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Gantt chart

“Gantt” redirects here. For other uses, see Gantt (disam- creation of complex and elaborate Gantt charts. The first
biguation). desktop applications were intended mainly for project
A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, adapted by Karol managers and project schedulers. With the advent of the
Internet and increased collaboration over networks at the
WEEKS: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 21 22 23 end of the 1990s, Gantt charts became a common fea-
WBS 1 Summary Element 1 57% complete ture of web-based applications, including collaborative
WBS 1.1 Activity A 75% complete groupware.
WBS 1.2 Activity B 67% complete
WBS 1.3 Activity C 50% complete
WBS 1.4 Activity D 0% complete 2 Example
WBS 2 Summary Element 2 0% complete

WBS 2.1 Activity E In the following table there are seven tasks, labeled A
0% complete

WBS 2.2 Activity F through G. Some tasks can be done concurrently (A and
0% complete

WBS 2.3 Activity G 0% complete B) while others cannot be done until their predecessor
TODAY task is complete (C and D cannot begin until A is com-
plete). Additionally, each task has three time estimates:
A Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in the optimistic time estimate (O), the most likely or nor-
red) and percent complete indications. mal time estimate (M), and the pessimistic time estimate
(P). The expected time (TE) is estimated using the beta
Adamiecki in 1896 and independently by Henry Gantt probability distribution for the time estimates, using the
in the 1910s,[1] that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt formula (O + 4M + P) ÷ 6.
charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the termi-
nal elements and summary elements of a project. Termi- Once this step is complete, one can draw a Gantt chart or
nal elements and summary elements comprise the work a network diagram.
breakdown structure of the project. Modern Gantt charts
also show the dependency (i.e., precedence network) re-
lationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used
to show current schedule status using percent-complete
shadings and a vertical “TODAY” line as shown here.
Although now regarded as a common charting technique, A Gantt chart created using Microsoft Project (MSP). Note (1) the
Gantt charts were considered revolutionary when first critical path is in red, (2) the slack is the black lines connected
introduced.[2] This chart is also used in information tech- to non-critical activities, (3) since Saturday and Sunday are not
nology to represent data that has been collected. work days and are thus excluded from the schedule, some bars
on the Gantt chart are longer if they cut through a weekend.

1 Historical development
The first known tool of this type was developed in 1896
3 Further applications
by Karol Adamiecki, who called it a harmonogram.[3]
Adamiecki did not publish his chart until 1931, however, Gantt charts can be used for scheduling generic resources
and only in Polish, which limited both its adoption and as well as for their use in project management. They
recognition of his authorship. The chart is named af- can also be used for scheduling production processes and
ter Henry Gantt (1861–1919), who designed his chart employee rostering.[7] In the latter context, they may also
around the years 1910–1915.[4][5] be known as timebar schedules. Gantt charts can be used
to track shifts or tasks and also vacations or other types
One of the first major applications of Gantt charts was by of out-of-office time.[8] Specialized employee scheduling
the United States during World War I, at the instigation software may output schedules as a Gantt chart, or they
of General William Crozier.[6] may be created through popular desktop publishing soft-
In the 1980s, personal computers allowed for widespread ware.


4 See also
• Critical path method

• Float (project management)

• Henry Gantt

• List of project management software, which in-

cludes specific Gantt Chart software.
• Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

5 References
[1] Weaver, Patrick (April 4–6, 2006). “A Brief History of
Scheduling.” Mosaic Project Services Pty Ltd.

[2] Wilson, James M. (1 September 2003). “Gantt charts:

A centenary appreciation” (PDF). European Journal
of Operational Research 149 (2). doi:10.1016/S0377-
2217(02)00769-5. Retrieved 2013-07-28.

[3] “The Harmonogram of Karol Adamiecki – Tags:

nection.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2014-06-04.

[4] H.L. Gantt, Work, Wages and Profit, published by the

Engineering Magazine, New York, 1910; republished as
Work, Wages and Profits, Easton, Pennsylvania, Hive
Publishing Company, 1974, ISBN 0-87960-048-9.

