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THE ANALYSIS OF TEST ANXIETY AMONG SECONDARY

SCHOOL STUDENTS

SAMAN GUL

M. Ed
Roll No. 211

INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION AND RESEARCH


UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR
Session 2016-2017
THE ANALYSIS OF TEST ANXIETY AMONG SECONDARY
SCHOOL STUDENTS

SAMAN GUL

M. Ed
Roll No. 211

Submitted to the Institute of Education & Research, University of Peshawar in


Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of
Master in Education (M.Ed)

INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION AND RESEARCH


UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR
Session 2016-2017

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iii
DEDICATION

I earnestly dedicate this irksome task of mine to


My loving Mother
Whose prayers are the assets of my life
and these prayers served as a guideline
and prop during every difficult moment
of my life and made me what I am today

iv
APPROVAL SHEET

This thesis entitled “The Analysis of Test Anxiety among Secondary School
Students” conducted and submitted by Saman Gul, Roll No. 211, in partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Master of Education
(M.Ed.), is accepted.

Supervisor/Internal Examiner: _______________________________

(Dr. Parveen Ishaq)

External Examiner: _______________________________

Director: ______________________________

Date:

INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION AND RESEARCH


UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR
Session 2016-2017

v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to Almighty ALLAH the most gracious, the most merciful for helping me in

accomplishing this task. After that I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my

supervisor Dr. Parveen Ishaq, IER, for his cooperation and for providing his precious

time in helping and guiding me.

I would like to pay a special thanks to Mr. Jalal librarian of IER.

Thanks to all my friends particularly Kiran Javed, Zahira Bano, Amna Burki,

Sakeena, Maria Sultana, and all my class fellows in general who has always helped

me not only in conducting this study but in all phases of life during my short stay in

the University.

And thanks to all those people who were directly and indirectly involved in

completing this assignment.

And in the last but not the least thanks to my parents who always pray for my success

throughout my life and lead me in every walk of life.

SG

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION........................................................................................................... IV
APPROVAL SHEET .................................................................................................. V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................................... VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................ VII
LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS ...................................................................... VIII
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................... IX
CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION .............................................................................. 1
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ........................................................................ 3
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ......................................................................... 3
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY .............................................................................. 3
CHAPTER-2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ....................................... 4
2.1 EXAMINATION ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE .............................. 4
2.2 ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION, EXAMINATION ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE ................................................................................................ 7
2.3 LOCUS OF CONTROL, EXAMINATION ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE ................................................................................................ 9
CHAPTER-3: METHOD AND PROCEDURE ...................................................... 12
3.1 NATURE OF THE STUDY ................................................................................ 12
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY.......................................................................... 12
3.3 SAMPLING PROCEDURE ................................................................................. 12
3.4 DESIGN OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE ................................................................... 12
3.5 DATA COLLECTION ....................................................................................... 12
3.6 TABULATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ......................................................... 12
CHAPTER-4: DATA ANALYSIS ............................................................................ 14
CHAPTER-5: FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .... 27
5.1 FINDINGS ...................................................................................................... 27
5.2 CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................... 28
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................... 29
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 31
QUESTIONNAIRE.................................................................................................... 37

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LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS

Table 4.1: Do you think taking few deep breaths minimize test anxiety 14

Table 4.2: Do you think to attempt the easy questions first will help to minimize
test anxiety 15

Table 4.3: Do you think that concentrating on one's own test instead of thinking
about others will minimize test anxiety 16

Table 4.4: Do you think that getting a good night sleep before the test will
minimize test anxiety 17

Table 4.5: Do you agree that after preparing for the test you feel that you do not
have any command on the given topic may increase your test anxiety 18

Table 4.6: Do you think that the test anxiety is human nature 19

Table 4.7: Do you agree that the fair of obtaining good grades and prestige cause
test anxiety among students 20

Table 4.8: Does test anxiety comes from lack of confidence 21

Table 4.9: Do you think that test anxiety can be caused by the idea that teachers
will embarrass you in front of class 22

Table 4.10:Do you think that test anxiety caused by the idea that you will not be
able to complete it with in a given time 23

Table 4.11:Do you think that your poor grads will prove to be source of alienation
from your family and friends 24

Table 4.12:Do you think that your emotional un-stability will affect your
performance in test 25

Table 4.13:Do you think that before appearing in a test parents support help you
to overcome the test phobia 26

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between exams anxiety,

academic performance and other selected correlates, which were, academic

procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience. Indeed, the phenomenon of

exams anxiety has been widely studied in relation to academic performance.

