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Sinai Cement Co.

, Grey - Egypt

Kiln No. 1, 4.75 m dia. x 77 m

Period of Inspection: April 12 - 16, 2005

Mechanical Kiln Inspection

Type E
Kiln Inspection Report

Plant: Sinai Cement Co., Grey, Kiln No. 1


Country: Egypt
Ref. Date Page
Order No.: 04-178.180 StK/PSv, 999EN-SinaiGrey1E May 11, 2005 1

Sinai Cement Co., Grey - Egypt

Inspection of Kiln No. 1, 4.75 m dia. x 77 m

Client representatives........................Mr Ashraf H. Abdeen, Plant General Manager

Mr Pierre Bernard, Technical Manager

FLS specialists ..................................Mr Stig Kragh, Senior Engineer

Mr Svend F. Pontoppidan, Senior Engineer

Participants in final meeting .............Mr Pierre Bernard, Technical Manager

Mr Ahmed Samir, Mechanical Engineer

Mr Ramadan El Sayid, Enigneer

Mr Stig Kragh, Senior Engineer

Mr Svend F. Pontoppidan, Senior Engineer


Kiln Inspection Report

Plant: Sinai Cement Co., Grey, Kiln No. 1


Country: Egypt
Ref. Date Page
Order No.: 04-178.180 StK/PSv, 999EN-SinaiGrey1E May 11, 2005 2

CONTENTS
Page
(1) Introduction........................................................................................................................ 4
(2) Conclusions ....................................................................................................................... 6
(3) Recommended Actions ..................................................................................................... 7
(4) Terminology ...................................................................................................................... 8
(5) Inspection Activities Carried out - Measurements and Calculations Performed............ 9
(5.1) Kiln Shell.................................................................................................................. 9
(5.1.1) Kiln Shell - Temperatures............................................................................. 9
(5.1.2) Kiln Shell - Side Guides................................................................................ 10
(5.1.3) Kiln Shell - Crank Indication........................................................................ 11
(5.1.4) Kiln Shell - Wobbling ................................................................................... 13
(5.2) Live Rings ................................................................................................................ 14
(5.2.1) Live Rings - Temperatures and Diameters................................................... 14
(5.2.2) Live Rings - Migration.................................................................................. 15
(5.2.3) Live Rings - Reduction in Migration............................................................ 19
(5.2.4) Live Rings - Lubrication............................................................................... 20
(5.2.5) Live Rings - Wobbling.................................................................................. 21
(5.2.6) Live Rings - Positions on Supporting Rollers.............................................. 22
(5.3) Supporting Rollers ................................................................................................... 23
(5.3.1) Supporting Rollers - Temperatures and Diameters...................................... 23
(5.3.2) Supporting Rollers - Centre Distances ......................................................... 24
(5.3.3) Supporting Rollers - Inclination ................................................................... 25
(5.4) Bearings for Supporting Rollers.............................................................................. 27
(5.4.1) Bearings for Supporting Rollers - Positions................................................. 27
(5.4.2) Bearings for Supporting Rollers - Temperatures ......................................... 28
(5.4.3) Bearings for Supporting Rollers - Lubrication............................................. 30
(5.5) Baseplates................................................................................................................. 30
(5.5.1) Baseplates - Levelling................................................................................... 30
(5.6) Drive Station ............................................................................................................ 32
(5.6.1) Drive Station - Wobbling of Gear Rim ........................................................ 32
(5.7) Kiln Axis .................................................................................................................. 32
(5.7.1) Kiln Axis - Measuring Results ..................................................................... 34
(5.7.2) Kiln Axis - Calculations................................................................................ 35
(5.7.3) Kiln Axis - Recommended Adjustments...................................................... 37
Kiln Inspection Report

Plant: Sinai Cement Co., Grey, Kiln No. 1


Country: Egypt
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Order No.: 04-178.180 StK/PSv, 999EN-SinaiGrey1E May 11, 2005 3

Page
(6) Visual Inspection............................................................................................................... 38
(6.1) Kiln Shell.................................................................................................................. 38
(6.1.1) Kiln Shell - Side Guides and Live Ring Supporting Blocks ....................... 38
(6.2) Live Rings ................................................................................................................ 39
(6.3) Supporting Rollers ................................................................................................... 41
(6.4) Bearings for Supporting Rollers.............................................................................. 42
(6.5) Drive Station ............................................................................................................ 42
(6.6) Thrust Device........................................................................................................... 43
(6.7) Axial Balance of the Kiln ........................................................................................ 44
(6.8) Inlet Seal................................................................................................................... 46
(6.9) Outlet Seal................................................................................................................ 46
(7) List of Enclosures
Enclosure
Deflection Variations / Supporting Roller Shafts ..................................................... 1a - f
Wobbling of Kiln Shell / Polar Diagrams ............................................................ 2a - g
Live Ring Migration.................................................................................................... 3
Axial Wobbling of Live Rings.................................................................................... 4a - c
Axial Wobbling of Gear Rim............................................................................... 5
Radial Wobbling of Gear Rim ............................................................................. 6
Kiln Inspection Report

Plant: Sinai Cement Co., Grey, Kiln No. 1


Country: Egypt
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(1) Introduction

Manufacture of kiln: FLS

Kiln size: 4.75 m dia. x 77 m

Number of supports: Three

Position of drive station: On the outlet side of live ring III

Type of thrust device: Hydraulic

Type of cooler: Coolax

Year of start-up of kiln: 2000

Output: 4,800 tpd

Speed of kiln: 3.5 rpm

-- o --

This is the first inspection of the kiln since its start-up in 2000. The kiln has so far been
operating without problems.

-- o --

The purpose of the activities performed in a type “E” kiln inspection is to determine the
measures (i.e. adjustments, replacements, modifications, or repairs) that have to be taken to
achieve and maintain a high availability level of the kiln system.

The most important factors contributing to high kiln availability are to maintain:

* correct axial balance of the kiln, meaning that the axial thrust of the kiln must be
absorbed by both the supporting rollers and the thrust roller. When the axial balance
of the kiln is correct, the supporting rollers absorb approx. 30% of the axial thrust,
and the thrust roller absorbs the remainder;

* optimum load distribution on the kiln supports, meaning that the radial load on
each individual supporting roller must be kept within the limits defined when
dimensioning the kiln;

* good, mechanical operating condition of the kiln system, meaning that, e.g., the
degree of ovality and crank formation must not exceed the limits considered
acceptable.
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In order to attain the above objectives, various requirements must be met, including the
following:

* The kiln axis must be correctly adjusted.

* The positions (skewing and inclination) of the supporting rollers must be correct.

* The rolling surfaces of supporting rollers and live rings must be completely
cylindrical.

