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# Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

The University of Texas at Austin

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

1 Intro
Example
Need for performance analysis and control

2 Modeling
Longitudinal dynamics
Powertrain and Actuation
Tractive performance

3 Analysis

4 Summary

5 Examples

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Begin with example: solving for acceleration of powered

mower; given friction
From Meriam and Kraige [4]
Solution [4]

following slide.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Performance usually relates to longitudinal motion of a ground vehicle,

which has limitations from two key factors.
The first is power plant limitation, which tends to be especially
critical at high forward velocities.
The second is traction, which tends to dominate at low speeds.
Understanding acceleration and deceleration as well as operation at
steady-state is of interest, and practical considerations include:
finding torque and power for a given application (e.g., to go up a hill,
drawbar),
selecting a power plant or actuation means, and
development or evaluation of cruise, braking, traction, or actuation
control.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Example with driven axle

Consider basic dynamics problem from Meriam and Kraige [4], where it is
assumed that the rear driven wheels are slipping and maximum
acceleration is to be found.

The value of this example is in showing what can be found given minimal
information in a given scenario: total mass, CG location, rough value of µ,
wheel size and inertia properties.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## 1 Assumes slip under

maximum acceleration, so
traction force is Ft = µN .
2 Even though slip is assumed,
a rolling constraint is used to
l approximate angular
acceleration of the wheel,
α ≈ a/r
3 These assumptions allow
estimation of torque required
to achieve maximum
acceleration.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Modeling for performance

1 Longitudinal dynamics
3 Powertrain and actuation
4 Modeling tractive effort

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Torque-driven wheel dynamics - no slip

If slip is negligible, the vehicle mass and total rotational inertia of rotating
parts can be lumped. Consider this case.
Dynamics for 2D motion (xyz),

## ṗx = mv̇x = Ftx

ṗz = mv̇z = Fz − mg = 0
ḣy = Iy ω̇y = Td − rw Ftx

## l gives 4 unknowns and only 3 equations. For pure

rolling, vx = rw ωy , and, Ftx ≤ µs Fz . With
Fz = mg,
mv̇x = Ftx ⇒need to find Ftx
ḣy = Iy ω̇y = Iy v̇x /rw = Td − rw Ftx
Then, h i
⇒ Ftx = r1w Td − Iy rv̇wx

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Longitudinal dynamics for torque driven wheel - no slip

Given traction force, consider the effect of velocity-dependent load forces,
f (vx ), P
mv̇x = Fx
= Ftxh− f (vx ) i
I
= r1w Td − rwy · v̇x − f (vx )
| {z }

## and define a ‘mass factor’ (common in performance analysis [6]),

 
Iy 1
m + 2 v̇x = Td − f (vx )
rw rw
| {z }
massfactor

## so the dynamic equation becomes,

Iy −1 1
   
v̇x = m + 2 Td − f (vx )
rw rw
ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)
Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## This model assumes you have a single-wheel/axle, so contact force

does not depend on distribution of forces.

If Ftx exceeds ‘adhesion’ limit, wheel slips, and the traction force
takes a form such as, Ftx = µFz , where µ may be a function of ’slip’.

## The slip of a wheel is a variable that depends on: a) the forward

velocity, and b) the rotational velocity. If these two values are equal,
we say the wheel is in pure rolling, or no slip.
When slipping, the translational and rotational wheel velocities are
independent states, and two differential equations are needed. (i.e.,
vx 6= rw ωw )

## The drive torque, Td , may depend on shaft speed, reflecting

power-limitations and losses in the actuation source.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Consider the longitudinal dynamics of a two-axle vehicle on an incline,
X

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

X
Fx = Ftf + Ftr − Fa − Frf − Frr − Fd − Fg

P
Fx = Ftf + Ftr − Fa − Frf − Frr − Fd − Fg
Ftf,r = tractive effort on front and rear
Fa = aerodynamic resistance force
Frf,rr = rolling resistance on front and rear
Fg = grade resistance = W sin θs
For small unmanned ground vehicles (mobile robots), it is usually not
full-scale vehicles can be found in [2, 6].

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## A multiple-axle vehicle requires information for determining the contact

forces on the axles. For performance, you do not consider roll, the effect of
suspension, etc.