However, exams anxiety, as a psychological construct, also needs to be understood in

terms of other related factors that might precipitate it. In addition, the study also

investigated sex differences in relation to the above variables. The study was

conducted on form four students in public secondary schools who attempted the 2012

KCSE exams in Khwisero Sub-county, Kakamega County, Kenya. Exams anxiety and

such related correlates are among factors that influence the levels of academic

performance in students in Khwisero Sub-county, which are relatively low as

compared to other Sub-counties in Kakamega County. The study was guided by the

Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, which holds that one needs resources to

cope with and overcome stressful situations, such as exams related anxieties in

students. The interplay of the correlates mentioned above could constitute such

resources. Purposive sampling stratified random sampling and simple random

sampling designs were used accordingly to select 359 form four students. These

sampling procedures yielded 203 boys and 156 girls for the study. A questionnaire

containing sub-scales on test anxiety, academic procrastination, Locus of control and

academic resilience was used for data collection. This questionnaire was initially

piloted to assert its validity and reliability. The study adopted a correlational research

design. The hypotheses on the relationship between exams anxiety, academic

performance and the selected correlates were tested using Pearson Product Moment

Correlation. On the other hand, the hypothesis on sex differences in these variables

was tested by Independent Samples t-Test. All the tests were carried out at 0.05 level

ix
of significance. The findings indicated that majority of students experienced exams

anxiety; girls were high on academic resilience and were more of internalizers, while

boys were high in academic procrastination and were more of externalizers. Further,

the findings showed that exams anxiety was significant and negatively related to

academic performance; academic procrastination positively and significantly

correlated with exams anxiety, but negatively and insignificantly correlated with

academic performance; Locus of control negatively and insignificantly correlated

with exams anxiety, but positively and insignificantly correlated with academic

performance; and academic resilience negatively and insignificantly correlated with

exams anxiety, but positively and insignificantly correlated with academic

performance. The study concluded that exams anxiety was a real phenomenon that

affected students’ academic performance in exams, and that academic procrastination,

locus of control and academic resilience are important factors in relation to exams

anxiety and academic performance. The study recommended that the issue of exams

anxiety should be involved in guidance and counseling policy strategies; and that

further research should also consider other exams anxiety correlates such as

testwiseness, subject choice, teaching pedagogy and intelligence.

x
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION

Education may be considered as those activities wherein the learning of one or

more persons is being deliberately controlled by others. Education may be restrictive

(socialization) or expensive (the encouragement of creativity). It may reflect a variety

of strategies including practice, information transmittal or discussions of thinking

itself. It may be formulized or ritualized and sporadic. However when ever education

takes place, there are always to recognizable roles those of teacher and student.

(Liften 1970).

Examination is an integral part of teaching learning process. It contributes to

the objectives of education. The educational system and its success directly depends

upon the efficiency and effectiveness of its examination systems. Examinations are to

test/assess the ability/performance of a student and to find out whether he has attained

a certain standard of academic learning and knowledge. It helps to scrutinize and

measure the students achievement against a required academic standard and identify

his skill in answering a question under the conditions imposed by an examiner.

(Shahid,2002)

The examinations are of various types e.g objectives, written, practical, oral,

power, speed, individual, group and interval, (Shahid,2000).

Secondary stage of an education coincides with the adolescence period, it

becomes the most crucial period. It is the terminal stage of the larger number of pupils

who entre life. It assesses them to become useful member of a complex modern

society. It leads to the higher education. It is expected that students completing this

stage should have the requisite maturity to pursue higher education. Psychological

problems may occur before, during and after examinations in students at secondary

1
level. (J.C Aggarwal, 1992:279).

One psychological problem that may occur before, during or after examination

is exam anxiety or test anxiety.

Test anxiety is a common problem nearly everyone has experienced it at one

time or another, but it does not have to spiral out of control and ruin your grades. By

using a bit of psychology on yourself, you can change the distress of test. (zimbardo,

weber, Johnson, 2003).

