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Chapter No.

1
Introduction of Pumps
Pumps:
Pump is device used to move the liquids. It converts the mechanical energy into the
liquid energy. In the classification of mechanism of moving liquid they can be classified into
three types:
1-Direct Lift Pumps 2-Displacemt Pumps 3-Gravity Pumps
Energy is available in different forms which is transferred to liquid using some
mechanical mechanism. Typical available energy sources are:
Electrical Energy
Engine Power
Wind Energy
Types:
The pumps can be classified according to the method of their displacement in positive
displacement pumps, impulse pumps, pump speed, gravity pumps, steam pumps and Valve-
less. There are two basic types of pumps: volumetric and centrifugal. Although axial pumps
often classified as separate species, they have substantially the same operating principles as
centrifugal pumps.
 Positive Displacement Pumps:
Piston pump fluid makes a move by capturing a fixed amount and impact (displacing)
that trapped volume into the discharge pipe.
Some positive displacement pumps used expanding cavity on the suction side and
decrease on the discharge side of the cavity. Fluid enters the pump as the suction side of the
cavity expands and the fluid flows from the discharge as a cavity collapses. The volume
constant through each cycle.

 Positive displacement pump behavior and security:


Positive displacement pumps, in contrast to centrifugal or rotor-dynamic pumps, can
theoretically produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) regardless of the pressure at the
outlet. Thus, positive displacement pumps are the constant flow of cars. However, the slight
increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases the velocity actually prevents constant
flow.
The piston pump must not run against a closed valve on the discharge side of the
pump, because he has no shut-off head as centrifugal pumps. Piston pump runs with a closed
discharge valve continues to produce the flow and the pressure increase in the discharge line
until the bursts, the pump is severely damaged, or both.
Relief and safety valve on the discharge side of the pump piston, is therefore
necessary. The safety valve may be internal or external. Manufacturer pump usually has the
ability to supply domestic help or relief valves. The internal valve is generally used only as a
precaution. External pressure relief valve on the discharge line to the return line back to the
suction line or feed tank provides increased security.

Positive Displacement Pumps:


A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to
the mechanism used to move the fluid:

 Rotary-type positive displacement: gear, screw, Rotary pump, rotary vane pump,
flexible pump, circumferential, , helical twisted roots (e.g. the Wendelkolben pump)
 Reciprocating-type positive displacement: piston pump. Plunger pump, diaphragm
pump
 Linear-type positive displacement: rope pump and chain pump

Reciprocating Type Positive Displacement Pumps:

 Piston Pump:
A piston pump is a type of positive displacement pump where the high
pressure seal is stationary and smooth cylindrical piston sliding through the seal. This
makes them different from piston pumps and allows them to be used at higher
pressures. This type of pump is often used to transfer municipal and industrial
wastewater.
 Plunger pump:
A piston pump is a type of positive displacement pump where the high
pressure seal is stationary and smooth cylindrical piston sliding through the seal. This
makes them different from piston pumps and allows them to be used at higher
pressures. This type of pump is often used to transfer municipal and industrial
wastewater.

 Diaphragm Pumps:
A diaphragm pump (also known as a diaphragm pump, air pump
double diaphragm (AODD) or pneumatic diaphragm pump) is a positive displacement
pump that uses a combination of the reciprocating action of a rubber, thermoplastic or
Teflon and right both sides of the diaphragm valve (valve, butterfly valves, butterfly
valves, or any other form of stop valves) for pumping a fluid diaphragm.
Positive Displacement Pumps Rotary:
 Rotary Pump:
A rotary pump is a pump with working members which move in a rotary
motion or both rotary and reciprocating motion to displace a liquid medium; the
displacement is the result of periodic changes in the volume of chambers or cylinders
filled by liquid.

 Rotary Vane Pump:


A rotary vane pump is a positive displacement pump consisting of vanes
mounted in a rotor rotating inside a cavity. In some instances, these pallets can be
long and / or variable tautly

 Flexible Pump:
A flexible impeller pump is a positive displacement pump that, by
deformation of impeller blades, draw liquid into the pump casing and moves to the
discharge port at a constant rate. This principle combines gentle pumping action with
high self-priming dry.
 Screw Pump:
A screw pump is a positive displacement pump using one or several
screws for transporting liquids or solids along the axis of the screw (s). In its simplest
form (Archimedes screw pump), a single screw rotating in a cylindrical cavity thereby
moving the material along the screw spindle

 Peristaltic Pump:
A peristaltic pump is a type of positive displacement pump used for
pumping a variety of fluids. The fluid is contained within a flexible tube fitted inside a
circular pump casing. A rotor with a number of "rollers", "shoes", "wiper", or "lobes"
attached to the outer circumference of the rotor compresses the hose. As the rotor
turns, the part of tube under compression is pinched closed thus forcing the fluid to be
pumped to move through the tube. Moreover, as the tube opens to its natural state
after passage of the fluid flow to the pump cam is induced. Typically, there will be
two or more rolls or wipers, occluding the tube, trapping between them a body of
fluid. The body fluid is conveyed at ambient pressure, to the pump outlet. Peristaltic
pumps can operate continuously or can be indexed through partial revolutions to
deliver small amounts of liquid.
 Gear Pump:
A gear pump used meshing gears to pump fluid by displacement. It is one
of the most common types of pumps for power applications of hydraulic fluid.

