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WHITE PAPER

Education Transformation

The Positive Impact of eLearning—


2012 UPDATE
Studies indicate that ICT-enhanced learning can benefit students, teachers, families, societies, and economies.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Effective eLearning comes from using information communications technology Skills for the 21st Century
(ICT) to broaden educational opportunity and help students develop the skills Tomorrow’s citizens and workers
they—and their countries—need to thrive in the 21st century. While conclusive, deserve an education that prepares
them—and their nation’s economy—to
longitudinal studies remain to be done, an emerging body of evidence suggests thrive in a world of rapid change and
that eLearning can deliver substantial positive effects: widespread globalization. Currently,
• Students are more engaged and able to develop 21st century skills. the Organization for Economic &
Cultural Development (OECD) is
• Teachers have a more positive attitude toward their work and are able to working to integrate 21st century
provide more personalized learning. skills such as collaborative problem
solving into the Program for Inter-
• Family interaction and parental involvement may increase. national Student Assessment (PISA).
• Communities benefit from bridging the digital divide. With the plan to move towards fully
Economically disadvantaged students and children with disabilities technology based assessments, the
OECD recognizes how technology
benefit particularly. enables the ability to conduct
• Economic progress can result from direct job creation in the technology independent research, think critically
and solve problems, communicate and
industry as well as from developing a better educated workforce. collaborate, and understand societal
issues related to digital citizenship. 1
This paper summarizes some key research findings, to help educational leaders Pilot tests of the first release of
collaborative problem solving tasks
identify relevant eLearning benefits and make judicious decisions as they develop have taken place, starting with
their eLearning strategies. To further aid in planning, we share findings relating to Australia and Singapore, and continu-
ing with the Netherlands, Finland, and
the challenges of eLearning implementation, and provide a bibliography for Costa Rica, who completed the pilots
additional reading. in November.
The Positive Impact of eLearning - 2012 UPDATE

Table of Contents
eLearning Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 eLearning Overview many cases, at home. Laptops serve
Research Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 as personal teaching and learning
Technology integration to support tools that are used throughout the
Student Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 education has been underway for many day for many educational tasks and
Engagement, Motivation, years. Some of the common ways of subjects. In a 1:1 environment,
and Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 integrating technology into students get the maximum value
education include: from access to PCs, Internet connec-
Greater Technology Integration,
• Teacher PC programs provide encour- tivity, and their integration into the
Greater Benefits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
agement and financial assistance for education environment.
Personalized Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 teachers to acquire PCs and integrate
• In a flipped classroom usage model,
Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ICT into their teaching practices. When
students acquire basic knowledge and
most effective, these programs
Teaching and comprehension of assigned learning
include professional development and
Administrative Outcomes. . . . . . . . 5 materials the night before, leaving the
policy modifications, as well as
next school day an opportunity to
Student-Centered updated digital content and curriculum
apply these newly-acquired concepts
Teaching and Preparation . . . . . . . . . . 5 resources to help teachers use
to collaborative, problem-solving
Attitudes and Productivity. . . . . . . . . 5 technology to enhance teaching
project-based learning.
and learning.
Management and Administration. . . 5
• PC labs are frequently used to offer
Family and Home Effects. . . . . . . . 5 Research Overview
technology access when resources are
Social and Community Effects. . . . 5 severely constrained. While PC labs A variety of studies have evaluated the
Economic Development. . . . . . . . . . 6 provide some exposure to technology, impact of eLearning and concluded that—
they limit teachers’ ability to incorpo- supported by holistic approaches that
Indirect Impact: Economic Benefits rate technology into the curriculum, include appropriate policies, infrastructure,
of a Better-Educated Workforce. . 6 and often are used only to teach professional development, and curri-
2
Education Transformation . . . . . . . . . 7 computer literacy. cula—eLearning can help produce positive
outcomes. However, despite a large body
Looking Forward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 • Classroom eLearning brings PCs into
of research evidence, there are no longitu-
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 the classroom, typically via systems
dinal, randomized trials conclusively linking
stationed at the back of the classroom
eLearning with positive learner outcomes.
or computers on wheels (COWs) that
Reasons may range from economics to
are shared by different classrooms.
ethics—if you have a limited budget for
Students have a dedicated device for
educational interventions, do you spend
part of the school day, with the focus
the money on the students or evaluations?
on using PCs to enhance learning
So, while it’s important not to overstate
across the curriculum and not simply
what the research shows, an emerging
to develop technology skills.
body of evidence strongly suggests that
• One-to-one (1:1) eLearning provides effective eLearning can produce promising
each teacher and student with a dedi- effects. Research also seems to indicate
cated laptop for use at school and, in that a more technology-rich environment
delivers greater impacts.
The Positive Impact of eLearning - 2012 UPDATE

