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Pool ash / Pond Ash

Fly ash and pulverized( reduce to fine particles) coal ash are the two names of the same thing. It
is also known as pulverized fuel ash. When pulverized coal (bituminous/lignite is burnt in the
boiler of a thermal power station, a part of ash falls down at the bottom of the boiler and is
known as bottom ash. Whereas, the major portion of the ash comes out along with the flue
gases and is collected through electro static precipitator or filter bags or other means before
allowing the exhaust gases through escape the chimney, this part of ash is generally known as
ESP ash. The un-utilized ESP ash and bottom ash are taken to lagoons known as ash
ponds for deposition. The ash deposited in the ash pond is known as pond ash. In some cases
this ash is deposited in the form of a mount or hillock and is known mound ash.

Fly ash or pulverised coal ash or pulverised fuel ash in general term represents all types of
ashes produced in the thermal power station unless otherwise specifically referred to as ESP
ash(chimney ash, dry fly ash), bottom ash, pond ash and mound ash.

Small part of ash is also collected in the economizer & pre-heater. This ash should generally
be discharged along with bottom ash, being a coarse ash. However, at number of power
stations it is discharged with ESP ash.

1. ESP ash/Chimney ash/dry fly ash:

It is best suited for manufacture/ part-substitution of cement and the applications, wherein fly
ash is used as cementatious/pozzolonic applications. Such as manufacture of fly ash bricks
(without clay), blocks, pavers, pre-fabricated items, roofing sheets, tiles, tree guards etc.

2. Bottom ash:

Being a coarse ash, it is an excellent substitute of soil for geotechnical applications such as
filling/reclamation of low lying areas, construction of dykes, road and fly over embankments
etc. After processing for removal of carbon and grinding to sand size, it is a good part-
substitute of sand in mortar and concrete.

3. Pond ash/mound ash:

It is a medium grain size ash, mixture of ESP ash and bottom ash. It is best suited for use in
agriculture, waste land development and forestry applications. It’s also a good material for
geotechnical applications as a substitute of soil.

Other important utilization of pond ash is in manufacture of clay bricks. When pond ash is
mixed with good clay to the extent of 30-80% depending on the clayness of clay, it improves
the quality of clay brick (now clay fly ash brick), reduces breakage at the kiln as well as during
transit/use and also reduces fuel consumption in the kiln.
Can bottom ash and pond ash be used for fly ash lime gypsum bricks or fly ash sand
cement bricks?

Ans. ESP ash/chimney ash/dry fly ash is recommended for this use. However, pond ash or
bottom ash can also be used but the results (strength of the bricks) would not be as good as in
case of ESP ash.

Can ESP ash/chimney ash/dry fly ash be used for agricultural application?

Ans. Such a fine ash in dry condition is not advisable to be used in agriculture application
as its transportation, application (spreading and ploughing) would be costlier, difficult and may
cause air pollution. Pond ash is best suited for this application as it contains some moisture
and does not become air borne easily.

Is the quality of pond ash same at all locations in the ash pond?

Ans. No.

The ash deposited within about 100 meters of ash slurry discharge point in the pond is coarser
ash as compared to the ash deposited within about 100 mtrs. of water overflow discharge point
in the ash pond. The ash deposited in between these two areas is of medium particle size.

Further, during the process of settling of ash in the pond, natural segregation process takes
places. Coarser ash settles down first and the final particle in the top layer. With the general
practice intermittent filling of ash ponds, repetitive layers of about 1 meter thickness get
developed with segregated particles.

Is fly ash radio active? Is it harmful ?

Ans. Each material, including fly ash is radioactive. It is the degree of radio activity that
determines its impact. The radio activity level of fly ash is 1/10th to 1/20th that of the level
that cause any harm. This has been tested and certified by Department of Atomic Energy,
Government of India.

Radio activity levels of fly ash bricks, agriculture soils treated with fly ash as well as the
agriculture produce grown on fly ash treated soils have been tested for radio activity and are
certified as very safe.

Does fly ash contain heavy and toxic metals? What is the impact of these elements on the
environment or to the public.?

Ans. Fly ash contains traces of heavy and toxic metals which are generally far below the level
that can cause any impact on the environment or public during its normal use.

Fly ashes having high contents of toxic/heavy metals (such fly ashes have yet not been found
in India ) may be used/deposited under expert advice.
Can bottom ash be used as a part substitution of sand?