Test anxiety was first identified as psychological phenomena in the early

1950s (Mandler 1952: Sarason 1953). Since that time the psychological phenomena of

test anxiety has been closely studied and has grown as an area of psychological

research. Statistically it has been determined that as many as 10 million students in

elementary and secondary schools perform poorly on examinations due to test

anxiety. (Hill 1980, 1984). This translates to approximately 20% of college students

having performance debilitating test anxiety, without regard to gender. (Wilson &

Rotter 1986).

Anxiety refers to a vague, objectless fear: an uneasy and fearful feeling. It is

the hallmark of many psychological disorders. It is often concealed and reduced by

defensive behaviors such as avoidance or ritualistic action such as hand washing. A

major united survey by the national institute of mental health showed that anxiety

disorders are more common in the general population than are any other disorders,

including depression. (Morgan, King, Weisz, Schopler 1988).

Anxiety is both a trait (a relatively stable characteristics) and a state (a

temporary characteristics). As a trait anxiety is a general disposition to feel threatened

by a wide range of condition. As a state anxiety is related to particular situation. For

example, a person may at a particular time be anxious about a job, a spouse, a child or

an examination. One feeling of apprehension and tension are to some extent focused

2
and localized. (Gage and Beliner, 1992).

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


After consultation with my supervisor I have selected the topic for research

study “The analysis of test anxiety among secondary school students”.

1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


Many students remain anxious before and during examination and test. They

don’t know the negative effects of anxiety on their results, even hardworking students

who want to take position and trying to exceed other students remain more anxious

than other students. It causes low level of confidence and poor performance in

examination or test. So mostly students do not obtained as good marks as they should

have. I want to create awareness among students through this research.

Significance of the study is to:

 Help the educational planner to consider anxiety as a social problem.

 Help the parents and community to be aware of the factors which create

anxiety in the students.

 Help to suggest measures for solving problems which create anxiety.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


Objectives of the study are:.

 To find exam and test anxiety among secondary school students.

 To find causes of exam or test anxiety.

 To find effects of exam or test anxiety on students achievements.

3
CHAPTER-2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 EXAMINATION ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC


PERFORMANCE
Later studies also support this contention. In one such study by Rana and Mahmood

(2010) on the relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement of students

at the post graduate level, a sample of 414 students was randomly selected from seven

different science departments in a public sector University in Lahore, Pakistan, was

used. Data was collected using the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Pearson correlation,

multivariate statistics and regression analyses were run for data analysis. It was found

that a significant negative relationship existed between test anxiety scores and

students’ achievement scores. The results further showed that a cognitive factor

(worry) contributed more in test anxiety than affective factors (emotional).

In another study by Yousefi, Talib, Mansor, Juhari and Redzuan (2010) the purpose

was to determine the relationship between test-anxiety and academic achievement

among 15-19 years old high school adolescents in Sanandaj, Iran. The respondents

comprised of 400 students (200 boys and 200 girls). A self administered questionnaire

was used for data collection which included a Test-Anxiety Inventory (TAI), Grade

Point Average (GPA) score and personal information. The result showed a significant

negative correlation (r = -0.23, p=.000) between test anxiety and academic

achievement among adolescents.

In Onyeizugbo (2010) study he examined self-efficacy and test anxiety as correlates

of academic performance among 249 undergraduate students of a university in

Eastern Nigeria. General Self-efficacy Scale and Westside Test Anxiety Scale were

used to assess self-efficacy and test anxiety, respectively. Average scores of students

4
in two psychology degree courses were used to assess their academic performance.

The results on test anxiety showed a significant negative correlation between test

anxiety and academic performance (r = -0.43, p< .001). In addition, regression

analysis showed a significant model emerged, whereby test anxiety proved to be a

significant predictor of the variability in academic performance, ß = -.390, p < .001.

Still in Nigeria, Faleye (2010) conducted a study to investigate cognitive test anxiety

and learning outcomes of 113 undergraduate education students in Obafeni Awolowo

University. The sample consisted of 77 males and 36 females with an average of

24.07 years. They responded to 27 items on the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS)

developed by Cassady and Johnson (2002). The findings showed that there was a

negative relationship between cognitive test anxiety and students’ academic

performance.

