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An artificial neural network (ANN), usually called neural network (NN), is a mathematical

model or computational model that is inspired by the structure and/or functional aspects of

biological neural networks. A neural network consists of an interconnected group of artificial

neurons, and it processes information using a connectionist approach to computation. They are

powerful tools for modelling, especially when the underlying data relationship is unknown.

ANNs can identify and learn correlated patterns between input data sets and corresponding target

values. After training, ANNs can be used to predict the outcome of new independent input data.

ANNs have been applied to many geotechnical engineering problems such as in pile capacity

prediction, modelling soil behaviour, site characterisation, earth retaining structures, settlement

of structures, slope stability, design of tunnels and underground openings, liquefaction, soil

permeability and hydraulic conductivity, soil compaction, soil swelling and classification of

soils.

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Figure1 show three layer neural network consist first layer has input neurons, second layer of

hidden neurons, third layer of output neurons. Supervised neural networks are trained in order to

produce desired outputs in response to training set of inputs. It is trained by providing it with

input and matching output patterns.

It used in the modelling and controlling of dynamic systems, classifying noisy data, and

predicting future events. Unsupervised neural networks, on the other hand, are trained by letting

the network continually adjusting itself to new input. It is or Self-organisation in which an

(output) unit is trained to respond to clusters of pattern within the inputs. Reinforcement

Learning is be considered as an intermediate form of the above two types of learning. Here the

learning machine does some action on the environment and gets a feedback response from the

environment.

For an artificial neuron, the weight is a number, and represents the synapse. A negative weight

reflects an inhibitory connection, while positive values designate excitatory connections. All

inputs are summed altogether and modified by the weights and refers as a linear combination.

Finally, an activation function controls the amplitude of the output. For example, an acceptable

range of output is usually between 0 and 1, or it could be -1 and 1.

A neuron is a real function of the input vector (x 0 , x 2 , … x k ). The out put is obtained as f(y j )

graphical presentation of neuron is given in figure 2. Mathematically a Multi-Layer Perceptron

network is a function consisting of compositions of weighted sums of the functions

corresponding to the neurons.

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Figure 2: Graphical presentation of neuron in ANN

There are several types of architecture of NNs. However, the two most widely used NNs Feed

forward networks and Recurrent networks. In a feed forward network, information flows in

one direction along connecting pathways, from the input layer via the hidden layers to the final

output layer. There is no feedback (loops) i.e., the output of any layer does not affect that same

or preceding layer. Feed-forward neural networks, where the data ow from input to output

units is strictly feedforward. The data processing can extend over multiple (layers of) units, but

no feedback connections are present.

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Figure 3: A multi-layer feed forward neural network

These networks differ from feed forward network architectures in the sense that there is at least

one feedback loop. Thus, in these networks, for example, there could exist one layer with

feedback connections as shown in figure below. There could also be neurons with self feed back

links, i.e. the output of a neuron is fed back into itself as input.

Recurrent neural networks that do contain feedback connections. In some cases, the activation

values of the units undergo a relaxation process such that the neural network will evolve to a

stable state in which these activations do not change anymore. In other applications, the change

of the activation values of the output neurons are significant, such that the dynamical behaviour

constitutes the output of the neural network (Pearlmutter, 1990).

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Figure 4: A recurrent neural network

The back-propagation algorithm is a non-linear extension of the least mean squares (LMS)

algorithm for multi-layer perceptrons. It is the most widely used of the neural network paradigms

and has been successfully applied in many fields of model-free function estimation. The back

propagation network (BPN) is expensive computationally, especially during the training process.

Properly trained BPN tends to produce reasonable results when presented with new data set

inputs.

A BPN is usually layered, with each layer fully interconnected to the layers below and above it.

The first layer is the input layer, the only layer in the network that can receive external input. The

second layer is the hidden layer, in which the processing units are interconnected to the layers

below and above it. The third layer is the output layer. Each unit of the hidden layer is

interconnected with the units of the output layer. Units are not interconnected to other units

within the same layer. Each interconnection is assigned an associative connection strength,

expressed as weight (Figure 1). Weights are adjusted during the training of the network. In BPN,

the training is supervised, in which case the network is presented with target values for each

input pattern. The input space of the network is considered to be linearly separable.

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The various steps in developing a neural network model are: summarized below & the example

is shown by metlab software.

Variable selection

The input variables important for modeling variable(s) under study are selected by suitable

variable selection procedures.

The data set is divided into three distinct sets called training, testing and validation sets. The

training set is the largest set and is used by neural network to learn patterns present in the data.

The testing set is used to evaluate the generalization ability of a supposedly trained network. A

final check on the performance of the trained network is made using validation set.