In reviewing the research, we have found skills (38 percent).” (IESD, U.S.) school experience. Blended learning is when
many positive educational impacts result- a student learns partially through a formal
ing from effective integration of ICT in • In a study of the educational impacts education environment away from home
classroom teaching and learning. From of the Berkshire Wireless Learning and at least in part through online delivery
these results, it is easy to conclude that Initiative (BWLI), teachers overwhelm- with some element of student control over
the potential of ICT and 1:1 student and ingly reported improvements in time, place, path, and/or pace.
teacher computing provides noticeable student engagement and motivation
• The International Development Bank
promise for transforming teaching and resulting from their participation
has observed multiple justifications for
learning, provided sufficient implementa- in a pilot program that provided 1:1
implementing 1:1 programs:
tion strategies are followed. technology access to all students and
1) improving economic competitiveness
teachers across five public and private
For the purpose of this research review, by preparing students for a technology-
middle schools in western Massa-
we’ve organized the findings around five saturated workplace through educa-
chusetts. Teacher survey responses
major areas of benefit: student learning, tional and social initiatives, 2) creating
indicate that 83 percent of the teach-
teaching and administration, family and equity of access to digital resources
ers thought engagement had improved
home, social and community, and economic and reducing the digital divide, and
for their traditional students, com-
development. The studies we cite repre- 3) increasing the quality of education
pared to 84 percent for at-risk/low
sent examples rather than an exhaustive through new practices such as student-
achieving students, and 71 percent
list. Detailed references may be found in centered learning.
for high achieving students. Similar to
the bibliography at end of this white paper. (Severin & Capota, Global)
the results on student engagement,
teachers overwhelmingly found that • Blended learning provides a person-
Student Learning
the 1:1 pilot program enhanced their alized experience that allows each
students’ motivation. 76 percent of 1:1 student to work at his or her own pace,
Studies on effective integration of technol-
teachers reported student motiva- supplementing the school curriculum.
ogy in education show the opportunities
tion improved for their low achieving By leveraging technology, blended-
ICT provides to help increase student
students compared to 73 percent for learning programs can let students 33
engagement, motivation, and attendance—
traditional students and 59 percent learn at their own pace, use preferred
key requirements for learning. The poten-
for high achieving students. (Bebell & learning modalities, and receive
tial for eLearning to improve performance
Kay, U.S.) frequent and timely feedback on their
on core subjects and foster the develop-
performance for a far higher quality
ment of 21st century skills in mature and Greater Technology Integration, learning experience. Online programs
emerging economies depends on the Greater Benefits can capture student performance data
schools ability to model student-centered,
The effects of 1:1 eLearning appear to in real-time across the school, allowing
highly personalized learning environments.
increase as technology is more deeply teachers more time to help students
integrated into the educational experience who need it. (Horn et al, U.S.)
Engagement, Motivation, and
Attendance and students and teachers have technology • In addition to the more personalized,
access throughout the day. learner-centric academic pathway,
• Elementary teachers indicate the students and parents express interest
Personalized Learning
greatest impact on student success in online and blended learning environ-
may be attributed to their motivation Technology enables new learning experi- ments due to the opportunity to offer
to learn (62 percent vs. 44 percent for ences when combined with the traditional expanded course options and address
high school teachers). (Project Tomor-
row, U.S.)