An array of studies showing a negative relationship between test anxiety and

academic achievement are highlighted as follows: In Rezazadeh (2009) a statistically

significant negative correlation was observed between test anxiety and academic

achievement. A study conducted by Nicholson (2009) to explore the effects of test

anxiety on student achievement of grade 11 students, revealed that anxiety and

achievement are related to each other. Khalid and Hasan (2009) conducted a study on

a purposively selected sample of 187 undergraduate students to explore the

relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement and found that students

with academic achievement had low test anxiety scores and vice versa. Chapell,

Blanding, Takahashi, Silverstein, Newman, Gubi, and McCann (2005) conducted a

research study to explore the relationship between test anxiety and academic

performance. They collected data from a large sample of graduate and undergraduate

students and found a significant and negative relationship between test anxiety and

academic achievement.

5
Hancock (2001) investigated the effects of students’ test anxiety and teacher’s

evaluation practices on students’ achievement and motivation at post the secondary

level. He found statistically significant results which revealed that all students,

especially students with high anxiety level, performed poorly and were less motivated

to learn. Thus he concluded that that when students who are particularly test-anxious

are exposed to a highly evaluative assessment environment in their educational

institution, they perform poorly and are less motivated to perform (Hancock, 2001). A

research study conducted by Cassady and Johnson (2002) to investigate the effect of

cognitive test anxiety on students’ academic performance and found that cognitive

test anxiety exerts a significant stable and negative impact on academic performance

measures.

Albero, Brown, Eliason and Wind (1997), on the basis of their research study,

concluded that students having high test anxiety had significantly lower scores.

Oludipe (2009) conducted a study to explore how test anxiety affects students’

performance levels in the sciences, especially in Physics, and concluded that low test-

anxious students performed better than high test-anxious students on both numerical

and non-numerical tasks in Physics. Other studies showing negative relationship

between test anxiety and academic performance include Cassady (2004) and Stober

(2004).

However, other studies have shown lack of relationship between test anxiety and

academic performance. In Vogel and Collins (2008) study, one group of students was

given pop quizzes and another one planned quizzes. The results showed no difference

in anxiety and quiz grades between the two groups. Therefore, academic performance

was not found to be related to test anxiety. Furthermore, in a local study by Ndirangu,

et al (2009), the results showed no significant relationship between test anxiety and

academic performance (r = 0.06). However, there was a statistically significant

difference (P < 0.01, t = -3.736) between test anxiety levels before and after

6
examinations.

The above reviewed studies concentrated more on the direct relationship between

examination anxiety and academic achievement. Nevertheless, test anxiety is a

psychological construct that need to be widely studied in terms of the factors that may

precipitate it. Thus, the current study, apart from investigating the relationship

between examination anxiety and academic achievement, it further examined the

contributions brought to examination anxiety by academic procrastination, Locus of

control and academic resilience.

2.2 ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION, EXAMINATION


ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Procrastination has increasingly become a topic of interest across multiple fields,

including education, where it is referred to as academic procrastination (Hess,

Sherman & Goodman, 2000). Procrastination behavior in general is described as the

difficulties that an individual has in performing daily tasks due to incapability to

organize time management effectively (Ferrari, Johnson & McCown, 1995). In

academic sense, it may involve doing homework, preparing for exam or doing the

term papers assigned at the end of the term at the last minute.

Studies have shown that the habits of studying lessons in the late hours and at the last

minute are related to procrastination behavior (Hess, Sherman & Goodman, 2000;

Ferrari, Harriott, Evans, Lecik-Michna, & Wenger, 1997). Reasons for procrastination

behaviors are detailed in the research literature, and they include individual’s

inefficiency in time management, difficulty of concentration or the feeling of weak

responsibility, anxiety and fear of being unsuccessful in one’s actions owing to

negative perceptions, setting unrealistic expectations for academic performance,

improper cognitive ascription and the tendency to become faultless (Ferrari, 1992;

McCown, Petzel & Rupert, 1987).

7
Procrastination in the academic realm holds many negative consequences including

lost time, increased stress, lower grades, poor health, decreased long-term learning

and lower self-esteem (Hoover, 2005). Procrastination is also associated with low

self-efficacy, self-denigration, lower level of resourcefulness, higher levels of self-

consciousness, self-handicapping and depression (Flet, Blankestein & Martin, 1995).