Neural network architecture defines its structure including number of hidden layers, number of

hidden nodes and number of output nodes etc. Number of hidden layers: The hidden layer(s)

provide the network with its ability to generalize. In theory, a neural network with one hidden

layer with a sufficient number of hidden neurons is capable of approximating any continuous

function. In practice, neural network with one and occasionally two hidden layers are widely

used and have to perform very well.

• Number of hidden nodes: There is no magic formula for selecting the optimum number of

hidden neurons. However, some thumb rules are available for calculating number of hidden

neurons. A rough approximation can be obtained by the geometric pyramid rule proposed by

Masters (1993). For a three layer network with n input and m output neurons, the hidden layer

would have sqrt(n*m) neurons.

• Activation function: Activation functions are mathematical formula that determine the output

of a processing node. Each unit takes its net input and applies an activation function to it. Non

linear functions have been used as activation functions such as logistic, tanh etc. Transfer

functions such as sigmoid are commonly used because they are nonlinear and continuously

differentiable which are desirable for network learning.

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Evaluation criteria

The most common error function minimized in neural networks is the sum of squared errors.

ther error functions offered by different software include least absolute deviations, least fourth

powers, asymmetric least squares and percentage differences.

Training a neural network to learn patterns in the data involves iteratively presenting it with

examples of the correct known answers. The objective of training is to find the set of weights

between the neurons that determine the global minimum of error function. This involves decision

regarding the number of iteration i.e., when to stop training a neural network and the selection of

learning rate.

Figure 5:

The various reserche have used ANN to predict to the slope slabiling or slope failure or factor of

safety. The Back propagation neural network is used to calculate the factor of safety. Nine input

parameters and one output parameter are used in the analysis. The output parameter is the factor

of the safety of the slopes, the input parameters are the height of slope, the inclination of slope,

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the height of water level, the depth of firm base, the cohesion of soil, the friction angle of soil,

the unit weight of soil, but the important input parameters are horizontal and vertical seismic

coefficients.

Slope failures are complex natural phenomena that constitute a serious natural hazard in many

countries. To prevent or mitigate the landslide damage, slope-stability analyses and stabilization

require an understanding and evaluation of the processes that govern the behavior of the slopes.

The factor of safety based on an appropriate geotechnical model as an index of stability, is

required in order to evaluate slope stability. Many variables are involved in slope stability

evaluation and the calculation of the factor of safety requires geometrical data, physical data on

the geologic materials and their shear-strength parameters (cohesion and angle of internal

friction), information on pore-water pressures, etc.

The determination of the non-linear behaviour of multivariate dynamic systems often presents a

challenging and demanding problem. The impact of these parameters on the stability of slopes is

investigats through the use of computational tools called neural networks. the input data for

slope stability estimation consist of values of geotechnical and geometrical input parameters. the

network estimates the factor of safety (FS) that can be modelled as a function approximation

problem, or the stability status (S) that can be modelled either as a function approximation

problem or as a classification model. The performance of the network is measured and the results

are compared to those obtained by means of standard analytical methods.

A series of ANNs were created in order to predict the safety factor and estimate stability against

the circular failure mechanism and the wedge failure mechanism.

Ann and fuzzy set could primarily be used in two ways in slope stability. One is prediction of

various strength and physico mechanical properties by previously used properties.

Other is direct prediction of factor of safety or stability based on simulation of huge data set or

incorporating the case studies.

The rock slopes have important role for the design and excavation in various open pit mine and

also civil engineering projects all around the world. Initial the condision and friction angle can be

trained by neural network. input parameter of compressive strength and later on cohesion and

friction angle were calculated by compressive strength and these properties were used as input

for finite difference code to analysing slope stability and determine the factor of safety.

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Rock Properties

Compressive strength as input

Cohesion & friction angle as output

Friction by input

Compressive Strength

Analysis of Slope Stability

Figure 6: Flow Chart to determine the properties and analysis the Slope stability by ANN

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Fuzzy Inference System

Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic and it deals with reasoning that is approximate rather

than fixed and exact. The nature of uncertainty in a slope design is a very important that should

considered. Fuzzy set theory was developed specially to deal with uncertainties that are

nonrandom in nature.

The fuzzy set was first introduced in 1965 by Lofti Zadeh as a mathematical way to represent

linguistic vagueness . It can be considered as a generalization of classical set theory. In a classical

set, an element belongs to or does not belong to a set. That is, the membership of an element is

crisp (0, 1), and an ‘‘A’’ crisp set of real objects are described by a unique membership function

such as X A in fig.3.1 (a).