Ans. Yes, pond ash after removal of un-burnt carbon and grinding to sand size can be
used as part substitution of sand.

Can fly ash be used for back filling of open cast mines?

Ans. Yes fly is a good material for back filling of open cast mines. It can be used as a
structural fill material that is by laying in layers and with appropriate compaction. It can also
be used along with overburden with intermittent mixing i.e. if 10 dumpers are bringing over
burden, two dumpers can be employed bring in fly ash and all these materials can be backfilled
in a regular manner as per the existing practice of back filling. The fly ash would get
automatically intermixed and fill up the voids in the over burden material, providing it stability
and nutrition as well as water holding capacity for a forestation.

Q.15. Can fly ash be used, in place of sand, for stowing of underground mines?

Ans. Yes, fly ash is a good material to substitute sand for back filling of open cast mines.
Coarser portions of fly ash that is bottom ash and coarse ash from pond ash are even better
materials than sand for this purpose. Fine ash particles that take relatively longer time for
settlement, can also be settled faster with application of appropriate technology.

Q.17. Can fly ash be ground to improve its fineness?

Ans. Yes, the fineness of the fly ash can be improved by grinding.

Q.18. Does grinding of coarse fly ash improve its reactivity?

Ans. Yes, the grinding of fly ash increases its surface area and thus generally improves its
reactivity. However, reactivity of fly ash is a function of many parameters and not only that of
surface area. The cumulative effect of reactivity is a detailed subject. Application of appropriate
technology for fly ash beneficiation would give best results in terms of reactivity enhancement.

Indian Standards (IS): 2720 for 'Method of Test for Soils'

Fiber-reinforced concrete
Fibers are usually used in concrete to control cracking due to plastic shrinkage and to drying
shrinkage. They also reduce the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water.
Some types of fibers produce greater impact–, abrasion–, and shatter–resistance in concrete.

Generally fibers do not increase the flexural strength of concrete, and so cannot
replace moment–resisting or structural steel reinforcement.
Indeed, some fibers actually reduce the strength of concrete.
The amount of fibers added to a concrete mix is expressed as a percentage of the total volume
of the composite (concrete and fibers), termed "volume fraction" (Vf).
Vf typically ranges from 0.1 to 3%. The aspect ratio (l/d) is calculated by dividing fiber length
(l) by its diameter (d).
Fibers with a non-circular cross section use an equivalent diameter for the calculation of aspect
If the fiber's modulus of elasticity is higher than the matrix (concrete or mortar binder), they
help to carry the load by increasing the tensile strength of the material.
Increasing the aspect ratio of the fiber usually segments the flexural strength and toughness of
the matrix. However, fibers that are too long tend to "ball" in the mix and create workability
fibers in concrete has limited effect on the impact resistance of the materials. This finding is
very important since traditionally, people think that ductility increases when concrete is
reinforced with fibers.
The results also indicated that the use of micro fibers offers better impact resistance to that of
longer fibers
Blends of both steel and polymeric fibers are often used in construction projects in order to
combine the benefits of both products; structural improvements provided by steel fibers and
the resistance to explosive spalling and plastic shrinkage improvements provided by
polymeric fibers.
In certain specific circumstances, steel fiber or macro synthetic fibers can entirely replace
traditional steel reinforcement bar ("rebar") in reinforced concrete. This is most common in
industrial flooring but also in some other precasting applications.
Density of PPF is 910 kg/m3 and steel 7850 kg/m3 , based on these weights are calculates as
shown in above table.
 1% of steel fibre = 78 kg per cubic meter of concrete
 Fibre are expressed by volume of concrete
 Usually, steel fibres with high modulus are used to improve mechanical properties
whereas low modulus fibres such as polypropylene can reduce cracking due to
shrinkage and control spalling phenomena in concrete
 Admixtures ( mineral/chemical) and water are expressed by weight of cement
 The addition of fibres does not significantly affect the compressive strength of concrete.
The increase in fibre content improves the post-peak behaviour and a more extended
softening branch is observed

Polypropylene fibers (PP): The fibres used were fine polypropylene monofilaments .The fibers were supplied
by Reliance Industry by name RECRON 3s .