The inspection and measuring activities carried out during the inspection of this kiln have
been supplemented with calculations made at FLS-Copenhagen taking the present loads on
and stresses in kiln shell, live rings, supporting rollers, and bearings for the supporting rollers
into account. These calculations are based on the measurements taken and on information
from the client about the weight of the kiln lining and coating, the own weight of the kiln,
and the weight of any kiln internals.
Kiln Inspection Report

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(2) Conclusions

The following conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the measurements and observations
made at the plant during the inspection combined with the calculations made at FLS-
Copenhagen:

Kiln axis:

The horizontal kiln axis measured is straight, whereas the vertical one is - 5 mm at support II
because of wear on live ring and supporting rollers at this support.

Live ring migration:

The migration of live ring I and consequently the ovality and tangential bending stress in the
kiln shell are too large at this support. The heavy live ring migration is most likely caused by
constriction of the kiln shell.

Axial balance of the kiln:

At support II, the live ring has been worn into convex configuration, and the supporting
rollers have been worn into concave configuration. We recommend machining. After the
machining, the axial balance of the kiln should be checked/adjusted.

-- o --

Should the above conclusions contain recommendations warranting the implementation of


specific activities, these activities are listed in section (3), “Recommended Actions”.

We suggest that the next kiln inspection should be carried out in approx. 3 years, i.e. in 2008.
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(3) Recommended Actions

As a result of the inspection carried out by FLS, we recommend that the client should take
the actions stated below:

(A) Actions to be taken as soon as possible:

* Machining of the live ring and supporting rollers at support II. Please see sections
(6.2), (6.3), and (6.7).

(B) Actions to be taken during the next kiln shutdown:

* Reduction in the migration of live ring I. Please see sections (5.2.2) and (5.2.3).

(C) Actions to be taken when convenient:

* Adjustment of the kiln axis after machining of the live ring and supporting rollers at
support II. Please see section (5.7.3).

* Adjustment of the axial balance of the kiln. Please see section (5.4.2).

(D) Preventive maintenance:

* Regular crack inspection of the circumferential welds in the kiln shell close to the
live rings at all the supports.

* Regular ultrasonic testing of the supporting roller shafts for cracks.

* Regular ultrasonic testing of the thrust roller. Can only be done during a shutdown
of the kiln.

* Regular ultrasonic testing of the live rings. Can only be done during a shutdown of
the kiln.
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(4) Terminology

The following terms are identical with those used in all other FLS documentation and will be
used throughout this report.

* Right-hand/left-hand side of the kiln:

The right-hand/left-hand side of the kiln is determined as seen from the kiln outlet
towards the inlet, i.e. against the material flow direction.

* Numbering of bearings for the supporting rollers:

At each support, the bearings for the supporting rollers are numbered from 1 to 4,
starting with bearing 1 on the right-hand side of the support at the kiln outlet and
continuing anticlockwise as shown in Fig. 1 below.

Bearing 3 Inlet Bearing 2

Left Right

Bearing 4 Bearing 1
Outlet

Fig. 1: Numbering of bearings for supporting rollers.

* Numbering of supports:

The kiln supports are numbered I - III starting from the kiln outlet.

* Direction of rotation:

The direction of rotation of the kiln - clockwise - is determined as seen from the
kiln outlet towards the inlet, i.e. against the material flow direction.
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(5) Inspection Activities Carried out -


Measurements and Calculations Performed

The following is a detailed description of the scope of the FLS inspection programme, its
results, and the general and specific impact of the mechanical condition of the kiln
components on the operation.

(5.1) Kiln Shell

The physical condition of the kiln shell, especially the keeping of its “circular” shape while
rotating, is one of the most important factors when it comes to maintaining a high availability
level of the kiln system.

It is common knowledge that the deformations occurring in the kiln shell while rotating are
largest under and in the vicinity of the live rings. Such deformations, which, naturally, are
transmitted to the kiln lining, have an extremely great impact on the stability of the coating
and the durability of the refractory lining. In addition to this, severe deformations lead to
correspondingly large stresses in kiln shell and welds, and these stresses may contribute to
formation of cracks.

The logical consequence of this is that the below-mentioned activities are carried out with
the purpose of describing and evaluating the present, physical condition of the kiln.

(5.1.1) Kiln Shell - Temperatures

The highest and lowest kiln shell temperatures on both the inlet side and the outlet side of all
live rings were measured by means of a radiation pyrometer (emission factor ε = 0.95).

A large temperature difference at a particular measuring point is usually caused by varying


thickness of lining and/or coating. This is an unfortunate phenomenon as the result may be
what is called a thermal crank in the kiln shell, leading in its turn to increased loads on both
the kiln shell and the supports.

The measurements recorded during the inspection are shown in the table overleaf.
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Kiln shell Inlet side Outlet side


temperature
(ºC) High Low Difference High Low Difference

At live ring I 287 225 62 312 253 59


At live ring II 390 343 47 356 332 24
At live ring III 298 277 21 315 294 21

The kiln shell temperatures are high but do not give rise to any further comments.

(5.1.2) Kiln Shell - Side Guides

The purpose of the side guides is to keep the live rings in their axial position on the kiln
shell. This implies that the axial thrust from the kiln shell is transmitted via the contact faces
between live rings and side guides, and there is a higher or lower degree of relative, radial
movement between these components depending on the degree of kiln shell ovality.
Therefore, there is a risk of wear at these points.

A new FLS kiln has a total clearance between live ring and side guides of approx. 4 mm
(indicated by “c” and “d” in Fig. 2 below).

a c d b

Fig. 2: Side guides and wear rings for


live ring fitted on live ring
supporting blocks.
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Side guides Clearance (mm) Width (mm)


c d a b
At live ring I 0 4 70 70
At live ring II 0 4 70 70
At live ring III 0 4 70 70

The clearances between live rings and side guides measured and the widths of the side
guides are acceptale at all the supports.

Regarding lubricants and lubrication methods, please see section (5.2.4).

(5.1.3) Kiln Shell - Crank Indication

In a new kiln erected in the correct way, the gravity axis of the kiln shell coincides with
its axis of rotation. If it should at a later date turn out that these axes are forcibly
coinciding at a support, a kiln crank is said to have developed. Crank formation can get
so severe that live ring and supporting rollers lose contact with each other during part of
the kiln rotation.

In most cases, such cranks develop as a result of irregular thickness of the coating causing
uneven heating of the kiln shell in the burning zone of the kiln. This type of crank, called a
thermal crank, can be reduced by changing the composition of the raw materials and/or the
burning process and by choosing the right type of lining.

A mechanical crank is usually caused by superheating of part of the kiln shell due to loss of
lining. Other examples of causes of mechanical cranks are failure to bar the kiln during cool-
down (resulting in permanent deformation of the kiln shell) and welding together of
misaligned kiln sections, e.g. due to unprofessional repair work.

A mechanical crank can be eliminated by cutting the kiln shell in two or more places
followed by appropriate re-alignment of these kiln sections and then re-welding. This
method necessitates a shutdown of the kiln during the repair.