The forward velocity, vx , can only be determined once all the forces are
specified.

information on aerodynamic loads can be found [6]. Traction forces will
depend on wheel slip and the influence of the powertrain and actuation
dynamics.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Rolling Resistance
Rolling resistance forces are
to deflection of running gear [5])
materials while rolling.
In some applications, RR may also
account for some sliding, air
circulation, and fan effect of
l high-speed rolling tiresa
The rolling resistance coefficient is
defined as the ratio of the rolling
resistance force (e.g., applied at
center of rolling body) to the
normal load, fr = Fr /N .
a
For example, at 80-95 mph, 90-95% hysteresis, 2-10%
friction, 1.5-3.5% air resistance.
ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)
Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## The generic model shown below conceptualizes key elements in ground

vehicle drivetrains of interest.

## For no slip or compliance, the mass factor is,

1 GR2
mef f = mv + 2
I w + 2
Id
rw rw
with mv total translational mass, Iw wheel inertia, and Id inertia of
driveline parts.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## For the no-slip/compliance case, the traction force is directly related to

the actuator drive torque by, Ft = GR · Td (ω)/rw , where GR is the total
gear ratio. Losses in the drivetrain can be incorporated with efficiency.
This relationship enables accounting for power-limiting effects inherent in
torque-speed characteristics for prime-movers as well as the influence of
gearing when estimating longitudinal performance.
Specifically, since power = T · ω, an ideal source delivering constant-power
over speed, Po , will at best have a torque-speed relation,
T = Po /ω = T (ω); i.e., a hyperbola.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## On left are shown characteristics for gasoline engine, and on right

comparison of two dc electric motors and torque-speed curve comparison.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Wheel slip velocity and slip

Driven wheels/tires under load experience slip when they are driven. Slip
can be thought of as a deficit in distance traveled compared to a pure
rolling case.
Slip velocity for a wheel is defined as vs = rw ωw − vw , where ωw is the
wheel rotational velocity and vw is the translational velocity.
Slip is then defined,
vs
s=
max(rw ωw , vw )
taking a positive value in driving conditions and a negative value in
braking (referred to then as skid).
A rough estimate for passenger tires at steady high speed, for example, is about 3% [6].

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Tractive effort or force depends

on slip and can be estimated
by,
Ft = µ(s) · Fz ,
where the coefficient of friction
is now a function of slip.
l
The graph to the right [6]
shows how tractive effort or
coefficient of friction can vary Tractive effort or mu-slip
with slip. The curve is different curves represent one of the
under driving and braking largest sources of uncertainty in
conditions. predicting vehicle performance.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Example: ‘solid’ rubber wheels

When working with some mobile
robots, questions about how to Consider the small rubber tire
model the wheel-surface contact on the Tamiya wall-hugging
are inevitable. Many mobile robots mouse studied in the Examples.
have solid rubber wheels and are
primarily meant to traverse
relatively smooth, non-deformable
terrains. The interaction of rubber,
an elastomer, with most surfaces
and terrains is complex. Even on
indoor floors, the coefficient of
friction can vary because of What is the rolling resistance?
variations in the roughness, Do you need to measure it to
temperature, and humidity. make predictions? Under slip,
Properties of rubber can also does µ vary?
change over time.
ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)
Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Example: ‘solid’ rubber wheels (cont.)

The article below by Evans [1] suggests one way to make a rough estimate.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Example: ‘solid’ rubber wheels (cont.)

Some basic calculations for rolling resistance based on [1] for the small
rubber wheel on the Tamiya mouse vehicle are shown below.

## Based on these calculations, can start by using an estimated value of

fr = 0.004, independent of velocity, for total vehicle rolling resistance.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Practical RR and traction modeling for solid wheels

Whether calculating rolling resistance forces or traction forces for solid
wheels, some practical considerations are worth noting before
implementing, say, in a simulation.
1 The RR force should oppose motion, so use the function,
Fr = fr · N sgn(v), where sgn is the ‘signum’ function which takes
value +1 for v > 0 and −1 for v < 0, v being velocity.
2 Since sgn is 0 for v = 0, special consideration may be made for this
static case in some cases.
3 For traction, it may not seem that a µ-slip curve of the form used for
pneumatic tires would be appropriate. An alternative is a
Coulomb-like model, Ft = µN sgn(vs ), with sign dependence on the
slip velocity.
4 In computing, the sgn function introduces ‘chatter’ around zero. For
this reason, a better approximation is to use a properly scaled tanh
function of the velocity.
ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)
Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Torque-driven wheel with slip

