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- Geotechnical3APR
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The University of Texas at Austin

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

1 Intro

Example

Need for performance analysis and control

2 Modeling

Longitudinal dynamics

Road loads

Powertrain and Actuation

Tractive performance

3 Analysis

4 Summary

5 Examples

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

mower; given friction

From Meriam and Kraige [4]

Solution [4]

following slide.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

which has limitations from two key factors.

The first is power plant limitation, which tends to be especially

critical at high forward velocities.

The second is traction, which tends to dominate at low speeds.

Understanding acceleration and deceleration as well as operation at

steady-state is of interest, and practical considerations include:

finding torque and power for a given application (e.g., to go up a hill,

drawbar),

selecting a power plant or actuation means, and

development or evaluation of cruise, braking, traction, or actuation

control.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Consider basic dynamics problem from Meriam and Kraige [4], where it is

assumed that the rear driven wheels are slipping and maximum

acceleration is to be found.

The value of this example is in showing what can be found given minimal

information in a given scenario: total mass, CG location, rough value of µ,

wheel size and inertia properties.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

maximum acceleration, so

traction force is Ft = µN .

2 Even though slip is assumed,

a rolling constraint is used to

l approximate angular

acceleration of the wheel,

α ≈ a/r

3 These assumptions allow

estimation of torque required

to achieve maximum

acceleration.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

1 Longitudinal dynamics

2 Characterizing typical road loads

3 Powertrain and actuation

4 Modeling tractive effort

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

If slip is negligible, the vehicle mass and total rotational inertia of rotating

parts can be lumped. Consider this case.

Dynamics for 2D motion (xyz),

ṗz = mv̇z = Fz − mg = 0

ḣy = Iy ω̇y = Td − rw Ftx

rolling, vx = rw ωy , and, Ftx ≤ µs Fz . With

Fz = mg,

mv̇x = Ftx ⇒need to find Ftx

ḣy = Iy ω̇y = Iy v̇x /rw = Td − rw Ftx

Then, h i

⇒ Ftx = r1w Td − Iy rv̇wx

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Given traction force, consider the effect of velocity-dependent load forces,

f (vx ), P

mv̇x = Fx

= Ftxh− f (vx ) i

I

= r1w Td − rwy · v̇x − f (vx )

| {z }

Losses/loads

Iy 1

m + 2 v̇x = Td − f (vx )

rw rw

| {z }

massfactor

Iy −1 1

v̇x = m + 2 Td − f (vx )

rw rw

ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

does not depend on distribution of forces.

If Ftx exceeds ‘adhesion’ limit, wheel slips, and the traction force

takes a form such as, Ftx = µFz , where µ may be a function of ’slip’.

velocity, and b) the rotational velocity. If these two values are equal,

we say the wheel is in pure rolling, or no slip.

When slipping, the translational and rotational wheel velocities are

independent states, and two differential equations are needed. (i.e.,

vx 6= rw ωw )

power-limitations and losses in the actuation source.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Consider the longitudinal dynamics of a two-axle vehicle on an incline,

X

ṗx = mv̇x = Fx = Tractive forces − Road Loads

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

X

Fx = Ftf + Ftr − Fa − Frf − Frr − Fd − Fg

P

Fx = Ftf + Ftr − Fa − Frf − Frr − Fd − Fg

Ftf,r = tractive effort on front and rear

Fa = aerodynamic resistance force

Frf,rr = rolling resistance on front and rear

Fd = drawbar load

Fg = grade resistance = W sin θs

For small unmanned ground vehicles (mobile robots), it is usually not

necessary to consider aerodynamic or drawbar loads. More information for

full-scale vehicles can be found in [2, 6].

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

forces on the axles. For performance, you do not consider roll, the effect of

suspension, etc.

The forward velocity, vx , can only be determined once all the forces are

specified.

information on aerodynamic loads can be found [6]. Traction forces will

depend on wheel slip and the influence of the powertrain and actuation

dynamics.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Rolling Resistance

Rolling resistance forces are

primarily caused by hysteresis due Hysteresis vs. adhesion (adapted from

to deflection of running gear [5])

materials while rolling.