Alternatively, a mechanical crank can under certain circumstances be straightened by using a


heat method developed by FLS allowing the kiln to continue normal operation. However,
both methods require extensive preparations and a great deal of experience to be successful.
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During operation, the gravity axis of the kiln shell is forced to coincide with its axis of
rotation under the live rings. The existence of crank formation in the kiln shell will therefore
manifest itself as variations in the load on the individual supports occurring cyclically during
the rotation of the kiln.

The variations in the deflection of the supporting roller shafts during the rotation of the kiln
directly reflect the additional loads imposed on the supports as a result of the presence of a
thermal and/or a mechanical kiln crank. These additional loads can become so large that they
cause fatigue fractures in the supporting roller shafts and increase the stress level in the kiln
shell at the supports, causing crack formation and increased ovality, which may in their turn
reduce the life of the kiln lining.

The deflection variations of the supporting roller shafts are measured by means of a sensitive
longitudinal transducer coupled to a measuring and recording instrument or a laptop
computer via a data collector. The measuring set-up is shown in Fig. 3 below.

Fig. 3: Set-up for measurement of the deflections of supporting


roller shafts.

The deflection variations measured during the inspection are shown in the table overleaf, and
the curve patterns recorded during the measuring process appear from Enclosures 1a - f.
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Left-hand Right-hand
Deflection variation supporting supporting
per kiln revolution roller shaft roller shaft
(± mm) (± mm)
Support I 0.08 0.14
Support II 0.17 0.17
Support III 0.11 0.14

In case deflection variations exceeding ± 0.15 mm are measured on one or both of the
supporting roller shafts of a support (the supporting rollers and shafts are assumed to be of
FLS design, rigid type), a closer investigation is required in order to determine whether the
kiln has a thermal crank (i.e. varying according to the operational conditions) or a
mechanical crank (i.e. a permanent one).

In case of a mechanical crank, we recommend that a full crank inspection be performed in


order to determine the crank's size and position in the kiln shell.

As will appear from the above table, the largest deflection variations were measured at
support II. The values measured are a bit higher than the limit of ± 0.15 mm mentioned
above. However, as this kiln has semi-rigid supports, somewhat larger deflection variations
can be permitted as compared with a kiln with rigid supports, and we therefore consider the
deflection variations to be within the permissible limit.

(5.1.4) Kiln Shell - Wobbling

The geometrical deviation between the gravity axis of the kiln shell and its axis of rotation is
called the wobbling of the kiln shell. In an old kiln, the wobbling of the kiln shell normally
varies in terms of both magnitude and direction throughout the whole length of the kiln.

The purpose of measuring the wobbling of the kiln shell is to analyse the causes of possible
wobbling of the live rings and/or the gear rim. A longitudinal transducer in contact with the
kiln shell and coupled to a measuring and recording instrument or a laptop computer via a
data collector is used for measurement of the wobbling of the kiln shell at a suitable number
of points along the kiln. All measurements refer to the same starting point, which is normally
the position of the manhole.
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Polar diagrams are drawn on the basis of the above measurements. From the polar diagrams,
the magnitude and direction of the wobbling of the kiln shell can be determined at each of
the points chosen.

During the inspection, the wobbling of the kiln shell was measured on the heavy kiln
sections on the inlet side and outlet side of all three live rings and at the kiln inlet.

The table below shows the wobbling values measured, and the polar diagrams are attached
as Enclosures 2a - g.

Wobbling of kiln shell


Position Distance of measuring Wobbling
point from outlet end (± mm)
(mm)
Inlet 74000 2.1
III - Inlet 68800 1.5
III - Outlet 67200 1.3
II - Inlet 34800 0.3
II - Outlet 33200 0.8
I - Inlet 6800 0.7
I - Outlet 5200 1.2

The wobbling measured at all the supports is acceptable.

(5.2) Live Rings

(5.2.1) Live Rings - Temperatures and Diameters

During the inspection, the live ring temperatures were measured by means of a radiation
pyrometer (emission factor ε = 0.95) in the middle of the side faces of the live rings and on
both the inlet side and the outlet side. Then the average temperature was calculated.

The average temperatures appear from the table overleaf.


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The diameters of the live rings are calculated on the basis of measurements of their
circumferences. Electromechanical measuring equipment developed by FLS for this specific
purpose is used for these circumferential measurements that are taken while the kiln is in
normal operation.

The results of the diameter measurements taken during the inspection appear from the table
below, which also shows the original diameters of the live rings (at 20°C).

Measurements taken during the inspection Original value


Live rings
Temperatures and Temperature Diameter (mm) Diameter (mm) Diameter (mm)
diameters measured at temperature
at 20ºC at 20ºC
(ºC) measured
Live ring I 134 5895.8 5887.4 5890
Live ring II 196 5970.0 5956.9 5961
Live ring III 165 5868.2 5857.6 5859

All the live rings are worn, especially live ring II, probably due to the dusty environment.

(5.2.2) Live Rings - Migration

Live ring migration is the relative, tangential, rolling movement of contact points on kiln
shell (live ring supporting blocks) and live ring in relation to one another during one
revolution of the kiln. The migration is a direct measure of the circumferential difference,
and accordingly of the diameter difference, between live ring and kiln shell and an indirect
measure of the ovality of the kiln shell. Therefore it is an important indicator of the
mechanical condition of the kiln.

It should be borne in mind that kiln shell ovality is actually generated between kiln shell and
live ring due to the rigidity of and the loads on the live ring and to the diameter difference
between live ring and kiln shell. This means that the highest degree of ovality is found under
the live ring, gradually decreasing as the distance from the live ring increases.

This is the reason why FLS has chosen to investigate the ovality by measurement of the live
ring migration in preference to the more traditional Shell Test method, as measurements by
the latter method must necessarily be taken at some distance from the live ring showing,
consequently, a lower degree of ovality.
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The live ring migration is measured during normal operation of the kiln by means of an
instrument like the one shown in Fig. 4 below, the migration being directly measurable as the
length of period of the graph drawn.

Live ring

Magnet
Pencil

Magnet

Supporting block

Fig. 4: Measurement of live ring migration.

In a new FLS kiln, the live ring migration will under normal operational conditions be
approx. 10 mm per revolution of the kiln corresponding to a relative FLS ovality of the kiln
shell of approx. 0.30%, which in its turn corresponds to a calculated Shell Test ovality of
approx. 0.50%.

Generally, ovality corresponding to live ring migration of 10 - 15 mm per revolution of the


kiln will have no harmful effect on the kiln lining. However, if the migration exceeds approx.
20 mm, this indicates that the ovality of the kiln shell has reached a size that will most
probably contribute to a reduction in the life of the lining. Such a high degree of ovality will
also add to the stress level in kiln shell and welds, and this may contribute to crack
formation.

Consequently, FLS recommends that measurement of the live ring migration, the related live
ring temperatures, and the temperatures on the surface of the kiln shell on both sides of the
live rings should form an integral part of the normal, preventive maintenance programme
carried out at the plant. This will enable monitoring of variations in the live ring migration,
allowing the necessary steps to counter any problems to be taken.