Even though the outcomes produced by procrastinating are overwhelmingly negative,

students increasingly engage in it. Indeed, research indicates that procrastination

behavior is prevailing considerably in learners, especially among university students

(Hoover, 2005; Haycock, 1993).

Within the context of Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1998), most

students who experience test anxiety also have a problem with procrastination. This

pattern of avoidance leads to a loss cycle: procrastination leads to last minute

cramming, which leads to self doubts, then excessive anxiety during testing situations

and eventually poor academic performance. Hence, according to the COR Theory, it

could be hypothesized that test anxiety results from avoidance and procrastination

behaviors, that exists in an environment where there is limited renewal of resources

(Buchwald & Hobfoll, 2004), that is, less time for exam preparation.

To support this, a study by Sirois and Pychyl (2002) on 374 undergraduate students at

Carleton University in Ottawa, found that procrastination is related to not only higher

stress and poor coping strategies, but also avoidance behaviors. It was revealed from

the study that students who suffered from these avoidance coping styles resisted

completing assignments and addressing other deadlines that evoked tension and

anxiety. In another study by Farran (2004) on a sample of 186 undergraduate students

at Fordham University, it was found that academic procrastination was significantly

and positively associated with both depression and anxiety. In other words,

participants who reported higher academic procrastination also reported higher

depression and anxiety. Milgram and Toubiana (1999) study also support this finding.

8
In addition, vast research evidence shows that procrastination is also associated with

such variables as poor academic performance (Balkıs & Duru, 2009; Cassady, 2004;

Çakıcı, 2003; Fritzsche, Young, and Hickson, 2003; Tuckman, 2002; Beck, Koons,

and Milgram, 2000), low effort for success (Saddler & Buley, 1999), inadequate

motivation (Sene´cal, Koestner & Vallerand, 1995) and neuroticism (Lee, Kelly &

Edwards, 2006). In considering these studies, it can be concluded that procrastination

behaviors are a common problem especially among university students and an

influential factor on their personalities, psychological well being and academic

achievement.

From the research literature reviewed in this section, it comes out clearly that majority

of the research work concerning procrastination has been conducted on undergraduate

students. Owing to the scarcity of research literature both locally and internationally

on procrastination in high school or rather secondary school students, it was therefore

important for the present study to investigate on this phenomenon to this group of

students. Furthermore, it has been suggested that procrastination behavior is

negatively related to age difference, that is, the level of the procrastination behavior

decreases as one gets older (Gülebaglan, 2003; O’Donoghue & Rabin, 1999). Thus,

with this assertion, it would be more likely that procrastination behavior in secondary

school students who are comparatively young could be higher than for the slightly

more elderly university or college students. Thus the findings of this study shall shed

more light on the above relationship.

2.3 LOCUS OF CONTROL, EXAMINATION ANXIETY AND


ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Julian B. Rotter provided an example of a social cognitive approach to personality in

his concept of generalized expectancies for control of reinforcement, more commonly

known as Locus of control (Rotter, 1966). This is besides Albert Bandura’s concept of

9
reciprocal of determinism, particularly, self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977). Locus of

control, so called location of control, refers to people's very general, cross-situational

beliefs about what determines whether or not they get reinforced in life (Rotter,

1982). In this case, Rotter conceived locus of control as a generalized expectancy of

internal versus external control over behavior outcomes; hence, it is viewed as a

cognitive expectancy which defines the individual’s view of causal factors related to

these outcomes (Nunn, 1995).

These expectations fall on a continuum from internal to external (Rotter, 1992).

People with a strong internal locus of control believe that the responsibility for

whether or not they get reinforced ultimately lies within themselves. Hence, internals

believe that success or failure is due to their own efforts. In contrast, externals believe

that the reinforcers in life are controlled by luck, chance, or powerful others (Nunn,

1995). Therefore, they see little impact of their own efforts on the amount of

reinforcement they receive. Rotter (1966) also noted that whether or not the outcome

of a particular behavior served as a reinforcement depended on the value of the

outcome to the individual (for example, a student who does not value a high grade

may not study for a test, even though he/she knows that a good grade depends on

good study habits – an internal factor).