Now we can build a general model for wheel/tire dynamics under both
driving torque and traction force effects.
P
ḣw = Iw ω̇w =P Tw = +Td ∓ PTt − Tb − Tf (ωw )
Td = drive torque, Tt = rw Ftx = traction torque, Tb = brake torque, Tf = friction torque

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Vehicle with basic drivetrain and wheel slip

The wheel model suggests a simple performance model for the longitudinal
dynamics of vehicle that includes drivetrain dynamics and wheel slip. The
equations are,

## ḣw = (Iw + GR2 Id )ω̇w = Td − rw Fx

ṗx = mv v̇x = Fx − FL
where,
Td = GR · Te (ωe )
Te (ωe ) = engine/actuator torque-speed curve
Fx = µWv cos θ
µ = f (slip)

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Performance Analysis

Given the model basis described, there are various types of analysis that
can be performed. Some typical analysis problems include:
1 Given vehicle characteristics, loads, and tractive effort, predict
2 Evaluate ability to traverse grade, overcome drawbar, etc.
3 Gear train evaluation/selection
4 Evaluate power and energy requirements, actuator selection and
control
5 Evaluate transient performance (acceleration, time to steady speed,
braking, etc.)

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Summary

## 1 These slides provide an overview of models that can be used for

performance modeling.
2 Some details are provided on particular ways to model road loads and
driveline characteristics.
3 Detailed derivations and analysis applications can be found in the
attached examples.
4 The examples currently include a case study on a small-scale vehicle,
the Tamiya wall-hugging mouse, demonstrates the detailed steps
required to apply some of these methods.
5 These methods are a stepping stone to discussion on longitudinal
speed control (cruise) and to braking analysis and control.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

References

[1] I. Evans, “The rolling resistance of a wheel with a solid rubber tyre,”
British J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 5, pp. 187-188, 1954.
[2] T.D. Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, SAE, Warrendale,
PA, 1992.
[3] D.C. Karnopp and D. Margolis, Engineering Applications of Dynamics,
Wiley, New York, 2008.
[4] J.L. Meriam and L.G. Kraige, Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics (4th
ed.), Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY, 1997.
[5] D.F. Moore, Friction and Lubrication of Elastomers, Pergamon Press,
New York 1972.
[6] J.Y. Wong, Theory of Ground Vehicles, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
New York, 1993 (2nd) or 2001 (3rd) edition.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

Example problems

## 1 The two-axle vehicle on incline model

2 Application of the two-axle vehicle model to a passenger vehicle
3 Performance analysis of a small-scale vehicle (the wall-hugging mouse)

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Consider a standard two-axle vehicle in 2D motion traversing an incline.

The free-body diagram is shown below. The wheelbase is L = l1 + l2 .

## To determine all necessary

forces, three dynamic equations
are applied (two translation, x,
z, and one rotation about y).
P
ṗx = mv̇x = P Fx
ṗz = mv̇z = Fz
P
ḣy = I ω̇y = My

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## The equations can be summarized in matrix form as,

    
l1 − hr fr −l2 − hr fr 0 Wf −hFt
 1 1 0   Wr  =  W cos θ 
−fr −fr −m v̇x Fg + Fa − Ft

where rolling resistance forces are applied through the wheel centers at
height hr = h − rw , h being the CG height and rw the effective rolling
radius of the wheels. The first two equations are solved for the weight
distributed to the front and rear axles, Wf and Wr , respectively.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Two-axle model (cont.)

Solution of the three unknowns yields the two normal loads on the front
and rear axels and an ODE for the vehicle forward velocity, vx , in terms of
‘known’ quantities,
  
− Lh Ft + (l2 +h r fr )

Wf L W cos θ
 Wr  =  h (l1 −hr fr ) 
 L Ft + L W cos θ 
v̇x 1
m [Ft − W sin θ − Fa − fr W cos θ]

The traction force will depend on the condition of the front and rear tires.
Note that Ft = Ftf + Ftr . It must be determined whether there is rolling
or slipping.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Consider the problem of a two-axle vehicle traveling either on a level road or on a

slope with a 25% grade. Estimate the possible maximum speed as determined by
the maximum tractive effort that the tire-road contact can support if the vehicle
is (a) rear-wheel drive, and (b) front-wheel drive. Plot the resultant resistance
versus vehicle speed, and show the maximum thrust of the vehicle with the two
types of drive. Key data is provided below.
vehicle of weight W = 20.02 kN
height of center of gravity h = 50.8 cm
wheelbase L = 279.4 cm
location of CG from the front axle l1 = 127 cm
frontal area of the vehicle Af = 2.32 m2
aerodynamic drag coefficient Cd = 0.45
coefficient of rolling resistance fr = c1 + c2 V 2
c1 = 0.0136
c2 = 0.4 × 10−7
rolling radius of the tires re = 33 cm
Note: V in units of kilometers per hour

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

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## Begin by setting up the vehicle-on-incline problem (see previous example).