The migration values measured during the inspection are shown in the table overleaf. Please
also see Enclosure 3.
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Live ring migration (mm/rev.)

Live ring I 36
Live ring II 26
Live ring III 5

FLS has used the kiln axis measured and the available data on the existing lining and coating
for making a complete re-calculation of the kiln. The calculated values of the tangential
bending stress in the kiln shell under the live rings are shown in the table below.

Live ring migration Live ring migration


(measured) (10 mm)
Tangential Tangential
FLS calculation Relative bending Relative bending
ovality stress in the ovality stress in the
kiln shell kiln shell
(%) (N/mm²) (%) (N/mm²)
At live ring I 0.46 49 0.25 20
At live ring II 0.36 37 0.24 19
At live ring III 0.22 15 0.26 21

The kiln dimensioning process aims at ensuring a satisfactory service life of the kiln given a
proper standard of maintenance. A factor that must be taken into account is that the above-
mentioned value of relative FLS ovality of the kiln shell of 0.30% and tangential bending
stress in the kiln shell under the live rings of 30 N/mm² may occasionally be slightly
exceeded even in good plant operating practices (please see the survey of kiln design values
in section (5.7.2) on calculation of the kiln axis).

Live ring I:

The migration of live ring I is large, and as the ovality and tangential bending stress in the
kiln shell are large too, we recommend that the migration be reduced during the next
shutdown of the kiln. The heavy migration of this live ring is most likely caused by
constriction of the heavy kiln section.
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Live ring II:

The migration of live ring II is large, but even if the ovality and tangential bending stress in
the kiln shell are slightly larger than the values aimed at when dimensioning a new kiln, we
still consider them acceptable.

Live ring III:

The migration of live ring III is acceptable.

-- o --

An increase in the live ring migration indicates an increase in the clearance between live ring
and kiln shell and, consequently, in the ovality of the kiln shell. On the other hand, a
reduction in the live ring migration indicates a reduction in the clearance between kiln shell
and live ring, and this may result in jamming and constriction (please see Fig. 5 overleaf).

An increase in the live ring migration is normally attributable to one or a combination of the
following causes:

* Wear on the live ring supporting blocks or, where such blocks are not fitted, on
the kiln shell itself, caused by ineffective lubrication between live ring and live
ring supporting blocks. This may for instance be the case if the environment at the
live ring is very dirty.

As described in section (5.2.4), to ensure effective lubrication, it is necessary to use:

- correct lubricant;

- correct lubricating method;

- correct lubricating frequency.

* Constriction caused by superheating of the kiln shell under the live ring. This
situation may arise if, e.g., the kiln lining gets worn or falls out or if the coating
does not have the thickness required.

As to the latter point, starting up a kiln with a new lining is a particularly critical
matter. If start-up (heating) is effected too quickly, the kiln shell may expand so
much that it gets jammed under the live ring. This may lead to a permanent
deformation of the kiln shell, resulting in an increased clearance between live ring
and live ring supporting blocks (kiln shell) when temperatures return to normal and
the kiln contracts.
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Fig. 5: Constriction of kiln shell under live ring.

If the kiln suffers from constriction, it may be impossible to do a proper piece of


lining installation work, and the result of this may be an unacceptably short life of
the lining. In such a situation, the kiln section in question should be replaced.

(5.2.3) Live Rings - Reduction in Migration

If the live ring migration increases to a point where the ovality and bending stress values
cause mechanical problems and/or problems with the lining, corrective action should be
taken to reduce the migration (and thus the ovality) in order to avoid a real breakdown. The
method to be applied depends on the type of kiln shell: with or without live ring supporting
blocks.

Kiln shell with live ring supporting blocks:

For this type of kiln shell, the clearance between live ring supporting blocks and live ring can
be reduced by installation of shims between the blocks and the kiln shell.

The average thickness “t” of such shims is calculated according to the following formula
where “v” is the live ring migration:

v − 10
t= (“t” in mm and “v” in mm/rev.)

By installing shims with an average thickness of “t” mm, the live ring migration will be
reduced to 10 mm per revolution of the kiln.
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We know from experience that the live ring migration can vary within pretty wide limits. To
take this natural variation into account, the following measuring programme must always be
carried out before deciding on the thickness of the shims to be installed under the live ring
supporting blocks:

* Measurement of live ring migration.

* Measurement of temperature on the side faces of the live ring (average).

* Measurement of the kiln shell temperature on both the inlet side and the outlet side
of the live ring.

These measurements must be taken at least twice every 24 hours for a period of 3 - 4 weeks.
It is a condition that the kiln is in normal operation throughout this period. Please note that,
as a rule, the lowest value of the live ring migration measured is to be used for
calculation of the shims. Moreover, the condition of the lining and the stability of the
coating in the kiln area in question must also be evaluated.

(5.2.4) Live Rings - Lubrication

Where maintenance of live rings is concerned, use of the correct lubricating method is of
paramount importance in the following two areas:

* The contact faces between live ring and live ring supporting blocks/kiln
shell/side guides.

Lubrication should be carried out by means of a pump to ensure that the lubricant is
distributed over the entire contact face. Lubricate as required, however, at least
once or twice a month.

The following lubricants are suitable for this purpose:

Lubricant Producer Product


Chesterton 785 Parting Lubricant
Klüber Lubrication Wolframcoat C
Never-Seez Comp. Corp. Never-Seez 1
Fuchs Lubritech Ceplattyn HT
* The contact faces between live ring and supporting rollers.

1
Never-Seez, which is supplied as a paste, can be mixed with oil to improve its flow between live ring and
live ring supporting blocks/side guides/kiln shell. In that case, the mixture ratio must be approx. 40%
Never-Seez to approx. 60% oil, and the oil used must have a high flash point.
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These areas should be lubricated with dry graphite only. (A liquid lubricant would
penetrate into micro-cracks on the surface and come under extremely high pressure
during the contact phase, thus further increasing the crack formation. Pitting or
scaling would invariably result.)

(5.2.5) Live Rings - Wobbling

The axial wobbling of the live rings is measured by means of a longitudinal transducer
coupled to a measuring and recording instrument or a laptop computer via a data collector
(please see Fig. 6 below).

Wobbling of live ring

Recorder

Transducer

Fig. 6: Measurement of axial wobbling of live ring.

Measurement of the axial wobbling of live rings forms part of the evaluation of contact
conditions between live ring and supporting rollers. Severe wobbling of a live ring indicates
poor contact conditions, resulting in increased Hertz pressure, which in its turn causes wear,
convex/concave rolling surfaces, rolling-out of the rolling surfaces, as well as a risk of
pitting.

The permissible, axial wobbling of the live rings of a new FLS kiln is ± 1 mm.

