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Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Vehicle performance modeling

Prof. R.G. Longoria

Department of Mechanical Engineering


The University of Texas at Austin

January 27, 2015

ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)


Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

1 Intro
Example
Need for performance analysis and control

2 Modeling
Longitudinal dynamics
Road loads
Powertrain and Actuation
Tractive performance

3 Analysis

4 Summary

5 Examples

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Begin with example: solving for acceleration of powered


mower; given friction
From Meriam and Kraige [4]
Solution [4]

Compare this solution to the more general approach on the

following slide.

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Application of Newton-Euler (N-E) equations

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Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Need for performance analysis and control

Performance usually relates to longitudinal motion of a ground vehicle,


which has limitations from two key factors.
The first is power plant limitation, which tends to be especially
critical at high forward velocities.
The second is traction, which tends to dominate at low speeds.
Understanding acceleration and deceleration as well as operation at
steady-state is of interest, and practical considerations include:
finding torque and power for a given application (e.g., to go up a hill,
drawbar),
selecting a power plant or actuation means, and
development or evaluation of cruise, braking, traction, or actuation
control.

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Example with driven axle

Consider basic dynamics problem from Meriam and Kraige [4], where it is
assumed that the rear driven wheels are slipping and maximum
acceleration is to be found.

The value of this example is in showing what can be found given minimal
information in a given scenario: total mass, CG location, rough value of µ,
wheel size and inertia properties.

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Solution from [4]

1 Assumes slip under


maximum acceleration, so
traction force is Ft = µN .
2 Even though slip is assumed,
a rolling constraint is used to
l approximate angular
acceleration of the wheel,
α ≈ a/r
3 These assumptions allow
estimation of torque required
to achieve maximum
acceleration.

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Modeling for performance

1 Longitudinal dynamics
2 Characterizing typical road loads
3 Powertrain and actuation
4 Modeling tractive effort

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Torque-driven wheel dynamics - no slip

If slip is negligible, the vehicle mass and total rotational inertia of rotating
parts can be lumped. Consider this case.
Dynamics for 2D motion (xyz),

ṗx = mv̇x = Ftx


ṗz = mv̇z = Fz − mg = 0
ḣy = Iy ω̇y = Td − rw Ftx

l gives 4 unknowns and only 3 equations. For pure


rolling, vx = rw ωy , and, Ftx ≤ µs Fz . With
Fz = mg,
mv̇x = Ftx ⇒need to find Ftx
ḣy = Iy ω̇y = Iy v̇x /rw = Td − rw Ftx
Then, h i
⇒ Ftx = r1w Td − Iy rv̇wx

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Longitudinal dynamics for torque driven wheel - no slip


Given traction force, consider the effect of velocity-dependent load forces,
f (vx ), P
mv̇x = Fx
= Ftxh− f (vx ) i
I
= r1w Td − rwy · v̇x − f (vx )
| {z }
Losses/loads

and define a ‘mass factor’ (common in performance analysis [6]),


 
Iy 1
m + 2 v̇x = Td − f (vx )
rw rw
| {z }
massfactor

so the dynamic equation becomes,


Iy −1 1
   
v̇x = m + 2 Td − f (vx )
rw rw
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Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Comments on the no-slip torque-driven wheel

This model assumes you have a single-wheel/axle, so contact force


does not depend on distribution of forces.

If Ftx exceeds ‘adhesion’ limit, wheel slips, and the traction force
takes a form such as, Ftx = µFz , where µ may be a function of ’slip’.

The slip of a wheel is a variable that depends on: a) the forward


velocity, and b) the rotational velocity. If these two values are equal,
we say the wheel is in pure rolling, or no slip.
When slipping, the translational and rotational wheel velocities are
independent states, and two differential equations are needed. (i.e.,
vx 6= rw ωw )

The drive torque, Td , may depend on shaft speed, reflecting


power-limitations and losses in the actuation source.