[5] Peter W. G. Morris, The Management of Projects, Thomas

Telford, 1994, ISBN 0-7277-2593-9, Google Print, p.18

[6] Wallace Clark and Henry Gantt (1922) The Gantt chart,
a working tool of management. New York, Ronald Press.

[7] Triant G. Flouris; Dennis Lock (2009). Managing Avia-

tion Projects from Concept to Completion. Ashgate Pub-
lishing, Ltd. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-0-7546-7615-7.

[8] “Availability Planning”. CEITON. Retrieved 2014-06-


6 External links
• Long-running discussion regarding limitations of
the Gantt chart format, and alternatives, on Edward
Tufte's website
• PlusX Excel Add-In supporting automatic Gantt
Chart creation

7 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

7.1 Text
• Gantt chart Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gantt_chart?oldid=724522077 Contributors: SimonP, Heron, Hephaestos, Ubiquity,
Michael Hardy, Nixdorf, Wapcaplet, Tregoweth, Ellywa, Ronz, Den fjättrade ankan~enwiki, Darkwind, Ijon, Mkoval, Susurrus, Ehn,
Mydogategodshat, JidGom, Itai, Chuunen Baka, Robbot, RedWolf, Sbisolo, Tea2min, Alan Liefting, Jackol, Piotrus, Tomzi, Kmccoy,
Archer3, TrbleClef, Mecanismo, MarkS, S.K., Etz Haim, Kine, Grotte, Maurreen, SpeedyGonsales, Haham hanuka, Mdd, Zachlipton,
Alansohn, Arthena, Jeltz, Kotasik, Mac Davis, Spangineer, Velella, Uucp, Saxifrage, Oleg Alexandrov, Karnesky, Thorpe, Myleslong,
Pol098, Jeff3000, Skybum, Bruno Unna, LogicalDash, Graham87, Hulagutten, Ligulem, Graibeard, Yamamoto Ichiro, SNIyer12, Math-
bot, Crazycomputers, AndriuZ, Preslethe, Chobot, Gwernol, YurikBot, RobotE, Atropus32, Sasuke Sarutobi, Hydrargyrum, Manop,
Gaius Cornelius, Thane, Jpbowen, Eclipsed, Georgewilliamherbert, C i d, GraemeL, Katieh5584, Kingboyk, GrinBot~enwiki, Smack-
Bot, Brossow, Gilliam, Octahedron80, UNV, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Sergio.ballestrero, Chrisirwin, Psykocyber, Rrburke, VMS
Mosaic, Whpq, Jmlk17, Dream out loud, Black Butterfly, Dave314159, Seriema, Kuru, MagnaMopus, Tlesher, Travis99, IronGargoyle,
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Requestion, FlyingToaster, Yaris678, Mato, Gogo Dodo, ST47, Naudefj, Gramlin, Gimmetrow, Malleus Fatuorum, GentlemanGhost,
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floater, Clust4a, Jackfork, Leesly, Redfirefly, Economist332, Mahjong33, Telecineguy, Rememberme123, Van Parunak, Kenmckinley,
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ter, Train78, Melcombe, Ken123BOT, Johnenew, Denisarona, Stillwaterising, Bonkling, ClueBot, Snigbrook, The Thing That Should Not
Be, Lizzlizzlizz, Trivialist, PMDrive1061, PatrickWeaver, Excirial, Rhododendrites, Drawn Some, Thingg, Tanetris, Versus22, Teenage
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teazza, Drchriswilliams, Nmanos1986, Naughtyphil, U2fanboi, ProofHub1, Zmiju2, Mseeling, Khan.btbk, Belltoes, Alex80070, Daniel
kenneth, PlusX.me, Morelions and Anonymous: 404

7.2 Images
• File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contribu-
tors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:GanttChartAnatomy.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/GanttChartAnatomy.svg License: Public
domain Contributors:
• GanttChartAnatomy.png Original artist: GanttChartAnatomy.png: Original uploader was Garrybooker at en.wikipedia
• File:Pert_example_gantt_chart.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/73/Pert_example_gantt_chart.gif License:
Cc-by-sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Vector version of Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Fvasconcellos (talk · contribs),
based on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber

7.3 Content license

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