The measurements taken during the inspection are shown in the table overleaf. Please also
see Enclosures 4a - c.
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Axial wobbling of live rings (± mm)


Live ring I 0.4
Live ring II 2.0
Live ring III 0.1

The wobbling of live ring II is somewhat larger than the limit specified for new kilns.
However, we do not consider adjustment necessary at the present moment.

(5.2.6) Live Rings - Positions on Supporting Rollers

Left
4 SR 3

S4 S3

S1 LR S2

1 SR 2
Right

Fig. 7: Position of live ring on supporting rollers.

The table overleaf shows the positions of the live rings on the various supporting rollers
using the designations shown in Fig. 7 above.
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Positions of Positions of live rings (mm) Width of Width of


live rings on supporting live ring
supporting rollers roller (SR) (LR)
S1 S2 S3 S4 (mm) (mm)
Support I 80 120 130 70 700 497
Support II 50 110 140 20 900 737
Support III 130 130 140 120 700 444

A slightly better position of live ring II on its supporting rollers would be desirable, but the
values measured do not give rise to any further comments.

(5.3) Supporting Rollers

(5.3.1) Supporting Rollers - Temperatures and Diameters

The supporting roller temperatures were measured by means of a radiation pyrometer


(emission factor ε = 0.95) in the middle of the side faces of the rolling surfaces of the
supporting rollers and on both the inlet side and the outlet side. Then the average temperature
was calculated.

The average temperatures appear from the table overleaf.

The diameters of the supporting rollers are calculated on the basis of measurements of their
circumferences. Electromechanical measuring equipment developed by FLS for this specific
purpose (the same equipment as that used for measuring the live ring circumferences) is used
for these circumferential measurements that are taken while the kiln is in normal operation.

The results of the diameter measurements taken during the inspection appear from the table
overleaf, which also shows the original diameters of the supporting rollers (at 20°C).
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Measurements taken during the inspection Original


Supporting rollers
value
Temperature Diameter (mm) Diameter Diameter
Temperatures and
measured at temperature (mm) at (mm) at
diameters
(ºC) measured 20ºC 20ºC
Left 65 1600.5 1599.6 1600
Support I
Right 64 1600.1 1599.2 1600
Left 91 1793.5 1791.9 1800
Support II
Right 101 1794.3 1792.5 1800
Left 78 1600.2 1599.0 1600
Support III
Right 85 1600.7 1599.4 1600

All the supporting rollers are worn. Especially the rollers at support II are badly worn,
probably due to the dusty environment.

(5.3.2) Supporting Rollers - Centre Distances

The centre distance between the two supporting rollers at a kiln support is measured as the
distance between the centres of the two shaft ends on both the inlet side and the outlet side.
These measurements are taken to check the degree of parallelism between the supporting
rollers at each individual support.

Bearing 3 C inlet Bearing 2

Left side Right side

Bearing 4 C outlet Bearing 1

Fig. 8: Measurement of centre distances between supporting


rollers.
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The measurements recorded during the inspection appear from the table below.

Supporting rollers - C inlet C outlet C original


Centre distances (mm) (mm) (mm)
Support I 3767 3766 3760
Support II 3923 3923 3912
Support III 3750 3749 3744

The measurements recorded show that the supporting roller pairs are parallel. The measured
values deviate slightly from the original ones.

(5.3.3) Supporting Rollers - Inclination

The inclination of the supporting rollers was checked. This check is made primarily with a
view to analysing the axial balance of the kiln, as axial thrust is generated if the inclination of
the supporting rollers deviates from that of the kiln (live rings) at the corresponding
positions, and secondarily in order to evaluate the causes of possibly poor contact conditions
between supporting rollers and live rings and between live rings and live ring supporting
blocks/kiln shell.

The targeted, ideal inclination for a set of supporting rollers corresponds to the inclination of
the kiln at the point in question, i.e. the nominal inclination of the kiln adjusted according to
the kiln deflection and to the desire for axial balance and correct contact conditions. The
current, available data on the existing lining and coating conditions are included in the
calculation of these ideal values.

The inclination was measured by means of an inclinometer designed by FLS for this specific
purpose. The inclinometer is fixed to the end faces of the supporting roller shafts by means
of magnets, usually permitting the measurement to be taken during normal kiln operation.

The table overleaf shows the inclination values of the supporting rollers measured during the
inspection and the corresponding calculated, ideal values. The calculation of the ideal
values is based on the kiln inclination of 4.0%.
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Inclination Left-hand supporting Right-hand supporting


of roller roller
supporting rollers Ideal Measured Ideal Measured
value value value value
(%) (%) (%) (%)
Support I 3.98 - 400 3.96 4.00 - 4.02 4.00
Support II 3.98 - 4.00 4.02 4.00 - 4.02 4.04
Support III 3.98 - 4.00 4.02 4.00 - 4.02 4.02

The thicknesses of the shims to be installed or removed in order to attain correct inclination
of the supporting rollers appear from the table below.

Thickness
of shims Bearing 1 Bearing 2 Bearing 3 Bearing 4
(mm)
Support I - - (+ 0.5) -
Support II (+ 0.5) - - (+ 0.5)
Support III - - - (+ 0.5)

If the difference between the calculated, ideal value and the one measured is too large (> 0.5
mm), the inclination of the supporting roller in question should be adjusted. This adjustment
is carried out by installation (+) or removal (-) of a shim of suitable shape and thickness
under one of the bearings for the supporting rollers.

It is not necessary to adjust the inclination of the supporting rollers at the present moment as
the deviations from the ideal values are only small.

Adjustment of the inclination and skewing of supporting rollers must always be


succeeded by a check of the axial thrust from the kiln on the supporting rollers in
question and of the overall axial balance of the kiln. This check is made by measuring
the bearing temperatures (please see section (5.4.2)) or by using the equipment for
measurement of the axial thrust (please see section (6.7)). The latter method can only
be used, however, if the rolling surfaces of supporting rollers as well as live rings are
completely cylindrical and if the journals of the bearings are in optimum condition.
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(5.4) Bearings for Supporting Rollers

(5.4.1) Bearings for Supporting Rollers - Positions

Marker plates like the one shown in Fig. 9 below indicating the positions of the bearings on
the baseplates are installed during the erection of, among others, FLS kilns.

Fig. 9: Position of bearing on baseplate.

The present positions of the bearings were checked during the inspection and compared with
their original positions. The results appear from the table below. A negative “a”-value
indicates that the bearing in question has been moved inward towards the centreline of the
kiln.