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Two-axis vehicle on incline with ‘road loads’


Consider the longitudinal dynamics of a two-axle vehicle on an incline,
X
ṗx = mv̇x = Fx = Tractive forces − Road Loads

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The tractive forces and road loads are detailed as follows,


X
Fx = Ftf + Ftr − Fa − Frf − Frr − Fd − Fg

P
Fx = Ftf + Ftr − Fa − Frf − Frr − Fd − Fg
Ftf,r = tractive effort on front and rear
Fa = aerodynamic resistance force
Frf,rr = rolling resistance on front and rear
Fd = drawbar load
Fg = grade resistance = W sin θs
For small unmanned ground vehicles (mobile robots), it is usually not
necessary to consider aerodynamic or drawbar loads. More information for
full-scale vehicles can be found in [2, 6].

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Solving the two-axle problem

A multiple-axle vehicle requires information for determining the contact


forces on the axles. For performance, you do not consider roll, the effect of
suspension, etc.

The forward velocity, vx , can only be determined once all the forces are
specified.

Rolling resistance and grade forces follow well-established approaches, and


information on aerodynamic loads can be found [6]. Traction forces will
depend on wheel slip and the influence of the powertrain and actuation
dynamics.

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Rolling Resistance
Rolling resistance forces are
primarily caused by hysteresis due Hysteresis vs. adhesion (adapted from
to deflection of running gear [5])
materials while rolling.
In some applications, RR may also
account for some sliding, air
circulation, and fan effect of
l high-speed rolling tiresa
The rolling resistance coefficient is
defined as the ratio of the rolling
resistance force (e.g., applied at
center of rolling body) to the
normal load, fr = Fr /N .
a
For example, at 80-95 mph, 90-95% hysteresis, 2-10%
friction, 1.5-3.5% air resistance.
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Ground vehicle powertrain

The generic model shown below conceptualizes key elements in ground


vehicle drivetrains of interest.

For no slip or compliance, the mass factor is,

1 GR2
mef f = mv + 2
I w + 2
Id
rw rw
with mv total translational mass, Iw wheel inertia, and Id inertia of
driveline parts.

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Traction force and drive torque

For the no-slip/compliance case, the traction force is directly related to


the actuator drive torque by, Ft = GR · Td (ω)/rw , where GR is the total
gear ratio. Losses in the drivetrain can be incorporated with efficiency.
This relationship enables accounting for power-limiting effects inherent in
torque-speed characteristics for prime-movers as well as the influence of
gearing when estimating longitudinal performance.
Specifically, since power = T · ω, an ideal source delivering constant-power
over speed, Po , will at best have a torque-speed relation,
T = Po /ω = T (ω); i.e., a hyperbola.

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Typical torque-speed curves

On left are shown characteristics for gasoline engine, and on right


comparison of two dc electric motors and torque-speed curve comparison.

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Wheel slip velocity and slip

Driven wheels/tires under load experience slip when they are driven. Slip
can be thought of as a deficit in distance traveled compared to a pure
rolling case.
Slip velocity for a wheel is defined as vs = rw ωw − vw , where ωw is the
wheel rotational velocity and vw is the translational velocity.
Slip is then defined,
vs
s=
max(rw ωw , vw )
taking a positive value in driving conditions and a negative value in
braking (referred to then as skid).
A rough estimate for passenger tires at steady high speed, for example, is about 3% [6].

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Traction force and slip

Tractive effort or force depends


on slip and can be estimated
by,
Ft = µ(s) · Fz ,
where the coefficient of friction
is now a function of slip.
l
The graph to the right [6]
shows how tractive effort or
coefficient of friction can vary Tractive effort or mu-slip
with slip. The curve is different curves represent one of the
under driving and braking largest sources of uncertainty in
conditions. predicting vehicle performance.