This attribution, called Locus of control, has been extensively investigated using

Rotter’s (1966) scale that has identified respondents as either “internals” or

“externals.” In academic context, an external would likely consider failure on an exam

to be the result of an unfair test (for example, teacher’s fault). By itself, Locus of

control can have important academic implications as revealed by studies. Gifford,

Brice and Mianzo (2006) found that college freshmen who were identified as internals

obtained significantly higher GPAs. Similarly, according to Schultz and Schultz

(2005) internals demonstrate higher academic achievement compared to externals. In

addition, they assert that externals also tend to believe that only fate or the luck of a

10
sympathetic teacher will earn them a good grade, and so they rarely study as much as

internals.

In the context of exam anxiety, Carden, Courtney and Rebekah (2004) found that

internals showed significantly low test anxiety, in addition to lower academic

procrastination and higher academic achievement, than externals. Further, Moore

(2006) found out that test anxiety was positively related to locus of control

orientation; whereby increased test anxiety levels were prominent in participants with

an external locus of control, than those with internal locus of control. Indeed, other

studies have also found out that low perceptions of control over external threats and,

emotional and physiological reactions, are related to increased levels of anxiety in

externals (Weems, Silverman & Rapee, 2003; Zeidner & Schleyer, 1999).

11
CHAPTER-3
METHOD AND PROCEDURE

3.1 NATURE OF THE STUDY


The present study was quantitative in nature.

3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY


Population is an area in which the research is conducted. The area of the study

included city, Peshawar i.e Islamia girls collegiate school and government higher

secondary school Abdara town.

3.3 SAMPLING PROCEDURE


Sampling is a process of selecting respondence from which data has been collected

for research study. Therefore a sample of forty (40) students is randomly selected

from two schools of Peshawar city.

3.4 DESIGN OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE


For collection of data questionnaire was design covering questions related to

evaluative study of test anxiety among secondary school students. The questionnaire

went through several stages of selection and rejection before it took final shape.

Before administration of questionnaire the honorable supervisor approved it.

3.5 DATA COLLECTION


Primary data was collected through questionnaire and secondary data through library

research, internet and field

3.6 TABULATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA


The collected data was carefully organized, analyzed and interpreted in term of tables

12
in the next chapter. The analysis has been expressed inform of percentages.

Conclusions were drawn on the basis of received data. The study enables the

researcher to forward some recommendation to minimize test anxiety of student at

secondary level.

13
CHAPTER-4
DATA ANALYSIS

Table 4.1: Do you think taking few deep breaths minimize test anxiety

N=40

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

36 (90%) 04 (10%)

100%
90%
90%

80%

70%

60%
Yes
50%
No
40%

30%

20%
10%
10%

0%

Figure-1

Analysis
Table 4.1 showed that 36 (90) agreed to the given statement while 4 (10%)

disagreed

14
Table 4.2: Do you think to attempt the easy questions first will help to
minimize test anxiety

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

27 (67.5%) 13 (32.5%)

80.0%

70.0% 67.5%

60.0%

50.0%

Yes
40.0%
32.5% No
30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

Figure-2

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.2 shows that (90%) taking few deep breaths minimize test

anxiety and (10%) did not.

15
Table 4.3: Do you think that concentrating on one's own test instead of
thinking about others will minimize test anxiety

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

34 (85%) 6 (15%)

90.0% 85.0%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0% Yes

40.0% No

30.0%

20.0% 15.0%

10.0%

0.0%

Figure-3

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.3 shows that (85%) concentrating on one's own test instead

of thinking about others will minimize test anxiety, while (15%) students did not.

16
Table 4.4: Do you think that getting a good night sleep before the test will
minimize test anxiety

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

27 (67.5%) 13 (32.5%)

80.0%

70.0% 67.5%

60.0%

50.0%
Yes
40.0%
32.5% No
30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

Figure-4

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.4 shows that total 27 students out 40 which becomes

(67.5%), were getting a good night sleep before the test will minimize test anxiety,

while (32.5%) students did not.