• Responses from 388 district technol-


ogy directors indicate that about half
of those surveyed in a recent study
on teacher Web 2.0 use reported an
increase in students’ familiarity with
technology. Similarly, almost half of
these teachers indicated that the
students are more motivated to learn
as a result of Web 2.0 use in their dis-
trict. Other outcomes identified in the
study include: an increase in student
academic engagement (39 percent),
and improved students’ collaboration
The Positive Impact of eLearning - 2012 UPDATE

scheduling concerns. When asked about for ICT competencies for students. and using ICT). (Universidad Autónoma
why they would like to take an online Fifteen of 21 countries reported ICT of Barcelona, Spain)
class, middle school students identified standards for students that were
• In one two-year study of upper
a desire to be in control of their own either embedded in other academic
elementary classrooms with
learning (45 percent), to get extra help content standards or in separately
1:1 computing access, students
articulated documents. (U.S. Dept. of
in a challenging subject (44 percent), outperformed non-laptop students on
Education, 2011, Global)
and to work at their own pace (42 English Language Arts (ELA) literary
percent). Today, five times as many • A meta-analysis of 50 study effects response and analysis and writing
parents stated they would incorporate found students in online conditions strategies (Suhr et al., U.S.). Similarly,
online classes into their vision of the ul- performed modestly better, on another study of Texas’ 1:1 laptop pilot
timate school for their child, an increase average, than those learning the investigated the extent to which a
same material through traditional sample of middle schools successfully
from those who responded in a similar
face-to-face instruction. In addition, implemented a 1:1 program as well
way in 2008. (Project Tomorrow, U.S.)
the same study found that blended as the relationship between the
• An analysis across 13 countries inte- instruction, combining online and implementation strength at the
grating ICT into specific classrooms face-to-face elements, had a larger school, teacher, and student levels and
found that teachers, whose students advantage relative to purely face-to- students’ reading and mathematics
face instruction than did purely online achievement. It was students’ use
have lab and classroom access to ICT,
instruction. (U.S. Dept. of Education, of laptops outside of school for
or have a 1:1 environment, were both
2010, Global) homework and learning games
significantly more likely to use ICT than showing the strongest implementation
their peers who only have access to a • In most classes that were observed,
predictor of achievement. (Shapeley et
computer lab. This finding suggests students displayed basic use of ICT
al., U.S.)
that having some flexibility in where in their schools such as conducting
Internet searches, performing Technology plays three important roles
students can access the Internet
routine skills or completing exams. in transforming schools into systems that
enables teachers to use more ICT with
However, innovative uses of ICT in employ these key principles of a sound
their students. (Light & Pierson, Global) the classrooms afforded new learning education environment: engaging content,
4
• A recent study of technology and stu- opportunities previously unavailable exploration and analysis that deepen
dent achievement indicates that when such as analyzing data or information, learning, and high-quality teaching, all
accessing information not available aligned to assessment and accountability.
implemented properly, schools with a
in print, and using ICT to collaborate Technology’s first role is as a learning tool
1:1 student-computer ratio outperform
with other students to construct for more student-centered learning. It’s
all other schools both academically project based learning activities. (ITL second role is to enable data collection to
and in reduced disciplinary actions and Research, Global) better understand and inform educational
dropout rates with increased student and instructional decision making. Third,
graduation rates. (Greaves et al, U.S.) • Results from a two year study of a
technology plays an undeniable role in
pilot program for tablet PCs in the
transforming political, social, cultural, civic,
classroom indicated that using tablet
and economic systems around the world.
Performance PC’s requires more collaboration
Therefore, education decision makers
and project-based work. In addition,
must recognize it is an enabling force
• In a study across multiple countries teachers’ perceptions overwhelmingly
behind globalization, knowledge work, and
with high-performing education indicated that certain student
entrepreneurship. (Metiri Group, Global)
systems designed to learn from their competencies related to 21st century
experiences with ICT, researchers skills were improved for their students It is critical to consider the multiple
found that a majority of countries (autonomy, organizing, selecting components of effective ICT use in schools
studied have established ICT standards information, searching for information, beyond the student and understand the
The Positive Impact of eLearning - 2012 UPDATE