In some applications, RR may also

account for some sliding, air

circulation, and fan effect of

l high-speed rolling tiresa

The rolling resistance coefficient is

defined as the ratio of the rolling

resistance force (e.g., applied at

center of rolling body) to the

normal load, fr = Fr /N .

a

For example, at 80-95 mph, 90-95% hysteresis, 2-10%

friction, 1.5-3.5% air resistance.

ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

vehicle drivetrains of interest.

1 GR2

mef f = mv + 2

I w + 2

Id

rw rw

with mv total translational mass, Iw wheel inertia, and Id inertia of

driveline parts.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

the actuator drive torque by, Ft = GR · Td (ω)/rw , where GR is the total

gear ratio. Losses in the drivetrain can be incorporated with efficiency.

This relationship enables accounting for power-limiting effects inherent in

torque-speed characteristics for prime-movers as well as the influence of

gearing when estimating longitudinal performance.

Specifically, since power = T · ω, an ideal source delivering constant-power

over speed, Po , will at best have a torque-speed relation,

T = Po /ω = T (ω); i.e., a hyperbola.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

comparison of two dc electric motors and torque-speed curve comparison.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Driven wheels/tires under load experience slip when they are driven. Slip

can be thought of as a deficit in distance traveled compared to a pure

rolling case.

Slip velocity for a wheel is defined as vs = rw ωw − vw , where ωw is the

wheel rotational velocity and vw is the translational velocity.

Slip is then defined,

vs

s=

max(rw ωw , vw )

taking a positive value in driving conditions and a negative value in

braking (referred to then as skid).

A rough estimate for passenger tires at steady high speed, for example, is about 3% [6].

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

on slip and can be estimated

by,

Ft = µ(s) · Fz ,

where the coefficient of friction

is now a function of slip.

l

The graph to the right [6]

shows how tractive effort or

coefficient of friction can vary Tractive effort or mu-slip

with slip. The curve is different curves represent one of the

under driving and braking largest sources of uncertainty in

conditions. predicting vehicle performance.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

When working with some mobile

robots, questions about how to Consider the small rubber tire

model the wheel-surface contact on the Tamiya wall-hugging

are inevitable. Many mobile robots mouse studied in the Examples.

have solid rubber wheels and are

primarily meant to traverse

relatively smooth, non-deformable

terrains. The interaction of rubber,

an elastomer, with most surfaces

and terrains is complex. Even on

indoor floors, the coefficient of

friction can vary because of What is the rolling resistance?

variations in the roughness, Do you need to measure it to

temperature, and humidity. make predictions? Under slip,

Properties of rubber can also does µ vary?

change over time.

ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

The article below by Evans [1] suggests one way to make a rough estimate.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Some basic calculations for rolling resistance based on [1] for the small

rubber wheel on the Tamiya mouse vehicle are shown below.

fr = 0.004, independent of velocity, for total vehicle rolling resistance.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Whether calculating rolling resistance forces or traction forces for solid

wheels, some practical considerations are worth noting before

implementing, say, in a simulation.

1 The RR force should oppose motion, so use the function,

Fr = fr · N sgn(v), where sgn is the ‘signum’ function which takes

value +1 for v > 0 and −1 for v < 0, v being velocity.

2 Since sgn is 0 for v = 0, special consideration may be made for this

static case in some cases.

3 For traction, it may not seem that a µ-slip curve of the form used for

pneumatic tires would be appropriate. An alternative is a

Coulomb-like model, Ft = µN sgn(vs ), with sign dependence on the

slip velocity.

4 In computing, the sgn function introduces ‘chatter’ around zero. For

this reason, a better approximation is to use a properly scaled tanh

function of the velocity.

ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Now we can build a general model for wheel/tire dynamics under both

driving torque and traction force effects.

