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SDM 5001 SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE

SYSTEMS WORKSHOP – BEER GAME


Supply Change Management
Upstream Downstream

Raw Factory Beer Beer Retailer


Consumers
Suppliers Brewery Distributor Wholesaler Sales

Information Flows
Cash Flows

Supply Chains are dynamic network systems that require effective


co-ordination of information up and down the supply chain

o Factory - manufactures beer


o Distributor - places large orders with factory and get these deliver to
various locations (eg regional centres)
o Wholesaler - orders from distributor smaller quantities to keep
inventory small, minimize transportation costs (eg shipment by
airfreight)
o Retailer - buys from wholesaler and sells to consumer
Supply Chain Distribution Systems
Supply Chain Management as a Distribution Systems
o A systems comprises system elements, interfaces between
elements, and an external system boundary

Retailer
Beer Orders Beer Cases

Factory Distributor Wholesaler


Beer Consumer Market

o Systems Elements
o Interactions
o Interfaces
o Environment
o Functions
o Processes
o Functional Architecture
o Physical Architecture
Situation of Beer Game
Demand Forecast
o Beer is a seasonal and demand rises in the hot season and peaks around
holidays
o Recent demand has been steady at 4 beer cases per week
o Sales are expected to rise with temperature, public holidays, and a sales
promotion

Characteristics of Supply Chain


o Performance Excellence: Customer satisfaction at the lowest total cost
o Collaboration with Supply Chain Partners: Coordinating operating activities

Performance Goal
o As beer cannot be kept for long periods, the goal is to fulfill customer
demand and to minimize costs
o $0.50 inventory holding cost per case per week
(when you have extra beer you cannot sell)
o $1.00 backorder cost per case per week
(if you do not have enough beer to deliver)
Game Moves
Basic Game Rules
o Total 40 weeks
o Each complete round is 1 week

Movements
o Orders (with post it pads)
You receive orders and place your orders top row
o Beer cases are plastic chips
You take your delivery and ship your delivery bottom row
o Put your inventory, shipment, and delivery in their respective containers

Talking is NOT allowed, that is, no interaction among players

Do not try to “game” the system


o Forget everything about this game, if you have played this game before
o Your report will be more interesting when you play naturally!

Record Keeping
o For each week remember to write down incoming delivery, incoming order, your order (in
white columns)
o Always update your inventory calculation and costs

Terminology
o Shipping is OUT from Inventory to Outside
o Delivery is IN from Outside to Inside
Step by Step
ANIMATED WALK THROUGH
Flowchart of
Game
Movements
Five Commands in Three Stages

1a Delivery In Chips Movement


1b Shipment Out

2 Orders In
3 Prepare Shipment Internal Management
4 Check Inventory

5a Advance In Orders Paper Slips


5b Place Out Orders
GENERAL BOARD LAYOUT

To Raw
Customers Materials

Customer Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Production


Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Delay

Current Current Current Current


Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory

Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Production


Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay

RETAILER WHOLESALER DISTRIBUTOR FACTORY


INITIAL STARTING LAYOUT

To Raw
Customers Materials

4
Customer
Orders 4
Orders
Placed 4
Incoming
Orders 4
Orders
Placed 4
Incoming
Orders 4
Orders
Placed 4
Incoming
Orders 4
Orders
Placed
Production
Delay

Current Current Current Current


Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory

Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Production


Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay

RETAILER WHOLESALER DISTRIBUTOR FACTORY

4 Orders Paper Slip


Inventory Chips
STEP 1 A
Receive Incoming DELIVERY DELIVERY IN
To Raw
Customers Materials

Customer Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Production


Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Delay

Current Current Current Current


Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory

Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Production


Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay

RETAILER WHOLESALER DISTRIBUTOR FACTORY

Stock Movement Paper Movements Record Keeping


Move Stock from Your None Record Your New Current
Shipping Delay to Your Inventory
Current Inventory
STEP 1 B
Send Outgoing SHIPMENT SHIPMENT OUT
To Raw
Customers Materials

Customer Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Production


Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Delay

Current Current Current Current


Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory

Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Production


Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay

RETAILER WHOLESALER DISTRIBUTOR FACTORY

Stock Movement Paper Movements Record Keeping


Move Stock from Your None None
Shipping Delay to Left
Hand Neighbour Shipping
Delay
STEP 2
Check Incoming Orders with Current Inventory ORDERS IN
To Raw
Customers Materials

A
Customer
Orders
Orders
Placed B
Incoming
Orders
Orders
Placed C
Incoming
Orders
Orders
Placed D
Incoming
Orders
Orders
Placed
Production
Delay

