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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS (ME 411)


2016-17
TUTORIAL SHEET

UNIT II- Forced Vibrations; Single-DOF systems

Tutorial Sheet – 2

Q.1 A weight of 50 N is suspended from a spring of stiffness 4000 N/m and is subjected to a
harmonic force of amplitude 60 N and frequency 6 Hz. Find (a) the extension of the spring
due to the suspended weight, (b) the static displacement of the spring due to the maximum
applied force, and (c) the amplitude of forced motion of the weight.

Q.2 Consider a spring-mass-damper system, with k = 4000 N/m, c = 40 N-s/m. and m = 10 kg


subject to a harmonic force F(t) = 200 cos 20t N. Find and plot the total response of the
system under the following initial conditions:
(i) x0 = 0.1 m, 𝑥0̇ = 0,
(ii) x0 = 0, 𝑥0̇ = 10 m/s,
(iii) x0 = 0.1 m, 𝑥0̇ =10 m/s.

Q.3 A spring-mass system, resting on an inclined plane, is subjected to a harmonic force as


shown in Fig. 1. Find the response of the system by assuming zero initial conditions.

Fig. - 1 Fig. - 2
Q.4. The natural frequency of vibration of a person is found to be 5.2 Hz while standing on a
horizontal floor. Assuming damping to be negligible, determine the following:
(a.) If the weight of the person is 70 kg, determine the equivalent stiffness of his
body in the vertical direction.

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(b.) If the floor is subjected to a vertical harmonic vibration of frequency of 5.3 Hz and
amplitude of 0.1 m due to an unbalanced rotating machine operating on the floor,
determine the vertical displacement of the person.

Q.5. Derive the equation of motion and find the steady-state solution of the system shown in
Fig. 2, for rotational motion about the hinge “O” for the following data: k = 5000 N/m,
l = 1 m, m = 10 kg, M0 = 100 N-m, 𝜔 = 1000 rpm.

Q.6. An aircraft engine has a rotating unbalanced mass m at radius r. If the wing can be
modelled as a cantilever beam of uniform cross section a x b as shown in Fig. 3,
determine the maximum deflection of the engine at a speed of N rpm. Assume damping
and effect of the wing between the engine and the free end to be negligible.

Fig. – 3

Q.7. Derive the equation of motion and find the steady-state solution of the system shown in
Fig. 4, for rotational motion about the hinge O for the following data: k = 5000 N/m,
l = 1 m, m = 10 kg, M0 = 100 N-m, 𝜔 = 1000 rpm.

Figure - 4 Fig. -5

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Q.7. Find the steady-state response of the system shown in Fig. 5, for the following data:
m = 10 kg, r = 5 cm, k1 = 500 N/m, k2 = 1000 N/m, c = 500 N-s/m, J0 = 1 kg-m2,
𝜔 = 20 rad/s, F0= 50 N.
Q.8. For the system shown in Fig. 6, x and y denote, respectively, the absolute displacements
of the mass m and the end Q of the dashpot c1.
(a) Derive the equation of motion of the mass m,
(b) Find the steady-state displacement of the mass m, and
(c) Find the force transmitted to the support at P, when the end Q is subjected to the
harmonic motion y(t) = Y cos 𝜔 t.

Fig. - 6 Fig. - 7

Q.9. A precision grinding machine as shown in Fig. 7, is supported on an isolator that has a
stiffness of 1 MN/m and a viscous damping constant of 1 kN-s/m. The floor on which
the machine is mounted is subjected to a harmonic disturbance due to the operation of an
unbalanced engine in the vicinity of the grinding machine. Find the maximum acceptable
displacement amplitude of the floor if the resulting amplitude of vibration of the grinding
wheel is to be restricted to 10-6 m. Assume that the grinding machine and the wheel are
a rigid body of weight 5000 N.

Q.10. A single-story building frame is subjected to harmonic ground acceleration, as shown


in Fig. 8, Find the steady-state motion of the floor (mass m). Find the horizontal
displacement of the floor (mass m) when the ground acceleration is given by
𝑥̈𝑔 = 100 sin 𝜔𝑡 m/s. Assume m = 2000 kg, k = 0.1 MN/m, 𝜔 = 25 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠,
xg(t = 0) = 𝑥𝑔̇ (t = 0) = x(t = p) = 𝑥̇. (t = 0) = 0.