17
Table 4.5: Do you agree that after preparing for the test you feel that you do
not have any command on the given topic may increase your test
anxiety

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

29 (72.5%) 11 (27.5%)

80.0%
72.5%
70.0%

60.0%

50.0%
Yes
40.0%
No
30.0% 27.5%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

Figure-5

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.5 shows that total 29 students out 40 which becomes

(72.5%), were preparing for the test you feel that you do not have any command on

the given topic may increase your test anxiety, while (27.5%) students did not.

18
Table 4.6: Do you think that the test anxiety is human nature

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

27 (67.5%) 13 (32.5%)

80.0%

70.0% 67.5%

60.0%

50.0%
Yes
40.0%
32.5% No
30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

Figure-6

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.6 shows that total 27 students out 40, which become

(67.5%), were the test anxiety is human nature, while (32.5%) students did not.

19
Table 4.7: Do you agree that the fair of obtaining good grades and prestige
cause test anxiety among students

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

27 (67.5%) 13 (32.5%)

80.0%

70.0% 67.5%

60.0%

50.0%
Yes
40.0%
32.5% No
30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

Figure-7

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.7 shows that total 27 students out 40 (67.5%), which became

fair of obtaining good grades and prestige cause test anxiety among students, while

(32.5%) students did not.

20
Table 4.8: Does test anxiety comes from lack of confidence

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

36 (90%) 4 (10%)

100%
90%
90%

80%

70%

60%
Yes
50%
No
40%

30%

20%
10%
10%

0%

Figure-8

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.8 shows that total 36 students out 40 (90%), which became

anxiety comes from lack of confidence, while (32.5%) students did not.

21
Table 4.9: Do you think that test anxiety can be caused by the idea that
teachers will embarrass you in front of class

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

34 (85%) 6 (15%)

90% 85%

80%

70%

60%

50% Yes

40% No

30%

20% 15%

10%

0%

Figure-9

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.9 shows that total 29 students out 40 that become (85%),

were test anxiety can be caused by the idea that teachers will embarrass you in front

of class, while (15%) students did not.

22
Table 4.10: Do you think that test anxiety caused by the idea that you will not
be able to complete it with in a given time

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

34 (85%) 6 (15%)

90% 85%

80%

70%

60%

50% Yes

40% No

30%

20% 15%

10%

0%

Figure-10

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.10 shows that total 34 students out 40 that become (85%),

were test anxiety caused by the idea that you will not be able to complete it with in a

given time, while (15%) students did not.

23
Table 4.11: Do you think that your poor grads will prove to be source of
alienation from your family and friends

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

34 (85%) 6 (15%)

90% 85%

80%

70%

60%

50% Yes

40% No

30%

20% 15%

10%

0%

Figure-11

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.11 shows that total 34 students out 40 that become (85%)

were your poor grads will prove to be source of alienation from your family and

friends, while (15%) students did not.

24
Table 4.12: Do you think that your emotional un-stability will affect your
performance in test

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

35 (87.5%) 5 (12.5%)

100.0%

90.0% 87.5%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%
Yes
50.0%
No
40.0%

30.0%

20.0%
12.5%
10.0%

0.0%

Figure-12

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.12 shows that total 29 students out 40 that become (87.5%)

were your emotional instability would affect your performance in test, while (12.5%)

students did not.

25
Table 4.13: Do you think that before appearing in a test parents support help
you to overcome the test phobia

Positive Responses Negative Responses

Yes (%) No (%)

34 (85%) 6 (15%)

90% 85%

80%

70%

60%

50% Yes

40% No

30%

20% 15%

10%

0%

Figure-13

Analysis
Table & Figure 4.13 shows that total 29 students out 40 that become (85%),

were before appearing in a test parents support help you to overcome the test phobia,

while (15%) students did not.

26
CHAPTER-5
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 FINDINGS
 90% thought that taking few deep breaths minimizes test anxiety while (10%)

did not agreed.

 90% believed taking few deep breaths minimize test anxiety and (10%) did not

agreed.

 85% concentrated on one's own test instead of thinking about others will

minimize test anxiety, while (15%) students did not.

 67.5% believed a good night sleep before the test will minimize test anxiety,

while (32.5%) students did not.

 72.5% prepared for the test you feel that you do not have any command on the

given topic may increase your test anxiety, while (27.5%) students did not.

 67.5% believed the test anxiety is human nature, while (32.5%) students did

not.