? ? ? ?
Current Current Current Current
Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory

Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Production


Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay

RETAILER WHOLESALER DISTRIBUTOR FACTORY

If Current Inventory > Incoming Order: Ship Orders (Step 3a)


If Current Inventory < Incoming Order: Ship All Current Inventory, and Record Shortfall
as Backorder (Step 3b)

Stock Movement Paper Movements Record Keeping


None Take Incoming Orders and Record Incoming Orders
Check with Current
Inventory Record
STEP 3 A
Ship ORDERS from Inventory – If Inventory is ENOUGH PREPARE SHIPMENT

To Raw
Customers Materials

Customer Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Production


Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Delay

Current Current Current Current


Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory

Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Production


Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay

RETAILER WHOLESALER DISTRIBUTOR FACTORY

Stock Movement Paper Movements Record Keeping


Move exact number of None Record the Current
stock (same as Incoming Inventory after Shipping
Order) from Current
Inventory to Shipping
Delay
STEP 3 B
Record BACKORDER – if Inventory is NOT ENOUGH

If Inventory is not enough to fulfil Incoming Orders


o Ship whatever available stock (if there is some stock) in Current Inventory and
record the balance unfilled orders as Backorder
o If your Current Inventory is empty, then record the entire Incoming order as
Backorder
o Note that in the next week, you have to ship out the Backorders first once you
received fresh delivery in your Current Inventory

Stock Movement Paper Movements Record Keeping


Move all the stock items None Record the Backorder
from Current Inventory to After Shipping
Shipping Delay (Backorder=Incoming
Order – Shipment + Last
Week Backorder)
STEP 5 A
Advance ORDERS ORDERS OUT
Raw
Materials

Brewery
Incoming Incoming Incoming Orders Production
Brews
Customer Orders Orders Orders
Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Delay

Current Current Current Current


Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory

Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Production


Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay

RETAILER WHOLESALER DISTRIBUTOR FACTORY

Stock Movement Paper Movements Record Keeping


None for retailer, Move LHS Neighbor Orders None
wholesaler and distributor; Placed to Your Incoming
For factory, check the new Orders
order and brewery brews.
STEP 5 B
Place ORDERS New ORDERS

Customer
Orders A
Orders
Placed
Incoming
Orders B
Orders
Placed
Incoming
Orders C
Orders
Placed
Incoming
Orders D
Orders
Placed
Production
Delay

Current Current Current Current


Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory

Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Production


Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay

RETAILER WHOLESALER DISTRIBUTOR FACTORY

End Round in Current Week

Stock Movement Paper Movements Record Keeping


None Write Down Your New Record Your New Orders
Orders and Put these in
Orders Placed
Record Keeping 1
Record Record Record
this Item this Item this Item

Calculate Costs
Holding Costs of Excess Inventory $0.50 per case
Backorder Costs of Out of Stock $1.00 per case

Important: Color Cells are Locked - These contain Formulas!


Note: EXCEL worksheet provide automatic calculations to avoid errors
Record Keeping 2
Example 1: Enough Inventory to fulfill Incoming Orders

Example 2: Not Enough Inventory to fulfill Incoming Orders

Note: Unfilled Backorders have to be cleared first before there is excess Inventory
Homework - Data Analysis
1. Use beer game raw data of your group and copy these onto the first worksheet in “Data
Analysis Excel File”
2. Analyze the following from the Output in the rest of worksheets

o Plot the orders for every supply chain role in one graph
(x-axis: weeks, y-axis: orders, all four roles in one graph)

o Plot the inventory


(backorder is negative inventory - x-axis: weeks, y-axis: inventory/backorder, all four roles in one
graph)

o Plot the cumulative costs


(x-axis: weeks, y-axis: cost, all four roles in one graph)

3. Submit the analysis of your Group in Step 2 to IVLE Workbin by week 5.


I will check your data and give you my feedback.
BACK UP SLIDE
To Raw
Customers Materials

Customer Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Incoming Orders Production


Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Orders Placed Delay

Current Current Current Current


Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory

Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Production


Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay

RETAILER WHOLESALER DISTRIBUTOR FACTORY


INITIAL STARTING LAYOUT
Top Row : ORDERS

Bottom Row : DELIVERY


Initial Game Set Up

Top Row : ORDERS

Bottom Row : DELIVERY


Beer
Manufacturing
Process
Project Group Names

Group 1 Anchor Group 2 Carlsberg Group 3 Heineken

Group 4 Tiger Group 5 Tsing Tao Group 6 Bintang

Group 7 San Miguel Group 8 Singha