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Q.11 A single-cylinder air compressor of mass 100 kg is mounted on rubber mounts, as shown
in Fig. 9. The stiffness and damping constants of the rubber mounts are given by and
2000 N-s/m, respectively. If the unbalance of the compressor is equivalent to a mass
0.1 kg located at the end of the crank (point A), determine the response of the
compressor at a crank speed of 3000 rpm. Assume r = 10 cm and l = 40 cm.

Figure - 8 Figure -9

Q.12. An automobile is modelled as a single-degree-of-freedom system vibrating in the vertical


direction. It is driven along a road whose elevation varies sinusoidally. The distance
from peak to trough is 0.2 m and the distance along the road between the peaks is 35 m.
If the natural frequency of the automobile is 2 Hz and the damping ratio of the shock
absorbers is 0.15, determine the amplitude of vibration of the automobile at a speed of
60 km/hr. If the speed of the automobile is varied, find the most unfavourable speed
for the passengers.

Q.13. For a 1-d.o.f. damped system under the harmonic motion of the base, show that the
amplitude or maximum value of the force transmitted to the base FT is given by

Q.14. The base of a damped spring-mass system, with m = 25 kg and k = 2500 N/m, is
subjected to a harmonic excitation y(t) = Y0 cos𝜔t . The amplitude of the mass is found

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to be 0.05 m when the base is excited at the natural frequency of the system with
Determine the damping constant of the system.
Q.15. One of the tail rotor blades of a helicopter has an unbalanced mass m = 0.5 kg of at a distance
of e = 0.15 m from the axis of rotation, as shown in Fig. 10. The tail section has a length of
4 m, a mass of 240 kg, a flexural stiffness (EI) of 2.5 MN-m2, and a damping ratio of 0.15.
The mass of the tail rotor blades, including their drive system, is 20 kg. Determine the
forced response of the tail section when the blades rotate at 1500 rpm.

Figure - 10

Q.16. When an exhaust fan of mass 380 kg is supported on springs with negligible damping,
the resulting static deflection is found to be 45 mm. If the fan has a rotating unbalance of
0.15 kg-m, find
(a) the amplitude of vibration at 1750 rpm, and
(b) the force transmitted to the ground at this speed.

Q.17. A fixed-fixed steel beam, of length 5 m, width 0.5 m, and thickness 0.1 m, carries an
electric motor of mass 75 kg and speed 1200 rpm at its mid-span, as shown in Fig. 11. A
rotating force of magnitude F0 = 5000 N is developed due to the unbalance in the rotor
of the motor. Find the amplitude of steady-state vibrations by disregarding the mass of
the beam. What will be the amplitude if the mass of the beam is considered?

Figure - 11

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Q.18. The mass of a spring-mass system, with m = 15 kg and k = 25 kN/m, vibrates on a
horizontal surface under a harmonic force of magnitude 200 N and frequency 20 Hz.
Find the resulting amplitude of steady-state vibration. Assume the coefficient of friction
between the mass and the horizontal surface as 0.25.

Q.19 A flywheel, with a weight of 100 lb and an eccentricity of 0.5 in., is mounted at the
center of a steel shaft of diameter 1 in. If the length of the shaft between the bearings is
30 in. and the rotational speed of the flywheel is 1200 rpm. Find
(a) the critical speed,
(b) the vibration amplitude of the rotor, and
(c) the force transmitted to the bearing supports.

Q.20. A steel shaft of diameter 2.5 cm and length 1 m is supported at the two ends in bearings.
It carries a turbine disc, of mass 20 kg and eccentricity 0.005 m, at the middle and
operates at 6000 rpm. The damping in the system is equivalent to viscous damping with
damping factor 0.01. Determine the whirl amplitude of the disc at
(a) operating speed,
(b) critical speed, and
(c) 1.5 times the critical speed.
Q.21. A simplified spring-mass vibration pickup is used to measure the vertical acceleration of
a train which has vertical frequency of 10 rad/sec. The mass weighs 17.2 N and modulus
of the spring is 175 N/cm. The amplitude of the relative motion of the mass is 1.27 mm as
recorded by the instrument. Find the maximum vertical acceleration of the train. What is
the amplitude of vibration of the train?

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