It is necessary to use the two expressions for Wf and Wr to solve for Ft by
assuming that at each tire-surface interface, Ft = µW . This allows you to
solve for the ‘maximum’ traction at the rear and front, respectively, as,
 
l1 − hfr (v)
Ftr max = µW cos θ
L − hµ

and,  
l2 + hfr (v)
Ftf max = µW cos θ ,
L + hµ
where fr (v) is the rolling resistance force, generally a function of vehicle
velocity, v.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## These traction forces can be plotted as functions of the vehicle velocity, v,

be determined as the intersection of the traction and the total load curves.
These are indicated by the points 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the graph below.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

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## This vehicle has two dc motors driving worm-gear reducers connected to

right and left wheel shafts. The shafts are connected to solid rubber
wheels. A model is sought to estimate the steady-state performance
characteristics (top speed, influence of surface type, climbing grade, power
requirements, etc.).

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## 1 Formulate a model that accounts for as much of the detailed mass

and geometry information as you deem necessary to make the
required predictions.
2 Incorporate the torque-speed characteristics of the electric motor.
Assume the motor will run with a battery (e.g., 1.5V cell).
3 Model the wheel-surface interaction assuming only one measurement
of the ‘sliding’ friction value, µ, can be obtained on up to three
different surfaces.
4 Conduct analysis to find the steady-state speed for a given surface
and slope (grade). Determine the maximum slope the vehicle can
climb and the steady-state speed achieved under those conditions.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

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Initial assumptions/approach

## Assume both Mabuchi motors are connected in parallel across a 1.5V

battery that supply sufficient current for both.
Compare case with no slip against the case when the wheels can slip,
using a nominal mu-slip curve scaled to simulate changes in the
surface.
Compare result from using two motors on the specification sheet
(next slide), the 2270 and 18100.
Compare case where you concentrate all the mass on the axle (no
mass distribution) versus a case where CG location is off axle.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

Outline Intro Modeling Analysis Summary References Examples

## Vehicle model - bond graph

This model can be used for the case where mass is concentrated on axle or
distributed, but in the latter the weight on the wheels must change.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

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## 1 Traversed 49.5 inches in 5.7 sec, so steady-state speed is estimated to

2 The total mass was measured at 150 g
3 A simple skid-pull test on a wood floor shows no more than about 1
oz (both wheels) force (100% slip)
4 Slope tests on a piece of acrylic board. Ran three ‘slip’ experiments
by raising one end of the acrylic board until the mouse slipped. Found
slip occurs at: 10, p
8 and 9.5 inches, ave = 9.2 inches. So skid occurs
for θ = sin−1 (9.2/ (22.52 − 9.22 )) = 26.6 deg. Thus
µ = tan(θ) ≈ 0.5 (on acrylic).
5 Ran a climb test on sloped acrylic. Max climbing angle occurred for a
slope of 8.5/20.8. This gives 22.2 degrees.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

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Performance analysis

## Dynamic models are used to It is assumed that a generic

determine transient and µ-slip curve as shown here can
Model parameters from simple
measurements and
experiments are used.
Manufacturer’s specifications
Estimations and assumptions
to measure are necessary.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

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## The traction force may depend If the effect of CG location is

on how the rear and front considered, the traction force
contact forces vary with CG under slip conditions would be
location. calculated using,
 
l1 − hfr (v)
Ftr = µ(W/2) cos θ
L − hµ

## Assume negligible friction on indicating equal distribution of

the front contact point. weight on each rear axle wheel.