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Example: ‘solid’ rubber wheels


When working with some mobile
robots, questions about how to Consider the small rubber tire
model the wheel-surface contact on the Tamiya wall-hugging
are inevitable. Many mobile robots mouse studied in the Examples.
have solid rubber wheels and are
primarily meant to traverse
relatively smooth, non-deformable
terrains. The interaction of rubber,
an elastomer, with most surfaces
and terrains is complex. Even on
indoor floors, the coefficient of
friction can vary because of What is the rolling resistance?
variations in the roughness, Do you need to measure it to
temperature, and humidity. make predictions? Under slip,
Properties of rubber can also does µ vary?
change over time.
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Example: ‘solid’ rubber wheels (cont.)

The article below by Evans [1] suggests one way to make a rough estimate.

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Example: ‘solid’ rubber wheels (cont.)

Some basic calculations for rolling resistance based on [1] for the small
rubber wheel on the Tamiya mouse vehicle are shown below.

Based on these calculations, can start by using an estimated value of


fr = 0.004, independent of velocity, for total vehicle rolling resistance.

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Practical RR and traction modeling for solid wheels


Whether calculating rolling resistance forces or traction forces for solid
wheels, some practical considerations are worth noting before
implementing, say, in a simulation.
1 The RR force should oppose motion, so use the function,
Fr = fr · N sgn(v), where sgn is the ‘signum’ function which takes
value +1 for v > 0 and −1 for v < 0, v being velocity.
2 Since sgn is 0 for v = 0, special consideration may be made for this
static case in some cases.
3 For traction, it may not seem that a µ-slip curve of the form used for
pneumatic tires would be appropriate. An alternative is a
Coulomb-like model, Ft = µN sgn(vs ), with sign dependence on the
slip velocity.
4 In computing, the sgn function introduces ‘chatter’ around zero. For
this reason, a better approximation is to use a properly scaled tanh
function of the velocity.
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Torque-driven wheel with slip

Now we can build a general model for wheel/tire dynamics under both
driving torque and traction force effects.
P
ḣw = Iw ω̇w =P Tw = +Td ∓ PTt − Tb − Tf (ωw )
ṗx = mv̇x = Fx = ±Ft − Road loads
Td = drive torque, Tt = rw Ftx = traction torque, Tb = brake torque, Tf = friction torque

Ftx = traction/braking force

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Vehicle with basic drivetrain and wheel slip

The wheel model suggests a simple performance model for the longitudinal
dynamics of vehicle that includes drivetrain dynamics and wheel slip. The
equations are,

ḣw = (Iw + GR2 Id )ω̇w = Td − rw Fx


ṗx = mv v̇x = Fx − FL
where,
Td = GR · Te (ωe )
Te (ωe ) = engine/actuator torque-speed curve
Fx = µWv cos θ
µ = f (slip)
FL = total road loads

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Vehicle with basic drivetrain model and wheel slip

A bond graph representation takes the form:

Note mt above used to represent gear selection.

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Performance Analysis

Given the model basis described, there are various types of analysis that
can be performed. Some typical analysis problems include:
1 Given vehicle characteristics, loads, and tractive effort, predict
steady-state speed
2 Evaluate ability to traverse grade, overcome drawbar, etc.
3 Gear train evaluation/selection
4 Evaluate power and energy requirements, actuator selection and
control
5 Evaluate transient performance (acceleration, time to steady speed,
braking, etc.)

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Summary

1 These slides provide an overview of models that can be used for


performance modeling.
2 Some details are provided on particular ways to model road loads and
driveline characteristics.
3 Detailed derivations and analysis applications can be found in the
attached examples.
4 The examples currently include a case study on a small-scale vehicle,
the Tamiya wall-hugging mouse, demonstrates the detailed steps
required to apply some of these methods.
5 These methods are a stepping stone to discussion on longitudinal
speed control (cruise) and to braking analysis and control.

