =2.55m
Proportional height in contact with liquid, Lw 2.42 m
ΔT = Tv - Tw 11.5 oC Lw
Proportional height in contact with vapour, L - Lw 0.13 m

NGr 2.19E+10

m
For vertical plates and cylinders, Nusselt Number, NNu

1
3.
NNu = 0.138 x (NGr)0.36 x ((NPr)0.175 - 0.55) -------------Equation 15
NNu 295.97 2.3 m

## Coefficient of liquid at wall, hLw

Note: Here, neither NPr nor (NGr NPr) falls within the range of application of the below equations. Therefore, again apply equation Equation 15 using average temp Tw

## NGr NPr 5.08E+12

hLW =NNu x k/L ------------- Eq (a) applicable for the vertical plates taller than 3ft

## Tw = (TL + TA) / 2 NNu = 0.495 x (NGr NPr)0.25 ----------------- Equation 16

Tw 22.5 oC Where, NPr >100 and 104 < (NGr NPr) < 109
ΔT = TL - Tw 12.5 oC Note: In article, Equation 16 is used but as NPr and (NGr NPr) do not fall in the
range, we can't apply Equation 16 directly. Therefore, used Equation 15
Note: In article, Equation 16 is used but as NPr and (NGr NPr) do not fall in the
range, we can't apply Equation 16 directly. Therefore, used Equation 15
NGr 7.84E+08 x L3 x ΔT
NGr 1.39E+11

## Coefficient of vapour at roof, hVr

for the surfaces facing down, NNu = 0.27 x (NGr NPr)0.25 -------------Equation 20 Where, 2 x 107 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 1010
for the surfaces facing down, hVr = (0.27 x k/D) (NGr NPr)0.25 ------------- Eq (b) NGr NPr = 3.26E+10 ~ 2 x 10 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 10
7 10

Note: We will apply equation (b) assuming roof of diameter and Tw = 21.5 o
C Note: Applied Equation 20 as (NGr NPr) is very close to the above range

NGr = 1.34E+08 x L3 x ΔT
Where,
ΔT = Tv - Tw oC
ΔT 11.5 oC
L =D m
L 3.01 m Calculated equivalent diameter from the roof/bottom area of tank Equivalent Diameter for Roof/Bottom
l 2.3 m
NGr = 4.21E+10 w 3.1 m
Area 7.13 m2
hVr 0.98 W/m2 K ------------- USING Eq (b) Equivalent Diameter 3.01 m

## Coefficient of liquid at the tank bottom, hLb

for the surfaces facing up, NNu = 0.14 x (NGr NPr)0.33 -------------- Equation 19 Where, 2 x 107 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 1010
for the surfaces facing up, hLb = (0.14 x k/D) (NGr NPr)0.33 ------------- Eq ( c) NGr NPr = 8.99E+12 ≠ 2 x 10 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 10
7 10

Tw = (TL + TG) /2 Note: Applied Equation 19, though (NGr NPr) is out of range???
Tw 23.5 oC

Note: We will apply equation (c) assuming tank bottom diameter and Tw = 23.5 oC

NGr = 7.84E+08 x L x ΔT
3

Where,
ΔT = TL - Tw oC
ΔT 11.5 oC

L =D m
L 3.01 m

NGr 2.47E+11

## Coefficient of outside air at roof, h'Ar

for the surfaces facing up, NNu = 0.14 x (NGr NPr)0.33 -------------- Equation 19
for the surfaces facing up, h'Ar = (0.14 x k/D) (NGr NPr)0.33 ------------- Eq (d)

Note: Assume Tws = Tw since the roof is uninsulated and get the coefficient for still air from equation (d)

Tw 21.5 oC
NGr 1.34E+08 x L3 x ΔT
Where,
ΔT = Tws - TA o
C
ΔT 11.5 oC

NGr 4.21E+10

## Coefficient of outside air at wall, h'Aw

Note: Assume that the temperature drop across the film is one-fourth of the drop from the inside fluid to the outside air (averaged for the wet and dry walls) and use Equation 15 and (e) to find the co-efficient

## NNu = 0.138 x (NGr)0.36 x ((NPr)0.175 - 0.55) ------------- Equation 15

h = 0.138 x (NGr) x ((NPr) - 0.55) x k/L
0.36 0.175
------------- Eq (e) applicable for the vertical plates taller than 3ft

ΔT = ((TL + TV ) / 2 ) - TA) / 4
ΔT 6 oC

NGr 1.34E+08 x L3 x ΔT
where,
L 2.55 m
NGr 1.33E+10

## h'Aw 2.49 W/m K2

------------- USING Eq (e)

Conduction coefficients for ground, metal wall and insulation ( hG, hM, hI)

## hM = kM /tM ------------- Equation 21

hI = kI /tI ------------- Equation 22
hG = 8 kG/PI()*D ------------- Equation 23

Where,
tM 6 mm thickness of metal
0.006 m
tI 25 mm thickness of insulation <------------- ENTER INSULATION THICKNESS
0.025 m
INSULATED
hM 9000.00 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 21
hI 1.60 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 22
hG 1.27 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 23

Radiation coefficients for dry and wet sidewalls, and roof (hRd, hRw, hRr)

## For the INSULATED side walls, assume

Tws = TA + 0.25 (Tbulk - TA)

Where,
Tbulk is the temperature of liquid or vapour inside the tank if the surface is insulated
For the UNINSULATED side walls, assume
Tw = TA + 0.5 (Tbulk - TA)

Where,
Tbulk is the temperature of liquid or vapour inside the tank if the surface is insulated

## For the uninsulated roof, [assumed, roof is always

uninsulated]
Tw = TA + 0.5 (Tv - TA)