Contrary, a fuzzy set is a generalization of an ordinary set which assign the degree of

membership for each element to range over the unit interval between 0 and 1 as shown in fig.

3.1(b). In addition, fuzzy set theory can be used for developing rule-based models which

combine physical insights, expert knowledge and numerical data in a transparent way that

closely resembles the real world. An element of the variable can be a member of the fuzzy set

through a membership function that can take values in the range from 0 to 1. Membership

functions (MF) can either be chosen by the user arbitrarily based on the user’s experience or can

also be designed using machine learning methods (e.g., artificial neural networks, genetic

algorithms, etc.). There are different shapes of membership functions; triangular, trapezoidal,

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piecewise-linear, Gaussian, bell shaped, etc. The fuzzy rules provide a system for describing

complex (uncertain, vague) systems by relating input and output parameters using linguistic

variables. A fuzzy if–then rule assumes the form ‘‘if x is A then y is B,’’ where A and B are

linguistic values defined by fuzzy sets on universes of discourse X and Y, respectively.

Fuzzy inference is the process of formulating an input fuzzy set map to an output fuzzy set using

fuzzy logic. In fact, the core section of a fuzzy system is the FIS part, which combines the facts

obtained from the fuzzification with the rule base and conducts the fuzzy reasoning process.

Generally, the basic structure of a FIS consists of three conceptual components, rule base,

database, and reasoning mechanism. A rule base contains a selection of fuzzy rules and a

database defines the membership functions used in the fuzzy rules. A reasoning mechanism

performs the fuzzy reasoning based on the rules and given facts to derive a reasonable output or

conclusion. There are several FISs that have been employed in various applications. The most

commonly used include:

• Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy (TSK) model;

• Tsukamoto fuzzy model;

• Singleton fuzzy model.

The differences between these FISs lie in the consequents of their fuzzy rules, and thus their

aggregation and defuzzification procedures differ accordingly. Defuzzification is a process of

reducing an aggregated (or clipped) fuzzy set into a crisp number, presumably the most

representative value of that fuzzy set interval. There are two methods which are generally used

for defuzzification i.e. Centre of area (Centroid) method and Ranking index method.

The Mamdani Fuzzy model is often used in geotechnical problems because of its simplicity and

effectiveness to handle linguistic variables. Basically, rule base, database and reasoning

mechanism are three conceptual elements of a FIS. The fuzzy rules constitute the rule base and

the database determines the membership functions associated with the inputs parameters to be

used in the rule base while the reasoning mechanism provides the platform to derive an adequate

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conclusion (output) by using fuzzy logic. At this stage the extraction of a crisp set from a fuzzy

set, called defuzzification is performed.

Fuzzy logic provides an inference structure that enables the human reasoning capabilities to be

applied to artificial knowledge-based systems. Fuzzy logic provides a means for converting

linguistic strategy into control actions and thus offers a high-level computation.Fuzzy logic

provides mathematical strength to the emulation of certain perceptual and linguistic attributes

associated with human cognition, whereas the science of neural networks provides a new

computing tool with learning and adaptation capabilities. The theory of fuzzy logic provides an

inference mechanism under cognitive uncertainty, computational neural networks offer exciting

advantages such as learning, adaptation, fault tolerance, parallelism, and generalization.

Table 1: Distribution of the main references according to the fuzzy inference techniques

employed.

papers

classification, geotechnical project scheduling

and cost planning determination geotechnical

parameters, prediction of soil uniaxial

compressive strength, fizzyfication of Chen

plastic model of concrete and rock sawability.

rippability, excavability; rock mass classification

systems, prediction of flyrock in mining surface,

burden, rock fragmentation, backbreak in open-

pit blasting and TBMs thrust and torque

requirement

surface mining, impact hammer performance,

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constitutive modeling, swelling potential of

compacted soils, rock engineering classification

system and rock slope stability assessment

network (ANFIS and other) sand mixtures, angle of shearing resistance of

soils, tunnel boring machine performance

modeling, liquefaction prediction, footing

response modeling, modulus of deformation of

jointed rock masses, slake durability of shaly

rock and landside susceptibility mapping

Algorithms slope stability and decision making in

geotechnical engineering.

logic and inference Ashworth,1985), slope stability (Kacewicz,

1987: Juan et al, 1998), sawability

classification of building stones (Tutmez et al.,

2007) and risk assessment for rock stability

(Wang et al., 2011).

Advanced fuzzy inference Mandani type A new Mandani-based model to predict burden

systems systems from rock geomechanical propertics (Monjezi

& Rezaei, 2011) and Mandani fuzzy inference

model prediction of the blastability designation

of rock (Azimi et al., 2010)

(Jalalifar et al., 2011), rock slope stability

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systems assessment (Chen et al., 2011)

Neural Network of sand mixtures (Calabar et al., 2010) and

prediction of maximum charge per delay in

surface mining (Alipour & Ashtiani,2011).