importance of holistic planning, with Attitudes and Productivity Family and Home Effects
attention to access, policies, connectivity,
• A teacher’s effectiveness can be Parental involvement and other home
professional development, and curriculum,
improved through effective ICT use. effects are often secondary, if not
in order to achieve desired benefits.
Nearly a majority of teachers across peripheral, to the goals of eLearning
all grade levels responded that they deployment. Nevertheless, eLearning does
Teaching and Administrative
are more productive as a result of seem to produce some positive effects in
Outcomes technology use. Almost two-thirds of the home.
Researchers have reported that issuing secondary teachers and 56 percent
laptops to teachers, or helping them of elementary teachers say they are • Similarly, analysis of PISA results
purchase laptops, can empower them to better organized as a result of the indicates that computer use at school
teach better, increase lesson planning use of technology in their classroom. appeared to have little impact on
and preparation productivity, gain a more When considering how many years results, while using a computer at
positive attitude about their work, and of experience a teacher has, 68 home had a more marked impact on
improve efficiency of management and percent of teachers with 1 to 3 years results. “To help students at school,
administration tasks. of experience say that technology computer use should be integrated
has increased their effectiveness into curricula and more invested in
Student-Centered Teaching by making them more productive. training teachers to use them for
and Preparation (Project Tomorrow, U.S.) teaching and to help students learn,”
• Results of a study to investigate says the Organization for Economic
• An analysis across 13 countries Co-Operation and Development. (OECD,
any change in student teachers’ integrating ICT into specific classrooms
intentions and actions in integrating Global)
highlights the importance of key
technology into their teaching contextual factors that enable • Student technology use is more
following participation in a course to teachers to be more successful prevalent at home. Students are
provide more pedagogical knowledge integrating technology into their using technology at home even when
about how to integrate the technology teaching strategies: easy access to homework does not require it as 86
in their future teaching showed ICT resources for their students and percent of students say they use
increases in each of the following: receiving adequate support. (Light & more technology outside of school 5
their intentions to use ICT for student- Pierson, Global) than in class, 94 percent of students
centered learning, their intentions say they use technology to study or
to be a facilitator in class, and their Management and Administration work on class assignments at home,
confidence level in playing a leadership • Administrators report using a wide while just 46 percent of faculty say
role in integrating ICT in schools. (Choy variety of technology tools and they regularly assign homework
et al., Global) services for their professional tasks. that requires the use of technology
• Although results of specific Almost all administrators at 99 percent (CDW-G, U.S.)
implementation and outcomes of the are tapping into communications
1:1 initiative varied, teachers reported tools to connect with peers or Social and Community Effects
that within months of the initial parents. At 66 percent, slightly more
student implementation, teacher and administrators are creating multi- Technology access enables dynamic
student use of technology increased media presentations than teachers. opportunities for research, collaboration,
dramatically across the curriculum Administrators are also demonstrating problem solving, and communication
in nearly all of the participating some advanced technology skills by beyond the formal school environment.
classrooms. On average, teachers participating in webinars (66 percent) Two areas that illustrate these rapid
reported widespread adoption of new and professional online communities changes in skill development are from
and novel approaches across their (60 percent). (Project Tomorrow, U.S.) library technology use and exploration into
traditional curriculum. (Bebell & Kay, the benefits of game-based learning.
• Adoption of learning management
U.S.) systems offers new possibilities for • At-risk and low-achieving students,
• The quality of the type of work a managing courses and delivering and students whose parents do not
teacher assigns strongly predicts the instruction, and often online have a bachelor’s degree, experience
quality of the work that a student instruction. Learning management greater positive impact than other
completes. Based on the rubrics for systems (LMS), also known as groups when 1:1 eLearning is
learning activities of 21st century curriculum or course management deployed. For example, the Texas
skills, over 90 percent of the variance systems, are platforms that offer Technology Immersion Pilot showed
in student work scores was due discrete digital spaces for courses that economically disadvantaged
not to differences in the students in which teachers and students can students reached proficiency levels
but differences in the classroom upload or download material, create matching the skills of advantaged
learning activities the students content, and respond to one another’s control students. (Texas Center for
completed within the classroom. (SRI materials in blogs, wikis, and discussion Educational Research, U.S.)
International, Global) forums. (U.S. Dept. of Education,
• A qualitative study focused on two
2011, Global)
U.S. schools with high percentages
of immigrant and/or impoverished
The Positive Impact of eLearning - 2012 UPDATE