 Lobe Pump:
Lobe pumps are similar to external gear pumps in operation in fluid flow
around the inside of the housing. Unlike external gear pump, however, the lobes do
not contact. Lobe contact is prevented by external timing gears located in the gearbox.
Bearings supporting the pump shaft are in the gearbox, and since bearings are outside
the pumped liquid, the pressure is limited by taking place and shaft deflection.
 As the lobes or out of mesh, creating volume expansion on the inlet side of the
pump. The liquid flows into the cavity and is caught by the lobes as they
rotate.
 liquid travels around the inside of the housing in pockets between the lobes
and the body-not between the lobes.
 Finally, the meshing lobes forces liquid through the outlet under pressure.
 Progressing cavity pump
this pump consists of a helical rotor, about ten times as long as its width. This can be
visualized as a central core of diameter x with, typically, a curved spiral wound
around of thickness half x, though in reality it is manufactured in single casting. This
shaft fits inside a heavy duty rubber sleeve, of wall thickness also typically x. As the
shaft rotates, the rotor gradually forces fluid up the rubber sleeve. Such pumps can
develop very high pressure at low volumes.

 Roots lobe pump


Named after the Roots brothers who invented it, this lobe pump displaces the liquid
trapped between two long helical rotors, each fitted into the other when perpendicular
at 90°, rotating inside a triangular shaped sealing line configuration, both at the point
of suction and at the point of discharge. This design produces a continuous flow with
equal volume and no vortex. It can work at low pulsation rates, and offers gentle
performance that some applications require.
Linear Positive Displacement Pumps
Rope Pump:
A rope pump is a kind of pump where a loose hanging rope is lowered down into a well and
drawn up through a long pipe with the bottom immersed in water. On the rope, round disks or
knots matching the diameter of the pipe are attached which pull the water to the surface.

Chain Pump:
The chain pump is type of a water pump in which several circular discs are positioned
on an endless chain. One part of the chain dips into the water, and the chain runs
through a tube, slightly bigger than the diameter of the discs. As the chain is drawn up
the tube, water becomes trapped between the discs and is lifted to and discharged at
the top. Chain pumps were used for centuries in the ancient Middle East, Europe,
China, and ancient Egypt.

Impulse pumps
Impulse pumps use pressure created by gas (usually air). In some impulse pumps the gas
trapped in the liquid (usually water), is released and accumulated somewhere in the pump,
creating a pressure that can push part of the liquid upwards.
Conventional impulse pumps include:
 Hydraulic ram pumps – kinetic energy of a low-head water supply is stored
temporarily in an air-bubble hydraulic accumulator, then used to drive water to a
higher head.
 Pulser pumps – run with natural resources, by kinetic energy only.
 Airlift pumps – run on air inserted into pipe, which pushes the water up when
bubbles move upward.

Velocity Pumps (Roto-Dynamic Pumps)


In Roto-dynamic pumps (or dynamic pumps) kinetic energy is added to the fluid by
increasing the flow velocity. This increase in energy is converted to a gain in potential energy
(pressure) when the velocity is reduced prior to or as the flow exits the pump into the
discharge pipe. This conversion of kinetic energy to pressure is explained by the First law of
thermodynamics, or more specifically by Bernoulli's principle.
These types of pumps have a number of characteristics:
Continuous energy
Conversion of added energy to increase in kinetic energy (increase in velocity)
Conversion of increased velocity (kinetic energy) to an increase in pressure head.

 Difference between Positive Displacement and Roto-dynamic Pump:


A practical difference between dynamic and positive displacement pumps is how they
operate under closed valve conditions. Positive displacement pumps physically
displace fluid, so closing a valve downstream of a positive displacement pump
produces a continual pressure build up that can cause mechanical failure of pipeline or
pump. Dynamic pumps differ in that they can be safely operated under closed valve
conditions (for short periods of time).
Dynamic pumps can be further subdivided according to the means in which the velocity gain
is achieved.
 Radial-flow pumps:
These are also referred to as centripetal design pumps. The fluid enters along the axis
or center, is accelerated by the impeller and exits at right angles to the shaft(radially).
Radial-flow pumps operate at higher pressures and lower flow rates than axial- and
mixed-flow pumps.
 Axial-flow pumps:
These are also referred to as All fluid pumps The fluid is pushed outward or inward
and move fluid axially. They operate at much lower pressures and higher flow rates
than radial-flow (centripetal) pumps.
 Mixed-flow pumps:
Mixed-flow pumps function as a compromise between radial and axial-flow pumps.
The fluid experiences both radial acceleration and lift and exits the impeller
somewhere between 0 and 90 degrees from the axial direction. As a consequence
mixed-flow pumps operate at higher pressures than axial-flow pumps while delivering
higher discharges than radial-flow pumps. The exit angle of the flow dictates the
pressure head-discharge characteristic in relation to radial and mixed-flow.