P

ḣw = Iw ω̇w =P Tw = +Td ∓ PTt − Tb − Tf (ωw )

ṗx = mv̇x = Fx = ±Ft − Road loads

Td = drive torque, Tt = rw Ftx = traction torque, Tb = brake torque, Tf = friction torque

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

The wheel model suggests a simple performance model for the longitudinal

dynamics of vehicle that includes drivetrain dynamics and wheel slip. The

equations are,

ṗx = mv v̇x = Fx − FL

where,

Td = GR · Te (ωe )

Te (ωe ) = engine/actuator torque-speed curve

Fx = µWv cos θ

µ = f (slip)

FL = total road loads

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Performance Analysis

Given the model basis described, there are various types of analysis that

can be performed. Some typical analysis problems include:

1 Given vehicle characteristics, loads, and tractive effort, predict

steady-state speed

2 Evaluate ability to traverse grade, overcome drawbar, etc.

3 Gear train evaluation/selection

4 Evaluate power and energy requirements, actuator selection and

control

5 Evaluate transient performance (acceleration, time to steady speed,

braking, etc.)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Summary

performance modeling.

2 Some details are provided on particular ways to model road loads and

driveline characteristics.

3 Detailed derivations and analysis applications can be found in the

attached examples.

4 The examples currently include a case study on a small-scale vehicle,

the Tamiya wall-hugging mouse, demonstrates the detailed steps

required to apply some of these methods.

5 These methods are a stepping stone to discussion on longitudinal

speed control (cruise) and to braking analysis and control.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

References

[1] I. Evans, “The rolling resistance of a wheel with a solid rubber tyre,”

British J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 5, pp. 187-188, 1954.

[2] T.D. Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, SAE, Warrendale,

PA, 1992.

[3] D.C. Karnopp and D. Margolis, Engineering Applications of Dynamics,

Wiley, New York, 2008.

[4] J.L. Meriam and L.G. Kraige, Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics (4th

ed.), Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY, 1997.

[5] D.F. Moore, Friction and Lubrication of Elastomers, Pergamon Press,

New York 1972.

[6] J.Y. Wong, Theory of Ground Vehicles, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,

New York, 1993 (2nd) or 2001 (3rd) edition.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Example problems

2 Application of the two-axle vehicle model to a passenger vehicle

3 Performance analysis of a small-scale vehicle (the wall-hugging mouse)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

The free-body diagram is shown below. The wheelbase is L = l1 + l2 .

forces, three dynamic equations

are applied (two translation, x,

z, and one rotation about y).

P

ṗx = mv̇x = P Fx

ṗz = mv̇z = Fz

P

ḣy = I ω̇y = My

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

l1 − hr fr −l2 − hr fr 0 Wf −hFt

1 1 0 Wr = W cos θ

−fr −fr −m v̇x Fg + Fa − Ft

where rolling resistance forces are applied through the wheel centers at

height hr = h − rw , h being the CG height and rw the effective rolling

radius of the wheels. The first two equations are solved for the weight

distributed to the front and rear axles, Wf and Wr , respectively.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Solution of the three unknowns yields the two normal loads on the front

and rear axels and an ODE for the vehicle forward velocity, vx , in terms of

‘known’ quantities,

− Lh Ft + (l2 +h r fr )

Wf L W cos θ

Wr = h (l1 −hr fr )

L Ft + L W cos θ

v̇x 1

m [Ft − W sin θ − Fa − fr W cos θ]

The traction force will depend on the condition of the front and rear tires.