students. It analyzed the use of 1:1 development in two ways: by direct job aware of the relationship between
eLearning to help English language creation as governments procure the economic development and the
learners develop academic literacy. At PCs, networks, software, and services to skill development of their youth.
an elementary school, Latino fourth- support the eLearning deployment; and (Mourshed et al, Global)
grade students used laptops for pre- indirectly, by developing a better
• The numerous reports available from
and post-reading. At a middle school, educated workforce.
the OECD show that better educational
immigrant and refugee students used
Achieving a workforce that is proficient outcomes can be a strong predictor of
laptops in community projects that
in the use of technologies is seen as economic growth, however, a country’s
required independent reading and
fundamental for meeting the labor wealth and spending on education
research. At both schools, students
demands of the new economy, and a alone is not a guarantee for better
achieved reading test scores that were
way of increasing the productivity of educational outcomes. “On average,
higher than their state averages, and
that workforce. The OECD estimates the between schools, the percentage of
the middle school students’ writing
demand for employees with technology the variance in student performance
scores were above average as well.
skills is growing at a pace that most explained by a school’s socio-economic
(Warschauer, U.S.)
labor markets struggle to satisfy, stating background is smaller in digital
• In studies of students with disabilities, that approximately 16 million people reading (48.4 percent) than in print
researchers have observed improved are employed by the ICT sector, and reading (56.8 percent). In contrast,
student self-esteem, increased representing approximately 6 percent of within schools, the percentage of
motivation and ability to work the OECD business sector employment. the variance in student performance
independently, and other academic Furthermore, the estimate is that this explained by students’ socio-economic
achievements such as improved sector is growing faster than most other background is larger in digital reading
quality and quantity of student business sectors. (OECD, 2010b). (7.4 percent) than in print reading (5.5
writing. (Harris, U.S.) percent).” (OECD, Global)
• The current strategic plans for ICT
A number of studies suggest that, from in education across a number of Looking at the digital divide within the U.S.,
a long-term perspective, a wide array countries include what is considered one study found that socio-economically
of social and community benefits are to be the importance of technology- disadvantaged students who have no or
6 associated with improved education. These related skills for success in today’s limited access to ICT at home have to spend
benefits include reduced criminal activity, global workforce. These policies more time looking for ICT resources outside
reduced reliance on welfare and other state the importance of all students the home. As a result, they have that much
social programs, increased charitable giving acquiring a solid grounding in ICT as a less time to finish the tasks required of
and volunteer activity—even attainment prerequisite for economic and social them. These disadvantages, in turn, make
of desired family size and improved health equity. Furthermore, educational use such students less efficient ICT users. They
for the individual and his or her family. of ICT is considered an important generally have few skills in searching for
(Riddell, Global) Knowing the many ways in means to promote greater social information online, and are also less able
which eLearning can improve education, it’s equity and the effective use of ICT to identify information that is relevant to
intriguing to consider that eLearning may to improve the quality of teaching the task at hand and to determine whether
indirectly enhance these areas as well. and learning. These services include that information is credible.
educational content, technical and (Robinson, U.S.)
Economic Development pedagogical support, research,
evaluation, and monitoring. (U.S. Indirect Impact: Economic Benefits
So far, we’ve discussed research showing Department of Education, 2011,
of a Better-Educated Workforce
how eLearning improves educational Global)
achievement. Now we turn to studies that • The recent economic crisis has A 2006 OECD report revealed a positive
examine how improved achievement can been credited with bringing about correlation between high economic
affect a nation’s economic prospects. For change. Many initiatives into school and productivity growth with high
many countries, economic development system reform are designed either levels of investment in ICT as a percent
is the driving reason behind eLearning to mitigate the potential ill effects of GDP. Investments in ICT usually
investments. of the crisis or to take advantage have direct demand impact on local
of new opportunities. Leaders telecommunications providers, hardware
Recent examples indicate that eLearning
engaged in these efforts are producers, software providers, and service
investments can improve economic
providers for training. A look at some Intel
Learning Services projects provides insight
into how these investments might stir
economic activity.
For example, a 2011 study conducted by
Intel in partnership with Dalberg Global
Development Advisors to evaluate the
effectiveness of Intel Learning Series in
Brazil showed that $60M of government
investments in computer manufacturing
The Positive Impact of eLearning - 2012 UPDATE

