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Vijayanagara architecture

Vijayanagara architecture (Kannada: ಜಯನಗರ ಸು ಲ) of 1336-1565CE was a notable


building idiom that developed during the rule of the imperial Hindu Vijayanagar Empire. The
empire ruled South India, from their regal capital at Vijayanagara, on the banks of the
Tungabhadra River in modern Karnataka, India. The empire built temples, monuments,
palaces and other structures across South India, with a largest concentration in its capital. The
monuments in and around Hampi, in the Vijayanagara principality, are listed as a UNESCO
World Heritage Site.

In addition to building new temples, the empire added new structures and made modifications
to hundreds of temples across South India. Some structures at Vijayanagara are from the pre-
Vijayanagara period. The Mahakuta hill temples are from the Western Chalukya era. The
region around Hampi had been a popular place of worship for centuries before the
Vijayanagara period with earliest records dating from 689 CE when it was known as Pampa
Tirtha after the local riverGod Pampa. Virupaksha temple, Raya
Gopura (main tower over
There are hundreds of monuments in the core area of the capital city. Of these, 56 are entrance gate) at Hampi,
protected by UNESCO, 654 monuments are protected by the government of Karnataka and Karnataka
another 300 await protection.[1]

Contents
Salient features
Temple structures
Palaces Typical dravidian style
Shikhara (superstructure)
Other famous temples in Karnataka
over shrines at the
Famous temples in Andhra Pradesh Raghunatha temple in
See also Hampi
Gallery
Terminology
Notes
References

Salient features
Typical dravidian shrine and
Vijayanagara architecture can be broadly classified into religious, courtly and civic mantapa of the Vijayanagara
architecture, as can the associated sculptures and paintings.[2] The Vijayanagara style is a period at Balakrishna temple
combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya and Chola styles which evolved earlier in the in Hampi
centuries when these empires ruled and is characterised by a return to the simplistic and
serene art of the past.[3]

For the approximately 400 years during the rule of the Western Chalukya and the Hoysalas empires, the most popular material for
temple construction was chloritic schist or soapstone. This was also true for sculpture as soapstone is soft and easily carved. During
the Vijayanagar period the local hard granite was preferred in the Badami Chalukya style, although soapstone was used for a few
[4]
reliefs and sculptures.[4] While the use of granite reduced the density of sculptured works,
granite was a more durable material for the temple structure. Because granite is prone to
flaking, few pieces of individual sculptures reached the high levels of quality seen in previous
centuries. To cover the unevenness of the stone used in sculptures, artists employed plaster to
[5]
give the rough surface a smooth finish and then painted it with lively colours.

Temple structures Early 14th century Shiva


temples on Hemakuta hill
Vijayanagara temples are usually surrounded by a strong enclosure. Small shrines consist built during the rule of
simply of a garbhagriha (sanctum) and a porch. Medium-sized temples have a garbhagriha, Harihara Raya I
incorporates the stepped
shukanasi (antechamber), a navaranga (antrala) connecting the sanctum and outer mandapa
Kadamba style nagara
(hall), and a rangamantapa (enclosed pillared hall). Large temples have tall Rayagopuram
shikhara (superstructure)
built with wood, brick and stucco in Chola style. The term Raya is added to indicate a gopura
built by Vijayanagar Rayas. The top of the gopuram has a shalashikhara resembling a barrel
made to rest on its side. Large life-size figures of men, woman, Gods and Goddesses adorn the
gopuram. This Tamil dravida-influenced style became popular during the rule of king
Krishnadevaraya and is seen in South Indian temples constructed over the next 200 years.[6]
Examples of Rayagopuram are the Chennakesava Temple in Belur and the temples at
Srisailam and Srirangam. In addition to these structures, medium-size temples have a closed
circumambulatory (Pradakshinapatha) passage around the sanctum, an open mahamantapa
(large hall), a kalyanamantapa (ceremonial hall) and a temple tank to serve the needs of The mid-14th century
annual celebrations.[7] Vidyashankara temple at
Sringeri, one of the earliest
Temple pillars often have engravings of charging horses or hippogryphs (Yali) — horses temples built by the kings of
standing on hind legs with their fore legs lifted and riders on their backs. The horses on some the empire
pillars stand seven to eight feet tall. On the other side of the pillar are usually carvings from
Hindu mythology.[8] Pillars that do not have such hippogryphs are generally rectangular with
mythology themed decoration on all sides. Some pillars have a cluster of smaller pillars
around a central pillar shaft. The bottom supports of these pillars have engravings of
Gods and
Goddesses. Carvings of hippogryphs clearly show the adroitness of the artists who created
them.[9]