Examples of Roto-Dynamic Pumps:


Centrifugal pumps:
Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy
to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an
engine or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis
and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber
(casing), from where it exits.
Centrifugal is further sub-classified into many types based on different criteria which are not
discussed in this section.
Eductor-jet pump:
This uses a jet, often of steam, to create a low pressure. This low pressure sucks in fluid and
propels it into a higher pressure region just like in Carburetor.

Gravity Pumps
In gravity pumps , fluid is pumped through the gravitational force. Gravity pumps include
Heron's fountain. The hydraulic ram is also sometimes called a gravity pump.
Steam Pumps
They include any type of pump powered by a steam engine. These includes Piston-less
pumps and Pulsometer steam pump.

Valve-less Pumps
In a valve-less pumping system, no valves (or physical occlusions) are present to regulate the
flow direction. The fluid pumping efficiency of a valve-less system, however, is not
necessarily lower than that having valves.
Valve-less pumping assists in fluid transport in various biomedical and engineering systems.
Impedance Pump is the example of this catogarey.
Applications
Mechanical pumps are used in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from
wells, filtering aquarium filtration and aeration pond, in the automotive industry for the
cooling water and the fuel injection in the power industry for pumping oil and natural gas or
operating cooling tower. In the medical industry, the pumps are used for the biochemical
processes in the development and production of medicines, as well as artificial substitutes for
body parts, in particular, the artificial heart and penile prosthesis.
According to the field of application they are categorized as give below:
Boiler Feed Pumps -
They are built to control the amount of water that enters a boiler. They are centrifugal pumps,
and most are multistage.
Borehole Pumps -
These pumps are made to pump liquid from a borehole.
Chemical Pumps -
Pumps that are built to handle abrasive and corrosive industrial materials. They can either
centrifugal or positive displacement type.
Circulator Pumps -
It is used to circulate fluid through a closed or looped system. They are usually centrifugal
pumps, but a few use positive displacement technology.
Dewatering Pumps -
A de-watering process involves using a centrifugal pump (submersible or vertical turbine) to
remove water from a construction site, pond, mine shaft, or any other area.
Drum Pumps -
Drum Pumps are to empty fluid from barrels or drums. They can be a small centrifugal pump
used for thin liquids or for more viscous fluids a progressive cavity or piston pump can be
used.
Fire Pumps -
A type of centrifugal pump used for firefighting. They are generally horizontal split case, end
suction or vertical turbine.
High Pressure Pumps -
Such Pumps used in many applications including water blast, hydro-mining, and jet cutting.
They can be a wide variety of pumps types including positive displacement pumps, rotary
pumps and reciprocating pumps, or centrifugal pumps.
Industrial Pumps -
It includes industrial applications such as slurry, wastewater, industrial chemicals, oil and
gas, etc. There are dozens of different industrial pumps both in positive displacement and
centrifugal pump types.
Irrigation Pumps -
They are usually of centrifugal pump type. They are often used for agriculture application
where water needs to be moved from a water source to dry land.
Marine Pumps -
These are built to pump sea water. They are often used in large salt water tanks to
continuously circulated water so it stays fresh.
Mud Pumps -
Mud Pumps are to transfer heavy sludge or mud. They are sometimes used on oil rigs to
pressurize and circulate fluid.
Paint Pumps -
These Pumps dispense paint, either for direct application or into a separate paint container.
They are used in many applications including electric paint sprayers.
Petrochemical Pumps -
These pumps are made to transfer petroleum products that are often very viscous and
corrosive. They can be magnetic drive pumps, diaphragm pumps, piston pumps and others.
Pneumatic Pumps -
Pumps use compressed air to pressurize liquid through the piping system.
Pond Pumps -
These pumps are used in gardens, fish pools, ponds, and fountains to prevent water from
becoming stagnant. The two main types include submersible pumps and external pumps.
Pressure Pumps -
They can be metering pumps, and sometimes booster pumps used to create either high or low
pressure.
Sanitary Pumps -
A type of pump used to transport fluids that must be processed for sanitary standards. They
are designed to meet regulatory requirements.
Sewage Pumps -
They are mostly used to pump sewage to a waste treatment facility and are considered
submersible pumps.
Sludge Pumps -
Such Pumps are built to pump waste fluids with high solids content. They can be positive
displacement (progressive cavity) or centrifugal pumps.
Slurry Pumps -
A heavy duty pump that is made to handle thick, abrasive slurries. They are made of durable
materials, and capable of handling abrasive fluids for long periods of time.
Trash Pumps -
Trash pumps are a type of pump used to handle fluids containing solid content such as mud,
trash, fish, or waste products. They are also referred to as grinder pumps, chopper pumps, or
sludge pumps.
Utility Pumps -
A type of submersible pump used to remove water from an area, often times after a flood.
They are used in industrial, residential and agricultural applications.
Water Pumps -
A type of equipment used to move water through a piping system. They rely upon principles
of displacement, gravity, suction, and vacuums to move water. They can be both positive
displacement and centrifugal pumps.
Well Pumps -
These pumps are designed to draw water to the surface from an underground water source.
Depending on the well depth and configuration, they pumps can be jet pumps, centrifugal
pumps, or submersible pumps.