Vapour in tank, TV 33 oC
Liquid in tank. TL 35 oC
Outside air, TA 10 oC
Therefore, Tws for insulated DRYSIDE wall = TA + 0.25 (Tv - TA)
Tws 15.75 oC

Tws 16.25 oC

## Therefore, Tws for uninsulated roof = TA + 0.5 (Tv - TA)

Tws 21.5 oC
Let us find hR for all above using Equation 24

## hRd 0.652 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 24

hRw 0.653 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 24
hRr 0.664 W/m K2
------------- USING Equation 24

Summary
Coefficient ( W/m2 K) Dry wall Wet wall Roof Bottom

## Coefficient of vapour at wall, hvw 59.66 - - -

Coefficient of liquid at wall, hLw - 154.68 - -
Coefficient of vapour at roof, hVr - - 0.98 -
Coefficient of liquid at the tank bottom, hLb - - - 174.25
Conduction coefficients for ground hG - - - 1.27
Coefficient of outside air at roof, h'Ar [for still air] - - 3.52 - Do NOT use this value
Coefficient of outside air at roof considering wind Obtained by multiplying above value by wind which is obtained from the Graph/
enhancement factor for the assumed wind velocity, h*Ar - - 4.58 - enhancement factor 1.3 Figure 2 for the wind velocity of 2 m/hr
Coefficient of outside air at wall, h'Aw [for still air] 2.49 2.49 - - Do NOT use this value
which is obtained from the
Coefficient of outside air at wall considering wind Obtained by multiplying above value by wind Graph /Figure 2 for the wind
enhancement factor for the assumed wind velocity, h*Aw 3.24 3.24 - - enhancement factor 1.3 velocity of 2 m/hr
Conduction coefficients for metal wall hM 9000 9000 9000 9000
Conduction coefficients for insulation hI 1.6 1.6 - -
Fouling coefficient, hF 7000 5000 7000 4000
Radiation coefficients for dry and wet sidewalls, and roof
(hRd, hRw, hRr) 0.652 0.653 0.664 -
Overall coefficient,Ud, Uw,Ur,Ub 1.113 1.126 0.825 1.258

## 1/Ud = 1/hvw + tM/kM + tI/kI + 1/(h*Aw + hRd ) + 1/ hFd

1/Ud 0.899 m2 K/W
Ud 1.113 W/m2 K

## 1/Uw = 1/hLw + tM/kM + tI/kI + 1/(h*Aw + hRw ) + 1/ hFw

1/Uw 0.888 m2 K/W
Uw 1.126 W/m2 K

## 1/Ur = 1/hVr + tM/kM + 1/(h*Ar + hRr ) + 1/ hFr

1/Ur 1.213 m2 K/W
Ur 0.825 W/m2 K

## Overall bottom coefficient, Ub

1/Ub = 1/hLb + tM/kM + 1/hG + 1/ hFb
1/Ub 0.795 m2 K/W
Ub 1.258 W/m2 K
Surface area, A

## Total height, L 2.55 m

L =2.55m
Length, l 2.3 m Lw
Width, w 3.1 m
Thickness, tM 0.006 m

## Assumption: % of tank full with liquid 95%

m
1
Wet height, Lw 2.4225 m

3.
Dry height, Ld 0.1275 m

2.3 m
TOTAL dry side wall area, Ad = 2*((L - Lw)*l) + 2* ((L - Lw)*w)
DO YOU WANT TO CONSIDER BACK WALL AREA? YES <------------MAKE A SELECTION HERE

## TOTAL wet side wall area, Aw = 2*(Lw * l) + 2* (Lw * w)

DO YOU WANT TO CONSIDER BACK WALL AREA? YES <------------MAKE A SELECTION HERE
Aw 26.16 m2

Roof area, Ar = l * w
Ar 7.13 m2

Bottom area, Ab = l * w
Ab 7.13 m2

## Overall Temperature Difference, ΔT

Vapour in tank, TV 33 oC
Liquid in tank. TL 35 oC
Outside air, TA 10 oC
Ground, TG 12 oC

## ΔT for dry side = TV - TA 23 oC

ΔT for wet side = TL - TA 25 oC
ΔT for roof = TV - TA 23 oC
ΔT for bottom = TL - TG 23 oC

SUMMARY
Surface U (W/m2 K ) Area (m2) ΔT (oC) Individual Heat Loss, q (W)

## Dry wall 1.113 1.38 23 35.24

Wet wall 1.126 26.16 25 736.20
Roof 0.825 7.13 23 135.23
Bottom 1.258 7.13 23 206.30

## Heat loss from one tank, Q 1112.97 W

Q 1112.97 J/sec
Number of tanks 6 ASSUME NUMBER OF TANKS

TOTAL heat loss from all the tanks, Q 6,678 J/sec TOTAL HEAT LOSS WITH INSULATION

## Temperature inside the tanks 45 oC

Temperature required to be maintained in the tank 35 oC

## Specific heat capacity of liquid inside the tank 3 kJ/kg oC

Mass of liquid in one tank 13.65 T Mass content of liquid in the tank
Total mass of the liquid in all tanks 81.87 T
81,871 kg
Total volume of the tank =Lxlxw
ΔT 10 oC L= 2.55
l= 2.3
Overall Heat Loss affordable by tank liquid 2,456,139 kJ w= 3.1
2,456,138,835 J Volume = 18.18 m3
Total mass of liquid when tank is
100% full 14,363 kg
14.36 T
Time taken to drop the temperature up to 35 deg C 367,807 sec 100% liquid height equivalent to 14.36 T
102.17 hrs 95% liquid height equivalent to 13.65 T
4.26 days

TOTAL TIME TAKEN TO DROP DOWN TANK TEMPERATURE AT DESIRED LEVEL WITH INSULATION
and ΔT of 25 oC

and ΔT of 25 oC