 67.5% concentrated of good grades and prestige cause test anxiety among

students, while (32.5%) students did not.

 90% believed anxiety comes from lack of confidence, while (32.5%) students

did not.

 85% believed anxiety can be caused by the idea that teachers will embarrass

you in front of class, while (15%) students did not.

27
 85% recommended test anxiety caused by the idea that you will not be able to

complete it within a given time, while (15%) students did not.

 85% believed that poor grades will prove to be source of alienation from your

family and friends, while (15%) students did not.

 87.5% believed your emotional instability would affect your performance in

test, while (12.5%) students did not.

 85% appeared in a test parents support help you to overcome the test phobia,

while (15%) students did not.

5.2 CONCLUSIONS
Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the phenomenon of exam

anxiety is common among students as they came through examination period, and this

is regardless of their age and sex differences, and their schools’ residential status. In

addition, exam anxiety has a significant negative effect on students’ academic

performance

According to the COR theory that was adopted in this study, academic pro-

crastination, Locus of control and academic resilience are important resources that

could buffer students from the negative effects of exam anxiety, hence, improve their

academic performance. The conceptualized relationship drawn from the theory, and

even from the review of previous related studies, indicated that less academic

procrastination behaviors, internal locus of control and high levels of academic

resilience in students should lower their levels of exam anxiety and increase their

academic performance. From the findings of the study on this conceptualized

relationship, it can be concluded that only academic procrastination and academic

resilience depicted the conceptualized relationship of buffering students against the

negative effects of exam anxiety. On Locus of control, the findings indicated that

28
externalizes experienced low levels of exam anxiety, which is contrary to the

conceptual framework and conclusions from previously related studies. Nevertheless,

it was only academic procrastination that was significant with regard to these

relationships.

Further, academic procrastination and academic resilience were still the main factors

that correlated to academic performance with respect to the conceptual framework of

the study and conclusions from previously related studies. However, the findings on

Locus of control were still contrary to the conceptual assumptions and previous

research evidence, in that externalizes performed better than internalizes. But, all

these latter relationships were insignificant. All the same, in line with the COR theory,

the conceptual framework and the findings from the current study and previously

related reviewed studies, exam anxiety, academic procrastination and academic

resilience are important factors that influence academic performance in students.

The findings of the study also lead to the conclusion that even though there were no

sex differences in exam anxiety, sex differences exist in such variables as academic

procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
i. There is need for further research in this area since contradicting and mixed

findings have been reported.

ii. In addition, more local studies should be conducted on other categories of

samples such as primary school pupils, university students as well as on

special needs population for rich research literature on the variables of this

study to guide policy makers in education.

iii. There may be some level of collinearity between the independent variables in

this study in predicting variability in academic performance, however this is

29
beyond the scope of the present study; therefore, future studies can explore

these details.

iv. Other variables associated with exam anxiety should also be investigated such

as test wideness, subject differences, teaching pedagogy, intelligence, self-

esteem and self-concept.

v. More studies adopting typical experimental design could also be conducted on

exam anxiety treatment programs such as stress inoculation training

techniques and procedures using experimental and control groups to totally

minimize the effects of extraneous variables, hence establish a clear-cut

relationship between exam anxiety and academic performance.

30
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36
QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Do you think taking few deep breaths minimize test anxiety?

2. Do you think that to attempt the easy questions first will help to minimize test

anxiety?

3. Do you think that concentrating on one own test instead of thinking about

others will minimize test anxiety?

4. Do you think that getting a good night sleep before the test will minimize the

test anxiety?

5. Do you agree that after preparing for the test you feel that you do not have any

command on the given topic may increase your test anxiety?

6. Do you think that test anxiety is human nature?

7. Do you agree that the fair of obtaining good grades and prestige cause test

anxiety among students?

8. Does test anxiety come from lack of confidence?

9. Do you think that test anxiety can be caused by the idea that teachers will

embarrass you in front of class?

10. Do you think that test anxiety caused by the idea that you will not be able to

complete it within a given time?

11. Do you think that your poor grades will prove to be source of alienation from

your family and friends?

12. Do you think that your emotional instability will affect your performance in

test?

13. Do you think that before appearing in a test parent’s support help you to

37
overcome the test phobia?

38