Positions of bearings Bearing 1 Bearing 2 Bearing 3 Bearing 4


a (mm) a (mm) a (mm) a (mm)
Support I +2 +2 +3 +2
Support II +2 0 +2 +2
Support III +2 0 +2 0

The thickness “t” of any existing shims between baseplates and bearings installed to raise the
bearings with a view to adjusting the inclination of the supporting rollers is shown in the
table overleaf.
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Thickness of shims Bearing 1 Bearing 2 Bearing 3 Bearing 4


t (mm) t (mm) t (mm) t (mm)
Support I 0 0 0 0
Support II 0 0 0 0
Support III 0 0 0 0

(5.4.2) Bearings for Supporting Rollers - Temperatures

The bearing temperatures were measured by means of a contact thermometer. The following
temperature measurements were taken on each bearing: two measurements on the journal at
points approx. 30 mm from the thrust collar and approx. 30 mm from the shaft end (Txe and
Txm, respectively) and one measurement on the thrust collar (Txk). (Please note that in the
bearings where thrust collar and liner were not in contact, measurements were only taken at
Txe and Txm.)

Left

e= Journal at
thrust collar

k= Trust collar

m= Journal

Right

Fig. 10: Temperatures of bearings for supporting rollers.


Measuring points.

The normal temperature profile in a bearing will show the highest temperature at the
supporting roller, the temperature will decrease across the length of the journal, and the
lowest temperature will be registered at the shaft end.
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It is extremely important to be attentive to any changes in the temperature on the thrust collar
as such changes may indicate changes in the operational conditions. If the temperature on a
thrust collar (Txk) is more than 2 - 4°C higher than that on the adjacent journal (Txe), this
may be an indication that excessive axial thrust is being transmitted through the bearing,
entailing a risk of its running hot. In such cases, corrective action to restore normal
temperatures should be taken as soon as possible.

In a new FLS kiln, where all rolling surfaces are completely cylindrical and general
conditions are ideal, the supporting rollers are adjusted so that all rollers exert a slight uphill
thrust on the kiln. These adjustments are made on the basis of measurements taken with
equipment for measurement of the axial thrust.

The bearing temperatures measured during the inspection are shown in the tables below. An
“x” indicates contact between the thrust collar and the bearing liner of the bearing concerned.

Bearing Left-hand supporting roller


temperatures Bearing 4 Bearing 3
(°C) a4 T4k T4e T4m T3m T3e T3k a3

Support I - - 41 32 33 39 42 x
Support II x 49 44 35 37 45 - -
Support III - - 40 33 34 41 44 x

Bearing Right-hand supporting roller


temperatures Bearing 1 Bearing 2
(°C) a1 T1k T1e T1m T2m T2e T2k a2

Support I - - 44 39 35 39 42 x
Support II x 66 60 47 34 44 - -
Support III - - 46 35 34 41 45 x

The supporting rollers at supports I and III exert a downhill thrust on the kiln, whereas the
rollers at support II exert an uphill thrust. Normally the supporting rollers should be adjusted
so that they exert an uphill thrust on the kiln.
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After machining of live ring and supporting rollers at support II, the positions of the
supporting rollers should be adjusted to improve the axial balance of the kiln.

(5.4.3) Bearings for Supporting Rollers - Lubrication

The bearings of the rotary kiln are hydrodynamically lubricated journal bearings. Due to the
low speed of rotation, it is very important that the difference in diameters between the
journal and the bearing liner be exactly so large as to produce the wedge effect necessary for
the generation of an adequate oil film thickness.

Satisfactory operation of the bearings is therefore highly dependent on the use of an oil type
with the proper viscosity and on keeping the oil free of abrasive dust and other contaminants.

Systematic maintenance of the bearings in accordance with directions given in the


instruction manuals for maintenance is of paramount importance to trouble-free operation of
the bearings.

FLS normally recommends the use of a mineral oil with FLS symbol EP-680 for lubrication
of bearings for supporting rollers. In case of abnormal overheating of a bearing, we
recommend the use of an oil type with FLS symbol EP-1000.

For further information, please see the relevant instruction manuals for maintenance.

(5.5) Baseplates

(5.5.1) Baseplates - Levelling

Fig. 11: Levelling of baseplate heights.


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Any movement of the foundations may have a direct effect on the geometry of the kiln
axis. Such movements can be regarded as being composed of purely vertical movements,
called settlement, and rotations both in the vertical plane including the kiln axis and in a
likewise vertical plane being perpendicular to the kiln axis. The latter rotations, called
tilting, interfere with the horizontal component of the kiln axis whereas the vertical
movements affect the vertical component of the kiln axis.

To determine whether the foundations have moved, the differences in height between the
baseplates were measured at all supports during the inspection (please see Fig. 11 above).

The results of the levelling of the baseplates appear from the table below, which also shows
the original height differences between the baseplates.

Difference in height between Settlement of Accumulated


the foundations foundations difference in
height
Support Original Height Difference in
height measured height Change
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
I - II 937 937 0 0
II - III 1563 1563 0 0

The tilting values shown in the table below are pure rotations around the baseplate centres.
Therefore, they are the same size numerically but given with opposite signs on the right-hand
and the left-hand sides of the baseplates, a “+” indicating the highest point. Please also note
that the tilting is stated as seen from the burner’s platform.

Difference in height from side to side


on baseplate front edge
Tilting of foundation Left-hand side Right-hand side
(mm) (mm)
Support I 0 0
Support II 0 0
Support III 0 0
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The measurements taken show that there have been no problems with either settlement or
tilting since the erection.

(5.6) Drive Station

(5.6.1) Drive Station - Wobbling of Gear Rim

The wobbling of the gear rim was measured in order to evaluate the mesh quality between
gear rim and pinion.

In a new FLS kiln with this type of drive station, the permissible, axial wobbling of the gear
rim is ± 0.50 mm. The axial wobbling is measured by means of a longitudinal transducer
coupled to a measuring and recording instrument or a laptop computer via a data collector
(please see the figure in section (5.2.5) on wobbling of live rings). The result of the
measurements taken during the inspection is shown in Enclosure 5, from which it appears
that the present, axial wobbling of the gear rim is ± 0.6 mm.

In a new FLS kiln, the permissible, radial wobbling of the gear rim is ± 1.5 mm. The radial
wobbling measured during the inspection was ± 1.4 mm (please see Enclosure 6).

Both wobbling values measured are acceptable.

(5.7) Kiln Axis

The loads in the kiln shell and on the supports are determined in the design phase assuming a
given geometry of the axis of rotation. To ensure that reactions are distributed evenly on the
two supporting rollers of a support, the horizontal component of this axis of rotation is
always straight. The vertical component of the axis of rotation, on the other hand, can
sometimes be recommended not to be straight as this may provide, e.g., better distribution of
the reactions on the various supports.

Consequently, any changes that may occur in the geometry of the axis of rotation in the
course of time entail changes in the distribution of loads in the kiln shell and on the supports.
Such changes in load, the magnitude of which is closely related to the rigidity of the kiln (i.e.
the relationship between kiln diameter, plate thickness of kiln shell, and distance between the
supports), may involve the risk of a breakdown or reduced service life of the kiln
components. Frequent checks of the kiln axis should therefore form an integral part of the
maintenance work done at the plant.
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To be able to correctly evaluate the consequences of any deviation from the optimum kiln
axis, it is necessary to have detailed knowledge of both the rigidity of the kiln and the
strength of the individual components at the supports, i.e. the mechanical condition of the
kiln. Moreover, the measurements themselves must naturally be taken under the most
realistic conditions, i.e. while the kiln is in operation. The conclusions contained in this
inspection report are based on these basic assumptions.