Systems using Slope stability (Zhang & Lin 2006; Xue et al.

Genetic 2007)

Algorithm

formulation angle of shearing resistance of soils

(Kayadelen et al., 2009)

Venkatachalam,2000)

rock fragmentation (Mishnaevsky &

Schmauder, 1996) and soil-water hysteresis

model for unsaturated sands (Min & Phan,

2010)

Neuro-fuzzy inference systems have been used in many areas in civil engineering applications. A

stability assessment model for epimetamorphic rock slopes has been developed by using

Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for its capacity of dynamic nonlinear

analyses. the inference system is employed to predict the stability of the slope by choosing bulk

density γ, the height H, the inclination β, the shear strength parameters c and ϕ, of the slope as

inputs, while the stability state as output.

In order to forecast the factor of safety (FS) or the status of stability (S) in the case of rock or soil

slopes, the factors that influence FS and S have to be determined. The input layer data consists of

six input parameters that perfect stability in the case of failure. The output layer is composed of

a single output parameter, either the factor of safety FS, or the status of stability.

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This fuzzy methodology enables the engineer to investigate the effect of parameter uncertainty

on the computed stability of a slope in systematic way. The resulting factor of safety fuzzy set

provides more information than does a single, fixed factor of safety value as obtained from

conventional methods. With this approach the variation and possible range of factor of safety

values which reflect uncertainty in the input parameters can be determined.

Shangguan et.al.(2010) has simulated Probabilistic Neural Networks Forecasting the stability of

Slope. Unit weight, Cohesion, Internal friction angle, Slope angle, Slope height and Pore

pressure used as input parameter and factor of safety is simulated as output parameter. Then he

also compare between the estimated and practical states of slope safety with different methods.

ANN Among all data, we 80% used for the training and remaining for validating the prediction

capability The dataset must covers a wide spectrum of soil and seismic parameters. When

preparing input data for a particular site, of primary importance is the recognition of the

conditions which caused the slope to become unstable and the processes which triggered that

movement. From the results presented here, it can be observed that the neural network results are

considerably close to value calculated by Bishop’s classical method. In all cases, it is over 92%

and in most cases, it is over 95%.

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ANN Several important parameters, including total stress, effective stress, angle of slope,

coefficient of cohesion, internal friction angle, and horizontal coefficient of earthquake, were

used as the input parameters, while the slope stability was the output parameter. The results are

compared with the classical methods of limit equilibrium to check the ANN model’s validity.

The application of fuzzy set theory is used to SMR classification by incorporating fuzzy sets and

assesses the stability of rock slope. The Mamdani fuzzy algorithm may be used to construct the

if–then rules for evaluating rock slope stability.

Thus, the FSMR method provides a better assessment of slope stability than other slope stability

classification systems and can also predict of rock slope failure. It is also noted that engineering

judgment is required in the stability analysis, and fuzzy set theory has also been found to be a

useful tool for rock engineers and engineering geologists who study rock slope stability.

is a complicated systematic engineering. A lot of Engineering is related to slope stability, such as

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mining, road and bridge, water conservancy and structure engineering, etc. Its stabilization

directly concerns the safety of engineering. With economical development and large-scale

construction cause, it takes up more and more important place.Based on reviews of evaluation

methods of slope stability, the main research work conducted in this paper is as follows:

(1)Considering the uncertain problems of stability analysis which have the characteristics of

random and fuzziness, the author uses the maximum membership degree principle to analyze and

evaluate the slope stability. Ridge distribution in effect factor of quantity and trapezium

distribution in the effect factor of ration are applied here to construct membership function. The

gradation analysis method is used here to determine the proportion of importance of each effect

factor. The method of two class synthesis assessment is adopted to analyze the stability of slope.

(2)There are eleven effect factors chosen to analyze fuzzily the slope stability. We selected angle

of cut slope, state of underwater, angle between surface of cut slope and major structure plane,

efflorescence, etc. as major factors effect slop stability. The slop stability is assessed by each

factor.

(3)Based on one concrete engineering case, the method of fuzzy analysis is examined, and this

result demonstrates that eleven membership functions, constructed by the author, are reasonable.

So the proportion of importance is reasonable. The membership functions and the distribution of

the proportion of importance can also be applied to analyze the stability of similar slopes.

(4)Put the judgment of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation as the input of neural network by

MATLAB. We transport out the final judgment through the neural network that possess learning

ability.

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