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References

[1] I. Evans, “The rolling resistance of a wheel with a solid rubber tyre,”
British J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 5, pp. 187-188, 1954.
[2] T.D. Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, SAE, Warrendale,
PA, 1992.
[3] D.C. Karnopp and D. Margolis, Engineering Applications of Dynamics,
Wiley, New York, 2008.
[4] J.L. Meriam and L.G. Kraige, Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics (4th
ed.), Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY, 1997.
[5] D.F. Moore, Friction and Lubrication of Elastomers, Pergamon Press,
New York 1972.
[6] J.Y. Wong, Theory of Ground Vehicles, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
New York, 1993 (2nd) or 2001 (3rd) edition.

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Example problems

1 The two-axle vehicle on incline model


2 Application of the two-axle vehicle model to a passenger vehicle
3 Performance analysis of a small-scale vehicle (the wall-hugging mouse)

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Two-axle vehicle on an incline

Consider a standard two-axle vehicle in 2D motion traversing an incline.


The free-body diagram is shown below. The wheelbase is L = l1 + l2 .

To determine all necessary


forces, three dynamic equations
are applied (two translation, x,
z, and one rotation about y).
P
ṗx = mv̇x = P Fx
ṗz = mv̇z = Fz
P
ḣy = I ω̇y = My

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Two-axle model (cont.)

The equations can be summarized in matrix form as,


    
l1 − hr fr −l2 − hr fr 0 Wf −hFt
 1 1 0   Wr  =  W cos θ 
−fr −fr −m v̇x Fg + Fa − Ft

where rolling resistance forces are applied through the wheel centers at
height hr = h − rw , h being the CG height and rw the effective rolling
radius of the wheels. The first two equations are solved for the weight
distributed to the front and rear axles, Wf and Wr , respectively.

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Two-axle model (cont.)

Solution of the three unknowns yields the two normal loads on the front
and rear axels and an ODE for the vehicle forward velocity, vx , in terms of
‘known’ quantities,
  
− Lh Ft + (l2 +h r fr )

Wf L W cos θ
 Wr  =  h (l1 −hr fr ) 
 L Ft + L W cos θ 
v̇x 1
m [Ft − W sin θ − Fa − fr W cos θ]

The traction force will depend on the condition of the front and rear tires.
Note that Ft = Ftf + Ftr . It must be determined whether there is rolling
or slipping.

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Two-axle vehicle on incline: FWD vs RWD

Consider the problem of a two-axle vehicle traveling either on a level road or on a


slope with a 25% grade. Estimate the possible maximum speed as determined by
the maximum tractive effort that the tire-road contact can support if the vehicle
is (a) rear-wheel drive, and (b) front-wheel drive. Plot the resultant resistance
versus vehicle speed, and show the maximum thrust of the vehicle with the two
types of drive. Key data is provided below.
vehicle of weight W = 20.02 kN
height of center of gravity h = 50.8 cm
wheelbase L = 279.4 cm
location of CG from the front axle l1 = 127 cm
frontal area of the vehicle Af = 2.32 m2
aerodynamic drag coefficient Cd = 0.45
coefficient of rolling resistance fr = c1 + c2 V 2
c1 = 0.0136
c2 = 0.4 × 10−7
rolling radius of the tires re = 33 cm
coefficient of road adhesion µ = 0.8
Note: V in units of kilometers per hour

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Two-axle vehicle on incline: FWD vs RWD (cont.)

Begin by setting up the vehicle-on-incline problem (see previous example).


It is necessary to use the two expressions for Wf and Wr to solve for Ft by
assuming that at each tire-surface interface, Ft = µW . This allows you to
solve for the ‘maximum’ traction at the rear and front, respectively, as,
 
l1 − hfr (v)
Ftr max = µW cos θ
L − hµ

and,  
l2 + hfr (v)
Ftf max = µW cos θ ,
L + hµ
where fr (v) is the rolling resistance force, generally a function of vehicle
velocity, v.

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Two-axle vehicle on incline: FWD vs RWD (cont.)