Note that Ft = Ftf + Ftr . It must be determined whether there is rolling

or slipping.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

slope with a 25% grade. Estimate the possible maximum speed as determined by

the maximum tractive effort that the tire-road contact can support if the vehicle

is (a) rear-wheel drive, and (b) front-wheel drive. Plot the resultant resistance

versus vehicle speed, and show the maximum thrust of the vehicle with the two

types of drive. Key data is provided below.

vehicle of weight W = 20.02 kN

height of center of gravity h = 50.8 cm

wheelbase L = 279.4 cm

location of CG from the front axle l1 = 127 cm

frontal area of the vehicle Af = 2.32 m2

aerodynamic drag coefficient Cd = 0.45

coefficient of rolling resistance fr = c1 + c2 V 2

c1 = 0.0136

c2 = 0.4 × 10−7

rolling radius of the tires re = 33 cm

coefficient of road adhesion µ = 0.8

Note: V in units of kilometers per hour

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

It is necessary to use the two expressions for Wf and Wr to solve for Ft by

assuming that at each tire-surface interface, Ft = µW . This allows you to

solve for the ‘maximum’ traction at the rear and front, respectively, as,

l1 − hfr (v)

Ftr max = µW cos θ

L − hµ

and,

l2 + hfr (v)

Ftf max = µW cos θ ,

L + hµ

where fr (v) is the rolling resistance force, generally a function of vehicle

velocity, v.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

along with the different ‘road loads’. Different steady-state conditions can

be determined as the intersection of the traction and the total load curves.

These are indicated by the points 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the graph below.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

right and left wheel shafts. The shafts are connected to solid rubber

wheels. A model is sought to estimate the steady-state performance

characteristics (top speed, influence of surface type, climbing grade, power

requirements, etc.).

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

and geometry information as you deem necessary to make the

required predictions.

2 Incorporate the torque-speed characteristics of the electric motor.

Assume the motor will run with a battery (e.g., 1.5V cell).

3 Model the wheel-surface interaction assuming only one measurement

of the ‘sliding’ friction value, µ, can be obtained on up to three

different surfaces.

4 Conduct analysis to find the steady-state speed for a given surface

and slope (grade). Determine the maximum slope the vehicle can

climb and the steady-state speed achieved under those conditions.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Initial assumptions/approach

battery that supply sufficient current for both.

Compare case with no slip against the case when the wheels can slip,

using a nominal mu-slip curve scaled to simulate changes in the

surface.

Compare result from using two motors on the specification sheet

(next slide), the 2270 and 18100.

Compare case where you concentrate all the mass on the axle (no

mass distribution) versus a case where CG location is off axle.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

This model can be used for the case where mass is concentrated on axle or

distributed, but in the latter the weight on the wheels must change.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

be about 22.5 cm/sec.

2 The total mass was measured at 150 g

3 A simple skid-pull test on a wood floor shows no more than about 1

oz (both wheels) force (100% slip)

4 Slope tests on a piece of acrylic board. Ran three ‘slip’ experiments

by raising one end of the acrylic board until the mouse slipped. Found

slip occurs at: 10, p

8 and 9.5 inches, ave = 9.2 inches. So skid occurs

for θ = sin−1 (9.2/ (22.52 − 9.22 )) = 26.6 deg. Thus

µ = tan(θ) ≈ 0.5 (on acrylic).

5 Ran a climb test on sloped acrylic. Max climbing angle occurred for a

slope of 8.5/20.8. This gives 22.2 degrees.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Performance analysis

determine transient and µ-slip curve as shown here can

steady-state response. model slip cases.

Model parameters from simple

measurements and

experiments are used.

Manufacturer’s specifications

on the motor are adopted.

Estimations and assumptions

about quantities too difficult

to measure are necessary.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

on how the rear and front considered, the traction force

contact forces vary with CG under slip conditions would be

location. calculated using,

l1 − hfr (v)

Ftr = µ(W/2) cos θ

L − hµ

the front contact point. weight on each rear axle wheel.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Tamiya mouse vehicle starting from rest. Both no-slip and slip models are

used, and the grade and friction levels can be varied.

The basic outline of the simulation program is:

Analysis steps

Define parameters (set grade, friction levels)

Set motor and brake specifications

Set motor/brake timing

Define mu-slip table

Set simulation initial conditions and time parameters

Simulate each model configuration (no-slip, slip)

Plot results for comparison

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Simulations for the vehicle running on flat wood floor (θ = 0) with the two

different motors are shown below. The 100% skid µ was 0.19. Each graph

compares the vehicle forward velocity for no slip and slip case. Also

plotted is the wheel velocity for the slip case, r · ω.