Education Transformation
• Criticism of ICT based education reform efforts consistently show that ineffective implementation undermines student learning
opportunities and academic impact. As a result, increasing attention to the importance of measuring implementation efforts before
assessing outcomes has provided insight into the nature of model implementation strategies, school change process, and the rela-
tionship to changing the whole school, including changes to the curriculum, and delivery of instruction. (Shapeley, U.S.)
• Research on effective integration of ICT in education illustrates that optimal learning results following the investment in technology
require much more than the mere introduction of technology with software and web resources aligned with the curriculum. Effec-
tive technology integration requires the triangulation of content, sound principles of learning, and high-quality teaching—all of which
must be aligned with assessment and accountability. (Metiri Group, Global)
• Inexperienced teachers are overwhelmed by classroom challenges such as lack of subject matter knowledge, classroom manage-
ment, and diverse student needs. Results from a recent study on teachers new to the classroom suggest that these teachers may
not have sufficient pedagogical skills and knowledge in planning to integrate technology in their lessons. (Choy et al., Global)
• Teachers often report that the majority of the professional development they receive focuses on ICT skills rather than ICT integra-
tion. There is a need for professional development courses that emphasize ICT integration into instruction to close the gap between
the rhetoric of change and the realities of teacher understanding that translates into implementation. (SRI International, 2010)
• Lack of teacher knowledge about how to use the technologies effectively was the most frequently cited human-related barrier to
adoption. The most often cited technology-related barriers included student safety concerns and limited support systems, including
technology personnel. (IESD, U.S.).
• It is estimated that positive effects of laptop use appeared only after the second year of a recent ICT implementation study due to
the steep learning curve required for both teachers and students experiencing a new 1:1 classroom. Interestingly, teachers ex-
plained that the first year required developing basic computer skills while their experiences the second year allowed them to focus
7
their teaching more on content and learning. (Suhr, U.S.)
• Administrators who have the responsibility of empowering schools with technology face formidable challenges. In addition to
ongoing funding issues associated with acquiring, implementing and maintaining the technology infrastructure, both principals and
district administrators reported the challenges of staff professional development, technology support, and student safety online.
(Project Tomorrow, U.S.)
• Data collected from schools that implement ICT strategies more successfully reported the keys to their successful implementation
of Technology Immersion were committed leaders, thorough planning, teacher buy-in, preliminary professional development for
teachers, and a commitment to the transformation of student learning. (Shapeley, U.S.)
The Positive Impact of eLearning - 2012 UPDATE

resulted in job creation, higher wages, Looking Forward


and increased revenue generation
opportunities for the local businesses Technological advances affect every aspect
involved. The investments, made over of the modern society. In an increasingly
four years, were intended to promote digitized world, individuals who develop
educational transformation by improving the proficiencies necessary to effectively
access through technology and to address utilize these digital technologies will be
high unemployment and underemployment at an increasing advantage in educational
for over 760,000 students. Results from opportunities, workforce development,
the 2011 study show that: and participating fully in society. While
few rigorous experimental or controlled
• An estimated 650 jobs at four-times quasi-experimental studies on eLearning’s
the national minimum wage benefits have been published, a
were created. critical mass of evidence indicates that
• Revenue grew 15-20 percent for local investments in eLearning can deliver
OEMs and ISVs involved in substantial positive effects.
the program. For stakeholders engaged in discussions in
• Development of intellectual capital education reform, it is critical that a wide
in education-related technology spectrum of research be considered to
manufacturing has opened up new help inform national policies as well as local
export market opportunities for local school plans.
OEMs and ISVs. The Intel World Ahead Program, Intel
• Telcos received funding for Internet Education Market Platform Group, and Intel
service in schools and homes to Corporate Affairs education initiatives
support 1:1 computer initiatives. can help you design and deploy effective
eLearning programs to transform
8 • Families of the students who were education in your country.
allocated the computers also received
affordable internet service at home, Contact your Intel representative,
allowing more than just students to or visit us on the Web at:
benefit from access. www.intel.com/worldahead
The strong results were also due in part www.intellearningseries.com
to import restrictions on PCs, which www.intel.com/education
created an opportunity to develop private
manufacturing capabilities locally. A similar
study on $15M of government investments
in Intel Learning Services in Macedonia
yielded similar results despite relatively
lenient restrictions on PC imports,
especially impacting the public sector.
• About 90 jobs were created across
multiple sectors.
• Wages for these new roles were likely
in-line with the rest of the computer
industry in the Balkans, which is 1.5
times the national average wage.
• Local businesses benefit and develop
intellectual capital that can
be exported.
In addition to the direct economic benefits,
ICT investment that enables teachers and
students to develop strong competency
in the teaching and using of 21st century
skills should also create a more competitive
workforce in the long run.
The Positive Impact of eLearning - 2012 UPDATE

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