Teodolite
Teodolite with laser

Fig. 12: Set-up for measurement of kiln axis (laser measurement).

The present kiln axis was determined by using two electronic precision theodolites, one of
which is equipped with a laser instrument (please see Fig. 12 above). Readings and
calculations were made by means of a laptop computer integrated in the set-up but not shown
in the figure.

The coordinates of six points on the rolling surface of each live ring were determined in a
three-dimensional system of coordinates. Knowing these coordinates and the geometry of the
live rings, the coordinates of the centres of the live rings were calculated and the common
axis of rotation was determined.

The centres of the kiln shell were calculated on the basis of the centres of the live rings,
taking both ovality and temperatures into account.
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(5.7.1) Kiln Axis - Measuring Results

At the time of measurement, the kiln axis deviated from a straight line under the live rings as
follows:

Kiln axis - Vertical Horizontal


Deviation from deviation 2 deviation 3
a straight line
(mm) (mm)
Support I 0 0
Support II -5 0
Support III 0 0

Using supports I and III as fixed points (0), the current inclination of the kiln was calculated
to be:

4.01%

Fig. 13 overleaf shows a schematic illustration of the kiln axis measured.

2
Positive deviations mean that the kiln axis measured is at a higher position than the straight line. Negative
deviations mean that it is at a lower position.
3
Positive deviations mean that the kiln axis measured is farther away from the basis line of the measurement
(the X-axis, please see the figure in section (5.7)) than the straight line. Negative deviations mean that it is
closer to the basis line.
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Fig. 13: Kiln axis measured (schematic).

(5.7.2) Kiln Axis - Calculations

The deviation of the kiln axis from its optimum shape affects the supports as well as the kiln
shell and the live rings. To illustrate the consequences, FLS has calculated the load on the
bearings for the supporting rollers and the stresses and ovality in kiln shell and live rings.

The calculations have been performed for both the measured and the recommended kiln axis,
and the results should be evaluated in relation to the following values which apply to the
design of a new FLS kiln:

* Longitudinal bending stress in the clear span of the kiln shell ................. 30 N/mm²
* Tangential bending stress in kiln shell under live rings ............................ 30 N/mm²
* Tangential bending stress in live rings....................................................... 60 N/mm²
* Hertz pressure ............................................................................................. 550 N/mm²
* Relative FLS ovality in kiln shell............................................................... 0.30 %
* Nies ovality in live rings............................................................................. 0.20 %
* Load on bearings......................................................................................... 4.4 N/mm²

Please note that the above value of 4.4 N/mm² corresponds to a bearing load of 100%. As
far as the loads on the bearings of this kiln are concerned, please see the table overleaf.

-- o --
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The results of a calculation are shown in the tables below. In this calculation, the horizontal
component of the kiln axis is taken as straight, and the vertical component is taken as the kiln
axis measured.

Kiln axis measured Straight kiln axis


FLS calculation Load on bearings Load on bearings
(%) (%)
Support I 91 88
Support II 92 96
Support III 83 80

Kiln axis measured Straight kiln axis


Bending Hertz Bending Hertz
FLS calculation stress in live pressure stress in live pressure
ring ring
(N/mm²) (N/mm²) (N/mm²) (N/mm²)
Support I 51 528 49 517
Support II 50 525 53 536
Support III 54 528 52 518

Kiln axis measured Straight kiln axis


Ovality Ovality
FLS calculation
Live ring Kiln shell 4 Live ring Kiln shell 4
(%) (%) (%) (%)
Support I 0.17 0.46 0.16 0.46
Support II 0.16 0.36 0.17 0.36
Support III 0.18 0.22 0.18 0.22

4
This degree of ovality corresponds to the live ring migration measured.
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Fig. 14: Bending stresses in the kiln shell at the kiln axis measured.

The bending stresses are acceptable.

(5.7.3) Kiln Axis - Recommended Adjustments

Our calculations show that adjustment of the kiln axis is not necessary at the present
moment. This kiln is very flexible, and moderate deviations of the kiln axis from a straight
line only result in minor changes in loads, stresses, etc.

In the future, a straight vertical kiln axis or a kiln axis that is - 5 mm at support II should be
aimed at, as this will ensure a good distribution of bearing loads, stresses in kiln shell and
live rings, etc.

After machining of the live ring and supporting rollers at support II, the vertical kiln axis
should be adjusted to a straight line.
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(6) Visual Inspection

The visual inspection constitutes an important part of the mechanical kiln inspection. Its
main objective is to give a description of the present, mechanical condition of the kiln,
including where and how it deviates from the original specifications as given in drawings,
instruction manuals, etc. In addition to design modifications, such indication of deviations
can also cover position and propagation of cracks and wear.

This kind of knowledge of the kiln components is essential for a reliable evaluation of how
the present, mechanical, operational conditions affect the availability of the kiln and how the
operational conditions can be improved.

(6.1) Kiln Shell

The kiln shell is in good condition. No


deformations or hot spots were observed.

The heavy kiln section under live ring I most


likely suffers from constriction. Constriction
shows as a gap between kiln shell and live
ring supporting blocks.

When replacing the lining, the inside of the


kiln shell can be checked for constriction
with a straightedge.

(6.1.1) Kiln Shell - Side Guides and Live Ring Supporting Blocks

Type: Loose live ring supporting blocks with guide


blocks fixed by welding.

The side guides and live ring supporting blocks are in


good condition at all three supports.
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(6.2) Live Rings

The visual inspection of the live rings comprised:

* check of the condition of the rolling surfaces (pitting, faceting, or scale formation)

* check of the condition of the rolling surface profiles (convex and/or conical
configurations)

* check for rolling-out of the rolling surfaces

* check for cracks

* check of contact conditions between live rings and supporting rollers

Any comments on the live rings in respect of the above items will be stated below.

Live ring I:

The condition of the rolling surface of this live ring is


acceptable, although slight pitting and a few
impressions were noted.

Contact conditions between live ring and supporting


rollers are acceptable.
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Live ring II:

The rolling surface of this live ring has been worn


into convex configuration (2 - 3 mm).

Contact conditions between live ring and supporting


rollers are not quite satisfactory, as a gap occurs
alternately between the inlet side and the outlet side.

We recommend that live ring II be machined.