The Mantapas are built on square or polygonal plinths with carved friezes that are four to five
feet high and have ornate stepped entrances on all four sides with miniature elephants or with
Yali balustrades (parapets).[10] The Mantapas are supported by ornate pillars.[11] The 1,000-
pillared style with large halls supported by numerous pillars was popular. The 1,000-pillared
Jain basadi at Mudabidri is an example. Larger temples have a separate shrine for the female
deity. Some examples of this are the Hazara Rama, Balakrishna and Vitthala temples at
Hampi.

Some shrines in the Vitthalapura area inside Vijayanagara were consecrated specifically for Typical shrine at Hazare
Tamil Alwar saints and for the great Vaishnava saint, Ramanujacharya. Architecturally they Rama temple in Hampi
are different in that each shrine has an image depicting the saint for whose worship the temple
was built. Each shrine has its own enclosure and a separate kitchen and pilgrim feeding
hall.[12] The water storage tank inside the royal center, the [stepwell stepped tank] called, "Pushkarni", is a recent archaeological
discovery. The stepped tank is fashioned with finished chlorite schist slabs arranged in a symmetrical formation with steps and
landings descending to the water on all four sides. This is clearly a Western Chalukya-Hoysala style tank and is seen in many parts of
present-day Karnataka.[13] The inscriptions on the slabs indicate the material was brought from outside the ijayanagara
V area.

Palaces
Much of what is known today of Vijayanagara palaces is drawn from archaeological
excavations at Hampi as no royal palace structures have survived.[14] Most palaces stand in
their own compound defined by high tapering walls made of stone or layered earth. Palaces
are approached through a sequence of courts with passageways and doorways requiring
multiple changes in direction. All palaces face east or north. The larger palaces have side
extensions giving the complex a symmetrical shape.

Palaces were built on raised platforms made of granite. The platforms have multiple tiers of A typical Vijayanagara style
mouldings with well-decorated friezes.[15] The decorations can be floral, Kirtimukha shapes pillared maha mantapa
(demon faces), geese, elephants and occasionally human figures. Pillars, beams and rafters (main hall) at Someshvara
inside the palace were made of wood as evidenced by ash discovered in excavations. The roof temple at Kolar

was made of brick or lime concrete, while copper and ivory were used for finials. Palaces
commonly consisted of multiple levels with each flight of stairs decorated by balustrades on
either side, with either yali (imaginary beast) or elephant sculptures. The entrance steps into
palaces and temple mantapas were similarly decorated. Water tanks inside the palace complex
have decorative water spouts such as the carved torso of the Nandi with a gaping mouth to
allow water flow into the tank.[16] Other structures commonly found inside a palace complex
are wells and shrines.
Pillared open mantapa
The courtly architecture generally show secular styles with Islamic influences. Examples are incorporating Hoysala style
the Lotus Mahal palace, Elephant stables, and watch towers.[17] Courtly buildings and domed "staggered square" layout at
[2]
structures were built with mortar mixed with stone rubble. Vittala temple in Hampi

The impact of this style of architecture was seen well into the 17th century when the
successive Nayaka kingdoms continued to encourage pillars with hippogryphs and granite
became the main building material.

Other famous temples in Karnataka


While the empire is well known for its monuments in the regal capital Vijayanagara (a
UNESCO World Heritage Site), it also built temples in other regions of Karnataka including Typical large open pillared
the coastal region (called Karavali) where the Vijayanagara idiom mingled with local styles. hall at Ananthasayana
temple in
A List of these temples and their approximate time of construction is given in the article List
Ananthasayanagudi, Bellary
of Vijayanagara era temples in Karnataka.
district, Karnataka

Famous temples in Andhra Pradesh


In Andhra Pradesh the empire built the Mallikarjuna Temple at Srisailam, Upper Narasimha Temple and Lower Narasimha Temple at
Ahobilam, Veera Bhadra Temple at Lepakshi and Venkateswara Temple at Tirupati and others. In Tamil Nadu the empire built the
Vijayaraghava Permal temple modeled after the famous temples at Tirupati with statues of Krishnadevaraya in Thayar Sanithi pillars
facing each other.