Judging from the steady-state velocity, it is likely that the mouse uses the

18100 motor since a test showed that the steady velocity was ≈ 22 cm/sec.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Changing the slope does not affect the no-slip case, which predicts the

vehicle climbs reliably. However, when considering slip and including the

effect of mass distribution, the model shows a grade of 27 degrees can be

climbed (22 deg was roughly measured in a test).

You can also show that assuming no mass distribution will over-predict the

slope you can climb.

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

function [xdot y] = mouse_w_driveline(t,x)

% No slip at wheel-surface assumed

(cont.)

global mv Wv theta fr a b h L % calculate forces

global Te Ne etat GR toff Tbo % traction force, each wheel and motor

global Iw Id rw Fx = GR*Tec*etat/rw;

% assign physical variable names to states % Rolling Resistance force (x-dir)

xv = x(1); % x position of vehicle Fr = fr*Wv*cos(theta)*tanh(Vv/0.05);

Vv = x(2); % x velocity of vehicle % Gradient force (x-dir)

% mass factor Fg = Wv*sin(theta);

meff = (mv+2*Iw/(rw*rw)+2*GR*GR*Id/(rw*rw));

% shaft speed of motor - no slip % system equations

we = GR*Vv/rw; xdot1 = Vv;

% shaft speed in rpm (for table lookup) % 2 tires/wheels, need 2*Fx

Nec = we*30/pi; xdot2 = (2*Fx-Fr-Fg)/meff;

% turn motor off after toff and apply xdot = [xdot1;xdot2];

% a brake torque

if t>=toff % output variables

Tec = 0; y(1) = 2*Fx; % total traction, two wheels

Tec = -Tbo*tanh(we/200); y(2) = Tec; % torque for each motor

else y(3) = 0; % no-slip case

Tec = interp1(Ne,Te,Nec,’linear’,’extrap’);

end

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

function [xdot y]=mouse_w_driveline_traction(t,x)

global mv Wv theta fr a b h L (cont.)

global Te Ne etat GR toff Tbo

global Iw Id rw % calculate forces

global slip mu % two wheels driving; use total Wv

% assign physical variable names to states % option 1: 1/2 weight on each wheel

xv = x(1); % x position of vehicle Fx = muc*Wv*cos(theta)/2;

Vv = x(2); % x velocity of vehicle % option 2: CG not on axle

omega = x(3); % wheel angular velocity % Fx = muc*Wv*cos(theta)*(a-h*fr)/(L-h*muc);

we = GR*omega; % motor shaft speed % Rolling Resistance Force (x-dir)

% effective driveline inertia Fr = fr*Wv*cos(theta)*tanh(Vv/0.05);

% (both drivelines) % Gradient force (x-dir)

Ieff = 2*(Iw+GR*GR*Id); Fg = Wv*sin(theta);

Nec = we*30/pi; % in rpm

% turn motor off after toff and apply % system equations

% a brake torque xdot1 = Vv;

if t>=toff xdot2 = (2*Fx-Fr-Fg)/mv;

Tec = 0; % two motors, two wheels

Tec = -Tbo*tanh(we/200); xdot3 = (2*GR*Tec*etat-2*rw*Fx)/Ieff;

else xdot = [xdot1;xdot2;xdot3];

Tec = interp1(Ne,Te,Nec,’linear’,’extrap’);

end % output variables

% find slip state y(1) = 2*Fx; % total traction, two wheels

slipc = (rw*omega-Vv)/max(rw*omega,Vv); y(2) = Tec; % torque for each motor

% use mu-slip table y(3) = slipc; % slip case

muc=interp1(slip,mu,abs(slipc),’linear’,’extrap’);

muc=sign(slipc)*muc;

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