Løbering III:

Slight pitting formation was noted on the rolling


surface of this live ring.
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Country: Egypt
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Order No.: 04-178.180 StK/PSv, 999EN-SinaiGrey1E May 11, 2005 41

(6.3) Supporting Rollers

The visual inspection of the supporting rollers comprised:

* check of the condition of the rolling surfaces (pitting, faceting, or scale formation)

* check of the condition of the rolling surface profiles (concave and/or conical
configurations)

* check for rolling-out of the rolling surfaces

* check for cracks on the rolling surfaces and/or in the web plates

Any comments on the supporting rollers in respect of the above items will be stated below.

Support I:

The rolling surfaces of both supporting rollers are in acceptable condition, although slight
pitting formation and a few impressions were noted.

Support II:

The rolling surfaces of both rollers have been worn into concave condifugration (4 mm).
We recommend machining.

Support III:

Some pitting was noted on both supporting rollers.


Kiln Inspection Report

Plant: Sinai Cement Co., Grey, Kiln No. 1


Country: Egypt
Ref. Date Page
Order No.: 04-178.180 StK/PSv, 999EN-SinaiGrey1E May 11, 2005 42

(6.4) Bearings for Supporting Rollers

The visual inspection of the bearings comprised:

* check of the condition of the journals

* check of the lubrication of the journals

* check of the condition of the dust seals (felt seals)

* check of the oil levels

* check of the water cooling system and the condition of the rubber sleeves around
the inlets of the cooling water pipes into the bearing housings

The bearings are in good condition.

(6.5) Drive Station

One pinion. Helical teeth. Spray lubrication.

The visual inspection of the drive station comprised:

* check of the root clearance between gear rim and pinion

* check of the condition of the tooth flanks (pitting, scuffing, wear)

* check for vibrations in the gear rim

* check for loose stud bolts and assembly bolts

* check of the welds between gear rim springs and kiln shell

* check of the lubrication between gear rim and pinion

* check of the axial position of the gear rim on the pinion

Both the gear rim and pinion are in good condition.


Kiln Inspection Report

Plant: Sinai Cement Co., Grey, Kiln No. 1


Country: Egypt
Ref. Date Page
Order No.: 04-178.180 StK/PSv, 999EN-SinaiGrey1E May 11, 2005 43

Pinion

(6.6) Thrust Device

A hydraulic thrust roller is located at support III.

Fig. 15: Hydraulic thrust device.

The hydraulic thrust device is dimensioned to be capable of absorbing all of the axial thrust
from the kiln during operation or barring, allowing all supporting rollers to be placed parallel
to the kiln axis. However, in order to secure axial balance of the kiln, the supporting rollers
are usually skewed so that approx. 30% of the axial thrust from the kiln is apportioned
evenly between them while the thrust device absorbs the remaining 70%.
Kiln Inspection Report

Plant: Sinai Cement Co., Grey, Kiln No. 1


Country: Egypt
Ref. Date Page
Order No.: 04-178.180 StK/PSv, 999EN-SinaiGrey1E May 11, 2005 44

The pressure in the pump station of the hydraulic thrust device should normally range
between 40 and 60 bar. The pressure was read to be 55 bar, which is acceptable.

Some pitting formation was noted on the rolling surface of the thrust roller.

(6.7) Axial Balance of the Kiln

The concept of “axial balance” covers the way in which a balance between the various
elements of axial thrust on the kiln is achieved. The axial thrust stems from four different
sources:

* The gravitational pull has an axial component arising from the inclination of the
kiln. This axial component exerts a constant, downhill thrust on the kiln.

* The reaction from the thrust roller which, on condition that live rings and thrust
roller make contact, is in the opposite direction of the above-mentioned
gravitational pull.

This kiln is equipped with hydraulic a thrust device that is designed for absorption
of the entire axial component of the kiln’s force of gravity. However, to ensure
stable operation, during which thrust roller and live ring make constant contact, the
supporting rollers are adjusted so that they always exert an uphill thrust on the kiln
and thus absorb a small part of the axial component of the kiln’s force of gravity.
Such a situation is normally achieved by adjusting the inclination of the supporting
rollers whereas their skewing is adjusted to neutral effect.
Kiln Inspection Report

Plant: Sinai Cement Co., Grey, Kiln No. 1


Country: Egypt
Ref. Date Page
Order No.: 04-178.180 StK/PSv, 999EN-SinaiGrey1E May 11, 2005 45

* Axial thrust resulting from the contact between live rings and supporting rollers.
Such thrust that may become rather substantial is generated if the axes of rotation of
live rings and supporting rollers are not parallel, i.e. if a supporting roller is in a
skew position and/or if its inclination deviates from that of the kiln in this particular
place. Whether these axial components are acting in the uphill or downhill direction
in relation to the kiln depends on the direction of the deviation of the axis of
rotation of the supporting rollers from parallel. The axial forces at work between the
two supporting rollers at a support and those at work between the individual
supports will either partly balance each other out or amplify each other.

* Wear on rolling surfaces also affects the axial balance of the kiln. If the rolling
surfaces have been worn into concave, convex, or conical configurations, it may be
difficult and sometimes even quite impossible to attain axial balance in a way that
ensures a level of internal axial forces being as low as possible. In such cases, the
rolling surfaces of the supporting rollers and live rings in question should be
machined. Machining can be carried out during normal kiln operation and without
any disturbance to the operation by means of equipment that can be purchased or
hired from FLS.

When the above irregularities caused by wear have been eliminated, the supporting
rollers can be adjusted to a position fulfilling the above requirements with respect to
their degree of parallelism with the kiln axis.

In case of FLS kilns, this adjustment can be made on the basis of direct
measurements of the axial thrust on each individual supporting roller taken
with the equipment for measurement of the axial thrust developed by FLS for
this specific purpose. With this equipment it is possible to attain optimum axial
balance of the kiln so that supporting rollers and thrust device absorb their
respective share of the axial thrust exerted by the kiln. Under these conditions, the
contact faces between live rings and supporting rollers should be lubricated with
dry graphite only.

If leaving the limited and slow, axial movements made by the rotary kiln in relation to the
thrust device out of account, the kiln is always in axial balance. This means that the resulting,
axial thrust from the kiln is insignificant. However, this insignificant, axial thrust may on the
one hand be composed of a number of unacceptably large, internal forces acting in mutually
opposite directions (e.g. caused by incorrect skewing and/or inclination of the supporting
rollers) subjecting the bearings to heavy thrust loads and increased risk of overheating. On
the other hand, the resulting, axial thrust from the kiln may also be composed of acceptable,
foreseeable, insignificant, internal forces. For the sake of the availability of the kiln, it is
obvious that the latter situation is to be preferred.
Kiln Inspection Report

Plant: Sinai Cement Co., Grey, Kiln No. 1


Country: Egypt
Ref. Date Page
Order No.: 04-178.180 StK/PSv, 999EN-SinaiGrey1E May 11, 2005 46

(6.8) Inlet Seal

Type: Lamella seal.

The inlet seals functions in a satisfactory way.

(6.9) Outlet Seal

Type: Lamella seal.

The condition of the outlet seal is acceptable. Some of the lamella springs are slightly
defective, however.