For effective performance, the recommended dosage rate of polypropylene fibers is 0.9 kg/m 3, approximately
0.1% by volume.
Recron 3s Polyester Fibre at Rs 250 /kilogram
Steel Fibres at Rs 160 /kilogram
Steel Fiber (carbon Steel Fiber) at Rs 60 /kilogram
Glass fibre Rs. 260 per Kg

cement per Kg is 6.5 rupees

Standard Sand Indian Grade 1 2 Or 3 Bag Of 25 Kg is 1200 rupees

All the particles of standard sand fall within the size range of 2 mm to 90 micron (as mentioned
in the table below)
Particle Size Smaller than 2 mrn and greater than 1 mm - 33'33Percent (Grade 1)
Particle Size Smaller than 1 mm and greater than 500 microns 33'33 Percent (Grade 2)
Particle Size Below 500 microns but greater than 90 microns 33'33 Percent (Grade 3)
Rs. 3,000 for a truckload of ordinary sand and Rs. 3,500 for fine sand within
10 km from the loading point
Cost of one cubic meter concrete is RS 5000 in which formwork and steelwork are not
One cubic meter concrete is reuired to complete this roof of 5*2 m room
Cost of cement is 350 per a bag of 50 KG. Sand and coarse aggregate cost RS 48
and 40 respectively.
The cost of steel is approximately RS 50-55 per Kg
He approximate cost of first-class brick is RS 8 in market.
The types of bricks are first class, second-class, third class and fourth-class depending
quality of material. First-class brick will be in sharp edge and in regular shape and
used to construct load bearing wall. Second class brick are regular shape. Fourth class
brick has no regular shape, edge. It is Brocken and used as aggregate in concrete and
Steel fixer-550
Usually River sand is used for interior purpose and crush sand for exterior use.
To check by take some sand in your hand, if the sand is muddy and brown in color, then its river sand.
Check what sand type is ordered. There are 2 types of sand- River sand & Crush sand. River sand
bonds very well with cement than crush sand.
The tonne referred to as the metric ton in the United States
Binding wire 58/kg
TMT steel 46000/ton
TMT bars or Thermo-Mechanically Treated bars are high-strength reinforcement bars having a tough
outer core and a soft inner core.
9 In. x 4 In. x 3 In. REB Clay Table Mould Bricks = rs 7/brick

HYSD stands for High Yielding Strength Deformed bars. These bars have more yield
strength than Mild Steel. Unlike TMT bars, HYSD bars are both hot or cold worked.
They are graded as Fe 415 or Fe500.
= 30/block
4 In. length Concrete Solid Blocks
6 In. Concrete Cellular Blocks=40 /block

what the difference was between 304 stainless steel and 430 stainless steel. As I have
a website which sells stainless steel kitchen utensils and gadgets.

What I found out was 304 stainless steel is more corrosion resistant than 430. The
difference in chromium levels helps 304 stainless steel keep its sheen longer and is
easier to clean. 304 stainless steel is also a higher grade than 430, making it an ideal
food-grade material. 430 stainless steel remains a popular choice among consumers
because it is magnetic and can be stored on any magnetic surface for easy access.

Stainless steel is an alloy, meaning it is a combination of two or more metals. The

difference between the stainless steels comes from their composition.

304 Stainless steel is composed of:

 ~18% Chromium
 ~8% Nickel
 Lesser quantities of other elements
430 Stainless Steel is composed of:

 ~17% Chromium
 ~0.12% Carbon
 Lesser quantities of other elements
Even though the chromium difference is only 1%, it has a significant difference as to
the corrosion resistance between the two stainless steel grades.

Coarse aggregate/blue metal = 20mm -400-500 rs/ton

M Sand= 0-4.75 mm sizeIS - 383: 1970
Usage: Concrete Work- 650 - 850/ Ton
0-2.36 mm sizeIS - 1542: 1992
Usage: Wall Plastering-1100 - 1381/ Ton
150 microns -3.50 mm sizeIS - 2116: 1980
Usage: Concrete Work

1100 - 1300 / Ton

M20/25 Grade Opc Ready Mix Concrete-Rs 4,500 / M³
M30 Grade Opc Ready Mix Concrete- Rs 4,700 / M³


Blocks- 50/block
River sand = 28,000 / Ton (1000 Kgs)
Coarse sand -1300/m3
Fine sand -750/m3
Cement OPC 43 grade-260/bag
Bricks -17500 per load

"Sand prices are currently ruling at Rs 40,000 per lorry load (each load comprises 17-
tonne) his means a kg of sand now costs Rs 6 per kg as against an earlier Rs 2.30 a