See also
Vijayanagara
Hampi
Lepakshi
Srikalahasti
Vijayanagar Empire

Gallery
Typical Vijayanagara Yali pillars at Yali pillars at
style dravida shikhara Ranganatha temple, Ranganatha temple in
(south Indian style tower Rangasthala, Neerthadi, Chitradurga
over shrine) at the Chikkaballapur district, district, Karnataka
Someshvara temple at Karnataka
Kolar (14th century) Kudure gombe (horse doll)
pillars in a mantapa at
Hampi

Yali pillars of a mantapa Pillared hall in Veera A mantapa with An open mantapa with yali
at Vittala temple, Hampi Bhadra temple, Lepakshi hippogryphs at Melkote columns at the Vittala
temple in Hampi
Ornate pillared Pillared hall in Kudure Gombe (horse Elephant balustrade
Kalyanamantapa in Raghunatha temple, doll) mantapa in Hampi leading to open mantapa
Cheluva Narayana Hampi in Raghunatha temple in
temple, Melkote Hampi

Yali pillars with


Hippogryphs at Hampi

Terminology
Mandapa - pillared hall
Mahamantapa - Open pillared hall
Rangamantapa - Closed pillared hall
Kalyanamantapa - Hall meant for celebrations
Garbhagriha - Sanctum where the idol of God is placed
Navaranga or Antrala - passage the connects dif
ferent Sanctums
Shukanasi - Antechamber

Notes
1. Global Heritage Fund (http://www.globalheritagefund.org/news/conservation_news/hampi_disappearing.asp)
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20060927083320/http://www .globalheritagefund.org/news/conservation_news/
hampi_disappearing.asp)September 27, 2006, at theWayback Machine.
2. Hampi - A Travel Guide, pp 36, Department of Tourism, India
3. Art critic Percy Brown calls Vijayanagara architecture a blossomingof Dravidian style, A Concise History of
Karnataka, pp 182, Dr. S.U. Kamath, History of Karnataka, Arthikaje
4. Their style was characterised by a return to the simplistic and serene art of the
Badami Chalukya says Dr. S.U.
Kamath about the sculptures in Vijayanagar style, A Concise History of Karnataka, pp 184, Dr. S.U. Kamath
5. Hampi - A Travel Guide, pp 42-43, Department of Tourism, India
6. New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, edited by John M. Fritz and George Michell, pp 9
7. The elaboration of ceremonial observances produced a corresponding elaboration in the temple system, says art
critic Percy Brown, A Concise History of Karnataka, pp 183, Dr. S.U. Kamath
8. The attached colonnettes and sculptured animals are a significant artistic innovation of the reign of king
Krishnadevaraya, New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, edited by John M. Fritz and George
Michell, pp 8
9. A Concise History of Karnataka, pp 183, Dr. S.U. Kamath
10. An imaginary beast acting as parapet. These beautifully sculptured supports were used in entrances to temples and
as flanks to steps and stairs in royal palace structures,New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, edited
by John M. Fritz and George Michell, pp 53
11. A regular feature saya Prof. K.A.N. Sastri about the importance of pillars in the ijayanagara
V style in A Concise
History of Karnataka, pp 183, Dr. S.U. Kamath
12. New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, edited by John M. Fritz and George Michell, pp 35-36
13. According to Dominic J Davidson-Jenkins inNew Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, edited by John
M. Fritz and George Michell, pp 89
14. According to Channabasappa S. Patil,New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, pp 51, edited by John
M. Fritz and George Michell
15. A rectangular decorated panel of stone is called a frieze,A complete guide to Hoysala Temples, pp 93 Gerard
Foekema.
16. According to Channabasappa S. Patil,New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, pp 57, edited by John
M. Fritz and George Michell
17. New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, edited by John M. Fritz and George Michell, pp 10.

References
Incredible India Hampi Guide
Dr. Suryanath.M.U.Kamat, A Concise historyof Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books,
MCC, Bangalore, 2001 (Reprinted 2002) OCLC: 7796041
Hampi, A Travel Guide, Department of Tourism, India, Good Earth publication, New Delhi 2003ISBN 81-87780-17-7
New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, edited by John M. Fritz and George Michell, MARG, 2001,
ISBN 81-85026-53-X
History of Karnataka, Arthikaje
Temples of Karnataka, Dr. Jyotsna Kamat
Architecture of Indian Subcontinent, T
akeyo Kameya
TempleNet:Temples of India
www.Hampi.in: A website with photographs, descriptions and the site maps of the Hampi ruins.

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