These traction forces can be plotted as functions of the vehicle velocity, v,


along with the different ‘road loads’. Different steady-state conditions can
be determined as the intersection of the traction and the total load curves.
These are indicated by the points 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the graph below.

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Case Study: Performance of Tamiya Mouse

This vehicle has two dc motors driving worm-gear reducers connected to


right and left wheel shafts. The shafts are connected to solid rubber
wheels. A model is sought to estimate the steady-state performance
characteristics (top speed, influence of surface type, climbing grade, power
requirements, etc.).

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Steps in performance analysis

1 Formulate a model that accounts for as much of the detailed mass


and geometry information as you deem necessary to make the
required predictions.
2 Incorporate the torque-speed characteristics of the electric motor.
Assume the motor will run with a battery (e.g., 1.5V cell).
3 Model the wheel-surface interaction assuming only one measurement
of the ‘sliding’ friction value, µ, can be obtained on up to three
different surfaces.
4 Conduct analysis to find the steady-state speed for a given surface
and slope (grade). Determine the maximum slope the vehicle can
climb and the steady-state speed achieved under those conditions.

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Initial assumptions/approach

Assume both Mabuchi motors are connected in parallel across a 1.5V


battery that supply sufficient current for both.
Compare case with no slip against the case when the wheels can slip,
using a nominal mu-slip curve scaled to simulate changes in the
surface.
Compare result from using two motors on the specification sheet
(next slide), the 2270 and 18100.
Compare case where you concentrate all the mass on the axle (no
mass distribution) versus a case where CG location is off axle.

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Mabuchi motor specifications

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Vehicle model - bond graph

This model can be used for the case where mass is concentrated on axle or
distributed, but in the latter the weight on the wheels must change.

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Results from simple/rough tests

1 Traversed 49.5 inches in 5.7 sec, so steady-state speed is estimated to


be about 22.5 cm/sec.
2 The total mass was measured at 150 g
3 A simple skid-pull test on a wood floor shows no more than about 1
oz (both wheels) force (100% slip)
4 Slope tests on a piece of acrylic board. Ran three ‘slip’ experiments
by raising one end of the acrylic board until the mouse slipped. Found
slip occurs at: 10, p
8 and 9.5 inches, ave = 9.2 inches. So skid occurs
for θ = sin−1 (9.2/ (22.52 − 9.22 )) = 26.6 deg. Thus
µ = tan(θ) ≈ 0.5 (on acrylic).
5 Ran a climb test on sloped acrylic. Max climbing angle occurred for a
slope of 8.5/20.8. This gives 22.2 degrees.

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Performance analysis

Dynamic models are used to It is assumed that a generic


determine transient and µ-slip curve as shown here can
steady-state response. model slip cases.
Model parameters from simple
measurements and
experiments are used.
Manufacturer’s specifications
on the motor are adopted.
Estimations and assumptions
about quantities too difficult
to measure are necessary.

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Effect of CG location on traction forces

The traction force may depend If the effect of CG location is


on how the rear and front considered, the traction force
contact forces vary with CG under slip conditions would be
location. calculated using,
 
l1 − hfr (v)
Ftr = µ(W/2) cos θ
L − hµ

Assume negligible friction on indicating equal distribution of


the front contact point. weight on each rear axle wheel.

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Simulation for vehicle response analysis

A Matlab program is used to simulate the performance response of the


Tamiya mouse vehicle starting from rest. Both no-slip and slip models are
used, and the grade and friction levels can be varied.
The basic outline of the simulation program is:
Analysis steps
Define parameters (set grade, friction levels)
Set motor and brake specifications
Set motor/brake timing
Define mu-slip table
Set simulation initial conditions and time parameters
Simulate each model configuration (no-slip, slip)
Plot results for comparison

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Comparing response with two different motors

Simulations for the vehicle running on flat wood floor (θ = 0) with the two
different motors are shown below. The 100% skid µ was 0.19. Each graph
compares the vehicle forward velocity for no slip and slip case. Also
plotted is the wheel velocity for the slip case, r · ω.