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

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## A Matlab program is used to simulate the performance response of the

Tamiya mouse vehicle starting from rest. Both no-slip and slip models are
used, and the grade and friction levels can be varied.
The basic outline of the simulation program is:
Analysis steps
Define parameters (set grade, friction levels)
Set motor and brake specifications
Set motor/brake timing
Define mu-slip table
Set simulation initial conditions and time parameters
Simulate each model configuration (no-slip, slip)
Plot results for comparison

## ME 379M/397 Cyber Vehicle Systems (Longoria)

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## Comparing response with two different motors

Simulations for the vehicle running on flat wood floor (θ = 0) with the two
different motors are shown below. The 100% skid µ was 0.19. Each graph
compares the vehicle forward velocity for no slip and slip case. Also
plotted is the wheel velocity for the slip case, r · ω.

Judging from the steady-state velocity, it is likely that the mouse uses the
18100 motor since a test showed that the steady velocity was ≈ 22 cm/sec.

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## Climbing a grade, effect of mass distribution

Changing the slope does not affect the no-slip case, which predicts the
vehicle climbs reliably. However, when considering slip and including the
effect of mass distribution, the model shows a grade of 27 degrees can be
climbed (22 deg was roughly measured in a test).

You can also show that assuming no mass distribution will over-predict the
slope you can climb.

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## Model function file

function [xdot y] = mouse_w_driveline(t,x)
% No slip at wheel-surface assumed
(cont.)
global mv Wv theta fr a b h L % calculate forces
global Te Ne etat GR toff Tbo % traction force, each wheel and motor
global Iw Id rw Fx = GR*Tec*etat/rw;
% assign physical variable names to states % Rolling Resistance force (x-dir)
xv = x(1); % x position of vehicle Fr = fr*Wv*cos(theta)*tanh(Vv/0.05);
Vv = x(2); % x velocity of vehicle % Gradient force (x-dir)
% mass factor Fg = Wv*sin(theta);
meff = (mv+2*Iw/(rw*rw)+2*GR*GR*Id/(rw*rw));
% shaft speed of motor - no slip % system equations
we = GR*Vv/rw; xdot1 = Vv;
% shaft speed in rpm (for table lookup) % 2 tires/wheels, need 2*Fx
Nec = we*30/pi; xdot2 = (2*Fx-Fr-Fg)/meff;
% turn motor off after toff and apply xdot = [xdot1;xdot2];
% a brake torque
if t>=toff % output variables
Tec = 0; y(1) = 2*Fx; % total traction, two wheels
Tec = -Tbo*tanh(we/200); y(2) = Tec; % torque for each motor
else y(3) = 0; % no-slip case
Tec = interp1(Ne,Te,Nec,’linear’,’extrap’);
end

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## Model function file

function [xdot y]=mouse_w_driveline_traction(t,x)
global mv Wv theta fr a b h L (cont.)
global Te Ne etat GR toff Tbo
global Iw Id rw % calculate forces
global slip mu % two wheels driving; use total Wv
% assign physical variable names to states % option 1: 1/2 weight on each wheel
xv = x(1); % x position of vehicle Fx = muc*Wv*cos(theta)/2;
Vv = x(2); % x velocity of vehicle % option 2: CG not on axle
omega = x(3); % wheel angular velocity % Fx = muc*Wv*cos(theta)*(a-h*fr)/(L-h*muc);
we = GR*omega; % motor shaft speed % Rolling Resistance Force (x-dir)
% effective driveline inertia Fr = fr*Wv*cos(theta)*tanh(Vv/0.05);
% (both drivelines) % Gradient force (x-dir)
Ieff = 2*(Iw+GR*GR*Id); Fg = Wv*sin(theta);
Nec = we*30/pi; % in rpm
% turn motor off after toff and apply % system equations
% a brake torque xdot1 = Vv;
if t>=toff xdot2 = (2*Fx-Fr-Fg)/mv;
Tec = 0; % two motors, two wheels
Tec = -Tbo*tanh(we/200); xdot3 = (2*GR*Tec*etat-2*rw*Fx)/Ieff;
else xdot = [xdot1;xdot2;xdot3];
Tec = interp1(Ne,Te,Nec,’linear’,’extrap’);
end % output variables
% find slip state y(1) = 2*Fx; % total traction, two wheels
slipc = (rw*omega-Vv)/max(rw*omega,Vv); y(2) = Tec; % torque for each motor
% use mu-slip table y(3) = slipc; % slip case
muc=interp1(slip,mu,abs(slipc),’linear’,’extrap’);
muc=sign(slipc)*muc;