Judging from the steady-state velocity, it is likely that the mouse uses the
18100 motor since a test showed that the steady velocity was ≈ 22 cm/sec.

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Climbing a grade, effect of mass distribution

Changing the slope does not affect the no-slip case, which predicts the
vehicle climbs reliably. However, when considering slip and including the
effect of mass distribution, the model shows a grade of 27 degrees can be
climbed (22 deg was roughly measured in a test).

You can also show that assuming no mass distribution will over-predict the
slope you can climb.

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Driveline with no slip (Matlab)

Model function file


function [xdot y] = mouse_w_driveline(t,x)
% No slip at wheel-surface assumed
(cont.)
global mv Wv theta fr a b h L % calculate forces
global Te Ne etat GR toff Tbo % traction force, each wheel and motor
global Iw Id rw Fx = GR*Tec*etat/rw;
% assign physical variable names to states % Rolling Resistance force (x-dir)
xv = x(1); % x position of vehicle Fr = fr*Wv*cos(theta)*tanh(Vv/0.05);
Vv = x(2); % x velocity of vehicle % Gradient force (x-dir)
% mass factor Fg = Wv*sin(theta);
meff = (mv+2*Iw/(rw*rw)+2*GR*GR*Id/(rw*rw));
% shaft speed of motor - no slip % system equations
we = GR*Vv/rw; xdot1 = Vv;
% shaft speed in rpm (for table lookup) % 2 tires/wheels, need 2*Fx
Nec = we*30/pi; xdot2 = (2*Fx-Fr-Fg)/meff;
% turn motor off after toff and apply xdot = [xdot1;xdot2];
% a brake torque
if t>=toff % output variables
Tec = 0; y(1) = 2*Fx; % total traction, two wheels
Tec = -Tbo*tanh(we/200); y(2) = Tec; % torque for each motor
else y(3) = 0; % no-slip case
Tec = interp1(Ne,Te,Nec,’linear’,’extrap’);
end

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Driveline with slip (Matlab)

Model function file


function [xdot y]=mouse_w_driveline_traction(t,x)
global mv Wv theta fr a b h L (cont.)
global Te Ne etat GR toff Tbo
global Iw Id rw % calculate forces
global slip mu % two wheels driving; use total Wv
% assign physical variable names to states % option 1: 1/2 weight on each wheel
xv = x(1); % x position of vehicle Fx = muc*Wv*cos(theta)/2;
Vv = x(2); % x velocity of vehicle % option 2: CG not on axle
omega = x(3); % wheel angular velocity % Fx = muc*Wv*cos(theta)*(a-h*fr)/(L-h*muc);
we = GR*omega; % motor shaft speed % Rolling Resistance Force (x-dir)
% effective driveline inertia Fr = fr*Wv*cos(theta)*tanh(Vv/0.05);
% (both drivelines) % Gradient force (x-dir)
Ieff = 2*(Iw+GR*GR*Id); Fg = Wv*sin(theta);
Nec = we*30/pi; % in rpm
% turn motor off after toff and apply % system equations
% a brake torque xdot1 = Vv;
if t>=toff xdot2 = (2*Fx-Fr-Fg)/mv;
Tec = 0; % two motors, two wheels
Tec = -Tbo*tanh(we/200); xdot3 = (2*GR*Tec*etat-2*rw*Fx)/Ieff;
else xdot = [xdot1;xdot2;xdot3];
Tec = interp1(Ne,Te,Nec,’linear’,’extrap’);
end % output variables
% find slip state y(1) = 2*Fx; % total traction, two wheels
slipc = (rw*omega-Vv)/max(rw*omega,Vv); y(2) = Tec; % torque for each motor
% use mu-slip table y(3) = slipc; % slip case
muc=interp1(slip,mu,abs(slipc),’linear’,’extrap’);
muc=sign(slipc)*muc;

ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)